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Workplace perceptions and public service motivation : an empirical analysis of Korean public service employees

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Title:
Workplace perceptions and public service motivation : an empirical analysis of Korean public service employees
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Hong, Wonki
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Denver, CO
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University of Colorado Denver
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English

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Degree:
Master's ( Master of public administration)
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University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
School of Public Affairs, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Public administration
Committee Chair:
Boylard, Wendy
Committee Members:
Swann, William

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Fall 2017

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University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
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Copyright Wonki Hong. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Running head: WORKPLACE PERCEPTIONS AND PUBLIC SERVICE MOTIVATION
Workplace Perceptions and Public Service Motivation: An Empirical Analysis of Korean Public Service Employees
Wonki Hong
University of Colorado Denver School of Public Affairs
This client-based project is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Public Administration in the School of Public Affairs at the University of Colorado Denver Denver, Colorado
Fall
2017


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Capstone Project Disclosures
This client-based project was completed on behalf of the Korean Ministry of Personnel Management and supervised by PUAD 5361 Capstone course instructor Wendy Bolyard, PhD and second faculty reader William Swann, PhD. This project does not necessarily reflect the views of the School of Public Affairs or the faculty readers. Raw data were not included in this document, rather relevant materials were provided directly to the client. Permissions to include this project in the Auraria Library Digital Repository are found in the final appendix. Questions about this capstone project should be directed to the student author.


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Table of Contents
Executive Summary........................................................................4
Introduction.............................................................................5
Literature Review....................................................................... 8
Organizational Background Information.................................................8
Public Service Motivation.............................................................9
Independent Variables................................................................11
Control Variables....................................................................16
Methodology............................................................................ 16
Research Questions / Hypotheses and Propositions.................................... 16
Data Collection / Sampling Plan / Measurement....................................... 18
Validity and Reliability.............................................................19
Data Analysis........................................................................20
Results.................................................................................20
Means Comparisons....................................................................21
Multiple Regression..................................................................22
Structured Interviews................................................................23
Discussion and Recommendations..........................................................24
Conclusion..............................................................................27
References..............................................................................28
Appendices
34


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List of Tables
Table 1. Items of measurement instrument...............................................19
Table 2. Descriptive Statistics........................................................21
Table 3. Comparison of mean PSM between the MPM and the other ministries...............22
Table 4. Hypothesis testing results....................................................22
List of Figures
Figure 1. Concept Map..................................................................19
List of Appendices
Appendix 1. Validity and reliability test for variables................................34
Appendix 2. Pearson Correlation........................................................35
Appendix 3. Multiple regression models of PSM....................................... 36
Appendix 4: Items used in measurement instruments......................................37
Appendix 5: Interview protocol - OPM...................................................43
Appendix 6: Areas of course competencies...............................................44


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Executive Summary
One of the recent major problems in Korean public service is the decline of workplace motivation. This study aims to identify the factors affecting the public service motivation (PSM) of employees in Korean central government agencies and to propose ways to improve it. As many studies have indicated that PSM has an important impact on performance, Korean government is concerned with the decline of their employees’ PSM. To test the relationship between these factors and PSM, this study uses a mixed methods design. Drawing data from a survey of 196 public officials from central government agencies, and interviews with four public officials from Korea and the United States, this research finds evidence that the perception of training opportunities and Person-Organization Fit have a positive impact on PSM. In addition, employees’ entrance grade level to public service moderates the effect between Person-Organization Fit and PSM. Based on statistical analysis and interviews, this study recommends: (1) increase investment in training for professional development; (2) provide training for managers to enhance employees’ fit with their organization; (3) customize personnel management techniques; (4) create flexible working environments based on trust; and (5) make efforts on evaluating not by seniority but by performance.


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Introduction
One of the recent major problems in Korean public service is the decline of workplace motivation. Scholars have investigated numerous theories of motivation that can be applied to the public sector but there are limitations with monetary rewards or extrinsic motivation in public service due to the nature of its budget rigidity. Therefore, this study focused on Public Service Motivation (PSM) to make employees be more intrinsically motivated for public interest rather than a lot of extrinsic rewards. In fact, the government official is one of the most popular jobs in the Korean job market. Due to the unstable labor market situation and the historical experiences of the government-oriented economic development, the job of public servants is highly appreciated among Korean people. As a result, the competition rate of public employee examinations, which are based on the principle of open competition, shows a very high level every year among young people ages 20-30s. Thus, it is generally said that the mindset of young public officials who passed the public employee examination and started public service is quite different from other sectors. In other words, even though the extrinsic motivators such as job security might have been the factors considered when choosing their occupation, most competent young officials have a high degree of attraction to policy making, compassion, self-sacrifice, commitment to the public interest, social justice, and civic duty in the beginning, according to the managers who are in charge of basic training programs for newly recruited employees in National Human Resources Development Institute (NHI). All those factors are categorized as six dimensions of Public Service Motivation (PSM) by Perry (1996). Perry and Wise (1990) argued that people who respond to incentives such as public policy making and serving a goal greater than oneself have “Public Service Motivation.” The competent young public officials in Korea choose their job not only because of the merits of public service such as job security, but also, more importantly, because of


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passion for public interest reflected in PSM, according to the interviewers who conducted the interviews with public service applicants recently.
Through in-depth dialogue with the third reader for this project, who is a division director, and discussion among six public officials at deputy director level in the Korean Ministry of Personnel Management (MPM), which is the client organization for this project, consensus formed about the current phenomena as follows: The level of PSM of public officials in the central government agencies is at a low level, and that can negatively affect both individual and organizational performance. PSM has been found to have a strong positive effect on job satisfaction and performance ratings (Naff & Crum, 1999), and high-PSM employees tended to be about a quarter grade above comparable employees with little PSM (Alonso & Lewis, 2001). Thus, it is logical that PSM may be a mechanism by which MPM can encourage better performance. Therefore, the MPM officials perceive the degradation of PSM as an important issue to be addressed as they take charge of personnel management policies for all the other central government agencies. In other words, they are concerned that the decline in PSM may directly bring about the deterioration of the capacity of the national government, and well positioned to influence employee motivation.
The public officials and the author discussed that there could be several external factors that may have affected PSM such as a decrease in public trust due to negative media reports on various corruption cases, increased fatigue due to the movement of the government complex from Seoul to Sejong City (directly related to increased time for public officials to visit the National Assembly and the Blue House in Seoul), and the government employee pension reform in 2015. The morale of public officials has been further deteriorated due to the 2016 manipulation case that resulted in the impeachment of former President Park (Lee, 2016; Bae, 2017).


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As mentioned above, many external factors have likely affected PSM, however, the MPM commissioned a study to the author on the solutions which they can control within their influences. In other words, the MPM requested that this project research factors inside the government that affect PSM. It can be said that the MPM will start its efforts to improve PSM by finding out factors that can be fixed internally. It is necessary to keep in mind Jacobson’s (2016) argument that it is important to consider PSM not only when having selection and recruitment, but also developing employees’ PSM.
Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the factors affecting Korean central government officials’ PSM and to propose ways to improve it. In addition, since Korean public officials come into the government through three main examinations (Grade 5, 7, & 9), it should be noted that how PSM varies according to their entrance grade level. This study contributes to enhancement of government performance by introducing personnel management policies that improve PSM of the central government officials in each agency as well as in the MPM.
The research questions of this study are as follows. First, how do public officials’ perceptions of the internal organizational environment affect their PSM? Second, what are the moderating effects of entrance grade level on relation between employee perceptions and PSM? Third, what personnel management policies can improve the PSM of the central government officials in Korea?
To answer these research questions, this study begins with examining the previous studies and theoretical discussions related to PSM and motivational factors of public officials. Based on this review, this study develops and tests hypotheses using a survey of public officials. After discussing the model results and pairing them with the findings from in-depth interviews with public officials, this paper offers practical recommendations for the MPM.


