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Recommendations for park evaluation and community engagement

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Title:
Recommendations for park evaluation and community engagement
Creator:
Coburn, Phoebe Thunder
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
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University of Colorado Denver
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English

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Degree:
Master's ( Master of public administration)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
School of Public Affairs, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Public administration
Committee Chair:
Boylard, Wendy

Notes

General Note:
Spring 2018

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University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
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Copyright Phoebe Thunder Coburn. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Running head: PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT
Recommendations for Park Evaluation and Community Engagement Phoebe Thunder Cobum
University of Colorado Denver School of Public Affairs
This client-based project is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Public Administration in the School of Public Affairs at the University of Colorado Denver Denver, Colorado
Spring
2018


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Capstone Project Disclosures
This client-based project was completed on behalf of The Trust for Public Land and supervised by PUAD 5361 Capstone course instructor Wendy L. Bolyard, PhD and second faculty reader Pamela Medina, PhD. This project does not necessarily reflect the views of the School of Public Affairs or the faculty readers. Raw data were not included in this document, rather relevant materials were provided directly to the client. Permissions to include this project in the Auraria Library Digital Repository are found in the final appendix. Questions about this capstone project should be directed to the student author.


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Table of Contents
Tables of Figures and Appendices 3
Executive Summary 4
Introduction 5
Literature Review 7
Teton County Demographics 7
Park Use Patterns and Barriers 10
Measuring Park Accessibility 12
Park Programming 13
Authentic Participation and Engagement 15
Project Purpose 18
Methods 19
Sampling Plan 19
Data Analysis 20
Reliability and Validity 20
Results 21
How do local organizations engage Latino and underserved communities? 21
How does The Trust for Public Land evaluate park accessibility and use? 24
How did DHM Design engage with the community during the design process? 27
What themes arose in Latino input cards gathered during the design process? 28
Recommendations 29
Barriers 29
Suggested Park Impact Metrics 30
Astoria Hot Springs Park Community Engagement Logic Model 31
Conclusion 31
References 33


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Table of Figures and Appendices
Figure 1: Ladder of Citizen Participation 16
Figure 2: Quadrants of Equity, Inclusion and Diversity Work 17
Appendix A: Astoria Hot Springs Park Design Plans and Historic Photos 3 8
Appendix B: Interviewee Names, Affiliated Organizations and Interview Questions 41
Appendix C: Suggested Evaluation Metrics for Astoria Hot Springs Park 42
Appendix D: Astoria Hot Springs Park Community Engagement Logic Model 43
Appendix E: Latino Input Card Matrix 44
Appendix F: Author Biases 45
Appendix G: Course Competencies 46


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Executive Summary
Proximity to urban and rural parks has been linked to individual, community and environmental health (King, Litt, Hale, Burniece, & Ross, 2015). To increase public access to nature, The Trust for Public Land protects land and creates parks for people. In Teton County, Wyoming, the nonprofit is working to return a once-loved park to the community. In 2016, The Trust for Public Land purchased Astoria Hot Springs Park with the goal of permanently preserving public access to the park. Once fundraising, development of the natural hot springs, and habitat restoration is complete, the 100-acre park will once again be open to the public. The purpose of this qualitative research project is threefold: to inform Astoria Hot Springs Park’s Latino engagement plan, to provide recommendations on specific park evaluation metrics, and to reflect on The Trust for Public Land’s participatory design process. Through a review of existing literature, five interviews with experts in park and project evaluation, eight interviews with Latino engagement experts, one interview with a park designer, and an analysis of Latino park design input cards, a number of recommendations were crafted. Three critical barriers to park access, a table of suggested park evaluation metrics, and a community engagement logic model are presented. With these recommendations, The Trust for Public Land can better serve the community by implementing locally relevant engagement, programming, and evaluation strategies at Astoria Hot Springs Park.


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Recommendations for Park Evaluation and Community Engagement
Public health professionals have long recognized the connection between parks and community health (King et al., 2015). Parks are associated with increased levels of physical activity, lower rates of coronary heart disease, mental and emotional health, social cohesion, and longevity (Bedimo-Rung, Mowen & Cohen, 2005; Casper, Harrolle, & Kelly, 2013; King et al., 2015). Parks not only provide a place for people to walk, run, and play sports, but also simply enjoy the outdoors, breathe fresh air, and gather together with friends and family. Nature-deficit disorder, a term credited to author Richard Louv, describes society’s waning relationship with nature (Louv, 2009). American youth are spending far more time inside and on screens than they are playing outside: 88% report using the internet and 69% report watching television and playing video games daily (The Nature Conservancy [TNC], 2011). Just 40% of youth report participating in outdoor activities such as hiking or visiting parks on a weekly basis (TNC, 2011). In addition to health benefits of spending time outside, evidence suggests that children and adolescents who spend more time outdoors are more likely to “value nature, engage with it, and feel empowered to do something about it” (TNC, 2011, para. 4).
The client for this project, The Trust for Public Land, increases public access to nature by protecting land and creating parks for people. Since 1972, this national nonprofit has protected more than 3.3 million acres of land, from urban gardens to vast remote landscapes. In Teton County, Wyoming, The Trust for Public Land is working to return a once-loved park to the community. For nearly four decades, Astoria Hot Springs was a privately-owned but publicly accessible park, campground and natural hot springs pool. Remembered as “the great equalizer,” Astoria was a place where everyone - old and young, rich and poor - could gather and enjoy the outdoors together. Since the property sold to private developers in 1999, the community fought


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the 200,000 square feet of planned private luxury development. In 2016, after an extensive county rezoning process, The Trust for Public Land purchased the 100-acre property with the goal of permanently preserving public access to the park, while preventing the planned private development.
Once the plan for full protection and modest hot springs pool development is executed, Astoria Hot Springs Park will give the community access to two miles of Snake River frontage, a number of hot springs pools, hiking trails meandering through forests and wetlands, and places for families to gather and recreate. Park design plans and historic photos are included in Appendix A. After the park opens in 2019, The Trust for Public Land will convey the property to the newly-created, long-term nonprofit steward, Astoria Park Conservancy.
As the only outdoor public pool and the largest free public park in the county, Astoria Hot Springs Park will directly increase equity in access to the outdoors. In 2016, Teton County was the most economically unequal metro area in the U.S. The wealthiest 1% make 213 times the average income of the bottom 99% (Sommeiller, Price & Wazeter, 2016). Despite Jackson Hole’s wilderness locale, the wealth disparity is evident in outdoor and recreation settings.
Resort and National Park admission fees and the cost of outdoor activities are financially prohibitive for many local families. The local Latino community, which comprises 27% of the population in the town of Jackson and 15% of Teton County, struggle disproportionately with the high cost of living (One22, 2017). An estimated 20% to 30% of Teton County Latinos live below the national poverty line (LRC, 2015).
To ensure that Astoria Hot Springs Park reflects the needs of the community, The Trust for Public Land gathered input from 2,200 residents through surveys, tours, public meetings, stakeholder workshops, and design intensives with local high school students. Events and one-


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on-one outreach strategies during the community design process targeted local Latinos. To cultivate inclusivity and equity in access at Astoria Hot Springs Park, this research project addresses Latino park use patterns, authentic engagement and participation, and locally relevant park evaluation strategies. These themes were addressed by exploring existing literature, interviewing experts, and investigating Latino input. Final recommendations for future action emphasize equity in access to the outdoors and inform The Trust for Public Land’s engagement, programming, and evaluation strategies for the park.
Literature Review
The literature review aims to inform the final recommendations and place them in a broader context. The first section provides a summary of relevant local demographics. The second focuses on nationwide Latino park use patterns and barriers in accessing parks and recreation opportunities. The third discusses different measures of park access, including proximity, availability, quality, transportation and within-park access. The fourth section considers how park programming can encourage park use. The final section explores the meaning of authentic engagement in an environmental context.
Teton County Demographics
An estimated 84% of Latinos in Teton County are Mexican (LRC, 2015). Most are not new to the community - the majority have lived in Jackson for seven or more years (LRC, 2015). In 2015, 60% of local Latinos were first generation, 36% second generation, and 4% third generation (LRC, 2015). The young Latino population is largely bilingual, bicultural, and there is a clear trend that Latinos make up a larger percentage of county students with each new entering grade (LRC, 2015). In the 2015-2016 school year, the school district as a whole was 31% Latino,


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the high school was 28% Latino, the middle school was 32% Latino, and the two town elementary schools together were 39% Latino (LRC, 2015).
The new Munger Mountain Elementary school is just seven miles or a short 10-minute drive away from Astoria Hot Springs Park. Once open in fall 2018, the school will serve 584 students and will be home to Teton County School District’s English-Spanish dual immersion program (Facility, 2018). According the Charlotte Reynolds, the Information Coordinator for Teton County School district, half of Munger Mountain students will be native Spanish speakers and half with be native English speakers (C. Reynolds, personal communication, May 7, 2018) With few educational and recreational amenities close to the school, the park will provide close-to-home afterschool and summer activities for Munger Mountain Elementary students.
Despite being such a prominent part of the population, Latino participation in community-wide events and youth extracurricular activities is low (One22, 2017). Cost is one of the most salient barriers. Nationally, participation in extracurricular activities among students mirrors the widening income gap (Snellman, Silva, Frederick & Putnam, 2015). Upper-middle-class students are increasingly active in sports and other extracurricular programs, while participation among working class students is dramatically dropping (Snellman et al., 2015). Research shows that participation in extracurricular activities is associated with better grades, pursuit of higher education, greater incomes, and civic engagement (Snellman et al., 2015).
The Teton County Community Youth Needs Analysis reports that local Latino parents report wanting to “spend more time with their children and would like to be able to participate in some facilitated, organized family activities” (One22, 2017, p.16). Specific stressors local Latinos face that also act as barriers to participation include immigration status, housing insecurity, food insecurity, poverty, health issues, discrimination, and limited education level of


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older generations (One22, 2017). The analysis found that Latino parents hear about programs and activities from a number of sources - 21% by word of mouth, 20% from school communications, 12% by email, 8% through texting, and 8% from flyers (One22, 2017). Forty-five percent of Latino parents said they check Facebook daily, 50% report speaking English at a basic or intermediate level, and 29% report having less than an eighth-grade education, indicating the importance of providing communications in Spanish (One22, 2017).
Astoria Hot Springs Park will also serve the neighboring town of Alpine, located 20 miles south of the park. Though it is difficult to measure the exact number of people commuting from Alpine to Jackson each day, it is safe to say a substantial portion of Teton County’s workforce commute from Alpine; only 59% of Teton County’s workforce live within the county, according to Regan Kohlhardt, a Long-Range Associate Planner for the town of Jackson (R. Kohlhardt, personal communication, Mary 1, 2018). In 2016, the Wyoming Department of Transportation calculated that 5,766 vehicles (including 792 trucks) use the road that passes the park on an average day (Traffic Data, 2016). START Bus, the community’s public transportation, served 31,889 riders on the Alpine-Jackson route in 2017, according to START Bus Administrative Assistant Anna White. The Alpine-Jackson route has also been steadily growing in ridership by about 10% each year (Jackson/Teton Integrated Transportation Plan, 2015). START Bus does not measure Latino ridership, but Latinos are reportedly frequent users of the town shuttle and the Teton Village route (A. White, personal communication, April 5, 2018). While most Latinos use family-owned cars for transportation, 13% reported START Bus was their primary means of transportation (One22, 2017).


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Park Use Patterns and Barriers
Fernandez, Shinew and Stodolska (2015) argue that Latinos “have a strong environmental ethic and affinity toward natural environments” (p.210). Traditionally, parks often serve as a central social gathering space for Latin American communities. This is evident in Latino use of parks in the U.S. today: neighborhoods with large Latino populations tend to have more park users (Cohen et al., 2010). Mendez (2005) writes, “There is an obvious carryover from Latin America to the United States of the preference for parks and plazas to serve as the core social setting of a community or city” (p. 37). Latinos engage in group and social behavior at parks far more than Anglos, who primarily engage in solitary behavior at parks (Mendez, 2005). Age-diverse family gatherings, activities and picnics are the most common use of parks among Latinos (Clarke, Rodriguez & Alamillo, 2015; Gobster, 2002).
Regardless of race, men are more likely than women to visit parks often, be physically active at parks, and engage in regular physical activity at parks (Burk, Shinew & Stodolska,
2011; Cronan, Shinew, Schneider, Wilhelm Stanis & Chavez, 2008; McKenzie, Cohen, Sehgal, Williamson & Golinelli, 2006). Latina women report “playing with kids” as their most frequent park activity, but they also engage in walking and running more than men (Casper et al., 2013; Cronan et al., 2008). Latino men report “relaxing” as their most frequent park activity, and they play sports at parks more than Latinas (Casper et al., 2013; Cronan et al., 2008). Studies indicate that lack of child-care could be a barrier to independent exercise for Latina women in particular, and that parks provide a place for Latino parents to bond and play with their children (Casper et al., 2013; Cronan et al., 2008).
Male youth are much more likely to engage in moderate to vigorous exercise at parks than female youth (King et al., 2015). As girls reach their teenage years, their levels of physical


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activity decline significantly (Cohen et al., 2006; Perry, Saelens & Thompson, 2011). However, adolescent girls who live near parks tend to participate in moderate and vigorous exercise more than those who do not live near parks (Cohen et al., 2006). This finding is particularly evident for girls who live near parks that are “conducive to walking” and have “active features” such as playgrounds, sports courts and fields, and pools (Cohen et al., 2006). Perry et al. (2011) conducted a study of Latino youth park use patterns in a rural Washington town. They found that organized activities, and higher quality sports courts and fields, were significantly associated with increased park use, especially among Latina girls (Perry et al., 2011). They found that Latino youth are more physically active at parks but less physically active overall in comparison to non-Latino youth. This highlights the importance of parks as places to exercise for Latinos; Perry et al. (2011) argue that increasing Latino youth access to parks “may begin to address this disparity by providing a space for Latino youth to be active” (p. 8).
Acculturation is another predictor of park use (Fernandez et al., 2015; Harrolle, Floyd, Casper, Kelley & Bruton, 2013). There are a number of ways to estimate degree of acculturation, including English language use and proficiency, time spent in the U.S., and measurements of adoption of U.S. cultural traits and retention of home cultural traits (Fernandez et al. 2015; Harrolle et al., 2013). More acculturated Latinos are more likely to utilize parks and engage in recreation, while less acculturated Latinos face more constraints to parks and recreation (Fernandez et al. 2015; Harrolle et al., 2013). Fernandez et al. (2015) asked whether degree of acculturation was a predictor of the type of park activity engaged in. They found that less acculturated Latinos were more likely to engage in passive activities (sitting, picnicking, etc.) and appreciative activities (camping, bird watching, etc.) (Fernandez et al., 2015). More acculturated Latinos with higher education and income reported engaging in physical activities


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(walking, running, biking, swimming, etc.) more often, and passive activities less often (Fernandez et al., 2015). In a study of Latino park users at Lincoln Park in Chicago, which has five miles of Lake Michigan shoreline, respondents cited taking in “fresh air” and the “lake effect” as their favorite park attribute, indicating that access to water is a desirable park characteristic among Latinos (Gobster, 2002, p.154). Gobster (2002) also found that Latinos put as great or greater emphasis as white people on the importance of “scenic view, open space, trees, water, and natural attributes” at parks (p. 154).
Measuring Park Accessibility
Park accessibility is measured in various ways, five of which are touched on here: proximity, availability, quality, transportation and within-park access. Distance to the nearest park and availability of parks are the most straightforward measures of park access. Numerous studies show living in close proximity to parks is correlated with park use and increased physical activity (Cohen et al., 2006; Fernandez et al., 2015; Perry et al., 2011). Most people will not walk more than about half a mile or 10 minutes to reach a park (Harnik & Simms, 2004). Availability refers to the amount of park space per acre of city/town/suburb or the amount of park space per capita (Bedimo-Rung et al., 2005).
Though people are not generally willing to travel far to reach a park, research shows that people are willing to travel substantial distances to reach parks with unique or desirable features, indicating that park quality is an important measure of park accessibility (Cohen et al., 2010; Nicholls, 2001; Sister, Wolch & Wilson, 2010). Nicholls (2001) writes about access to quality parks in terms of equity and equality. Having equal access to parks in terms of distance and availability indicates there is equality in park access; having equal access to quality parks with desired features or aesthetics indicates equity in park access (Nicholls, 2001). Not only do