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Literature Review
This section discusses background information about the MPM for understanding the client organization and its context. The concepts related to the research questions are presented, which include PSM, perceptions of the fairness of performance appraisal, opportunities for developing oneself, supervisor’s leadership style, person-organization fit with value congruence, job characteristics, and job attitudes.
Organizational Background
The MPM is a central government agency of the Republic of Korea which takes charge of setting and implementing a variety of personnel management policies, such as recruitment, promotion, human resources development, remuneration, welfare, flexible working conditions, pension programs and so on. The MPM was established for reinforcing personnel innovation to adapt to the rapidly changing administrative circumstances and meet the expectations of the people (MPM, 2017). The MPM consists of seven bureaus and 21 divisions. It has two affiliated institutions which are the National Human Resources Development Institute (NHI) and the Appeals Commission. The total number of authorized personnel is approximately 500. Its visions are “Innovation for the People” and “A Civil Service that Leads the Future of Korea.” It has two missions, “Make the civil service more competent and competitive by enhancing its expertise and openness” and “Make the civil service more disciplined and exciting by creating a productive environment and redefining public service value” (MPM, 2017).
The customers of the MPM are public officials from all the central agencies in Korea which includes around 630,000 employees. They are composed of four categories, 1) ‘general service’ in charge of technology, research, and administration, 2) ‘special service’ such as judges, prosecutors, police, fire-fighting officials, diplomats and teachers, 3) ‘political service’ who are


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elected officials or appointed by the President such as a Minister, and 4) employees who are appointed by political service to serve them. These public officials are classified with grade levels, the Senior Civil Service (SCS) with grades from 3 to 9 can be compared to Senior Executive Service (SES) and General Service grades 1 to 15 in the United States. Unlike the U.S. system, the higher the grade number, the lower the rank in Korea. For example, grade 9 is the lowest grade in Korean rank system.
The MPM is also in charge of recruiting new outstanding officials. Public officials are recruited through open competitive examinations which are aimed at securing a wide variety of talented people with potential by ensuring equal opportunities for every citizen to apply for a government job, regardless of age, gender, education or work experience. The MPM recruits new officials every year with three main entrance examinations, grades 5, 7, and 9. Regarding Human Resources Development, the MPM provides education programs for newly recruited officials on the public service values and basic training necessary to perform their tasks. In addition, leadership education programs are provided to those promoted to deputy director (grade 5), director (grades 3-4) and the SCS from all the agencies. The MPM also offers specialized education programs to enhance employees’ expertise in each field. Besides these tasks, the MPM is also taking charge of the performance management policies, the civil service culture, the civil service pension program, the ethics of public servants, the standardized electronic personnel management system (e-saram), and the human resources database for supporting to recruit candidates of Presidential appointee positions. The MPM takes charge of the State Public Officials Act, Public Service Ethics Act, and Public Officials Pension Act (MPM, 2017).
Public Service Motivation
Public service motivation (PSM) has been growing as one of the most popular areas of


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research in the field of public administration (Bright, 2013; Ritz et al., 2016). PSM originates from beliefs that “unique motives are found among public servants that are different from those of their private sector counterparts” (Perry, Hondeghem, & Wise, 2010). PSM can be defined as “an individual's predisposition to respond to motives grounded primarily or uniquely in public institutions and organizations” (Perry & Wise, 1990). They hypothesized that: 1) The greater an individual’s PSM, the more likely the individual will seek membership in a public organization; 2) In public organizations, PSM is positively related to individual performance; 3) Public organizations that attract members with high levels of PSM are likely to be less dependent on utilitarian incentives to manage individual performance effectively (Perry & Wise, 1990).
Studies have reported that PSM has a positive effect on the various outcomes associated with the organizational environment such as performance, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment of public employees (Bright, 2013). Research suggests that employees with high levels of PSM are more likely to be satisfied with their job and less likely to leave their workplace (Bright, 2007). Considering PSM in recruitment, retention and training may engender better individual performance (Vandenabeele, 2009).
Although there have been many kinds of research regarding the positive effects of PSM, there are still underexplored areas such as the relationship between PSM and both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (Homberg & Vogel, 2016). In addition, PSM has not been fully integrated into the human resource management practices of public organizations (Ritz et al., 2016). Ritz et al. (2016) summarized previous literature on PSM that the frequently mentioned practical implications of PSM are as follows: 1) public organizations should assess job applicants’ level of PSM and consider the results of evaluation when making selection decisions; 2) public organizations should introduce management practices that improve PSM.


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Some research indicated that an overemphasis on extrinsic rewards (e.g., pay and praise) can be counterproductive, which makes workers less productive, particularly when their original motivations were mainly intrinsic (Deci, 1975; Kohn, 1993). Therefore, they argued that managers in public areas should motivate employees through non-monetary rewards rather than monetary ones. It is necessary to increase PSM of employees particularly in public sectors to enhance the performance of both individuals and organizations because monetary compensation is limited in public sectors due to the characteristics of budget constraints and rigid budget management. As the MPM is responsible for personnel management policies of all the central government agencies, it is necessary for the MPM to pay attention to PSM of employees in other government agencies as well. As PSM studies have been conducted throughout the world, there may be differences between countries in the application of PSM (Perry, Hondeghem, & Wise, 2010). Therefore, this study can achieve the theoretical progress by interpreting the application of PSM in the Korean context.
Independent Variables
The MPM managers interviewed previously determined three factors that can affect PSM of its employees based on employee input: 1) perceived fairness of performance appraisal,
2) perceived training opportunities to develop oneself, and 3) perceived leadership style of supervisors. Jacobson (2016) also indicated that performance measures, training, and orientation can have positive impacts on PSM levels. In addition, the current study includes two more independent variables affecting PSM through investigating previous literature: 4) Person-Organization Fit (Bright, 2013) and 5) job characteristics noted by Hackman and Oldham (1975). This study will primarily focus on value congruence regarding Person-Organization Fit. The MPM commissioned an analysis of how these factors affect PSM of its employees. The U.S.


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Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB, 2008) also discussed six drivers for engaging federal employees: pride in workplace, satisfaction with leadership, opportunity to perform well, reward, professional growth, and teamwork, which are similar to the variables examined in this study.
Fairness of performance appraisal. According to Alonso and Lewis (2001), a belief that agencies based promotion and pay decisions on performance was positively related to performance. Many employees in the MPM, however, think that promotions and pay-for-performance are being decided based upon seniority with a legacy of Confucian culture in Korea. That is, performance appraisal is not being made based upon performance itself, but on the age and years of tenure (Cho, 2012). Cho (2012) pointed out some factors that degrade fairness of performance appraisal as the grade-based classification system and the seniority-based performance appraisal culture. He argued that the grade-based classification system makes it difficult to define the limits of the work unit for each individual and organization. In addition, the seniority-based performance appraisal culture has such a long tradition that it is hard to fix it while everyone recognizes it as a serious problem. As the results of performance appraisal are directly linked to human resource management such as pay-for-performance and promotion, they are significant indicators of employee motivation (Poister, 2003). As young employees in the MPM feel that they are not compensated fairly for their devotion and achievements, their motivations to work harder is diminished, and there is a tendency not to do their best. Although PSM is the idea that pay takes a backseat to public service, excessive unfairness in rewards is affecting the employees’ passion for public service, in other words, PSM. Meanwhile, many studies also argued that extrinsic motivation such as performance appraisal will crowd-out intrinsic motivation like PSM, but Park (2014) insisted that this effect is insignificant. On the contrary, if external rewards support an individual's decision, the opposite effect of crowding-in can occur (Frey & Jegen, 2001). This


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study will determine whether extrinsic motivation positively affects intrinsic motivation.
Training opportunities. Intrinsic Human Resources Management (HRM) practices such as job enrichment and professional development positively affect PSM (Giauque et al., 2013). However, the MPM officials think that education programs on the public service values and professionalism are not working effectively in the Korean government. Most employees want to be more professional in their work field but there are not enough opportunities for employees to be trained. In addition, many public officials have pointed out that education programs on public service values are not operating effectively because of the contents, the way of lecturing, the evaluation system, and timeliness. They seem to be “hungry to learn” but do not seem to recognize what they are doing pertaining to their organizational vision and missions, especially in terms of public service values.
Supervisor’s leadership. The leadership style of the supervisor can be a critical factor on PSM. The dominant organizational culture and leadership style in Korean government have been hierarchically orientated, which focus on stability and internal control, rather than horizontally organized to pursuit innovation (Lee, 2011). There have not been many communications between supervisors and subordinates which makes staff members less motivated in their work. Fazzi and Zamaro (2016) argued that transformational leaders in the nonprofit organization have higher scores on PSM than transactional leaders. Im, Campbell, and Jeong (2013) also found that perception of organizational performance and transformational leadership strengthen the relationship between PSM and commitment. In addition, Wright, Hassan, and Park (2016) insisted that supervisors exhibiting higher ethical leadership are more likely to have subordinates with higher levels of PSM. PSM mediates the influence that servant leadership has on followers' job performance (Schwarz, Newman, Cooper, & Eva, 2016). Leadership styles matter in improving


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the performance of public organizations, and public leaders should behave mainly as transformational leaders and maintain high degrees of integrity and ethics (Orazi, Turrini, & Valotti, 2013). Therefore, leaders should promote public service values to their subordinates because this can have a significant positive impact on their PSM (Vandenabeele, 2014).
Person-organization fit. On the contrary, many scholars concluded that PSM was not a meaningful predictor of the performance of public employees (Bright, 2013). Bright (2007) argued that these mixed findings failed to consider compatibility between organizational environments and employees. Person-Organization Fit (P-0 Fit) could explain the differences in these findings (Bright, 2013). Kim et al. (2013) argued that PSM could be the result of P-0 Fit, and the influence of organizational factors can cultivate PSM with the result. Wright and Pandey (2008) also pointed out that PSM’s strongest relationship was with value congruence among their other variables. In addition, value congruence between employees and an organization plays an important role in the relationship between public service motivation and job satisfaction (Wright & Pandey, 2008). From the leadership perspective as stated above, transformational leadership in public organizations which aligns subordinates’ values with those of the organization can depend on the employees’ perceived societal impacts on the well-being of the public, which can be compared to one dimension of public service motivation: commitment to public interest (Jensen, 2017).
Job characteristics. Hackman and Oldham (1975) investigated how to structure the jobs for the intrinsic motivation of employees, and they insisted that employees are intrinsically motivated because of positive internal feelings from successful work practices. Kim (2005) summarized job characteristics model and explained the following five core job characteristics: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. He also introduced Hackman and Oldham’s research insisting that managers need to focus on a psychological state of employees


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that enhances their intrinsic motivation by redesigning their jobs to improve these five core job characteristics. According to Kim’s investigation (2005) about the differences in “motivating potential score” (MPS) among state government agencies, local governments and private companies in Korea, the results indicated that in the case of civil servants, MPS is at a very low level compared to the private sector employees, which implies that the possibility of intrinsic motivation through work performance is significantly lower than that of private companies. Fernandez and Moldogaziev (2015) argued that empowerment practices aimed at promoting self-determination such as granting discretion to change work processes and sharing information about goals and performance have positive effects on employees’job satisfaction.
Entrance grade level. The Korean civil service recruitment system selects a large number of personnel first with three kinds of entrance examinations by rank (Grade 5, 7, & 9) and then places them in each ministry. All the processes are operated by the MPM. The other way of recruitment, employing a person when a vacancy occurs in the position, which is operated by each ministry, is a minor recruiting method in Korea. In other words, there is a difference in characteristics among three groups according to which grade level they received upon entering public service. Therefore, it is considered that the entrance grade level will have a moderating effect on the relationship between various independent variables and PSM. “A moderator is a variable that affects the direction and/or strength of the relation between an independent variable and a dependent variable” (Baron & Kenny, 1986, p. 1174).
Job attitudes. There is lots of research about relation between job attitudes and PSM in the area of public administration so far. As it plays a significant role in the relation to PSM, this project considers job attitudes as one variable. However, unlike previous studies, this study examines the moderating role of job attitudes combining job satisfaction and organizational


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commitment to PSM, if applicable. According to Vandenabeele (2009), the mediating role of job satisfaction and organizational commitment enable public managers to find more openings to harness PSM effectively.
Control Variables
Several demographic factors are included as control variables in this study such as age, gender, affiliation, current level. In addition, as Moynihan and Pandey (2007) indicated that PSM is positively related with the level of education but negatively related to years of tenure in public organizations. Thus, this study includes measures for the level of education and years of tenure from the survey instrument.
Methodology
Based on literature review above, the research questions and hypotheses are presented in this section. In addition, some methodological issues such as data collection, sampling plan, measurement, and data analysis are discussed.
Research Questions/Hypotheses and Propositions
This study assumes that increasing PSM of employees results in enhancing performance of both individual and organization. Therefore, research questions of the current study are as follows:
1) How do public officials’ perceptions of the internal organizational environment affect their PSM?
2) What are the moderating effects of entrance grade level on relation between employee perceptions and PSM?
3) What personnel management policies can improve the PSM of the central government
officials in Korea?


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Hypotheses. As stated earlier, the independent variables consist of five variables representing individual perception of the internal organizational environment: (1) the employees’ perceptions of the fairness of performance appraisal, (2) the employees’ perceptions of the training opportunities for developing themselves, (3) the employees’ perceptions of their supervisor’s leadership style, (4) the employees’ perceptions of person and organization fit, especially focused on value congruence, and (5) the employees’ perceptions of job characteristics. The dependent variable is public service motivation and two factors are considered as moderating independent variables: entrance grade level to public service and job attitudes. Based on the literature review, this study tests six hypotheses:
Hypothesis 1. The employees’ perceptions of the fairness of performance appraisal will positively relate to their PSM.
Hypothesis 2\ The employees’ perceptions of the training opportunities for developing themselves will positively relate to their PSM.
Hypothesis 3. The closer the perceived leadership style of their supervisor is to transformational leadership, the higher the level of their PSM.
Hypothesis 4 Greater fit between employees and their organization will positively relate to employees’ PSM.
Hypothesis 5: Motivating Potential Score (MPS) will positively relate to employees’ PSM. Hypothesis 6-1. The entrance grade level of the employee will moderate the relation between the independent variables and PSM.
Hypothesis 6-2. Job attitudes (Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment) will moderate the relation between the independent variables and PSM.


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Data Collection / Sampling Plan / Measurement
This study uses a mixed methods design. First, the author distributed the survey to approximately 600 public officials in the MPM and the other ministries in Korea, from October 10 to 24, 2017. The author sent an email with a survey link to employees using Qualtrics. The unit of analysis is an individual level. The snowball sampling method was used to increase the response rate, so the author directly sent the survey link to about 20 employees working in each division with whom the author has individual relationships and then they distributed the survey to approximately 20 colleagues in each division. For convenience of respondents, the survey was accessible by cell phone.
After getting results from survey data, the author interviewed three incumbents from the MPM to supplement the explanation of the results in October 2017. Structured interviews were conducted. The interviewees are from the third reader who is the division director, an employee at a deputy director level, and a staff member in the MPM. The author also interviewed an official from the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) on October 2, 2017, to secure advice and new perspectives toward Korean personnel management system.
Measurement. The items that constitute the variables are shown in Table 1. Although PSM is categorized by six dimensions, the current study used an aggregate instrument of PSM averaging the score from five questionnaires used in Alonso and Lewis (2001), measured on a 5-point Likert scale (l=totally disagree and 5=totally agree). Many PSM research use this aggregate approach in spite of less information on each dimension of PSM (Naff & Crum, 1999, as cited in Vandenabeele, 2014). The questionnaires from Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey (OPM, 2016) and The Power of Federal Employee Engagement (MSPB, 2008) were used to measure the independent variables such as fairness of performance appraisal, opportunities for training,


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supervisor’s leadership, and job satisfaction and organizational commitment with five-point Likert scales. The questionnaires from Wright and Pandey (2008) were given to respondents for Person-Organization Fit variable, and modified questions from Park (2017) were used for Job characteristics variable. Table 1 shows the items of measurement instrument, followed by Figure 1 which shows a concept map.
Table 1. Items of measurement instrument
Variable Range / Number of Questions
Dependent Variable Public Service Motivation (PSM) 5-point Likert scale / 5 Questions
Independent Variables (IV1) Fairness of performance appraisal 1-100/1 Question
(IV2) Opportunities for training 5-point Likert scale / 3 Questions
(IV3) Supervisor’s leadership 5-point Likert scale / 9 Questions
(IV4) Person-Organization Fit 5-point Likert scale /1 Question
(IV5) Job characteristics 5-point Likert scale / 5 Questions
Moderating Variables (MV1) Entrance level to Public Service Grade 5-7-9 /1 Question
(MV2) Job attitudes 5-point Likert scale / Job satisfaction (3 Questions) + Organizational Commitment (5 Questions)
Figure 1. Concept Map
IV1 : The employees' perceptions of
the fairness of performance appraisal
IV2 : The employees' perceptions of the training opportunities
IV4 : The employees' perception of
Person-Organization Fit (Value congruence)
IV5 : The employees' perception of their Job characteristics
Moderate Variable: Entrance grade level
IV3 : The employees' perceptions of " *
their supervisor's leadership style
DV:
Public Service Motivation
Moderate Variable: Job Attitudes
Validity and Reliability
Scale and principal components analysis were conducted to secure reliability and validity. The results of reliability statistics and factor analysis are shown in Appendix 1, with a Cronbach’s


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a for each measure. All the values of Cronbach’s a are sufficient (>.7). For example, five items of PSM were averaged, with an excellent Cronbach’s alpha .844. Full wordings of all the questionnaires can be found in Appendix 4.
Next to those variables, seven control variables were included in the analysis, which are age, gender (female coded as “0”), level of education, affiliation (other ministries coded as “0”), years of tenure, and current grade level.
Data Analysis
With collected data, the author used descriptive statistics for describing the basic features of the data in this study, and ran t-Test for finding out if there is a significant difference in PSM between employees from the MPM and the other ministries. After that, a multiple linear regression was conducted to define if each independent variable has a significant influence on the dependent variable (PSM) by using PASW Statistics 18. At the same time, a series of regressions were conducted to examine the moderate effects between the independent variables and the dependent variable by moderate variables, entrance level to public service and job attitudes. Two-step approach by Baron and Kenny (1986) was applied for identifying moderate effects. To avoid multicollinearity issues, mean centering method was conducted with all the continuous variables to add interaction terms. The four interviewees complemented the interpretation of the results and the answers to the research questions.
Results
Surveys were collected from 196 public officials within two weeks in October 2017. Regarding demographic variables, male respondents (98, 50%) were more than female (74, 37.8%, 24 missing). The range of age was from 25 to 59 while mean age was 38.42. The level of education


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is classified by five items and the respondents who have bachelor’s degree accounted for the largest portion (149, 76%, 9 missing). In terms of years of tenure, most respondents have worked for 6-10 years (81, 41.3%) and 11-15 years (46, 23.5%, 10 missing). More than a half of the respondents entered public service through grade 5 examination (100, 51%) and are currently at grade 5 (100, 51%), which is due to the snowball sampling by the author who has the same background. The respondents from the MPM were less than a half (77, 39.3%). Descriptive statistics about major variables are shown in Table 2 as below.
Table 2. Descriptive Statistics
Variables Obs Mean SD Min Max
uepenaem
\/ariahlo Public Service Motivation (PSM) 186 3.3366 .64937 1.40 5.00
IV1: Fairness of Performance Appraisal 193 66.58 19.902 4 100
IV2: Training and Education 194 3.0859 .83639 1.00 5.00
Independent Variables IV3: Leadership 190 3.6930 .76871 1.00 5.00
IV4: P-O Fit 191 3.37 .895 1.00 5.00
IV5: Job characteristics 190 3.6284 .63997 1.00 5.00
Moderate Entrance grade level 180 6.14 1.450 5 9
Variables Job attitudes 188 3.5771 .72372 1.38 5.00
Pearson's correlation analysis was conducted to identify correlations among the variables used in this study. As presented in Appendix 2, all of them showed lower than .7 except tenure and age, indicating that there was an issue of multi-collinearity between tenure and age. Therefore, this study excluded age variable when running regressions.
Means Comparisons
As stated in the beginning, the MPM people are worried about the decline of PSM of their employees. Effectively, the MPM indicated lower mean of PSM than the other ministries, however, the difference was not significant (p>.05) based on the mean comparison tests shown in Table 3.