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minority park users usually have to travel further distances to reach parks, but Sister et al.
(2010) found that Latino, African-American, and low-income neighborhoods in Los Angeles were more likely to have overcrowded and poorly maintained parks than white and wealthy neighborhoods (Gobster, 2002; Sister et al., 2010). These studies indicate that both equality and equity in access to green space is an issue nationwide. Park renovations have been found to significantly increase park use among minority communities and increase physical activity levels among park users, underscoring that park quality is a key measure of park access (Cohen 2015; King et al., 2015). Abercrombie et al. (2008) argue “a reasonable policy goal would be to provide the highest number and quality of parks in low-income areas, because people living there do not have access to other recreation opportunities due to financial limitations” (p. 13).
Considering that people are willing to travel to reach quality parks, transportation should also be considered as a measure of park access. One study shows that travel by vehicle is not necessarily a limiting factor for Latinos wanting to reach parks (Cronan et al., 2008). Cronan et al. (2008) conducted research on Latino use of urban and exurban parks in and near Los Angeles, Chicago and Minneapolis. Of the 1,726 Latino respondents, 59% reported reaching parks by car, 36.5% said they walked to parks, and very few reported reaching parks by public transportation (Cronan et al., 2008). However, another study shows that Latinos are more likely to use public transportation to reach a park than any other ethnicity (Gobster, 2002). Gobster (2002) found that 20% of Latino park users at Lincoln Park in Chicago reached the park by public transportation.
Lastly, there are a few studies on the importance of within-park navigation as a measure of park access (Bedimo-Rung et al., 2005). If people perceive parks as difficult to navigate, especially people facing language barriers, they may not visit the park (Bedimo-Rung et al., 2005). Examples of within-park navigation challenges might include lack of clear information on


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trails, activities, or park rules. Perceived within-park access barriers can be addressed by making park materials, like maps and activity information, easy to understand and available in multiple languages (Bedimo-Rung et al., 2005).
Park Programming
Number of park users is significantly correlated with organized park programming and activities (Clarke et al., 2015; Cohen et al., 2010). Bilingual programming and activities for groups and families rather than individuals are more likely to draw Latinos, according to multiple studies (Clarke et al., 2015, Cronan et al., 2008; Fernandez et al., 2015; Harrolle et al., 2013). Even bilingual Latinos appreciate efforts to communicate in Spanish because it signifies an effort to engage with the Latino community, culture, and language (LCR, 2015; Clarke et al., 2015). Leveraging relationships with existing Latino networks and organizations to provide programming is also a successful strategy as it does not require forging new relationships with the Latino community (Clarke et al., 2015). Lastly, Clarke et al. (2015) suggest that a Latino or Latina community member sit on the park board to ensure the park reflects Latino values.
Latinos’ historic and cultural connection to nature and parks is a recurring theme in the literature (Clarke et al., 2015; Mendez, 2005). Clarke et al. (2015) argue that because of Latinos’ strong love for nature and environmental ethic, nature education programming for youth has been a successful way of drawing Latinos to parks. Notably, Clarke et al. (2015) reference parks that successfully engaged Latino youth through Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education programs, which The Trust for Public Land has already done with Astoria Hot Springs Park.
Parra-Medina and Hilfinger Messias (2011) found through focus groups that Latina women want park programming for women only. The respondents said that women-only


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programming would be conducive to more physical activity because of “needs for personal modesty and averted potential spousal jealousy” (Parra-Medina & Hilfinger Messias, 2011, p. 113). Barriers to park use cited by the focus groups included lack of culturally relevant role models, lack of experience engaging in physical activity, and feeling that work and family responsibilities took priority over personal health (Parra-Medina & Hilfinger Messias, 2011). To help address these barriers, Parra-Medina and Hilfinger Messias (2011) chose a “promotora-led delivery model” for their programming. A promotora is a lay member of the Latino or Latina community who receives training on how to effectively convey health-related education and provide health-related support to their community (Parra-Medina & Hilfinger Messias, 2011). This model was successful in part because it built upon existing programming in the community, versus starting from scratch to develop new initiatives (Parra-Medina & Hilfinger Messias, 2011). The programming was also designed so that participating Latinas had the resources and education to continue with physical activity on their own after the programming ended (Parra-Medina & Hilfinger Messias, 2011).
Authentic Participation and Engagement
A report produced by La Madre Tierra and Resource Media (2016) points out that “lack of engagement with the environmental mainstream is sometimes mistaken for lack of engagement with the environment” (p. 8). The report explains that Latinos are often not as prominent or visible in conservation campaigns, not for lack of concern, but rather lack of access, lack resources, and lack of opportunities to get involved (La Madre Tierra & Resource Media, 2016). Research confirms that the public is rarely disengaged because of lack of interest or commitment, but that the public generally desires to be heard and involved (May, 2006). Organizations often ask for Latino or other minority input at the last minute in order to give


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themselves the appearance of promoting diversity (Las Madre Tierra & Resource Media, 2016). When inauthentic engagement like this happens, support and input is likely to be superficial as well (La Madre Tierra & Resource Media, 2016).
There are a few
frameworks to help organizations build authentic relationships. One of the most classic theories is Arnstein’s Ladder of Citizen Participation. Amstein (1969) writes, “There is a critical difference between going through the empty ritual of participation and having the real power needed to affect the outcome of the process” (p. 216). Arnstein’s theory ranks participation by the
Citizen control
Delegated power
Partnership
Placation
Consultation
Informing
Therapy
Manipulation
Degrees
of
citizen power
Degrees — of
tokenism
Nonparticipation
Figure 1. Ladder of Citizen Participation (Arnstein, “Ladder of Citizen Participation” 1969, p. 217).
shown in Figure 1. On the lower end of the ladder, engagement strategies aim to educate people with the intent of changing their minds or gaining support (Arnstein, 1969). Here, there is little power sharing and information and knowledge flows from the leaders to the citizens; leaders either do not solicit or do listen to information coming from their citizens (Amstein, 1969). As engagement strategies move up the ladder, they become increasingly co-solutions focused, and power and the flow of information is distributed more evenly (Arnstein, 1969). At the top rung,


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“citizen control,” the leaders act as facilitators and exist to support the citizens, who are considered the real leaders and stakeholders (Amstein, 1969).
A more modem approach to authentic participation and engagement is presented by The Avarna Group, an organization that works with nonprofits and businesses to build equity, inclusion, and diversity strategies, often in an environmental context. They present one of the most usable frameworks for organizations to analyze how they approach equity, inclusion and diversity in their organization, illustrated in Figure 2.
QUADRANTS OF EQUITY, INCLUSION, & DIVERSITY WORK
EXTERNAL
The work that the organization puts out for their constituents or participants. Examples include:
• Having multicultural marketing
• Instituting inclusive program structure
• Using mission statement to support D&I efforts
INSTITUTIONAL----------------------------
The work an organization does to create an inclusive workplace. Examples include:
• Making equitable hiring practices
• Creating inclusive organizational culture
• Training staff adequately
The work an individual does within the workplace. Examples include:
• Engaging active allyship
• Interrupting bias in others
• Mentoring others
• Committing to change
INDIVIDUAL
Individual work to seek out education and mitigate their own prejudices and biases. Examples include:
* Reading from various authors
* Consuming media responsibly
* Allocating time for learning
Figure 2. Quadrants of Equity, Inclusion and Diversity Work (Holliday, 2015).
The Avarna Group’s approach is action oriented (Holliday, 2015). Though each quadrant
is related, breaking down equity, inclusion, and diversity into focus areas makes the work less daunting and allows organizations to prioritize areas of improvement (Holliday, 2015). The individual-internal quadrant refers to how individuals can incorporate equity, inclusion and


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diversity into their own thinking, and is often where the work begins. The individual-external quadrant addresses how individuals engage with others and how their actions impact others. The institutional-internal asks how the organization creates an inclusive culture for their staff. Lastly, the institutional-external quadrant, while arguably the most wide-reaching, runs a greater risk of being nominal in nature. This quadrant confronts how the organization impacts, communicates with, and relates to the community it serves. If steps are taken in the first three quadrant areas to incorporate equity, inclusion and diversity into thinking and actions, it lays a foundation for actions and strategies in the institutional-external quadrant to be more genuine in aiming to achieve equity, inclusivity and diversity (Holliday, 2015).
In closing, the La Madre Tierra and Resource Media (2016) report notes, “A culturally fluent campaign speaks to deeply held community values, while also recognizing and addressing barriers to participation” (p. 17). Appreciating what the community values in a park and what barriers they face in accessing a park lays the foundation for an authentic engagement plan. Authentic engagement strategies require thought, resources, time and intentional effort (Clarke et al., 2015). By dedicating themselves to authentic engagement, park management will find that the work pays off in diverse park users, engagement, and enduring community relations (Clarke et al., 2015).
Project Purpose
The purpose of this qualitative research project is threefold: to inform Astoria Hot Springs Park’s Latino engagement plan, to provide recommendations on specific park evaluation metrics, and to reflect on The Trust for Public Land’s participatory design process. Research involved semi-structured interviews and analyzing written input on park designs to address the following four research questions:


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1. How do local organizations engage Latino and underserved communities?
2. How does The Trust for Public Land evaluate park accessibility and use?
3. How did DHM Design engage with the community during the park design process?
4. What themes arose in Latino input cards gathered during the design process?
Methods
The first three research questions regarding community engagement, park evaluation, and the design process were addressed through three sets of semi-structured interviews with experts in each field. The fourth research question was answered by analyzing themes expressed in input cards that were collected during the participatory design process for Astoria Hot Springs Park.
The interview processes were inspired by the theory of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Centered around the research participants and their experiences and knowledge, CBPR identifies and addresses questions and challenges by engaging with participants (Minkler, Blackwell, Thompson & Timir, 2003). CBPR emphasizes addressing challenges by taking action and has been found “to make meaningful contributions to improving the health and well-being of traditionally disenfranchised population groups and communities” (O’Toole, Aaron, Chin, Horowitz & Tyson, 2003, p. 592).
Sampling Plan
All 14 interview subjects were selected using purposive sampling based on their expertise, the researcher’s local knowledge, and the client’s recommendations. Their names, affiliated organizations, and interview questions can be found in Appendix B. The first group of eight interviewees consisted of local experts and stakeholders in Latino engagement. The second group of five interviewees consisted of four experts in park evaluation and participatory design at The Trust for Public Land and one program officer with experience in project evaluation from


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the Walton Family Foundation. The final interview group consisted of one interviewee from DHM Design, the design team lead for Astoria Hot Springs Park. Each interview was scheduled for 30 minutes to one hour. The Latino input cards were all written in Spanish, mainly by Latino parents, and were gathered at events hosted by The Trust for Public Land and through the Children’s Learning Center’s home visitors program. The 25 cards included in this research project were selected by two translators for being particularly insightful into the Latino community’s desires for the park.
Data Analysis
Each interview was transcribed and then coded using an emergent coding framework to identify themes, patterns and ideas. Four code matrices (one addressing each research question) based on Saldana’s (2009) streamlined codes-to-theory model for qualitative inquiry were created. The matrices addressing the first three research questions were provided to the client separate from this deliverable due to their large size. The final matrix addressing the Latino input cards can be found in Appendix E.
Reliability and Validity
The author grew up in Teton County and formerly worked for The Trust for Public Land. Her familiarity with and personal investment in the organization, the park, and the community are strengths and limitations of this research project. Reflexivity was demonstrated through bracketing and methods triangulation. Before beginning the interview process, a list of potential biases (listed in Appendix F) was created in an effort to consciously set them aside during research. Methods triangulation was employed by gathering information from interviews, the input cards, and existing literature; the ultimate recommendations derive from all three sources.


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Results
The results are organized by research question into four sections. The first two research questions are further divided into subsections by themes that arose in the interviews.
How do local organizations engage Latino and underserved communities?
Park and program attendance. Disaggregating program and event attendees by age and ethnicity is relatively straightforward. Disaggregating park users is more complicated. Grand Teton National Park counts visitors entering through park gates and estimates demographics through surveys. Anecdotally, said Megan Kohli of Grand Teton National Park and Pura Vida, local Latino visitation has increased over the last decade, partly because of programming targeting Latinos and the increasing population. At Rendezvous Park, a program of the Jackson Hole Land Trust, wildlife counters at access points counted 8,000 visits to the park last summer, but that system is unable to record park user characteristics. Teton County Parks and Recreation does directly count park visitors but tries to gauge the number and demographics of people using their facilities and their activities through surveys conducted by a third party. Even though Spanish speakers were utilized in fielding the surveys, Director Steve Ashworth said the Latino population was the most difficult to reach.
The importance of engaging the Latino community. By the year 2042, the U S. will be a majority minority country, and Latinos are the fastest growing demographic (A. Esparza, personal communication, March 14, 2018). However, Latinos are one of the most underrepresented demographics in outdoor, conservation and environmental education settings nationwide (About Us, 2018). “If we don’t reach out to and connect with them now, we lose all hope of having land stewards in the future,” explains Andres Esparza of Teton Science Schools and Latino Outdoors. “Beyond ideas of equity and equitable access to public lands, we need the


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majority of people to support public lands. If we’re leaving a growing demographic out of our discussion and our efforts, we are shooting ourselves in the foot,” said Esparza.
Three interviewees cited the intrinsic value of simply being in nature as one of the most important arguments to engage Latino populations. “These are magical transformational places. Everybody deserves to feel like they can be a part of that” said Kohli. Miriam Morillon of the Children’s Learning Center added that most Latinos are having families in Teton County, and increasingly are calling it home. Young Latinos are part of the long-term community, and therefore it is important that they have opportunities to be in nature and learn about conservation.
Successful and unsuccessful engagement strategies. The most stressed Latino engagement strategy was family engagement. Spaces inviting multi-generational families have been successful among Latinos. Providing materials and programming in Spanish is another key strategy. Bilingual staff members, funding to pay outside translation services, and volunteers are all ways that local organizations are able to provide materials and programming in Spanish.
Trust, one-on-one relationships, and “co-creating” programs were repeatedly mentioned as cornerstones of successful Latino engagement. Teton Literacy and Pura Vida host programs to build leadership skills among Latinos. Kohli explained that they encourage Latino youth in Pura Vida to practice their leadership skills by designing their own experience in the program:
The fact that we are co-creating experiences is really important because it’s really easy for those of us that are already regularly using and visiting the park [Grand Teton National Park] to impose our perceptions of why wild places are amazing. I think it’s really important for programs for the Latino population to be made with the Latino population, or any other kind of diverse population, so that they can put their own values on the place and bring their own preferences to the place.