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Table 3. Comparison of mean PSM between the employees from the MPM and the other ministries
Measure Obs MPM Mean SD Other Ministries Obs Mean SD f Test Score P
PSM 76 3.3000 .63791 109 3.3651 .66100 -.669 .504
Multiple Regression
To answer the first and the second research questions, multiple regression analysis was implemented. Appendix 3 shows the results of a series of regressions with entrance grade level being a moderator. Model 1 predicts the effects of independent variables on PSM and Model 2 tests moderating effects of entrance grade level. The results of testing hypotheses are shown in Table 4.
Table 4. Hypothesis testing results
Num. Model Hypothesis Result
H1 Model 1 The employees’ perceptions of the fairness of performance appraisal will positively relate to their PSM. Rejected
H2 Model 1 The employees’ perceptions of the training opportunities for developing themselves will positively relate to their PSM. Accepted
H3 Model 1 The closer the perceived leadership style of their supervisor is to transformational leadership, the higherthe level of their PSM. Rejected
H4 Model 1 Greater fit between employees and their organization will positively relate to employees’ PSM. Accepted
H5 Model 1 Motivating Potential Score (MPS) will positively relate to employees’ PSM. Rejected
H6-1 Model 2 The entrance grade level of the employee will moderate the relation between the independent variables and PSM. Partially Accepted
H6-2 Model 2 Job attitudes (Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment) will moderate the relation between the independent variables and PSM. Rejected
Research Question 1: the factors that affect PSM. Model 1 indicates that there is a highly significant relationship between the independent variables in the model and PSM with F=5.961 and significance=.000. Model 1 explains 30.6% of the variance in the dependent variable (PSM) with R2=.306. The employees’ perception of the training opportunities for developing themselves


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significantly have a positive effect on their public service motivation ((3= 156, p< 05). In addition, Person-Organization Fit is significant and positively related to their public service motivation ((3=174, p< 01). Among control variables, male officials are more likely to have higher PSM ((3= 358, p<001) and the lower level officials tend to have higher PSM ((3= 170, p< 05, as coded reverse). Therefore, this study supports hypothesis 2, the employees’ perceptions of the training opportunities for themselves will positively relate to their PSM, and hypothesis 4, greater fit between employees and their organization will positively relate to employees’ PSM.
Research Question 2: the factors that moderate the relation between the independent variables and PSM. Model 2 added a moderating variable of entrance grade level to the regression equation. Entrance grade level added a significant and substantial portion to the explained variance with additional R2=.019. As an interaction term with P-0 Fit is significant at .10 level, this study finds evidence of one moderation effect, however, the evidence is weaker than the other findings. With the moderating effect of entrance grade level, the coefficient of person-organization fit increased ((3= 174 —»■ (3= 228), The moderating effect of job attitudes was not significant and was not reported.
Structured Interviews
The interviews with Korean government officials and an official from the U.S. federal agency, the Office of Personnel Management (OPM), provided the answers and insights to the third research question.
Research Question 3: the policies that can improve PSM. The additional questionnaires asked the respondents to select three major policy instruments out of fourteen items for motivating public officials, as shown in Appendix 4. The results of this question aligned with the interviews. The major items are: 1) pay increase (n=105), 2) fairness and rationality of promotion (n=89), 3)


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fairness and rationality of career path management (n=75), 4) Improving working environment (n=70). The fourth item is in line with the view of U.S. government official from the OPM who pointed out that the managers in public sectors should try to create flexible working conditions based on the trust of their employees. By doing this, the government can create a working environment that can make public officials take pride in working for their organizations and provide a foundation for focusing on public values without worrying about other issues.
In addition, for the questions about which areas of education should be fostered, the results from the survey and the interviews were the same. All three interviewees from Korean government argued that training programs for professionalism and leadership improvement should be emphasized, which are the same results as the survey. There were 175 respondents (89.3%) and 147 respondents (75%) who selected “very important” and “important” respectively at questions asking the importance of professional development and leadership training, which are the highest responses of six categories.
Regarding the fairness issues in performance appraisal, all the interviewees expressed the same opinion that seniority-based evaluation is one of the most serious problems in human resources management among central agencies in Korea, which was consistent with the survey results that showed 82.1% (n=161) of the respondents selected “strongly agree” or “agree” to the question asking if the seniority and years of tenure have the greatest influence on the performance appraisal.
Discussion and Recommendations
Based on these findings, this section provides the interpretations of the results, extracts some implications, and provides suggestions to the client. Regression analysis revealed that three of the five independent variables were not significant. First, the employees’ perceptions of the


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fairness of performance appraisal did not have a significant impact on PSM. This is consistent with the reports of previous studies in which the intrinsic factor PSM is not affected by the extrinsic rewards of performance evaluation, however, it does not support the previous study (Park, 2014), which this study used as the basis for setting this independent variable. Considering the intrinsic nature of PSM being influenced by intrinsic motivators rather than extrinsic, it is speculated that this variable extracted by MPM officials would rather affect job satisfaction than PSM. However, as a majority of respondents (82.1%, n=161) answered that seniority has the greatest effect on performance evaluation, it is necessary to continuously make efforts for performance-based appraisal. In addition, more than a half of respondents (58.7%, n=l 15) said that the management of poor performers is not operating properly, so it is necessary to thoroughly foster work on that.
Second, for supervisor’s leadership variable, although this study assumed that PSM will be affected by leadership, it would be difficult for respondents to answer very honestly about their boss considering the cultural characteristics of Korean society. In other words, there seems to be a limitation to the accuracy of this answer. However, according to the discussion with the MPM officials about the survey results, they expressed the same opinion that the importance of leadership cannot be too much emphasized.
Third, job characteristics did not have a significant effect on PSM due to the personnel system of the Korean government, which does frequent job rotations. As a job rotation occurs frequently within one to two years, it seems that the respondents have a low level of awareness of their job characteristics to influence PSM. In the case of job attitudes, this study tried to grasp the moderating effect of job attitudes on PSM but there was no moderating effect. The effect of job attitudes on PSM has been reported in various studies, so the description of job attitudes in this study was minimized.


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Based on the meaningful results of this study, three important implications can be drawn. First, as the perceptions of training opportunities have a significant impact on PSM, it is necessary to increase interest and investment in education and training to improve their PSM. Particularly, as the survey showed a high demand for training in professional field, it can be understood that they are practically willing to contribute to the national development by improving their expertise rather than enhancing the conscious aspects of contribution and sacrifice to the public interest. This also means that the desire for self-development among public officials is strong. The main public opinion is that the level of education and training for Korean public officials is low. As the Korean government personnel system is based on the person, not the position, it is more necessary to invest more efforts and time in 'developing' the talented people who were selected rather than recruiting the prepared people.
Second, PSM is closely related to the value-congruence issue of Person-Organization Fit. As the previous study argued that the organization can develop PSM levels of employees by helping them understand the link between the mission of the agency and their actions (Jacobson, 2016), the Korean government should focus on this value congruence. Transformational leadership training for managers will help employees to match organizational values with their own values, which will enhance PSM.
Third, entrance grade level has the moderating effect on the relation between P-0 Fit and PSM. This suggests that customized personnel management is required for each entry level group. It needs to differentiate efforts to increase PSM through lifecycle-based HR management techniques. The results show that there is a limitation to the monotonous personnel management. There can be several ways to customize personnel management for each group such as a mentoring program and a specialized career path management.


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Limitations
The author sees three limitations of this study. First, the mediating effect of job attitude toward PSM was analyzed in the previous study, but in this study, it was limited to the moderating effect. Second, as the respondents were belonging to different ministries, there was a lack of analysis on the influence of the characteristics of their own organizations. Third, the majority of samples were collected by the researcher's acquaintance who is from grade 5 entrance examination and age of 30-40. This bias seems to have affected the answers.
Conclusion
This study is meaningful in that it carried out empirical studies on the various factors affecting PSM with the public officials of the central government agencies in Korea. The factors that have a significant effect on PSM are the training opportunities and the value congruence between individual and organization. The finding also suggests that the MPM needs to customize personnel management techniques for the respective groups of each entrance grade level to enhance their person-organization fit. Through interviews from public officials in Korea and the U.S., the current study gained policy implications that securing flexibility in working conditions based on trust and improving the fairness of performance appraisal will also greatly contribute to the motivation of public officials. Important next steps for scholars are to extend these findings through better refined research for improving PSM of public officials.


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Appendix 1. Validity and reliability test for variables
Item Component
IV2 IV3 IV5 MV2 DV
IV2 1 .840 .198 .180 .212 .106
IV2 2 .817 .219 .113 .255 .251
IV2 3 .779 .316 .087 .147 .158
IV3 1 .205 .687 .021 .230 -.036
IV3 2 .209 .813 .166 .075 -.003
IV3 3 .103 .835 .210 .029 .066
IV3 4 .036 .853 .215 .104 .045
IV3 5 .081 .880 .152 .169 .058
IV3 6 .104 .883 .169 .149 .019
IV3 7 .154 .790 .130 .160 .116
IV3 8 .062 .741 .054 .139 .142
IV3_9 .067 .868 .104 .096 .074
IV5 1 .082 .158 .711 .038 .237
IV5 2 .121 .095 .713 .182 -,02£
IV5 3 .027 .135 .708 .247 .110
IV5 4 .018 .295 .591 .355 .067
IV5_5 .180 .300 .625 .252 .051
JS 1 .061 .227 .527 .626 .108
JS 2 -.008 .143 .433 .742 .098
JS 3 .091 .190 .388 .756 .056
OC 1 .058 .115 .057 .609 .509
OC 2 .137 .172 .128 .716 .327
OC 3 .271 .109 .081 .768 .068
OC 4 .156 .167 .160 .813 .244
OC 5 .183 .172 .186 .763 .295
DV 1 -.011 .037 .108 .241 .671
DV 2 .162 .126 .083 .257 .549
DV 3 .124 .049 .088 .128 .825
DV 4 .111 .044 .020 .127 .858
DV_5 .079 .016 .077 .052 .806
Cronbach’s a .890 .949 .799 .930 .844
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis


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Appendix 2: Pearson Correlation
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
PSM 1
IV1 .235** 1
IV2 .365** .393** 1
IV3 .182** .383** .447** 1
IV4 .404** .346** .384** .445** 1
IV5 .275** .327** .380** .458** .400** 1
MV1 .139* .123 .179** .184** .043 .025 1
MV2 .471** .356** .478** .408** .622** .613** .108 1
Sex .354** .079 .181** .222** .264** .089 -.030 .250** 1
Age .301** .113 .124* .180** .135* .159* .456** .224** .209** 1
Edu .132* -.117 -.008 -.070 .101 .118 -.050 .092 -.008 .223** 1
Tenure .197** .198** .090 .151* .085 .159* .512** .237** .059 .814** .058 1
Currlvl -.029 -.083 .045 -.026 -.091 -.043 .528** -.103 -.260** -.131* -.097 -.179** 1
Affiliation -.049 -.060 .093 -.010 -.054 -.141* .188** -.047 -.070 .127* .070 .132* .108 1
* : p<0.5, ** : p<0.01


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Appendix 3. Multiple regression models of PSM
Model 1 Model 2
Variables P(SE) P(SE)
Fairness of Performance Appraisal ,002(.003) ,002(.003)
Training and Education .156*(.063) .180**(.065)
independent variahifiQ Supervisor’s Leadership -,132(.077) -.169*0081)
P-O Fit (Value congruence) .174**(.060) .228**(.066)
Job characteristics ,056(.084) ,017(.087)
Entrance grade level -.055(.057) -.043(.058)
Gender ,358***(.095) .413***(.100)
Education level ,104(.084) ,099(.087)
Control VariablesCurrent grade level .170*0082) ,159(.083)
Affiliation -,133(.094) -,148(.095)
Tenure ,115(.060) ,092(.061)
Entrance grade level x IV1 -.009(.046)
Entrance grade level x IV2 ,029(.043)
Interaction Terms^n^rance 9rade level x IV3 -.054(.063)
Entrance grade level x IV4 ,105t(.056)
Entrance grade level x IV5 -.054(.067)
N 161 161
R2 .306 .325
Adj. R2 .254 .251
F 5.961 4.343
Significance .000 .000
UV: Public Service Motivation
tp< 10 *p<05. **p< 01. ***p< 001.


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Appendix 4: Items used in measurement instruments Independent Variables
1. Fairness of Performance Appraisal (4) - MSPB
(1) How would you rate the overall fairness of performance appraisal in your organization? Completely Unfair -100 Completely Fair)
(1) mn ^ £V£*I3^(7||o! WS?!) am £3£o|| qsil 2 =
â–¡H7|U
( ) % (0

L|4l?(£|A 3 tH-ZI ^31-S7|-0|| HU*! %7\) ( )o/o(0 QX\o\ -too £3*1)
(2) Seniority and Individual Performance appraisal ‘Sir 4 Hi! 7H£l3Hl s£7\ -

Seniority and Individual Performance appraisal Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
Tenure and Seniority have the strongest impact on the individual performance appraisal. °1 *|£ 7H°! l 2 3 4 5
(3) Importance of factors that affect promotion
Rate the importance of factors that affect promotion #5!oil Job performance 51 eI^oI)
Tenure and seniority S 4^- □■§■=)
Importance of current position S 4°NI S-2.-£j(.2.4 0|7|X|^ S£)
Interpersonal relationships £1 £141
Informal Network (old-boy network, nepotism, etc.) 12 ^2 § h|£*1 MIm$|h
(4) Dealing with a Poor Performer T] H|-X|- £1 B| _ FEVS
Dealing with a Poor Performer Tj T.)T) £lE| Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
In my work unit, steps are taken to deal with a poor performer who cannot or will not improve. 4°l SteJSl 0|X|71 *131*1* £1414°^ ^4|o_lcK l 2 3 4 5


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2. Opportunities for Training (4) - KIP A, FEVS, MSPB
7|£| Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
(1) I am given a real opportunity to improve my skills in my organization. 4°| 22^=1/-^ US 7|S|S *i *iism. l 2 3 4 5
(2) I am satisfied with the training I receive for my present job. ^ 'gJL 222^£@o|| □l^oich
(3) My training needs are assessed. 4R| Li—1 22 S =££011 Cj)SiOj Ajgs 0O|CK
(4)
Rate the importance of training programs to participate Unimportant 1 Somewhat unimportant 2 Neither Important nor Unimportant 3 Somewhat Important 4 Very Important 5
Public Service Values, Public Service Ethics ^*1 £S|7i*| n^na
Professional development -Sii-'cJ Hct
Improving Leadership a|EjtJ Hct
Developing individual preference (Humanities, Science, and Art) 7H2J°I ^ot° 7[|^-
Developing foreign language skills SROI^-a stAj-
Information Technology Skills ^MXjal -5-^ If-y


WORKPLACE PERCEPTIONS AND PUBLIC SERVICE
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3. Supervisor’s Leadership (7) - FEVS
Leadership B| Lj Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
(1) My supervisor supports my need to balance work and other life issues. Ml qo| OJ2I y°| i:H*H *1*1 ^ l 2 3 4 5
(2) My supervisor provides me with constmctive suggestions to improve my job performance. LH yhA|"b L-H S-r-'SjllS Hcl ai?pi yy yyy
(3) My supervisor listens to what I have to say. Ml SfO|| AS 7|S^U.
(4) My supervisor treats me with respect. Ml &Afe Lfl ^goHSU.
(5) My supervisor generates high levels of organizational commitment in the workforce. LH 2Jo|-Oj --0| ^Oj-ycK
(6) My supervisor generates high levels of motivation in the workforce. LH yAfS oj^o] §7|“OpH #0\n[.
(7) My supervisor communicates the goals of the organization. LH ^o| -MSelU.
(8) My supervisor communicates the priorities of the job. LH y Afe m°( x|ais g«t*i sfe ffloick
(9) I have trust and confidence in my supervisor. Lfe lh yy» y^iyy.
4. Person-Organization Fit (4) - Wright & Pandey
Individual and organizational value congruence Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
(1)1 find that my values and the organization’s values are very similar, my 7H^y y*iy ^y*|7) §j*iy^- boick l 2 3 4 5
(2) If the values of this organization were different, I would not be as attached to this organization. Ll£l 33 y 0| ^y.o|-^- 7\X\7\ Etaiyys y-E *zj O|oi0| oicf
(3) What this organization stands for is more important than my own values. *1*1*1 LH 7H£iy *l*|My cj Sfiyy.