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In addition to imposing perceptions, interviewees warned against making assumptions about what the Latino community wants and trying to recruit Latino input without the support of an already trusted organization. Other unsuccessful strategies include emails, mass-mailings, open houses, and public meetings. Esparza said one mistake he has seen organizations make is being too ambitious in engaging Latinos in an outdoor and recreation setting:
We want people to go to the Grand Canyons, the Yosemites, the Yellowstones, but we forget that the backyards are just as important if not more important.. .by engaging with what's in your backyard, you’ll appreciate it and eventually find a way to go to the backcountry. I think a lot of early efforts have failed in trying to get people to the flagship park, and not to Cache Creek.... Recognizing what is going to be the most accessible experience and using that as a springboard is more important than shooting for the stars. Barriers. Barriers Latinos face in accessing programing and parks locally echo barriers identified in the literature. Cost, lack of transportation, and busy work schedules were frequently cited. The current divisive political atmosphere has led to increased fear of participating in activities outside of work and home. Racial and cultural barriers also make Latinos feel they are not welcome in recreation settings. Kohli explains her experience:
There’s often a perception that the park [Grand Teton National Park] is only for people who want to run 100 miles, climb the Grand in a day and wear Patagonia, so there's a very distinct perception of what an outdoors person is. Regardless of what color you are, your image of what ‘outdoorsy’ is can be a barrier to participation from the get go... even without verbalizing anything, there’s this sense of being ‘other.’
This perception is something Kohli is working hard to disarm, “There are just so many ways to enjoy this place and all of them are okay,” she says.


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Fees, gear, and the knowledge of how to do activities are costly - and a privilege many in the community do not realize they have. Morillon said that she does not visit Grand Teton National Park often because navigating the roads and trails is a challenge. Other interviewees indicated not knowing how to get to an open space and not understanding the rules as barriers. These comments underscore the significance of within-park navigation as a barrier to access.
Other underserved populations. Fio Lazarte said that Latinos are “the face of poverty” in Jackson and therefore the highest priority for most organizations working with underserved people. Ashworth said that the local senior population is also greatly underserved, “The Senior Center is a wonderful facility and does a great job of serving about 200 to 250 members of our senior community. That’s great, but the actual number of that demographic, those who are 60 or older, is closer to about 5,000 residents.” He went on to explain that the “active agers” are the hardest to reach because of the stigma associated with senior programming. Like Latino engagement, targeting seniors through partners such as the Senior Center, Age Friendly Jackson Hole, and St. John’s Wellness Department has been successful.
How does The Trust for Public Land evaluate park accessibility and use?
The Trust for Public Land’s Evaluation and Monitoring Plan. The Trust for Public Land’s pilot Evaluation and Monitoring Plan outlines the organization’s approach to comprehensive data collection for all of its park projects. For each new park, they aim to conduct one pre-construction and one post-construction evaluation. The plan categorizes metrics into five outcome areas the organization hopes to address through park building: community, environment, health, inspiration and economy. A number of different methods are used, including GIS, direct observation, tracking, surveying, and design calculations.


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For direct observation, The Trust for Public Land uses a method known as SOP ARC, the System for Observing Physical Activity and Recreation in Communities. SOP ARC captures three main characteristics of park users: approximate age, perceived race/ethnicity, and activity level (sedentary, walking or vigorous) (McKenzie et al., 2006). The Trust for Public Land also assesses park user demographics through surveys. Counterintuitively, it is important to understand who is using a park in order to determine who is not using a park. By comparing park user demographics to demographics of the greater community, park management can deduce who may face barriers in park access. Whether through SOP ARC or surveys, gathering demographic and park use patterns is more intensive than simply tracking numbers. Regardless of the cost, these evaluations are important for accountability to the community, and becoming increasingly important for funders. To decide whether to invest in an evaluation, Nette Compton says an important question to ask is what purpose an evaluation will serve. In other words, knowing how each metric will serve the organization is important in creating a realistic and worthwhile evaluation plan.
Park accessibility. Bianca Shulaker was working on a park renovation in San Francisco when she came across a notable survey finding:
People said they had better access once the park had been completed. There was a comment that came up a few times, people would say they loved the proximity of the park. It’s not that the park had moved, it was in the same place, but the improvements and the engagement and programming and celebration all contributed to making people feel like it was in their neighborhood.
This indicates that park quality is an important, and possibly overlooked, element of accessibility. Different demographics value certain park qualities over others, based on how they


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use parks. For example, as previously discussed, Latinos use parks as centers for family and social gatherings. By creating a built environment that is conducive to certain activities, park designers may increase or decrease park access for certain users. “There are really simple design solutions that are just a product of listening” said Compton. Therefore, understanding demographic park use patterns is important in making sure a park is serving the intended population. If the built environment cannot be modified, providing desired programming can also increase accessibility by serving a certain group’s park use patterns.
Community engagement and stewardship. The Trust for Public Land prioritizes community engagement in every project. Compton explains her experience with community engagement with an analogy:
The park is ultimately created for the people of that place... .an important shift in thinking that needs to occur is that you’re not having the community okay a process you already decided to do. Rather, how can this nonprofit or government partner be a supporter or facilitator to the community - dare I say midwife? If you think about it through the midwife lens, it’s the community that is pregnant with an idea.... A midwife comes to support that process. They have medical training, they know the jargon, they know how to connect with doctors and other medical professionals, they can be a conduit and advocate for that pregnant woman.... The pregnant woman is doing the work, and the pregnant woman benefits from that experience, and, ultimately, is more invested in the outcome, but the midwife is providing support at crucial points. They are listening to that person and responding to what their needs are to shepherd them through that process. Compton’s analogy touches back to the top rung of Arnstein’s Ladder of Participation; the citizens are the leaders and the organization is the facilitator. However, it is difficult to


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measure whether or not the organization is reaching the higher rungs of Amstein’s ladder. Beyond measuring the number of people involved, measuring citizen participation is best approached with qualitative methods. The following are some of the indicators of successful community engagement that were cited by the interviewees:
• When the community takes ownership of their park.
• When students are excited about what the park can do for their community.
• When the park engagement process acts as a springboard for future community involvement or leadership.
• When the park design reflects the community’s input.
• When a park stewardship group cares for the park and advocates for programming and increased resources to maintain the park.
The Trust for Public Land can empower locals and foster ongoing community engagement and stewardship by helping to create a “Friends of’ group before the park is conveyed to Astoria Park Conservancy. Developing partnerships with organizations that might act as stewards is another strategy to encourage community ownership. For example, reaching out to student groups or volunteer trail crews to maintain the park can lead to wider community care for the park. Lastly, The Trust for Public Land has seen successful park programming outcomes by helping the long-term steward conduct surveys to find out what programming gaps exist in the community and how the park can help address those gaps.
How did DHM Design engage with the community during the park design process?
The Astoria Hot Springs Park design team lead, DHM Design, is known for their place-based approach and collaborative design process. Charlie Kees, a principal with DHM Design, addressed a number of questions on how they engaged with the community and incorporated


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feedback into park plans. He explained that there is no canned approach to engagement because every community is unique, and that listening and one-on-one dialogue is a best practice in soliciting public input. In engaging with the Latino community, Kees said that the importance of social gathering spaces rose to the forefront, and is an underserved need in the community now: We heard - loud and clear, over and over - that there was a lack of larger open space parks that could accommodate larger groups. I think that came from the big family gathering aspect in Latino culture. One of the things that we changed in the plans is to incorporate larger picnic pavilions into the design of the park, so they’re not just the standard 8 by 10 shelters that you see in a lot of the parks in Jackson.
Of course, not all feedback could be incorporated into the park designs. Kees admitted that there are many compromises. Staying true to the park’s values of public access and consideration of the sensitive ecology guided decisions on what was feasible and what was not. Kees added that, “trying to make nature available to all populations is really important.” Teton County is full of rugged terrain - there are few places for the elderly or people with disabilities to enjoy nature. Therefore, ensuring that parts of both the hot springs and passive park were accessible to all became a priority in the park design.
What themes arose in Latino input cards gathered during the design process?
The 25 input cards are best understood by looking at the matrix in Appendix E. Eleven respondents mentioned kids or families, confirming the interviewees and literature’s emphasis on strategies targeting families. Six respondents specifically requested “games,” and others requested “sports” and “activities,” but specifics were not mentioned. Two respondents said that there are not enough winter activities for their kids. Other recurring comments included the importance of affordability, public transportation to the park, and social gathering spaces,


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including shaded areas, picnic tables, and places to cook. Two respondents mentioned wanting places to fish and two indicated wanting educational opportunities.
Recommendations
Recommendations are divided into three sections. The first section lists likely barriers the community may face in accessing Astoria Hot Springs Park, and recommendations for addressing those barriers. The second section suggests locally relevant park evaluation metrics based on the Trust for Public Land’s Evaluation and Monitoring Plan. Lastly, a logic model illustrates short, medium, and long-term engagement outcome goals and can be used as a tool to track the success of community engagement strategies and equity in park access.
Barriers
Three potential park access barriers rose to the forefront during the research: cost, transportation and navigating to the park. First, there will be members of the community that cannot afford the hot springs admission fee. Park management should explore scholarships for memberships, places of work providing memberships as an employee benefit, and other creative ways of ensuring that the park is accessible to all. Second, transportation to the park could be a barrier. Park management should consider partnering with START Bus to run a pilot bus stop at Astoria Hot Springs Park during the busy summer months. Snake River Sporting Club employees and boaters in need of shuttles may also utilize a bus stop at the park. Lastly, even if access to transportation is not an issue for some families, navigating to the park could be a barrier. Navigating to and around Grand Teton National Park is a barrier to access for some, and visitors to Astoria Hot Springs Park could face the same challenge. Park management should consider launching a bilingual outreach campaign to help community members feel more


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comfortable navigating to the park. Bilingual signage and materials at the park will help address within-park access barriers.
Suggested Park Impact Metrics
The Trust for Public Land’s Evaluation and Monitoring Plan metrics were modified to be more locally relevant. Each section of the Suggested Evaluation Metrics table for Astoria Hot Springs Park in Appendix C corresponds to The Trust for Public Land’s five outcome areas: community, environment, health, inspiration, and economy.
The suggested metrics table aims to outline possible metrics and associated methods. Some of the metrics are better suited to different time frames and therefore the responsibility of different parties. The Trust for Public Land will likely be responsible for one pre- and one postconstruction park evaluation. Subsequent and ongoing evaluations will likely be the responsibility of the hot springs concessionaire and the long-term steward, Astoria Park Conservancy. The timing of, responsible party, and funding source for each metric is not included in the suggested metrics table. In the future, a more robust evaluation plan should include those details.
One final consideration is the cost of SOP ARC and surveys. The Trust for Public Land has had success in conducting SOP ARC affordably by partnering with university departments to have students administer SOP ARC for school credit. The Trust for Public Land and Astoria Park Conservancy should explore partnering with regional universities. With regard to surveys, interviewees recommended partnering with other local organizations to distribute surveys. Including questions about Astoria Hot Springs Park as part of a larger survey avoids the potential for over-surveying people, reaches a larger audience, and is cost-effective. As interviewees pointed out, measuring demographics of park users is challenging and costly. The long-term


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steward may have to find new and creative ways of collecting park user data aside from SOP ARC and surveys. A few potential methods include pedestrian and vehicle counters, hot springs admissions, and facility reservation tracking.
Astoria Hot Springs Park Community Engagement Logic Model
The logic model in Appendix D outlines specific activities The Trust for Public Land should pursue in order to meet output and outcome goals. Inputs include funding for staff time to develop relationships and programming with partners and funding for a built environment that reflects the needs of the community. Feedback from local Latinos during the design process, interviewees, and existing literature all stress the importance of a built environment conducive to social gatherings and organized programming. Providing programming, signage, and other materials in Spanish is also clearly an essential need. The importance of at least one Latino or Latina board member was also repeatedly noted. A number of Latino feedback cards requested that the park have games. Further community engagement could help specify the types of games. A suggested way of meeting this request could be for the hot springs snack shack to have a check out system for soccer balls, com hole, jump ropes, and other popular games and recreation equipment. The recommendations outlined in the logic model will foster a strong sense of community stewardship of the park and, ultimately, increase equity in access to the outdoors and recreation opportunities.
Conclusion
Creating opportunities for all of Teton County’s youth, including Latino youth, to connect with nature in a meaningful way will help ensure that they lead the next generation of environmental stewards and not succumb to nature-deficit disorder. With the current
administration proposing to raise Grand Teton National Park’s admission fee, it is increasingly


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important that the local community cultivate equity in access to the outdoors as a communitywide value by creating affordable opportunities to spend time in nature (National Park Service, 2017).
It is hoped that this research project will provide an informed starting point for community engagement and evaluation plans for Astoria Hot Springs Park in Teton County, Wyoming. The recommendations presented address barriers to park access, offer locally-relevant evaluation metrics, and make suggestions for a community engagement plan that focuses on authentic participation and increasing equity in access to the outdoors. With this information, The Trust for Public Land, as well as the future long-term park steward and the hot springs concessionaire, can better serve the community by implementing locally relevant engagement and evaluation plans. The ultimate goal of this project is to empower local communities to steward the protection and utilization of land in a community-oriented manner, and to offer
useful recommendations to achieve that result.


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Appendix A: Astoria Hot Springs Park Design Plans and Historic Photos
©r'L-i—2
ffl [JKI______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________OVERALL PARK PLAN
ASTORIA HOT SPRINGS PARR 2016.06.10


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HOT SPRINGS RESORT PLAN
RIVER POOL CHARACTER SKETCH
ASTORIA HOT SPRINGS PARK
2016.07.10


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Courtesy of the Gill Family
Courtesy of the Gill Family


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Appendix B: Interviewee Names, Affiliated Organizations and Interview Questions Community Engagement
Research Question: How do local organizations engage Latino and underserved communities? Interviewees:
Fio Lazarte, Teton Literacy
Andres Esparza, Teton Science Schools and Latino Outdoors
Jr Rodriquez, Jackson Hole Land Trust/R Park
Mary Erickson, Doug Coombs Foundation
Megan Kohli, Grand Teton National Park/Pura Vida
Miriam Morillon, Children’s Learning Center
Steve Ashworth, Teton County Parks and Recreation
Diana Welch, Community Stakeholder
Interview Questions:
1. How do you measure program/park attendance?
a. Is this/are these measure(s) disaggregated? Do you know how many Latinos, for instance, use the program/park?
a. Steve Ashworth: Do you measure how many people are using Jackson town parks? Do you know how many Latinos are using town parks? Is there a maximum capacity for town parks? Is there some sort of standard for how many parks or acreage of parks an area should have per capita?
b. Jr Rodriguez: How do you evaluate park use at R Park? Is there a maximum capacity for R Park?
2. Where does Latino engagement fit in your priorities?
a. Why do you think it’s important to engage the Latino community?
b. Jr Rodriguez: During your design, construction, park operating process, did you begin engaging Latino families? What partners have been most effective to work with to engage Latinos at R Park? Why?
3. Can you tell me about one or two engagement or outreach strategies you’ve found to be successful in engaging the Latino community?
4. Can you tell me about one or two engagement or outreach strategies that were not successful in engaging the Latino community?
5. Have you found that Latinos face barriers in engaging in your program/visiting your park?
a. How do you address those barriers?
b. Do young people face unique barriers? How do you address those barriers?
c. Do women and girls face unique barriers? How do you address those barriers?
6. Do you provide programming and/or materials in Spanish?
a. Do you provide programming and/or materials in other languages?
b. What enables you to provide programming in Spanish or another language?
c. If not, why not?