WORKPLACE PERCEPTIONS AND PUBLIC SERVICE
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5. Job Characteristics (5) MSPB, Park
Job Characteristics Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
(1) My job allows me to perform a variety of tasks that require a wide range of knowledge, skills, and abilities. 4b bSrJb *1*1, 4#, l 2 3 4 5
(2) My job allows me to complete a single piece of work (rather than bits and pieces) from beginning to end. mi 2bb ^ Ai^Ej nvm a&).
(3) My job has a significant positive impact on others, either within the organization or the public in general. Ml 2bb S3M12I **o|| sasu ^g*°! g$* 4.
(4) My job gives me the freedom to make decisions regarding how I accomplish my work. 4b Ml IbW A 2ib *1S£0| OICK
(5) I receive information about my job performance and the effectiveness of my efforts, either directly from the work itself or from others. 4 b LH 2b in=|o| S2bg0|| CHol-01 4*11 SMS 4^ ^b4.
Job Satisfaction (3) - FEVS
Job Satisfaction Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
(1) My work gives me a feeling of personal accomplishment. u°i 2bb 424 £32* -?nn °i4. l 2 3 4 5
(2) I like the kind of work I do. 4 b 44 4b ^.°| i|0| #4.
(3) Considering everything, I am satisfied with my job. sb 4* iBjSH* “II, 4b Ml Soil 4^44.
Organizational Commitment (5) - Meyer, Allen, and Smith (1993). (Benkhoff, 1997), FEVS
Organizational Commitment i 4 s' h ■£ Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
(1) I am willing to put in a great deal of effort beyond that what is normally expected in order to help this organization to be successful. 4b ^4b*l°l 44# 44 444b 4b 0|Aho| yim # 5414. l 2 3 4 5
(2) I am proud to tell others that I am part of this organization. 4b o| “X|o|| 44 5^ o|#q|7)| sfife 5! °l 42^14.
(3)1 recommend my organization as a good place to work. 4b I_H rE4b*l» s*p| #b 4b44.
(4) I feel ‘emotionally attached’ to this organization. 4b 0| “Xjqi 0|Sj# i^vjcK
(5)1 feel a strong sense of belonging to my organization. 4b o| 4*14 44 i^vjcK


WORKPLACE PERCEPTIONS AND PUBLIC SERVICE
43
Dependent Variables (5)
Public Service Motivation - Wright & Pandey, Alonso & Lewis, 2001
Public Service Motivation o"o"o A|-§-7| Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
(1) Meaningful public service is very important to me. 9\a\ 2IE ^i* £1°) SAE L^| DH^ SflSICK l 2 3 4 5
(2) I am often reminded by daily events about how dependent we are on one another. 4E SS ^a|7) ais gnm 21Ea| el11).
(3) Making a difference in society means more to me than personal achievements. A)S|» ^A|7|E %0\ 4 7^*°! C| SflSlCK
(4) I am prepared to make enormous sacrifices for the good of society. 4E A)S|o| ES °|SH a o|ahS 7i-si -h|7) e|o| oich
(5) I am not afraid to go to bat for the rights of others, even if it means that I will be ridiculed. 4E 47) ChE 0|o| ^a|a o|gy 51°l ^*1 &4.
(Extra Question) What do you think is the most important factor to motivate Public Servant in Korea? Pick three factors. 1 ( ) 2 ( ) 3 ( )
(S2|!£) q|^o||Ai
3?H-i Ll^oH A| 2..-KIPA
1) Raise payment MA U U 2) Improving Supervisor’s leadership ^lE|Xi°| E| Ej 7f| Aj 3) Fairness of promotion | iir o ^[2.|o 4) Fairness of Performance Appraisal tE1-?-o'o o 5) Fairness of Pay-
for-Performance A||.E o'So 6) Fairness of Career Advancement M^f42l(5IN°l'o, □hol'fcd-?-)
o'So 7) Increasing Opportunities for Developing oneself and Qualities of Training Program Hl-SrE £1—| clo" 51 ^NPHe1 7|S| SH;[j 8) Empowerment —|A|-Z|:§ ct^l 51 ss5! tt0! 9) Work
Environment (physical conditions, flexible work schedules) tEl-?-£!''§ (N-T-HiS, *-||.E #) 10)
Enriching Public Service Pension <2'o iHcJo -c>9-[ 11) Welfare Service ^-A|A||.E 7[|A] (°j-x|-^- A|^j ■§■) 12) Protecting whistleblowers E|7(| iE. 13) Securing Union Activities 14)
Operating Prize system fairly 9> o'o o


WORKPLACE PERCEPTIONS AND PUBLIC SERVICE
44
Demographics (7)
1. m°\ 1) feW 2) W 3) 7|Ef
1. What is your gender? 1) Male 2) Female 3) Other
2. H A1|<£J L|72|-? □! Ail
2. What is your age? ( )
3. m°\
1) i#0|oi 2)2^7i| # 3)4^7i| # 4) *|Af#a 5) ^A^£ 0|Ah
3. What is your current education level?
1) High school diploma or less 2) Associates’ college degree 3) Bachelor’s degree 4) Master’s degree 5) Academic or scientific doctorate (Ph.D.)
4. -pi°i—I d^7|£j-g-?
1) ^AiQtu*i 2) Ai-i #2^371^ (lira
3) Ail^ ^ X1|£|) 4) :LX|| 5) 7|Ef
4. Which agency are you affiliated at this moment?
1) Ministry of Personnel Management 2) Central agency in Seoul (Including Gwacheon)
3) Central agency in Sejong-city (except MPM) 4) Central agency in Daejeon 5) Other ( )
5. £5|Ojg o ^b?
1) 1-5 ^ 2)6-10 ^ 3) 11-15 ^ 4) 16-20 ^ 5) 20 ^ 0|At
5. How many years have you been a civil service employee?
1) 1-5 years 2) 6-10 years 3) 11-15 years 4) 16-20 years 5) more than 20 years
6. Oi^TII E|£j L|77h? (
6. What was the grade when you first entered the public service? Grade ( )
7. rn°\
7. What is your current grade? Grade ( )


WORKPLACE PERCEPTIONS AND PUBLIC SERVICE
45
Appendix 5: Interview protocol - OPM
Background for questionnaires
The Korean government is verifying the applicant's public service values through typified questions in interviews when recruiting them. However, the motivation of young public servants has gradually weakened due to the seniority-based performance evaluation culture and it is prevalent among younger generations these days to seek their personal well-being first rather than public interest as they will not get incentives even though they perform their best at work.
#1. Are there any factors that evaluate the applicant's public service values in the recruitment process in OPM? How do you use those factors in the recruitment process?
#2. What are the criteria that OPM focuses on when evaluating performance of employees? If you have some factors to evaluate employees’ public service values, how are those factors used in the evaluation process?
#2-1. In conjunction with question # 2, is there any incentive for employees with high public service values? In other words, what would be the incentives that an employee who got a high score for public service values in the evaluation process can get?
#3. How often are the training programs provided to employees regarding improving public service values? Are those programs mandatory or optional?
#4. Are there other OPM’s efforts to motivate employees other than promotion or remuneration?
#5.1 would like to ask you if you have good ideas to reflect public service values of employees on the whole human resources management process.
#6. How do employees in your office respond to the boss's orders that they think are not unlawful but unfair?
#7. I would like to know about your leadership education program.


WORKPLACE PERCEPTIONS AND PUBLIC SERVICE
46
Appendix 6: Areas of course competencies
The author of this capstone project took Accelerated Master of Public Administration (AMPA) program at School of Public Affairs, University of Colorado Denver, from fall 2016 to spring 2017. The course was composed of nine courses, which provided most important and basic skills and knowledge about public administration and policy. In carrying out this capstone project, it is obvious that these courses helped in many ways such as choosing and applying research methods and understanding the basic concepts of public administration. Here is some evidence. Competency 1. To lead and manage in public governance
From Introduction to Public Administration and Public Service (PUAD 5001) course, the author could understand the unique context of public sector and current issues of public administration such as Public Service Motivation (PSM), job satisfaction, ad organizational commitment. As those concepts are the main issues of this capstone project, this course gave the author a solid foundation in investigating these topics. This course also helped applying other basic knowledge about human resources management, organizational theory, and behavior to organizational improvement to the real field in South Korea by using a textbook “Politics of the Administrative Process” by Donald F. Kettl. Organizational Management and Behavior (5002) course also provided some background knowledge about organizational management so that the author could design this project in a better way and make suggestions to the client based on those theories. From Public Service Leadership (5006) course, the author learned about transformational leadership which was one of the independent variables of this project. As this project argued a lot about leadership in public organization, this course was helpful for the author to design and analyze the survey and to make some suggestions regarding public service leadership.


WORKPLACE PERCEPTIONS AND PUBLIC SERVICE
47
Competency 3. To analyze, synthesize, think critically, solve problems and make decisions
The author took Research and Analytic Methods (PUAD 5003) course in the third quarter. This was the most significant course among all the other courses because the knowledge and skills about the methods the author used in this project were all from this course. The author ran a T-test to find out if there is any significant difference in PSM between two groups. The author also ran a multiple regression to define if each independent variable has a significant influence on the dependent variable. The instructor of this course helped the author to use a more advanced skill such as interpreting the moderating effect in analyzing the data, so the project could make more abundant discussion about the relation between the independent variables and the dependent variables. Overall, the author could use appropriate research methods to analyze data through this course. Those statistical skills were surely essential for performing this project. Evidence Based Decision Making (PUAD 5008) course provided skills about designing a survey, sampling, data collection and the role of evidence in decision-making.
Competency 4. To articulate and apply a public service perspective
Introduction to Public Administration and Public Service (PUAD 5001) course provided fundamental knowledge about a public service perspective. There were assignments called ‘reading analysis’ and the author wrote about workplace motivation and the morale of public officials, which is a similar topic to this project. Thus, the author could practice and think deeply about the public service area through these assignments. In addition, the textbook of this course explained a lot about public service values and integrity so that the author could use the knowledge in interviewing public officials.
Competency 5. To communicate and interact productively with a diverse and changing workforce and citizenry


WORKPLACE PERCEPTIONS AND PUBLIC SERVICE
48
Most courses demanded the author to work in teams and make presentations occasionally in front of the cohorts. That made the author appreciate the value of diverse viewpoints and communicate effectively in a spoken format which helped the author make an oral presentation for the project. Especially, the author could practice communicating effectively in writing through Grant-writing for the Nonprofit and Public Sector (PUAD 5115) course. In addition, through all the courses in AMPA program, the author practiced how to do literature review and how to write in APA style, which helped the author to develop the ability to write in an academical way.


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Description Area Dear Capstone Author and Capstone Client:The Auraria Library
Digital Library Program is a nonprofit center responsible for the collection and preservation of digital resources for education.The capstone project, protected by your copyright, and/or created under the supervision of the client has been identified as important to the educational mission of the University of Colorado Denver and Auraria Library.The University of Colorado Denver and Auraria Library respectfully requests non-exclusive rights to digitize the capstone project for Internet distribution in image and text formats for an unlimited term. Digitized versions will be made available via the Internet, for on- and off-line educational use, with a statement identifying your rights as copyright holder and the terms of the grant of permissions.Please review, sign and return the follow Grant of Permissions. Please do not hesitate to call me or email your questions.Sincerely,Matthew C. MarinerAuraria LibraryDigital Collections ManagerMatthew.mariner@ucdenver.edu303.556.5817
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Full Text

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Running head : WORKP LA CE PERCEPTIONS AND PUBLIC SERVICE MOTIVATION Workplace Perceptions and Public Service Motivation: An Empirical Analysis of Korean Public Service Employees Wonki Hong University of Colorado Denver School of Public Affairs This client based project is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Public Administration in the School of Public Affairs at the University of Colorado Denver Denver, Colorado Fall 2017

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WORKP LA CE PERCEPTIONS A ND PUBLIC SERVICE MOTIVATION 2 Capstone Project Disclosure s This client based project was completed on behalf of the Korean Ministry of Personnel Management and supervised by PUAD 5361 Capstone course instructor Wendy Bolyard, PhD and second faculty reader William Swann, Ph.D. This project does not necessarily reflect the views of the School of Public Affairs or the faculty readers. Raw data were not included in this document, rather relevant materials were provided directly to the client. Permissions to include this project in the Auraria Library Digital Repository are found in the final appendix. Questions about this capstone project should be directed to the student author.

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WORKP LA CE PERCEPTIONS A ND PUBLIC SERVICE MOTIVATION 3 Table of Contents Executive Summary 4 Introduction. 5 Literature Review 8 Organizational Background Information. 8 Public Service Motivation... 9 I n d e pe nde nt V a ri a bl e s . ...11 C ontrol V a ri a ble s ... 16 Methodology. 16 Research Questions / Hypotheses and Propositions.. 16 Data Collection / Sampling Plan / Measurement 18 V a lidit y and Reliability. ......................19 Data Analysis.20 Results... 20 Means Comparisons. ................. 21 Multiple Regression.. 22 Structured Interviews. .... 23 Discussion and Recommendations.... 24 Conclusion. 27 References. 28 Appendices 34

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 5 List of Tables Table 1. Items of measurement instrument.19 Table 2. Descriptive Statistics ... 21 Table 3. Comparison of mean PSM between the MPM and the other ministries...22 Table 4. Hypothesis testing results .22 List of Figures Figure 1. Concept Map...19 List of Appendices A ppe ndix 1. V a lidit y a nd re lia bilit y test f or va ri a bl e s ... 34 Appendix 2. Pearson Correlation .. 35 Appendix 3. Multiple regression models of PSM . 36 Appendix 4: Items used in measurement instruments Appendix 5: Interview protocol – OPM Appendix 6: Areas of course competencies .......... 44

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 6 Executive Summary One of the recent major problems in Korean public service is the decline of workplace motivation. This study aims to identify the factors affecting the public service motivation (PSM) of employees in Korean central government agencies and to propose ways to improve it. As many studies have indicated that PSM has an important impact on performance, Korean government is concerned with the decline of their employees’ PSM. To test the relationship between these factors and PSM, this study uses a mixed methods design. Drawing data from a survey of 196 public officials from central government agencies, and interviews with four public officials from Korea and the United States, this research finds evidence that the perception of training opportunities and Person Organization Fit have a positive impact on PSM. In addition, employees’ entrance grade level to public service moderates the effect between Person Organization Fit and PSM. Based on statistical analysis and interviews, this study recommends: (1) increase investment in training for professional development; (2) provide training for managers to enhance employees’ fit with their organization; (3) customize personnel management techniques; (4) create flexible working environments based on trust; and (5) make efforts on evaluating not by seniority but by performance.

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 7 Introduction One of the recent major problems in Korean public service is the decline of workplace motivation. Scholars have investigated numerous theories of motivation that can be applied to the public sector but there are limitations with monetary rewards or extrinsic motivation in public service due to the nature of its budget rigidity. Therefore, this study focused on Public Service Motivation (PSM) to make employees be more intrinsically motivated for public interest rather than a lot of extrinsic rewards. In fact, the government official is one of the most popular jobs in the Korean job market. Due to the unstable labor market situation and the historical experiences of the government oriented economic development, the job of public servants is highly appreciated among Korean people. As a result, the competition rate of public employee examinations, which are based on the principle of open competition, shows a very high level every year among young people ages 2030s. Thus, it is generally said that the mindset of young public officials who passed the public employee examination and started public service is quite different from other sectors. In other words, even though the extrinsic motivators such as job security might have been the factors considered when choosing their occupation, most competent young officials have a high degree of attraction to policy making, compassion, self sacrifice, commitment to the public interest, social justice, and civic duty in the beginning, according to the managers who are in charge of basic training programs for newly recruited employees in National Human Resources Development Institute (NHI). All those factors are categorized as six dimensions of Public Service Motivation (PSM) by Perry (1996). Perry and Wise (1990) argued that people who respond to incentives such as public policy making and serving a goal greater than oneself have “Public Service Motivation.” The competent young public officials in Korea choose their job not only because of the merits of public service such as job security, but also, more importantly, because of

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 8 passion for public interest reflected in PSM, according to the interviewers who conducted the interviews with public service applicants recently. Through in depth dialogue with the third reader for this project, who is a division director, and discussion among six public officials at deputy director level in the Korean Ministry of Personnel Management (MPM), whic h is the client organization for this project, consensus formed about the current phenomena as follows: The level of PSM of public officials in the central government agencies is at a low level, and that can negatively affect both individual and organizational performance. PSM has been found to have a strong positive effect on job satisfaction and performance ratings (Naff & Crum, 1999), and high PSM employees tended to be about a quarter grade above comparable employees with little PSM (Alonso & Lewis, 2001). Thus, it is logical that PSM may be a mechanism by which MPM can encourage better performance. Therefore, the MPM officials perceive the degradation of PSM as an important issue to be addressed as they take charge of personnel management policies for all the other central government agencies. In other words, they are concerned that the decline in PSM may directly bring about the deterioration of the capacity of the national government, and well positioned to influence employee motivation. The public officials and the author discussed that there could be several external factors that may have affected PSM such as a decrease in public trust due to negative media reports on various corruption cases, increased fatigue due to the movement of the government complex from Seoul to Sejong City (directly related to increased time for public officials to visit the National Assembly and the Blue House in Seoul), and the government employee pension reform in 2015. The morale of public officials has been further deteriorated due to the 2016 manipulation case that resulted in the impeachment of former President Park (Lee, 2016; Bae, 2017).

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 9 As mentioned above, many external factors have likely affected PSM, however, the MPM commissioned a study to the author on the solutions which they can control within their influences. In other words, the MPM requested that this project research factors inside the government that affect PSM. It can be said that the MPM will start its efforts to improve PSM by finding out factors that can be fixed internally. It is necessary to keep in mind Jacobson’s (2016) argument that it is important to consider PSM not only when having selection and recruitment, but also developing employees’ PSM. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the factors affecting Korean central government officials’ PSM and to propose ways to improve it. In addition, since Korean public officials come into the government through three main examinations (Grade 5, 7, & 9), it should be noted that how PSM varies according to their entrance grade level. This study contributes to enhancement of government performance by introducing personnel management policies that improve PSM of the central government officials in each agency as well as in the MPM. The research questions of this study are as follows. First, how do public officials ’ perceptions of the internal organizational environment affect their PSM? Second, what are the moderating effects of entrance grade level on relation between employee perceptions and PSM? Third, what personnel management policies can improve the PSM of the central government officials in Korea? To answer these research questions, this study begins with examining the previous studies and theoretical discussions related to PSM and motivational factors of public officials. Based on this review, this study develops and tests hypotheses using a survey of public officials. After discussing the model results and pairing them with the findings from in depth interviews with public officials, this paper offers practical recommendations for the MPM.