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7. Other than the Latino community, do you serve other underserved populations in Jackson? If so, can you tell me how you engage them?
8. What advice or recommendations do you have for The Trust for Public Land in engaging Latinos and underserved communities at Astoria Hot Springs Park?
Park Evaluation
Research Question: How does The Trust for Public Land evaluate park accessibility and use? Interviewees:
Chandi Aldena, The Trust for Public Land Nette Compton, The Trust for Public Land Bianca Shulaker, The Trust for Public Land Jen Isacoff, The Trust for Public Land Becca Hazlewood, Walton Family Foundation
Interview Questions:
1. How do you measure whether or not a park is serving the population you intended it to serve?
2. What does successful community engagement at a park look like to you?
a. How do you measure community engagement?
3. What park evaluation methods does the TPL utilize the most?
a. Does TPL conduct SOP ARC evaluations/other evaluations at every park?
b. At what point after a park’s opening does a park evaluation take place and then how frequently after that?
c. Does TPL help the long-term steward implement an evaluation plan?
d. Do you ever modify park evaluation plans to be more locally relevant? Why or why not? If so, how do you do that?
e. How important is it to evaluate park use patterns? Why?
4. Are park evaluations worthwhile financially?
a. Why or why not?
b. How are park evaluations funded?
5. How do you ensure that a park evaluation plan is realistic and sustainable?
6. What are best practices for evaluating park access?
a. How does TPL measure park accessibility not in terms of distance?
b. What metrics have been most meaningful for park access?
7. Is there a maximum capacity for parks? Is there some sort of standard for how many parks or acreage of parks an area should have per capita?
a. Is that information used in measures of park access?
8. How do you encourage park stewardship among community members?
a. How do you measure park stewardship?
Additional questions for Becca Hazelwood:
1. What drives the Walton Family Foundation’s dedication to ensuring proj ects that it funds are focused on measuring their success?


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2. What are the most important data points to measure related to conservation and park projects?
3. Are there examples of successful evaluation plans for projects addressing equity and engaging underserved populations?
a. What makes them the most successful evaluation plans?
b. How do you identify meaningful performance measures in these evaluation plans?
4. On a scale of one to ten, how important is community engagement to you?
a. What does successful community engagement look like to you?
b. What are ways of measuring community engagement or investment in a project?
5. How do you ensure that an evaluation plan is realistic and sustainable?
6. What does the Foundation do with evaluations it receives from funded projects?
Park Design
Research Question: How did DHM Design engage with the community during the park design
process?
Interviewee:
Charlie Kees, DHM Design
Interview Questions:
1. How do you incorporate feedback in your design plans?
a. How did you decide which pieces of community input were kept and which ones were left out?
2. Do you have a way of measuring how much you included community input in the designs?
3. Do you address specific stakeholder groups?
4. Can you describe your process in incorporating Latino ideas into the plans for Astoria Hot Springs Park from gaining feedback through construction drawings?
5. Do you feel as though community involvement in the park design process ensured that features of the park met the needs and desires of the community?
6. How do you design an environment that promotes physical activity amongst diverse populations?
7. Was it more helpful when you were personally interacting with community members or was it equally as helpful for the TPL WY staff to convey feedback to you?
8. How did you communicate feedback to other designers working on the team who were not involved in the community design process?


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Appendix C: Suggested Evaluation Metrics for Astoria Hot Springs Park
Suggested Evaluation Metrics for Astoria Hot Springs Park
OUTCOME AREA MONITORING QUESTION METHOD(S)
COMMUNITY
How many people are using the park? Direct observation (SOPARC) and/or tracking hot springs admissions
Do the demographics of park users reflect that of area residents? Direct observation (SOPARC) compared with demographic data
Equity, Access and Park Use How many people and what demographics are using social gathering spaces? (ex. picnic structures, Johnny Counts' Cabin) Direct observation (SOPARC) and/or tracking bookings of spaces
What is the demographic breakdown of the APC board? Tracking APC board demographics
Do people feel as they have better access to open space once the park opened? Survey
How many cars pass through the hot springs parking lot? How many cars pass through the overflow/passive park lot? Vehicle counters
Is there park stewardship group? Tracking
Engagement and Stewardship How many people were engaged in the participatory design process? What are the demographics of those engaged? Tracking
How many people are attending community events (Day on the Land and others)? Tracking
HEALTH
Fitness and Recreation What level of activity are park users participating in (sedentary, moderate or vigorous)? Direct observation (SOPARC)
How many health, exercise and sports related programs take place at the park? What are the demographics of the people participating in those programs? Tracking
Well-being Do people feel safe at the park? Surveys
ENVIRONMENT
What is the temperature and quality of water flowing from the hot springs to the river? Design calculation
Sustainability How many native trees and shrubs are at the park? Design calculation
How many invasive species are at the park? Design calculation
How are wildlife using the park? Park user or park staff reports
Environmental Education How many environmental education programs take place at the park? What are the demographics of the people participating in those programs? Tracking number of programs and program participants
INSPIRATION
Arts, Culture Are artists engaged in the planning, design, and/or construction process? Tracking
and Education How many STEM or other local students were engaged in the planning, design, and/or construction process? Tracking
ECONOMY
Economic metrics are not included in The Trust for Public Land's pilot evaluations. Rather than isolating a specific economic metric, economic benefit measures can be aggregated in city-wide studies or could be adapted for a "deep dive" study, such as large-scale signature parks. One locally relevant approach to this could involve partnering with Snake River Sporting Club to measure how the park might impact their business.


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Appendix D: Astoria Hot Springs Park Community Engagement Logic Model
H K Outcomes Medium (upon opening of passive park) Long (5+ years)
\ UUipULa | z>
Inputs Activities Participation ^ Short (upon opening of hot springs)
> Develop and maintain > Key partners: > At least one free pilot > Increased number of > The APC board and
Funding for TPL and APC relationships with - The JH community program in Spanish bilingual and family AHSP visitors are
staff time to: potential partners - TPL targeting Latino programs demographically
- APC families representative of the
> Develop and maintain > Develop or host - AHSP > AHSP visitors are JH community
relationships with bilingual and family concessionaire > At least one Latina/o demographically
partners programming with - DHM Design member on the APC representative of the > Increased equity in
partners at AHSP board JH community access to the
> Develop programming > Potential partners: outdoors and
plans with partners > Create bilingual - START Bus > A pilot START Bus stop > The APC board retains recreation
materials and signage. - TC School District at AHSP during at least one Latina/o opportunities for the
> Continue to engage - Children's Learning summer months member community
the community > Reach out to START Center
Bus - One22 > Free equipment > If START Bus is > AHSP programming
> Solicit a diverse APC - Latino Outdoors rentals (ex. soccer frequently used, and built
board > Solicit a diverse APC - Senior Center of JH balls, cornhole, jump pursue permanent bus environment reflect
board - Teton Science and ropes etc.) stop the needs of the JH
Funding for: Journeys Schools community
> Create a built - JH Community > All signs and > Sufficient space for
> Bilingual environment School informational social events and > Strong sense of
communications conducive to social - GAP! materials in Spanish organized community
gatherings (ex. picnic - Doug Coombs programming (after ownership and
> Game/equipment tables, shade Foundation Phase 2 construction) stewardship of AHSP
rentals structures) - La Liga
- Teton Literacy > All signs and
> A built environment > Create a built - TC Library informational
conducive to social environment - JH Public Art materials in Spanish
gatherings and conducive to organized - TC Parks and Rec.
organized programming (ex. - Raptor Center
programming multipurpose fields, - TC Public Health
educational spaces) - St.John's
- And more...
Assumptions: Partners are willing and able to work with TPL, APC and AHSP concessionaire to accomplish outputs/outcomes.
External Factors: Fundraising challenges and local political factors.
Abrehviations: AHSP: Astoria Hot Springs Park, TPL: The Trust for Public Land, APC: Astoria Park Conservancy, JH: Jackson Hole, TC: Teton County


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Appendix E: Latino Input Card Matrix
LATINO INPUT CARD MATRIX THEMES
I would like to see many games for kids that are sate and transportation to the Springs. • Games •Transportation • Kids,'family
I would like to see rooms kids to play games in the winter. Kids don’t have many things to do. • Games • Kids.'family • Lack of activities for kids • Winter activities
Water fountains. • Water features
I would like for there to be a place to ride bicycles and tricycles. • Bicycles
I would like them to put tents/umbrellas up for shade. • Shade structures
I would like to see a place for kids to play and a small museum for creativity. • Education opportunites • Kids/family
I space for people to spend time together with tables. • Social spaces • Tables
I would like to see a park with water to have parties, play soccer, games for kids, and basketball. • Social spaces • Games • Sports • Kids/family
I would like to see different areas for different ages. • Age accessible
Public transportation to get to and from Astoria and go carts. •Transportation • Go carts
Fish, and places to keep the park clean and to have a place for trash. • Fishing • Well-maintained facilities
A place for more participation for the Latino community. •Community participation
More information about how to get there and what to do. • Information on access • Information on activities
Exercise equipment in the outdoors. • Exercise opportunities
I like this project because there needs to be a place for families in the community who don’t have the opportunity to leave for vacations with their kids. If there was water activities that were close, like the park, many of the kids in the community would be content and happy. • Affordable • Kids/family • Water features
Public transportation, a place for kids parties, a place to cook, public bathrooms, inflatable games for the winter, a place outside for physical fitness activities. • Transportation • Kids/family • Social spaces • Places ot cook • Bathrooms • Games • Exercise opportunities • Winter activities
I would like to see a small river for fish where the kids could learn about fish. • Fish • Education opportunities • Kids/family
A lot of activities for adolescents. • Exercise opportunities • Activities
No dogs. • No dogs
I’d like it to include swings, slides, free transportation, games for older kids and young kids. • Playground equiptment • Transportation • Games • Kids/family
I’d like for it to have grills to make meat and have family picnics, family games, and and recycling bin; Thanks for asking for our opinion. • Places to cook • Kids/family • Recycling
Apart from the hot springs, spaces to play sports like tennis courts, a park for kids, a basketball court, soccer field, and an event facility forevents and parties. • Sports • Kids/family • Social spaces
I’d like there to be kids’ games, a kid pool, fountains to bathe the kids, fields for soccer and other spo imagine a closed space where kids can play games, and if possible, some food vendors. •Games • Kids/family • Water features • Sports • Food
If you could put a slide, a pool and a room for activities in the winter because sometimes there aren’t p for that. Thanks so much for thinking of us and our kids, God bless you. • Playground equipment • Water features • Winter activities
I’d like you to do this project because there are families in the community that haven’t been given the opportunity to go on vacation with their kids! Taking them to the springs, one of the closest water parks... many kids in the community are going to be happy. • Aftoradble • Water features


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Appendix F: Author Biases
To demonstrate reflexivity, the author created this list of biases before beginning the interview process that could impact the results of this research project:
I am an environmentalist and believe in protecting land from development.
I support free/affordable public access to open space.
I believe it is important that everyone has equal access to recreation and the outdoors, and that everyone feels comfortable and welcome in recreation and outdoor settings.
I am from Jackson and am invested in the future of the community.
I want to do what I can to ensure that the Jackson community values diversity and inclusivity.
I swam at Astoria as a child and want the park and hot springs to return to the community.
I greatly enjoyed working for The Trust for Public Land and I admire their work.
I feel loyal to Chris Deming and Paige Byron at the Wyoming Trust for Public Land
office.


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Appendix G: Course Competencies
The University of Colorado Denver School of Public Affairs assesses student capstones through five core competencies that address the student’s demonstrated ability to (1) lead and manage in public governance; (2) participate in and contribute to the public policy process; (3) analyze, synthesize, think critically, solve problems and make decisions; (4) articulate and apply a public service perspective; and (5) communicate and interact productively with a diverse and changing workforce and citizenry. Student capstone projects must draw upon at least three of the core competencies. The three competencies this client-oriented capstone fulfills are discussed below, along with descriptions of classes that were most useful in researching and writing this capstone.
Analyze, synthesize, think critically, solve problems and make decisions.
Synthesizing and analyzing existing literature and interviews in an easy-to-understand way without leaving out any noteworthy details was challenging. In Economics and Public Finance (PUAD 5004), the author had the opportunity to learn about effective frameworks for organizing themes and ideas found in academic literature - a skill that proved useful in writing this capstone. When it came time to analyze interview transcriptions, a number of methods for analyzing qualitative data proved to be unsuitable. The author overcame the challenge by creating her own method of organizing interview transcriptions into matrices, inspired by methods learned in Evidence-Based Decision-Making (PUAD 5008). Evidence-Based Decision-Making (PUAD 5008) was the most influential class over this capstone’s research design and recommendations. The class provided important guidance in creating research questions, analyzing qualitative data, and creating logic models and performance metrics. Research-


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Analytic Methods (PUAD 5003) also provided the author with another perspective on conducting qualitative research and reinforced the importance of objective research.
Articulate and apply a public service perspective.
The authentic participation component of the literature review was inspired by a public service perspective the author gained during her time at the School of Public Affairs. The ethical obligation to engage citizens in a meaningful way was a theme that arose in Introduction to Public Administration and Public Service (PUAD 5001) and Public Service Leadership (PUAD 5006). Other public service values that arose in the project were accountability and transparency; those values are manifested in this capstone’s park evaluation plan. An expert in project evaluation who spoke to the Fundraising and Financial Resource Development (PUAD 5150) class was particularly helpful to the author in creating a realistic evaluation plan that promotes accountability and transparency. More specifically, she defined meaningful evaluation metrics for the author, which was influential over the final recommendations in this capstone.
The public service perspective the author gained was also useful in analyzing methods of measuring citizen participation and in creating the logic model included in the capstone. Likewise, incorporating interviewees experiences into the final recommendations was a demonstrated form of incorporating citizen participation. Finally, in Policy Process and Democracy (PUAD 5005) the author’s final class paper was a coding-based research project related to public lands. Coding and other methods of analyzing policies and conflicts was quite influential over this capstone’s interview coding process.


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Communicate and interact productively with a diverse and changing workforce and citizenry.
A client-based and interview-oriented project requires constant communication. Skills learned in Organizational Management and Behavior (PUAD 5002) were utilized throughout the interview process. One portion of Evidence-Based Decision-Making (PUAD 5008) also focused on engaging stakeholders successfully, which was particularly useful due to the nature of this capstone. Engaging the interviewees as stakeholders rather than simply sources of information in the interview process was important to fulfill the author’s goal of conducting a community-based participatory research (CBPR) project.
In sum, the author’s classes throughout her time at the School of Public Affairs allowed her to develop an effective research framework and make viable recommendations on community engagement and project evaluation - two key components and growing fields in public administration and the nonprofit sector.


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Digital Library Program is a nonprofit center responsible for the collection and preservation of digital resources for education.The capstone project, protected by your copyright, and/or created under the supervision of the client has been identified as important to the educational mission of the University of Colorado Denver and Auraria Library.The University of Colorado Denver and Auraria Library respectfully requests non-exclusive rights to digitize the capstone project for Internet distribution in image and text formats for an unlimited term. Digitized versions will be made available via the Internet, for on- and off-line educational use, with a statement identifying your rights as copyright holder and the terms of the grant of permissions.Please review, sign and return the follow Grant of Permissions. Please do not hesitate to call me or email your questions.Sincerely,Matthew C. MarinerAuraria LibraryDigital Collections ManagerMatthew.mariner@ucdenver.edu303.556.5817
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Full Text

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Running h ead: PARK EVA LUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT Recommendations for Park Evaluation and Community Engagement Phoebe Thunder Coburn University of Colorado Denver School of Public Affairs

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 2 Capstone Project Disclosure This client-based project was completed on behalf of The Trust for Public Land and supervised by PUAD 536 1 Capstone course instructor Wendy L. Bolyard , PhD and second faculty reader Pamela Medina , PhD. This project does not necessarily reflect the views of the School of Public Affairs or the faculty readers. Raw data were not included in this document, rather relevant materials were provided directly to the client. Permissions to include this project in the Auraria Library Digital Repository are found in the final appendix. Questions about this capstone project should be directed to the st udent author.

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 3 Table of Contents Tables of Figures and Appendices 3 Executive Summary 4 Introduction 5 Literature Review 7 Teton County Demographics 7 Park Use Patterns and Barriers 10 Measuring Park Accessibility 12 Park Programming 13 Authentic Participation and En gagement 15 Project Purpose 18 Methods 19 Sampling Plan 19 Data Analysis 20 Reliability and Validity 20 Results 21 How do local organizations engage Lati no and underserved communities? 2 1 How does The Trust for Public Land evaluate park accessibility and use ? 24 How did DHM Design engage with the community during the design process ? 27 What themes arose in La tino input cards gath ered during the design process? 28 Recommendations 29 Barriers 29 Suggested Park Impact Metrics 30 Astoria Hot Springs Park Community Engagement Logic Model 31 Conclusion 31 References 33

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 4 Table of Figures and Appendices Figure 1: Ladder of Citizen Participation 16 Figure 2 : Quadrants of Equity, Inclusion and Diversity Work 17 Appendix A: Astoria Hot Springs Park Design Plans and Historic Photos 38 A ppendix B: Interviewee Names, Affiliated Organizations and Interview Questions 41 Appendix C: Suggested Evaluation Metrics for Astoria Hot Springs Park 42 Appendix D: Astoria Hot Springs Park Community Engagement Logic Model 43 Appendix E: Latino Input Card Matri x 44 Appendix F : Author Biases 45 Appendix G: Course Competencies 46

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 5 Executive Summary P roximity to urban and rural parks has been linked to individual, com munity and environmental health ( King, Litt, Hale, Burniece, & Ross, 2015 ). To increase public access t o nature, The Trust for Public Land prote ct s land and creates parks for people . In Teton County, Wyoming, the nonprofit is working to return a o nce loved park to the community. In 2016, The Trust for Public Land purchased Astoria Hot Springs Park with the goal of permanently preser ving public access to the park. Once fundraising, development of the natural hot springs, and habitat restoration is complete, the 100 acre park will once again be open to the public. The purpose of this Latino engagement plan, to provide recommendations on specific park evaluation metrics, and to . Through a re view of existing literature, five interviews with experts in park and project evaluation, eight interviews with Latino engagement experts, one interview with a park designer, and an analysis of Latino park design input cards, a number of recommendations we re crafted . T hree critical barriers to park access, a table of suggested park evaluation metrics, and a community engagement logic model are presented . With th e se recommendations , The Trust for Public Land can better serve the community by implementing locally relevant engagement, programming , and evaluation strategies at Astoria Hot Springs Park .

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 6 Recommendations for Park Evaluation and Community Engagement Public health professionals have long recognized the connection between parks and community health (King et al . , 2015 ) . Park s are associated with increased levels of physical activity, lower rates of coronary heart disease, mental and emotional health, social cohesion, and longevity ( Bedimo Rung, Mowen & Cohen, 2005 ; Casper, Harrolle, & Kelly , 2013; King et al. , 2015 ). Parks not only provide a place for people to walk, run, and play sports, but also simply enjoy the outdoors, breath e fresh air, and gather together with friends and family. Nature deficit disorder, a term credited to author Rich nature (Louv, 2009). American youth are spending far more time inside and on screens than they are playin g outside: 88% report using the internet and 69% report watching television and playing video games daily (The Nature Conservancy [TNC], 2011). Just 40% of youth report participating in outdoor activities such as hiking or visiting parks on a weekly basis (TNC, 2011). In addition to health benefits of spending time outside, eviden ce suggests that children and value nature, engage with it, and (TNC, 2011, para. 4 ). The client for this project, The Trust for Public Land , increase s p ublic access to nature by prot ecting land and creating parks for people. Since 1972, th is national nonprofit has protected more than 3.3 million acres of land, from urban gardens to vast remote landscapes. In Teton County, Wyoming, The Trust for Public Land is working to return a once loved park to the community. For near ly four decades, Astoria Hot Springs was a privately owned but publicly accessible park, campground and natural hot springs pool . Astoria was a place where everyone old and young, rich and poor could gather and enjoy the outdoors together. Since the property sold to private dev elo pers in 1999, the community f ought

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 7 the 200,000 square feet of planned private luxury development. In 2016, after a n extensive county rezo n ing process, The Trust for Public Land purchased the 100 acre property with the goal of permanently preserving p ublic access to the park, while preventing the planned private development. Once the plan for full protection and modest hot springs pool development is executed, Astoria Hot Springs Park will give the community access to two miles of Snake River frontage , a number of hot springs pools, hiking trails meandering through forests and wetland s, and places for f amilies to gather and recreate . P ark design plans and historic photos are included in A ppendix A . After the park opens in 2019, The Trust for Public Land will convey the property to the newly created, long term nonprofit steward, Astoria Park Conservanc y. As the only outdoor public pool and the largest free public park in the county, Astoria Hot Springs Park will directly increase equity in access to the outdoors. In 2016, Teton County was the most economically unequal metro area in the U.S . T he wealthiest 1% make 213 times the average income of the bottom 99% (Sommeiller, Price & Wazeter, 2016). Despite Jackson Hole wilderness locale , the wealth disparity is evident in outdoor and recreation settings . Resort and National P ark admission fees and the cost of outdoor activities are financially prohibitive fo r many local families. The local Latino community, wh ich comprise s 27% of the population in the town of Jackson and 15% of Teton County, struggle disproportionately with the high c ost o f living (One22, 2017). An estimated 20 % to 30% of Teton County Latinos live below the national poverty line (LRC, 2015 ). To ensure th at Astoria Hot Springs Park reflects t he needs of the community, The Trust for Publ ic Land gathered input from 2,200 residents through surveys, tours, public meetings, stakeholder workshops, and design intensives w ith local high school students. Events and one -

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 8 on one outreach strategies during the commu nity design process targeted local Latinos. To cultivate inclusivity and equity in access at Astoria Hot Springs Park, this research project addresses Latino park use patterns, authentic engagement and participation, and locally relevant park evaluation strategies. These themes wer e addressed by exploring existing literatur e, interview ing experts, and investigating Latino input. F inal recommendations for future action emphasize equity in access to the outdoors and inform The Trust for Public Land engagement, programming , and evaluation strategies for the park. Literature Review Th e liter ature review aims to inform the final recommendations and place them in a broader context. The f irst section provides a summary of relevant local demographics . The second focuses on n ationwide Latino park use patterns and barriers in accessing parks and recreation opportunities . The t hird discusses d ifferent measur e s of park access , including proximity, availability, quality, transportation and within park access. The fourth section considers how park programming can encourage park use . The final section explores the meaning of authentic engage me nt in an environmental context. Teton County Demographic s An estimated 84% o f Latinos in Teton County are Mexican (LRC, 2015). M ost are not new to the community the majority have lived in Jackson for seven or more years (LRC, 2015). In 2015, 60% of local Latinos were first generation, 36% second generation, and 4% third generation (LRC, 2015). The young Latino population is largely bilingual, bicultural, and there is a clear trend that Latinos make up a larger percentage of county students with each new entering grade (LRC, 2015). In the 2015 2016 school year, t he school district as a whole was 31 % Latino,

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 9 the high school was 28% Latino, the mi ddle school was 32 % Latino, and the two town elementary schools together were 39% Latino (LR C, 2015). The new Munger Mountain Elementary school is just seven miles or a short 10 minute drive away from Astoria Hot Springs Park. Once open in fall 2018, the school will serve 584 Spanish dual immersion program (Facility, 2018). According the Charlotte Reynolds, the Information Coord inator for Teton County School d istrict, half of Munger Mount ain students will be native Spanish speakers and half with be native English speakers ( C. Reynolds , personal communication, May 7 , 2018) With few educational and recreational amenities close to the school, the park will provide close to home afterschool an d summer activities for Munger Mountain Elementary students. Despite being such a prominent part of the population, Latino participation in community wide events and youth extracurricular activities is low (One22, 2017). Cost is one of the most salient barriers. Nationally, participation in extracurricular activities among students mirrors the widening income gap (Snellman , Silva, Frederick & Putnam, 2015 ). Upper middle class students are increasingly active in sports and other extracurricular programs , while participation among working class students is dramatically dropping (Snellman et al., 2015) . Research shows that par ticipation in extracurricular activities is associa ted with better grades, pursuit of higher education, greater incomes, and civic en gagement (Snellman et al., 2015 ) . The Teton County Com munity Youth Needs Analysis reports t hat local Latino parents report wanting spend more time with their children and would like to be able to participate in some facilitated, organized family ( One22, 2017, p. 16 ). Specific s tressors local Latinos face that also act as barriers to participation include immigration status, housing insecurity, food insecurit y , poverty, health issues, discrimination, and limited education level of

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 10 older generations (One22, 2017). The analysis found that Latino parents hear about programs and activities from a number of sources 21% by word of mouth, 20% from school communications, 12% by emai l, 8% through texting, and 8% from flyers (One22, 2017). For ty five percent of Latino parents said they check Facebook daily , 50 % report speaking English at a basic or intermediate level , and 29% report having less than an eighth grade education, indicating the importance of providing communications in Spanish (One22, 2017). Astoria Hot Springs Park will also serve the neighboring town of Alpine, located 20 miles south of the park. Though it is difficult to measure the exact number of people commuting from Alpine to Jackson each day, it is safe to say a workforce commute from Alpine; with in the county, according to Regan Kohlhardt, a Long Range Associate P lanner for the town of Jackson (R. Kohlhardt, personal communication, Ma ry 1, 2018 ). In 2016, the Wyoming Department of Transportation calculated that 5,766 vehicles (including 792 trucks) use the road that pass es the park on an average day (Traffic Data, 2016 ). START Bus, transportation, served 31,889 ride rs on th e Alpine Jackson route in 2017 , according to START Bus Administrative Assistant Anna White . The Alpine Jackson route has also been steadily growing in ridership by about 10% each year (Jackson/Teton Integrated Transportation Plan, 2015) . S TART Bus does not measure Latino rider ship, but Lati nos are reported ly frequent users of the town shuttle and the Teton Village route ( A. White, personal communication, April 5, 2018 ). While m ost Latinos use family owned cars for transp ortation, 13% reported ST ART B us was their primary means of transportation (One22, 2017).

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 11 Park Use P atterns and B arriers Fernandez, Shinew and S todolska (p. 210 ). Traditionally, parks often serve as a cent ral social gathering space for Latin American communities. This is evident in Latino use of parks in the U.S. today : neighborhoods with large Latino populations tend to have more park users (Cohen et al . , 2010). M America to the United States of the preference for parks and plazas to serve as the core social Latinos engage in group and social behavior at parks far more than Anglos, who primarily engage in solitary behavior at parks (Mendez, 2005). Age diverse f amily gatherings , activities and picnics are the most commo n use of parks among Latinos (Clarke, Rodriguez & Alamillo, 2015 ; Gobster, 2002 ). Regardless of race, men are more likely than women to visit parks often, be physically active at parks, and engage in regular physical activity at parks (Burk, Shinew & Stodolska, 2011 ; Cronan, Shinew, Schneider, Wilhelm Stanis & Chavez, 2008 ; McKenzie, Cohen, Sehgal, Williamson & Golinelli, 2006 ). park activity, but they also engage in wal king and running more than men ( Casper et al. , 2013; Cronan et al. , 2008 as their most frequent park activity , and they play sports at parks more than Latinas ( Casper et al., 2013; Cronan et al. , 2008 ) . Studies indicate that lack of child care could be a barrier to independent exercise for Latina women in particular, and that p arks provide a place for Latino parents to bond and play with their children ( Casper et al., 2013; Cronan et al., 2008 ). Male youth are much more likely to engage in moderate to vigorous exercise at parks than female youth (King et al., 2015). As girls reach their teenage years , their levels of physical

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 12 activity decline significantly (Cohen et al., 2006; Perry, Saelens & Thompson , 2011). However, adolescent girls who live near parks tend to participate in moderate and vigorous exercise more than t hose wh o do not live near parks (Cohen et al., 2006). This finding is particularly evident for playgrounds, sports courts and fields, and pools (Cohen et al., 2006). Perr y et al. (2011) conducted a study of Latino youth park use patterns in a rural Washington town. They found that organized activities , and higher quality sports courts and fields , were si gnificantly associated with increased park use, especially among Latina girls (Perry et al., 2011). They found that Latino youth are more physically active at parks but less physically active overall in comparison to non Latino youth. This highlights the importance of parks a s place s to exerc ise for Latinos; Perry et al. (2011) argue Ac culturation is another predictor of park use ( Fernandez et al., 2015; Harrolle, Floyd, Casper, Kelley & Bruton, 2013 ). There are a number of ways to estimate degree of acculturation, including English language use and proficiency, time spent in the U.S., and measu rements of adoption of U.S. cultural t raits and retention of home cultural traits ( Fernandez et al. 2015 ; Harrolle et al., 2013 ). More acculturated Latinos are more likely to utilize par ks and engage in recreation, while less acculturated Latinos face more constraints to parks and recreation (Fernandez et al. 2015; Harrolle et al., 2013). Fernandez et al. (2015) asked whether degree of acculturation was a predictor of the type of park activity engaged in. They found that less acculturated Latinos were more likely to engage in passive activitie s (sitting, picnicking , etc.) and appreciative activities (camping, bird watching , etc.) (Fernandez et al., 2015). More acculturate d Latinos with higher education and income reported engaging in physical activities

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 13 (walking, r unning, biking, swimming , etc. ) more often , and passive activities less often (Fernandez et al., 2015). I n a study of Latino park users at Lincoln Park in Chicago, which has vorite park attribute, indicating that access to water is a desirable park characteristic among Latinos (Gobster, 2002, p.154). Gobste r (2002) also found that Latinos put as great or greater emphasis as white people on the importance of space, Measuring Park Accessibility Park accessibility is measure d in v arious ways, five of which are touched on here: proximity, availability, quality, transportation and within park access. Dist ance to the nearest park and availability of parks are the most straightforward measures of park access. Numerous studies show living in close proximity to parks is correlated with park use and increased physical activity (Cohen et al., 2006; Fernandez et al., 2015 ; Perry et al., 2011 ). M ost people will not walk more than about half a mile or 10 minutes to reach a park ( Harnik & Simms, 2004). Availability refer s to the amount of park space per acre of city/town/suburb or the amount of park space per capi ta (Bedimo Rung et al., 2005). Though people are not generally willing to travel far to reach a park, research shows that people are willing to travel substantial distances to reach parks with unique or desirable features , indicating that park quality is an important measure of park accessibility (Cohen et al. , 2010; Nicholls, 2001; Sister, Wolch & Wilson , 2010). Nicholls (2 001) writes about access to quality parks in terms of equity and equality. Having equal access to parks in terms of distance and availability indicates there is equality in park access; having equal access to quality parks with desired features or aesthetics indicates equity in p ark access (Nicholls, 2001). Not only do

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 14 minority park users usually have to tr avel further distances to reach parks, but Sister et al. (2010) found that Latino, African American, and low income neighborhoods in Los Angeles were more likely to have overcrowded and poorly mainta ined parks than w hite and wealthy neighborh oods ( Gobster, 2002; Sis ter et al. , 2010 ). These studies indicate that both equality and equity in access to green space is an issue nationwide. Park renovations have been found to significantly increase park use among minority communities and increase physical activity levels among park users , underscoring that park quality is a key measure of park access ( Cohen 2015; King et al. , 2015 ). Abercrombie et al. (2008) argue reasonable policy goal would be to provide the highest number and quality of parks in low income areas, because people living there Considering that people are wi lling to travel to reach quality parks, transportation shou ld also be considered as a measure of park access. One study shows that travel by vehicle is not necessarily a limiting factor for Latinos wanting to reach parks (Cronan et al., 2008). Cronan et al. (2008) conducted research on Latino use of urban and exurban parks in and near Los Angeles, Chicago and Minneapolis. Of the 1,726 Latino respondents, 59% reported reaching parks by car, 36.5% said they walked to parks, and very few reported reaching parks by public transportation (Cronan et al., 2008). However, another study shows that Latinos are more likely to use public tra nsportation to reach a park than any other ethnicity ( Gobster , 2002). Gobster ( 2002) found that 20% of Latino park users at Lincoln Park in Chicago reached the park by public transportation. Lastly, there are a few studies on the importance of within park navig ation as a measure of park access (Bedimo Rung et al., 2005). If people perceive parks as difficult to navigate, es pecially people facing language barrier s, they may not visit the park (Bedimo Rung et al., 2005). Examples of within park navigation challenges might inclu de lack of clear information on

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 15 trails, activities, or park rules. P erceived within park access barriers can be addressed b y making park materials, like maps and activity information, easy to understand and available in multiple langu ages (Bedimo Rung et al., 2005). Park Programming N umber of park users is significantly correlated with organized park programming and activities ( Clarke et al., 2015; Cohen et al., 2010). Bilingual programming and activities for gr oups and families rather than individual s are more likely to draw Latinos, according to multiple studies ( Clarke et al., 2015, Cronan et al., 2008; Fernandez et al., 2015; Harrolle et al., 2013). Even bilingual Latinos appreciate efforts to communicate in Spanish because it signifies an effort to engage wit h the Latino community, culture, and language (LCR, 2015; Clarke et al., 2015). Leveraging relationships with existing Latino networks and organizations to provide programming is also a successful strategy as it does not r equire forging new relationships with the Latino community (Clarke et al., 2015). Lastly, Clarke et al. (2015) suggest that a Latino or Latina community member sit on the pa rk board to ensure the park reflects Latino values. connect ion to nature and parks is a re curring theme in the literatu re ( Clarke et al., 2015; strong love for nature and environmental ethic, nature education programming for youth has been a successful way of drawing Latinos to parks. Notably, Clarke et al. (2015) reference parks that successfully engaged Latino youth through Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education programs, which The Trust for Public Land has alre ady done with Astoria Hot Springs Park. Parra Medina and Hilfinger Messias (2011) found t hrough focus groups that Latina women want park programming for women only. The respondents said that women only

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 16 p rogramming would be conducive to more physical activi Medina & Hilfinger Messias, 2011, p. 113). Barriers to park use cited by the focus groups included l ack of cult urally relevant role models, lack of experience engaging in physical act ivity, and feeling that work and family responsibilities took priority over personal health (Parra Medina & Hilfinger Messias, 2011). To help address these barriers, Parra promotora led delivery promotora is a lay member of the Latino or Latina community who receives training on how to effectively convey health related education and provide health related support to their community (Parra Medina & Hilfinger Messias, 2011). This model was successful in part because it built upon existing programming in the community, versus starting from scratch to develop new initiatives (Parra Medina & Hilfinger Messias, 2011). The progra mming was also designed so that participating Latinas had the resources and education to continue with physical activity on their own after the programming ended (Parra Medina & Hilfinger Messias, 2011). Authentic Participation and Engagement A report produced by La Madre Tierr a and Re source Media (2016) points out that of engagement with the environmental mainstream is sometimes mistaken for lack of The report explains that Latinos are often not as prominent or visible in conservation camp aigns , not for lack of concern, but rather lack of access, lack resources, and lack of opportunities to get involved ( La Madre Tierra & Resource Media, 2016). Research confirms that the public is rarely disengaged because of lack of interest or commitment, but that the public generally desires to be heard and involved (May, 2006). Organizations often ask for Latino or other minority input at the last minute in o rder to give

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 17 themselves the appearance of promoting diversity ( La s Madre Tierra & Resource Media, 2016). When inauthentic engagement like this happens, support and input is likely to be superficial as well ( La Madre Tierra & Resource Media, 2016) . There a re a few frameworks to help organizations build authentic relationships. One of the most classic theories is Citizen Participation. Arnstein (1969 ) difference between going through the empty ritual of parti cipation and having the real power needed to af fect the outcome of the process (p. 216). theory ranks participatio n by the shown in Figure 1 . On the lower end of the ladder, engagem ent strategies aim to educate people with the intent of changing their minds or gaining support (Arnstein, 1969). Here, there is little power sharing and i nformation and knowledge flows from t he leaders to the citizens ; leaders either do not solicit or do listen to informat ion coming from their citizens (Arnstein, 1969). As engagement strategies move up the ladder, they become increasingly co solutions focused, and power and the flow of informat io n is distributed more evenly (Arnstein, 1969). At the top rung, Figure 1 . Ladder of Citizen Participation (Arnstein, 1969, p. 217).

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 18 citize n control, the leaders act as facilitators and exist to support the citizens, who are considered the rea l leaders and st akeholders (Arnstein, 1969). A more modern approach to authentic participation and engagement is presented by The Avarna Group, an organization that works with nonprofits and businesses to build equity, inclusion, and diversity strategies, often in an environmental context. They prese nt one of the most usable frameworks for organizations to analyze how they approach equi ty, inclusion and diversity in their organiz ation, illustrated in Figure 2 . Figure 2 . Quadrants of Equit y, Inclusion and Diversity Work ( Holliday, 2015 ). The A varna Grou Holliday, 2015 ). Though each quadrant is related, breaking down equit y, inclusion, and diversity into focus areas makes the work less daunting and allows organizatio n s to prioritize areas of improvement ( Holliday, 2015 ). The individual internal quadrant refers to how individuals can incorporate equity, inclusion and

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 19 di versity into their own thinking , and is often where the work begins. The individual ext ernal quadrant addresses how individuals engage with others and h ow their actions impact others. The institutional internal asks how the organizati on creates an inclusive culture for their staff . Lastly, the institutional external quadrant, while ar guably the most wide reaching, runs a greater risk of bei ng nominal in nat ure. This quadrant confronts how the organization impacts , communicates with, and relates to the community it serves. If steps are taken in the first three quadrant areas to incorporate equity, inclusion and diversity into thinking and actions, it lay s a foundation for actions and strategies in the institutional external quadrant to be more genuine in aiming to achieve equity, inclusivity and divers ity ( Holliday, 2015 ). In closing, the La Madre Tierra and Resource Media (2016 ) r eport notes culturally fluent campaign speaks to deeply held community values, while also recognizing and addressing ( p. 17 ). Appreciating what the community values in a park and what barriers they face in accessing a park lays the foundatio n for an authentic engagement plan. A uthenti c engagement strategies require thought, resources, time and intentional effort (Clarke et al., 2015). By dedicating themselves to authentic engagement, park management will find that the work pays off in diverse park users, engagement , and enduring community relations (Clarke et al., 2015). Project Purpose The purpose of this qualitative research project is three fold: to inform Astoria Hot Latino engagement plan, to provide recommendations on specific park evaluation metrics, and participatory design process . Research involved semi structured interviews and analyzing written input on park designs to address the following four research questions:

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 20 1. How do local organizations engage Latino and underserved communities? 2. How does The Trust for Public Land evaluate park accessibility and use ? 3. How did DHM Design engage with the community during the park design process? 4. What themes arose in Latino input cards gathered during the design process? Methods The first three research questions regarding community engag e ment, park evaluation , and the design process were addressed through three sets of semi structured interviews with experts in each field. The fourth research question was a nswered by analyzing themes express ed in input card s that were collected during the participatory design process for Astoria Hot Springs Park. The interview process es were inspired by the theory of community based pa rticipatory research (CBPR) . Centered around the research participants and their experiences and knowledge, CBPR identifies and addresses questions and challenges by engaging with participants ( Minkler, Blackwel l, Thompson & Timir, 2003 ). CBPR emphasizes addressing challenges by taking action and the health and well on, Chin, Horowitz & Tyson, 2003, p. 592). Sampling Plan All 14 interview subjects were selected using purposive sampling based on their expertise Their names , affiliated organization s, and interview questions can be found in Appendix B . The first group of eight interviewees consisted of local experts and stakeholders in La tino engagement. The second group of five interviewees consisted of four experts in park evaluation and participatory design at The Trust for Public Land and one program officer with experience in project evaluation from

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 21 the Walton Family Foundation. The final interview group consisted of one interviewee from DHM Design, the design team lead for Astoria Hot Springs Park. Each interview was scheduled for 30 minutes to one hour . The Latino input cards were all written in Spanish, mainly by Latino parents, and were gathered at events hosted by The Trust for Public Land and through t he The 25 cards included in this research project were selected by two translators for being particularly insightful into the Latino Data Analysis Each interview was tra nscribed and then coded using an emergent coding framework to identify themes, patterns and ideas. F our code matrice s (one addressing each research question) based on Salda a s (2009) streamlined codes to theory model for qualitative inquiry were created . The matrices addressing the first three research questions were provided to the client separate from this deliv erable due to their large size. The final matrix addressing the Latino input cards can be found in Appendix E. Reliability and Validity The author grew up in Teton County and formerly worked for The Trust for Public Land. Her familiarity with and personal investment in the organization, the park, and the community are stre ngth s and limitation s of this research project . R eflexiv ity was demonstr ated through bracketing and methods triangulation. Before beginning the interview process, a list of potential biases ( listed in Appendix F ) was created in an effort to consciously set them aside during research. M ethods triangulation was employed by gathering information from interview s, the input cards, and existing literature; t he ultimate recommendations derive from all three sources.

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 22 Results The results are organized by research question into four section s. The first two research questions are further divided into subsections by themes that arose in the interviews . How do local organizations engage Latino and underserved communities? Park and p rogram a ttendance. Disaggreg ating program and event attendees by age and ethnicity is re latively straightforward. Disaggregating p ark users is more complicated. Grand Teton National Park counts visitors enter ing through park gates and estimate s demographics through surveys. A n ecdotally, said Megan Kohli of Grand Teton National Park and Pura Vida, loca l Latino visitation has increased over the last decade , partly because of programming targeting Latinos and the increasing population. At Rendezvous Park , a program of the Jackson Hole Land Trust, wildlife counters at access point s counted 8,000 visits to the park last summer, but that system is unable to record park user characteristics . Teton County Parks and Recreation does directly count park visitors but tries to ga u ge the number and demographics of people using their facilities and their activities through surveys cond ucted by a third party . Even though Spanish speakers were utilized in field ing the surveys, Director Steve Ashworth said the Lat ino population was the most difficult t o reach. The i m portance of engaging the Latino c ommunity. By the year 2042 , the U.S. will be a majority minority count r y, and Latinos are the fastest growing demog raphic (A. Esparza, personal communication, March 14, 2018). However, Latinos are one of the most underrepresented demographics in outdoor, conservation and environmental education settings nationwide (About Us, 2018). hope of havi ng land stewards in t he f and Latino Outdoors. Bey ond ideas of equity and equitable acce ss to public lands , we need the

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 23 majority of people to support public lands. If discus sion and our efforts, we are shooting our . Three interviewees cited the intrinsic value of simply being in nature as one of the most important arguments These are magical transformational places. E Miriam Mo rillon of the added that most Latinos are having families in Teton County , and increasingly are calling it home. Young Latinos are part of t he lo ng term community , and therefore it is important that they have opportunities to be in nature and learn about conservation. Suc cessful and unsuccessful engagement s trategies. The most stressed Latino engagement strategy was family engagement. S paces inviting multi generational families have been successful among La t i nos . Prov iding mat er i als and programm ing in Spanish is another key strategy . B i lingual staff member s , funding to pay outside translation service s , and volunteers are all ways that local organi zations are able to provide mat er i al s and programming in Spanish. Trust, one on one relationships , as cornerstone s of successful Latino engagement. Teton Literacy and Pura Vid a host programs to build leader ship skills among Latinos. Kohli explained that they encourage Latino youth in Pura Vida to practice their leadership skills by designing the i r own experience in the program: The fact that we are co creating experiences is really really easy for those of us that are already regularly using and visiting the park [Grand Teton National Park] to impose our perceptions of why wild really important for programs for the Latino popul ation to be made with the Latino population, or any other kind of diverse population, so that they can put their own values on the place and bring their own preferences to the place.

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 24 In addition to imposing perceptions, interv iewees warned against making as s u mptions about what the Latino community wants and trying to recruit Latino input without the support of an already trusted organization. Other un su ccessf ul strategies include emails, mass mailings, open houses, and public meetings. Esparza said one mis take he has seen organizations make is being too ambitious in engaging Latinos in an outdoor and recreation setting: We want people to go to the Grand Canyons, the Yosemites, the Yellowstones, but we forget that the backyards are just as i mportant if not by engaging with backcountry. I think a l ot of early efforts have failed in trying to get people to the flagshi p Recognizing what is going to be the most accessible experience and using that as a springboard is more importa nt than shooting for the stars. Barriers. Barriers Latinos face in accessing programing and parks locally echo barriers identified in the literature. Cost, lack of transportati on, and busy work schedules were frequently cited. The current di visive political atmosphere has led to increase d fear of p artici pating in activities outside of work and home. R a cial and cultural barriers also make Latinos feel they are not welco me in recreation settings. Kohli explains her experience: There ark [Grand Teton National Park] is only for people who want to run 100 miles, climb the Grand in a day and wear Patagonia, so there's a very distinct perception of what an outdoors person i s. Regardless of what color you are, even with This perception is something There are just so many

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 25 F ees, gear, and the knowledge of how to do activ ities are costly and a privilege many in the comm unity do not realize they have. Morillon said that she does not visit Grand Teton National Park often because navigating the roads and tr ails is a challenge. Other interviewees indicated not knowing how to get to an open space and not understand ing the rul es as barriers. These comments underscore the significance of within park navigation as a barrier to access. Other underserved p opulations . in Jackson and therefore the highest priority for most organizations working with underserved people. Ashworth said that the local senior p opulation is also greatly underserved, Center is a wonderful facility and does a great job of serving about 200 to 250 members of our older, is c hardest to reach because of the stigma associated with seni or programming. Like Latino engag e ment , targeting seniors through partners such as the Senior Center, Age Friendly Jackson Hole, and been successful. How does The Trust for Public Land evaluate park accessibility and use? T . The Trust for Public Evalu ation and Monitoring Plan outlines comprehensive data collection for all of its park projects. For each new park, t he y aim to conduct one pr e construction and one post construction evaluation. The plan categorizes metrics into five outcome areas the organization hopes to address through park building: community, environment, health, inspiration and economy . A number of different methods are used, including GIS, direct observation, tracking, surveying, and design calculations.

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 26 For direct observation, The Trust for Public Land uses a method known as SOPARC, the System for Observing Physical Activity and Recreati on in Communities . SOPARC captures three main characte ris tics of park users: approximate age, perceived race/ethnicity, and activity level (sedentary, walking or vigorous) (McKenzie et al., 2006). The Trust for Public Land also assesse s park user demographics through surveys. Counterintuitively , it is important to understand who is using a park in order to determine who is not using a park. By comparing park user demographics to demographics of the greater community, par k management can deduce who may face barriers in park access. Whether through SOPARC or surveys, gathering demographic and park use patterns is more intensiv e than simply tracking numbers. Regardles s of the cost, these evaluations are important for accountability to the co mmunity, and becoming increasingly important for funders. To decid e whether to invest in an evaluation, Nette Compton says an important question to ask is what pu rpose an evaluation will serve. In other words, k nowing how each metric will serve the organization is important in creating a realistic and worthwhile e valuation plan. Park a ccessibility . Bianca Shulaker was working on a park renovation in San Francisco when she came across a notable survey finding: People said they had better access once the park had been completed. There was a comment that came up a few times, people would say they loved the proximity of the that the park had moved, it was in the same place, but the improvements and t he engagement and programming and celebration all contributed to making people feel like it was in their neighborhood. This indicates that park quality is an important, and possibly overlooked, element of accessibility. Different demographics value certain park qualities over others, based on how they

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 27 use parks. For example, as previously discussed, Latinos use parks as centers for family and social gatherings. By creating a built environment that is conducive to certain activities, park designers may incre ase or decrease park access for certain users. T here are really simple design solutions that are just a product of li Compton. Therefore, understanding demographic park use patterns is important in making sure a park is serving the intended population. If the built environment cannot be modified, providing desired programming can also increase accessibility by serving park use patterns. Community engagement and s tewardship. The Trust for Publ ic Land prioritizes community eng agement in every project. Compton e xplains her experience with community engagement with an analogy: that needs to occur is that y okay a process you already de c id ed to do. R ather, how can this nonprofit or government partner be a supporter or facilitator to the community dare I say midwife? If you think about it through the support that process. They have medical training, they know the jargon, they know how to connect with doctors and other medical professionals, they can be a conduit and advocate for that pregnant wo man pregnant woman is doing the work, and the pregnant woma n benefits from that experience, and , ultimately , is more invested in the outcome, but the midwife is pro viding support at crucial points. They are list ening to that person and responding to what their needs are to shepherd them through that process. alog y touches i pati on; the cit izens are the leaders and the organization is the facilitator. However, it is difficult to

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 28 measure Beyond measuring the number of people involved, measuring citizen participation is b e st approached wi th qualitative methods. The following are some of the indicators of s ucc essful community engagement that were cited by the interviewees: When the community takes ownership of their park. When students are excited about what the park can do for their community. When the park engagement process acts as a springboard for fut ure community involvement or leadership. When the park design reflects the When a park stewardship group cares for the park and advocates for programming and increased resources to maintain the park. The Trust for Public Land can empo wer locals and foster ongoing community engagement and stewardship b y helping to create a Fr iends of gr oup before the park is conveyed to Astoria Park Conservancy. Developing partnerships with organizations that might act as ste w ards is another strategy to encourage commun ity ownership . Fo r example, reaching out to student groups or volunteer trail crews to maintain the park can lead to wid er community care for the park. Lastly, Th e Trust for Public Land has seen successful park programming outcomes by helping the long term steward conduct surveys to find out what programming gaps exist in the community and how the park can help address those gaps. How did DHM Design engage with th e community during the park design process? The Astoria Hot Springs Park design team lead , DHM Design, is known for their place based approach and collaborative design process. Charlie Kee s, a principal with DHM Design, addressed a number of questions on h ow they engaged with the community and incorpor ated

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 29 feedback into park plans. He explained tha t there is n o c anned approach to engagement because every community is unique, and that listening and one on one dialogue is a best practice in soliciting public input. In engaging with the Latin o community, Kees said that the importance of social gathering spaces rose to the forefront, and is an underserved need in the community now: We heard loud and clear , over and over that there was a lack of larger open space parks that could accommodate larger groups. I think that came from the big family gathering aspect in Latino culture. O ne of the things that we changed in the plans is to incorporate larger picnic pavilions into the design of the park , s o t just the standard 8 by 10 shelters that y ou see in a lot of the parks in Jackson. Of course, not all feedback could be inco rporated into the park designs. Kees admitted that there are many consider ation of the sensitive ecology guide d decisions on what was feasible and what was not. Kees added that, t rying to make nature available to all populations is really impo T eton County is full of rugged terrain there are few places for the elder ly or people with disabilities to enjoy nature. Therefore, ensuring that parts of both the hot springs and passive park were accessible to all became a priority in the park design. What themes arose in Latino input cards gathered during the design process? The 25 input cards are best understood by looki ng at the matrix in Appendix E . Eleven respondents mention ed kids or families, emphasis on strategies targeting families. Six respondents specifical Two respondents said that there are not enough winter ac tivities for their kids. Ot her recurring comments included the importance of affordability, public transport ation to the park, and social gathering spaces,

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 30 including shaded areas, picnic tables, and places to cook. Two respondents mentioned wanting places to fish and two indicated w anting educational opportunities. Recommendations Recommendations are divided into three sections . The first section lists likely barriers the community may face in accessing Astoria Hot Springs Park , and recommendations for addressing those barriers. The second section suggest s locally relevant park evaluation metrics Evaluation and Monitoring Plan . Lastly, a logic model illustrates short, medium, and long term engagement outcome goals and can be used as a tool to track the success of community engagement strategies and equity in park access. Barriers Three potential park access barriers rose to the forefront during the research: cost, transportation and navigating to the park. First, there will be members of the community that cannot afford the hot springs admission fee. Park management should explore scholarships for memberships, places of work providing membership s as an employee benefit, and other creative ways of ensuring that the park is accessible to all. Second, transportation to the park could be a barrier. Park management should consider partnering with START Bus to run a pilot bus stop at Astoria Hot Spring s Park during the busy summer mon ths . Snake River Sporting Club employees and boaters in ne ed of shuttles may also utilize a bus stop at the park . Lastly, even if access to transportation is not an issue for some families, na vigating to the park could be a barrier. Na vigating to and aro und Grand Teton National Park i s a barrier to access for some, and visitors to Astoria Hot S prings Park could face the same challenge. Park management should consider launching a bilingual outreach campaign to help community members feel more

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 31 comfortable navigating to the park. Bilingual signage and materials at the park will h elp address within park access barriers. Suggested Park Impact Metrics The Trust for Public Evaluation and Monitoring Plan metrics were modified to be more locally relevant. Each section of the Suggested Evaluation Metrics table for Astoria Hot Sp r ings Park in Appendix C five outcome areas: community, e nvironment, health, inspiration, and economy. The suggested metrics table aims to outline possible metrics and associated methods. Some of the metrics are better suited to different time frames and therefore the respons ibility of different parties. The Trust for Publi c Land will likely b e r esponsible for one pre and one post construction park evaluation. Subsequent and ongoing evaluations will like l y be the responsibility of the hot springs concessionaire and the long term steward, Astoria Park Conservancy. The timing of , responsible party , and funding source for each metric is not included in the suggested metrics table. In the future, a more robust evaluation plan should include those details. One final cons ideration is the cost of SOPARC and surveys. The Trust for Public Land has h ad success in conduc t ing SOPARC affordably by partnering with university departments to have students administer SOPARC for school credit. The Trust for Public Land and Astoria Park Conservancy should explore partnering with regional universities. With reg ard to surveys , interviewees recommended partnering with other local organizations to distribute s urvey s . Including questions about Astoria Hot Springs Park as part of a larger survey avoids the potential for over surveying people , reach es a larger audience, and is cost effective . As interviewees pointed out, measuring demographics of park users is challenging and costly . The long term

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 32 steward may have to find new and creative ways of collecting park user data aside from SOPARC and surveys. A few potential methods include p edestrian and vehicle counters, hot springs admission s , and facility reservation tracking. Astoria Hot Springs Park Community Engagement Logic Model The logic model in Appendix D outlines specific activities The Trust for Public Land should pursue in order to meet output and outcome goals. Inputs include funding for staff time to develop relationships and programming with partners and funding for a built environment that reflects the needs of the community. Feedback from local Latinos during the design process, interviewees, and existing literature all stress the importance of a built environment conducive to social gatherings and organized programming. Providing programming, signage, and o ther materials in Spanish is also clearly an essential need. The importance of at least on e Latino or Latina board member was also repeatedly noted. A number of Latino feedback cards requested that the park have games. Further community engagement could he lp specify the types of games. A suggested way of meeting this request could be for the hot springs snack shack to have a check out system for socc er balls, corn hole, jump ropes, and other popular games and recreation equipment. The recommendations outlin ed in the logic model will foster a strong sense of community stewardship of the park and, ultimately, increase equity in access to the outdoors and recreation opportunities. Conclusion connect with nature in a meaningful way will help ensure that they lead the next generation of environmental stewards and not succumb to nature deficit disorder . With the cu rrent

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 33 important that the local community cultivate equity in access to the outdoors as a community wide value by creating affordable opportunities to spend time in nature (National Park Service, 2017). It is hoped that t his research project will provide an informed starting point for community engagement and evaluation plans for Astoria Hot Springs Park in Teton County, Wyoming. The recommendations presented addr ess barriers to park access, offer locally relevant evaluation metrics, and make suggestions for a community engagement plan that focuses on authentic participation and increasing equity in access to the outdoors. With this information, The Trust for Publ ic Land, as well as the future long term park steward and the hot springs concessionaire, can better serve the community by implementing locally relevant engagement and evaluation plans. The ultimate goal of this project is to empower local communities to steward the protection and utilization of land in a community oriented manner, and to offer useful recommendations to achieve that result.

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 34 Reference s Abercrombie, L. C., Sallis, J. F., Conway, T. L., Frank, L. D., Saelens, B. E. & Chapman, J. E. (2008). Income and racial disparities in access to public parks and private recreation facilities. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34(1), 9 15. About Us. (2018). Latino Outdoors. Retrieved from http://latinooutdoors.org/about us/ Arnstein, S. (1969) A ladder of citizen p articipation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35 (4), 216 224. Bedimo Rung, A. L., Mowen, A. J. & Cohen, D. A. (2005). The significance of parks to physical activity and public health. American Journal of Preve ntative Medicine, 28 (2S2), 159 168. Burk, B. N., Shinew, K. J. & Stodolska, M. (2011) Leisure time physical activity participation among Latino visitors to outdoor recreation areas. Leisure/Loisir, 35 (3), 325 338. Casper, J. M., Harrolle, M. G. & Kelly, K. (2013). Gender differences in self report physical activity and park and recreation facility use amon g Latinos in Wake County, North Carolina. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 45(1), 49 54. Clarke, T., Rodriguez , D., & Alamillo, J. (2015). Engaging Latino/a communities in national park programs: Building trust and providing opportunities for voice. Environmental Management and Sustainable Development, 4 (1) 136 148. Cohen, D. A., Ashwood, J. S., Scott, M. M., Overton, A., Evenson, R. K., Staten, L. Public parks and physical activity among adolescent girls. Pediatrics, 118 (5), 1381 1389.

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 35 Cohen, D. A . , Han, B., Isacoff, J., Shulaker, B., Wil liamson, S., Marsh, T.,...Bhatia, R. (2015). Impact of park renovations on park use and park based physical activity. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 12 (2), 289 295. Cohen, D.A., Marsh, T., Williamson, S., Derose, K. P., Martinez, C.S., Setodji, C., & McKenzie, T. (2010). Parks and physical activity: Why are some parks used more than others? Preventative Medicine, 50, 9 12 Cohen, D. A., Setodji, C., Evenson, K. R., W ard, P., Lapham, S., Hillier, A., & McKenzie, T. L. (2011). How much observation is enough? Refining the administration of SOPARC. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 8 (8), 1117 112 Cronan, M. K., Shinew, K. J., Schneider, I., Wilhelm Stanis, S. A. & Chavez, D. (2008). Physical activity patterns and preferences among Latinos in different types of public parks. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 5 (6), 894 908 Facility. (2018). Munger Mountain Elementary School. Retrieved from http://www.tcsd.org/9/Content2/556 Fernandez, M., Shinew, K. J., & Stodolska, M. (2015). Effects of acculturation and access on recreation participation among Latinos. Leisure Sciences, 37 (3), 210 231. Gobster, P. H. (2002). Managing urban parks for a racially and ethnically diverse clientele Leisure Sciences, 24, 143 159. Harnik, P. & Simms, J. (2004, December). Parks: How far is too far? Planning Magazine. Retrieved from http://cloud.tpl.org/pubs/ccpe_Planning_mag_article12_2004.pdf Holliday, A. (2015, December 9). Tackling the Blob: Getting started on equity, inclusion, & diversity work. Retrieved from https://theavarnagroup.com/2015/12/09/the quadrants of equity inclus ion diversity work/

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 36 Harrolle, M. G., Floyd, M. F., Casper, J. M., Kelley, K. E. & Bruton, C.M. (2013). Physical activity constrains among Latinos: Identifying clusters and acculturation differences. Journal of Leisure Research, 45 (1), 74 90. Jackson/Teton Integrated Transportation Plan. (2015, September). Teton County Wyoming. Retrieved from https://www.tetoncountywy.gov/DocumentCenter/View/1985/Appendix E --Transportation Indicators Trend Data PDF King, D. K., Litt, J., Hale, J., Burniece, l Evaluating how a park development proj ect impacted where people play. Urban Forest & Urban Greening,14, 293 299. Latino Resource Center (2015). 2015 Latino Community Assessment. Retrieved from http://eriksenmeierconsulting.com/uploads/3/4/0/5/34051951/2015_teton_county_latino_ community_assessment_jan26.pdf La Madre Tierra and Resource Media. (2016 ). The Verde Paper. Retrieved from http://www.lamadretierra.org/wp content/uploads/Verde Paper Latino Perspectives on Conservation Leadership.pdf Louv, Richard. (2009, December). Do our kids have nature deficit disorder? Educational Leadership, 67 (4), 24 30. May, J. (2006). Ladders, stars and triangles: old and new theory for the practice of public participation. International Journal of Market R esearch, 48(3), 305 319. McKenzie, T.L., Cohen, D. A., Sehgal, A., Williamson, S. & Golinelli, D. (2006). System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC): Reliability and feasibility measures. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 3 (1), 208 222.

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 37 Mendez, M. (2005). Latino new urbanism: Building on cultural preferences. Opolis: An International Journal of Suburban and Metropolitan Studies, 1 (1), 33 48. Minkler, M., Blackwell, A. G., Thompson, M. & Timir, H. (2003) Community based pa rticipatory research: Implications for public health funding. American Journal of Public Health, 93 (8), 1210 1213. National Park Service. (2017, October 24). National Park Service Proposes Targeted Fee Increases at Park s to Address Maintenance Backlog. Retrieved from https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1207/10 24 2017 fee changes proposal.htm Nicholls, S. (2001) Measuring the accessibility and equity of p ublic parks: A case study using. GIS. Managing Leisure, 6 (4), 201 219. One2 2 . (2017, October). Teton County Community Youth Needs Analysis. Retrieved from https://www.one22jh.org/news/youth based participatory research opportunities, challenges, and the need for a common language. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 18 , 592 594. Parra Medina, D. & Hilfinger Messias, D. K. (2011) Promotion of physical activity among Mexican origin women in Texas and South Carolina: An examination of social, cultural, economic, and environmental factors. Quest, 63 (1), 100 117. Perry, C. K., Saelens, B. E. & Thompson, B. (2011). Rural Latino youth park use: Characteristics, park amenities, and physical activity. Journal of Community Health, 36 (3), 389 397. Salda a, J. (2009). The coding manual for qualitative researchers . Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications.

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 38 Sister, C., Wolch, J. & Wilson, J. (2010 ). Got green? Addressing environmental justice in park provision. GeoJournal, 75 (3), 229 248. Snellman, K., Silva, J. M., Frederick, C. B. & Putnam, R. D. (2015). The engagement gap: Social mobility and extracurricular p articipation among American youth. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science , 657 (1), 194 20 7. Sommeiller, E., Price, M., & Wazeter, E. (2016, June 16). Income inequality in the U.S. by state, metropolitan area, and county. Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://www.epi.org/publication/income inequality in the us/ The Nature Conservancy. (2011). https://www.nature.org/newsfeatures/kids in nature/youth and nature poll results.pdf Traffic Data. (2016). Wyoming Department of Transportation. Retrieved from http://www.dot.state.wy.us/home/planning_projects/Traffic_Data.html U.S. Forest Service. Loss of open space. Retrieved from https://www.fs.fed.us/science technology/loss of open space . Walker, G. B., Senecah, S. L. & Daniels, S. E. (2006). From the forest to the river: Citizens' views of stakeholder engagement. Human Ecology Review, 13 (2), 193 202. Wholey, J. S., Hatry, H. P., & Newcomer, K. E. (2015). Handbook of practical program ev aluation . Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 39 Appendix A: Astoria Hot Springs Park Design Plans and Histo ric Photos

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 40

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 41 Courtesy of the Gill Family Courtesy of the Gill Family

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 42 Appendix B : Interviewee Names, Affiliated Organizations and Interview Questions Community Engagement Research Question: How do local organizations engage Latino and underserved communities? Interviewees: Fio Lazarte, Teton Literacy Andres Esparza, Teton Science Schools and Latino Outdoors Jr Rodriquez, Jackson Hole Land Trust/R Park Mary Erickson, Doug Coombs Foundation Megan Kohli, Grand Teton National Park/Pura Vida Steve Ashworth, Teton County Parks and Recreation Diana Welch, Comm unity Stakeholder Interview Questions: 1. How do you measure program/park attendance? a. Is this/are these measure(s) disaggregated? Do you know how many Latinos, for instance, use the program/park? a. Steve Ashworth: Do you measure how many people are using Jackson town parks? Do you know how many Latinos are using town parks? Is there a maximum capacity for town parks? Is there some sort of standard for how many parks or acreage of parks an area should have per capit a? b. Jr Rodriguez: How do you evaluate park use at R Park? Is there a maximum capacity for R Park? 2. Where does Latino engagement fit in your priorities? a. b. Jr Rodriguez: During your design, construction, park operating process, did you begin engaging Latino families? What partners have been most effective to work with to engage Latinos at R Park? Why? 3. e found to be successful in engaging the Latino community? 4. Can you tell me about one or two engagement or outreach strategies that were not successful in engaging the Latino community? 5. Have you found that Latinos face barriers in engaging in your program /visiting your park? a. How do you address those barriers? b. Do young people face unique barriers? How do you address those barriers? c. Do women and girls face unique barriers? How do you address those barriers? 6. Do you provide programming and/or materials in Sp anish? a. Do you provide programming and/or materials in other languages? b. What enables you to provide programming in Spanish or another language? c. If not, why not?

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 43 7. Other than the Latino community, do you serve other underserved populations in Jackson? If s o, can you tell me how you engage them? 8. What advice or recommendations do you have for The Trust for Public Land in engaging Latinos and underserved communities at Astoria Hot Springs Park? Park Evaluation Research Question: How does The Trust for Public Land evaluate park accessibility and use? Interviewees: Chandi Aldena, The Trust for Public Land Nette Compton, The Trust for Public Land Bianca Shulaker, The Trust for Public Land Jen Isacoff, The Trust for Public Land Becca Hazlewood, Walton Family Foundation Interview Questions: 1. How do you measure whether or not a park is serving the population you intended it to serve? 2. What does successful community engagement at a park look like to you? a. How do you measure communi ty engagement? 3. What park evaluation methods does the TPL utilize the most? a. Does TPL conduct SOPARC evaluations/other evaluations at every park? b. how frequently after that? c. D oes TPL help the long term steward implement an evaluation plan? d. Do you ever modify park evaluation plans to be more locally relevant? Why or why not? If so, how do you do that? e. How important is it to evaluate park use patterns? Why? 4. Are park evaluations worthwhile financially? a. Why or why not? b. How are park evaluations funded? 5. How do you ensure that a park evaluation plan is realistic and sustainable? 6. What are best practices for evaluating park access? a. How does TPL measure park accessibility not in terms of distance? b. What metrics have been most meaningful for park access? 7. Is there a maximum capacity for parks? Is there some sort of standard for how many parks or acreage of parks an area should have per capita? a. Is that information used in measure s of park access? 8. How do you encourage park stewardship among community members? a. How do you measure park stewardship? Additional questions for Becca Hazelwood: 1. are focused on measuring their success?

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 44 2. What are the most important data points to measure related to conservation and park projects? 3. Are there examples of success ful evaluation plans for projects addressing equity and engaging underserved populations? a. What makes them the most successful evaluation plans? b. How do you identify meaningful performance measures in these evaluation plans? 4. On a scale of one to ten, how i mportant is community engagement to you? a. What does successful community engagement look like to you? b. What are ways of measuring community engagement or investment in a project? 5. How do you ensure that an evaluation plan is realistic and sustainable? 6. What does the Foundation do with evaluations it receives from funded projects? Park Design Research Question: How did DHM Design engage with the community during the park design process? Interviewee: Charlie Kees, DHM Design Interview Questions: 1. How do you incorporate feedback in your design plans? a. How did you decide which pieces of community input were kept and which ones were left out? 2. Do you have a way of measuring how much you included community input in the designs? 3. Do you address specific stakeholder groups? 4. Can you describe your process in incorporating Latino ideas into the plans for Astoria Hot Springs Park from gaining feedback through construction drawings? 5. Do you feel as though community involvement in the par k design process ensured that features of the park met the needs and desires of the community? 6. How do you design an environment that promotes physical activity amongst diverse populations? 7. Was it more helpful when you were personally interacting with c ommunity members or was it equally as helpful for the TPL WY staff to convey feedback to you? 8. How did you communicate feedback to other designers working on the team who were not involved in the community design process?

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 45 Appendix C: Suggested Evaluation Metrics for Astoria Hot Springs Park Suggested Evaluation Metrics for Astoria Hot Springs Park OUTCOME AREA MONITORING QUESTION METHOD (S) C OMMUNITY Equity, Access and Park Use How many people are using the park? Direct o bservation (SOPARC) and/or tracking hot springs admissions Do the demographics of park users reflect that of area residents? Direct o bse rvation (SOPARC) compared with demographic data How many people and what demographics are using social gathering spaces? (ex. picnic structures, Cabin) Direct observation (SOPARC) and/or tr acking bookings of spaces What is the demographic breakdown of the APC board? Tracking APC board demographics Do people feel as they have better access to open space once the park opened? Survey How many cars pass through the hot springs parking lot? How many cars pass through the overflow/passive park lot? Vehicle counters Engagement and Stewardship Is there park stewardship group? Tracking How many people were engaged in the participatory design process? What are the demographics of those engaged? Tracking How many people are attending community events (Day on the Land and others) ? Tracking HEALTH Fitness and Recreation What level of activity are park users participating in ( sedentary, moderate or vigorous)? Direct o bservation (SOPARC) How many health, exercise and sports related programs take place at the park? What are the demographics of the people participating in those programs? Tracking Well being Do people feel safe at the park ? Surveys ENVIRONMENT Sustainability What is the temperature and quality of water flowing from the hot springs to the river? Design calculation How many native trees and shrubs are at the park? Design calculation How many invasive species are at the park? Design calculation How are wildlife using the park? Park user or park staff reports Environmental Education How many environmental education programs take place at the park? What are the demographics of the people participating in those programs? Tracking number of progra ms and program participants INSPIRATION Arts, Culture and Education Are artists engaged in the planning, design, and/or construction process? Tracking How many STEM or other local students were engaged in the planning, design, and/or construction process? Tracking ECONOMY Economic metrics are not included in economic metric, economic benefit measures can be aggregated in city wide studies or could be adapted for a , such as large scale signature parks. One locally relevant approach to this could involve partnering with Snake River Sporting Club to measure how the park might impact their business.

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 46 Appendix D: Astoria Hot Springs Park Community Eng agement Logic Model

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 47 Appendix E: Latino Input Card Matri x

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 48 Appendix F : Author Biases To demonstrate reflexivity, t he author created this list of biases before beginning the interview process that could impact the results of this research project: I am an environmentalist and believe in protecting land from development. I support free/affordable public access to open space. I believe it is important that everyone has equal access to recreation and the outdoors, and that everyone feels comfortable a nd welcome in recreation and outdoor settings. I am from Jackson and am invested in the future of the community. I want to do what I can to ensure that the Jackson community values diversity and inclusivity. I swam at Astoria as a child and want the park and hot springs to return to the community. I greatly enjoyed working for The Trust for Public Land and I admire their work. I feel loyal to Chris Deming and Paige Byron at the Wyoming Trust for Public Land office.

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 49 Appendix G: Course Competencies The University of Colorado Denver School of Public Affairs assesses student capstones (1) lead and manage in public governance; (2) participate in and contribute to the publi c policy process; (3) analyze, synthesize, think critically, solve problems and make decisions; (4) articulate and apply a public service perspective; and (5) communicate and interact productively with a diverse and changing workforce and citizenry. Studen t capstone projects must draw upon at least three of the core competencies. The three competencies this client oriented capstone fulfills are discussed below, along with descriptions of classes that were most useful in researching and writing this capstone . A nalyze, synthesize, think critically, solve problems and make decisions . Synthesizing and analyzing existing literature and interviews in an easy to understand way without leaving out any noteworthy details was challenging. In Economics and Public Finance (PUAD 5004), the author had the opportunity to learn about effective frameworks for organizing themes and ideas found in academic literature a skill that proved useful in writing this capstone. When it came time to analyze interview transcription s, a number of methods for analyzing qualitative data proved to be unsuitable. The author overcame the challenge by creating her own method of organizing interview transcriptions into matrices, inspired by methods learned in Evidence Based Decision Making (PUAD 5008). Evidence Based Decision Making recommendations. The class provided important guidance in creating research questions, analyzing qualitative data, and creating logic models and performance metrics. Research -

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 50 Analytic Methods (PUAD 5003) also provided the author with another perspective on conducting qualitative research and reinforced the importance of objective research. Articulate and apply a public service pers pective . The authentic participation component of the literature review was inspired by a public service perspective the author gained during her time at the School of Public Affairs . The ethical obligation to engage citizens in a meaningful way was a th eme that arose in Introduction to Public Administration and Public Service (PUAD 5001) and Public Service Leadership (PUAD 5006). Other public service values that arose in the project were accountability and transparency; those values are manifested in th project evaluation who spoke to the Fundraising and Financial Resource Development (PUAD 5150) class was particularly helpful to the author in creating a realistic evaluation plan that promotes accountabilit y and transparency. More specifically, s he defined meaningful evaluation metrics for the author , which was influential over the final recommendations in this capstone. The public service perspective the author gained was also useful in analyzing methods of measuring citizen participation and in creating the logic model included in the capstone. Likewise, incorporating interviewees experiences into the final recommendations was a demonstrated form of incorporating citizen partic ipation. Finally, in Policy Process and based research project related to public lands. Coding and other methods of analyzing policies and conflicts was quite s interview coding process.

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PARK EVALUATION AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT 51 Communicate and interact productively with a diverse and changing workforce and citizenry . A client based and interview oriented project requires constant communication. Skills learned in Organizational Management and Behav ior (PUAD 5002) were utilized throughout the interview process. One portion of Evidence Based Decision Making (PUAD 5008) also focused on engaging stakeholders successfully, which was particularly useful due to the nature of this capstone. Engaging the int erviewees as stakeholders rather than simply sources of information in community based participatory research (CBPR) project. at the School of Public Affairs allowed her to develop an effective research framework and make viable recommendations on community engagement and project evaluation two key components and growing fields in public administration and the nonprofit sector .

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Form Name: capstone repository permission Submission Time: May 11, 2018 2:30 pm Browser: Mobile Safari 11.0 / iOS IP Address: 207.183.170.81 Unique ID: 407281158 Location: 43.65650177002, -111.22319793701 Description Area SCHOOL OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS ELECTRONIC CAPSTONE REPOSITORY Description Area Dear Capstone Author and Capstone Client:The Auraria Library Digital Library Program is a nonprofit center responsible for the collection and preservation of digital resources for education.The capstone project, protected by your copyright, and/or created under the supervision of the client has been identified as important to the educational mission of the University of Colorado Denver and Auraria Library.The University of Colorado Denver and Auraria Library respectfully requests non-exclusive rights to digitize the capstone project for Internet distribution in image and text formats for an unlimited term. Digitized versions will be made available via the Internet, for onand off-line educational use, with a statement identifying your rights as copyright holder and the terms of the grant of permissions.Please review, sign and return the follow Grant of Permissions. Please do not hesitate to call me or email your questions.Sincerely,Matthew C. MarinerAuraria LibraryDigital Collections ManagerMatthew.mariner@ucdenver.edu303.556.5817 Grant of Permissions Description Area In reference to the following title(s): Author (Student Name) Phoebe Coburn Title (Capstone Project Title) Recommendations for Park Evaluation and Community Engagement Publication Date 5-11-18 I am the: Client Description Area As client of the copyright holder affirm that the content submitted is identical to that which was originally supervised and that the content is suitable for publication in the Auraria Library Digital Collections.

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Description Area This is a non-exclusive grant of permissions for on-line and off-line use for an indefinite term. Off-line uses shall be consistent either for educational uses, with the terms of U.S. copyright legislation's "fair use" provisions or, by the University of Colorado Denver and/or Auraria Library, with the maintenance and preservation of an archival copy. Digitization allows the University of Colorado Denver and/or Auraria Library to generate imageand text-based versions as appropriate and to provide and enhance access using search software. This grant of permissions prohibits use of the digitized versions for commercial use or profit. Signature Your Name Paige Curry Date 5-11-18 Email Address ATTENTION Description Area Grant of Permissions is provided to: Auraria Digital Library Program / Matthew C. MarinerAuraria Library1100 Lawrence | Denver, CO 80204matthew.mariner@ucdenver.edu303-556-5817

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Form Name: capstone repository permission Submission Time: May 11, 2018 4:41 pm Browser: Safari 11.1 / OS X IP Address: 97.118.31.182 Unique ID: 407311939 Location: 39.759399414062, -104.96880340576 Description Area SCHOOL OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS ELECTRONIC CAPSTONE REPOSITORY Description Area Dear Capstone Author and Capstone Client:The Auraria Library Digital Library Program is a nonprofit center responsible for the collection and preservation of digital resources for education.The capstone project, protected by your copyright, and/or created under the supervision of the client has been identified as important to the educational mission of the University of Colorado Denver and Auraria Library.The University of Colorado Denver and Auraria Library respectfully requests non-exclusive rights to digitize the capstone project for Internet distribution in image and text formats for an unlimited term. Digitized versions will be made available via the Internet, for onand off-line educational use, with a statement identifying your rights as copyright holder and the terms of the grant of permissions.Please review, sign and return the follow Grant of Permissions. Please do not hesitate to call me or email your questions.Sincerely,Matthew C. MarinerAuraria LibraryDigital Collections ManagerMatthew.mariner@ucdenver.edu303.556.5817 Grant of Permissions Description Area In reference to the following title(s): Author (Student Name) Phoebe Coburn Title (Capstone Project Title) Recommendations for Park Evaluation and Community Engagement Publication Date May, 2018 I am the: Author (student) Description Area As copyright holder or licensee with the authority to grant copyright permissions for the aforementioned title(s), I hereby authorize Auraria Library and University of Colorado Denver to digitize, distribute, and archive the title(s) for nonprofit, educational purposes via the Internet or successive technologies.

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Description Area This is a non-exclusive grant of permissions for on-line and off-line use for an indefinite term. Off-line uses shall be consistent either for educational uses, with the terms of U.S. copyright legislation's "fair use" provisions or, by the University of Colorado Denver and/or Auraria Library, with the maintenance and preservation of an archival copy. Digitization allows the University of Colorado Denver and/or Auraria Library to generate imageand text-based versions as appropriate and to provide and enhance access using search software. This grant of permissions prohibits use of the digitized versions for commercial use or profit. Signature Your Name Phoebe Coburn Date May 11, 2018 Email Address ATTENTION Description Area Grant of Permissions is provided to: Auraria Digital Library Program / Matthew C. MarinerAuraria Library1100 Lawrence | Denver, CO 80204matthew.mariner@ucdenver.edu303-556-5817