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 10 Literature Review This section discusses background information about the MPM for understanding the client organization and its context. The concepts related to the research questions are presented, which include PSM, perceptions of the fairness of performance appraisal, opportunities for developing oneself, supervisor’s leadership style, person organization fit with value congruence, job characteristics, and job attitudes. Organizational Background The MPM is a central government agency of the Republic of Korea which takes charge of setting and implementing a variety of personnel management policies, such as recruitment, promotion, human resources development, remuneration, welfare, flexible working conditions, pension programs and so on. The MPM was established for reinforcing personnel innovation to adapt to the rapidly changing administrative circumstances and meet the expectations of the people (MPM, 2017). The MPM consists of seven bureaus and 21 divisions. It has two affiliated institutions which are the National Human Resources Development Institute (NHI) and the Appeals Commission. The total number of authorized personnel is approximately 500. Its visions are “Innovation for the People” and “A Civil Service that Leads the Future of Korea.” It has two missions, “Make the civil service more competent and competitive by enhancing its expertise and openness” and “Make the civil service more disciplined and exciting by creating a productive environment and redefining public service value” (MPM, 2017). The customers of the MPM are public officials from all the central agencies in Korea which includes around 630,000 employees. They are composed of four categories, 1) ‘general service’ in charge of technology, research, and administration, 2) ‘special service’ such as judges, prosecutors, police, fire fighting officials, diplomats and teachers, 3) ‘political service’ who are

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 11 elected officials or appointed by the President such as a Minister, and 4) employees who are appointed by political service to serve them. These public officials are classified with grade levels, the Senior Civil Service (SCS) with grades from 3 to 9 can be compared to Senior Executive Service (SES) and General Service grades 1 to 15 in the United States. Unlike the U.S. system, the higher the grade number, the lower the rank in Korea. For example, grade 9 is the lowest grade in Korean rank system. The MPM is also in charge of recruiting new outstanding officials. Public officials are recruited through open competitive examinations which are aimed at securing a wide variety of talented people with potential by ensuring equal opportunities for every citizen to apply for a government job, regardless of age, gender, education or work experience. The MPM recruits new officials every year with three main entrance examinations, grades 5, 7, and 9. Regarding Human Resources Development, the MPM provides education programs for newly recruited officials on the public service values and basic training necessary to perform their tasks. In addition, leadership education programs are provided to those promoted to deputy director (grade 5), director (grades 34) and the SCS from all the agencies. The MPM also offers specialized education programs to enhance employees’ expertise in each field. Besides these tasks, the MPM is also taking charge of the performance management policies, the civil service c ulture, the civil service pension program, the ethics of public servants, the standardized electronic personnel management system (e saram), and the human resources database for supporting to recruit candidates of Presidential appointee positions. The MPM takes charge of the State Public Officials Act, Public Service Ethics Act, and Public Officials Pension Act (MPM, 2017). Public Service Motivation Public service motivation (PSM) has been growing as one of the most popular areas of

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 12 research in the field of public administration (Bright, 2013; Ritz et al., 2016). PSM originates from beliefs that “unique motives are found among public servants that are different from those of their private sector counterparts” (Perry, Hondeghem, & Wise, 2010). PSM can be defined as “an individual's predisposition to respond to motives grounded primarily or uniquely in public institutions and organizations” (Perry & Wise, 1990). They hypothesized that: 1) The greater an individual’s PSM, the more likely the individual will seek membership in a public organization; 2) In public organizations, PSM is positively related to individual performance; 3) Public organizations that attract members with high levels of PSM are likely to be less dependent on utilitarian incentives to manage individual performance effectively (Perry & Wise, 1990). Studies have reported that PSM has a positive effect on the various outcomes associated with the organizational environment such as performance, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment of public employees (Bright, 2013). Research suggests that employees with high levels of PSM are more likely to be satisfied with their job and less likely to leave their workplace (Bright, 2007). Considering PSM in recruitment, retention and training may engender better individual pe r f orm a n c e ( V a nde na b eele, 2009 ). Although there have been many kinds of research regarding the positive effects of PSM, there are still underexplored areas such as the relationship between PSM and both intrinsic and e x trinsic motivation ( Homb e r g & V o g e l, 2016) . I n a ddition, PSM ha s not bee n ful l y int e g r a ted into the human resource management practices of public organizations (Ritz et al., 2016). Ritz et al. (2016) summarized previous literature on PSM that the frequently mentioned practical implications of PSM are as follows: 1) public organizations should assess job applicants’ level of PSM and consider the results of evaluation when making selection decisions; 2) public organizations should introduce management practices that improve PSM.

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 13 Some research indicated that an overemphasis on extrinsic rewards (e.g., pay and praise) can be counterproductive, which makes workers less productive, particularly when their original motivations were mainly intrinsic (Deci, 1975; Kohn, 1993). Therefore, they argued that managers in public areas should motivate employees through nonmonetary rewards rather than monetary ones. It is necessary to increase PSM of employees particularly in public sectors to enhance the performance of both individuals and organizations because monetary compensation is limited in public sectors due to the characteristics of budget constraints and rigid budget management. As the MPM is responsible for personnel management policies of all the central government agencies, it is necessary for the MPM to pay attention to PSM of employees in other government agencies as well. As PSM studies have been conducted throughout the world, there may be differences between countries in the application of PSM (Perry, Hondeghem, & Wise, 2010) . Therefore, this study can achieve the theoretical progress by interpreting the application of PSM in the Korean context. Independent Variables The MPM managers interviewed previously determined three factors that can affect PSM of its employees based on employee input: 1) perceived fairness of performance appraisal, 2) perceived training opportunities to develop oneself, and 3) perceived leadership style of supervisors. Jacobson (2016) al so indicated that performance measures, training, and orientation can have positive impacts on PSM levels. In addition, the current study includes two more independent variables affecting PSM through investigating previous literature: 4) Person Organization Fit (Bright, 2013) and 5) job characteristics noted by Hackman and Oldham (1975). This study will primarily focus on value congruence regarding Person Organization Fit. The MPM commissioned an analysis of how these factors affect PSM of its em ployees. The U.S.

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 14 Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB, 2008) also discussed six drivers for engaging federal employees: pride in workplace, satisfaction with leadership, opportunity to perform well, reward, professional growth, and teamwork, which are similar to the variables examined in this study. Fairness of performance appraisal. According to Alonso and Lewis (2001), a belief that agencies based promotion and pay decisions on performance was positively related to performance. Many employees in the MPM, however, think that promotions and pay forperformance are being decided based upon seniority with a legacy of Confucian culture in Korea. That is, performance appraisal is not being made based upon performance itself, but on the age and years of tenure (Cho, 2012). Cho (2012) pointed out some factors that degrade fairness of performance appraisal as the grade based classification system and the seniority based performance appraisal culture. He argued that the grade based classification system makes it difficult to define the limits of the work unit for each individual and organization. In addition, the seniority based performance appraisal culture has such a long tradition that it is hard to fix it while everyone recognizes it as a serious problem. As t he results of performance appraisal are directly linked to human resource management such as pay forperformance and promotion, they are significant indicators of employee motivation (Poister, 2003). As young employees in the MPM feel that they are not compensated fairly for their devotion and achievements, their motivations to work harder is diminished, and there is a tendency not to do their best. Although PSM is the idea that pay takes a backseat to public service, excessive unfairness in rewards is affecting the employees’ passion for public service, in other words, PSM. Meanwhile, many studies also argued that extrinsic motivation such as performance appraisal will crowd out intrinsic motivation like PSM, but Park (2014) insisted that this effect is insignificant. On the contrary, if external rewards support an individual's decision, the opposite effect of crowding in can occur (Frey & Jegen, 2001). This

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 15 study will determine whether extrinsic motivation positively affects intrinsic motivation. Training opportunities . Intrinsic Human Resources Management (HRM) practices such as job enrichment and professional development positively affect PSM (Giauque et al., 2013). However, the MPM officials think that education programs on the public service values and professionalism are not working effectively in the Korean government. Most employees want to be more professional in their work field but there are not enough opportunities for employees to be trained. In addition, many public officials have pointed out that education programs on public service values are not operating effectively because of the contents, the way of lecturing, the evaluation system, and timeliness. They seem to be “hungry to learn” but do not seem to recognize what they are doing pertaining to their organizational vision and missions, especially in terms of public service values. Supervisor’s leadership . The leadership style of the supervisor can be a critical factor on PSM. The dominant organizational culture and leadership style in Korean government have been hierarchically orientated, which focus on stability and internal control, rather than horizontally organized to pursuit innovation (Lee, 2011). There have not been many communications between supervisors and subordinates which makes staff members less motivated in their work. Fazzi and Zamaro (2016) argued that transformational leaders in the nonprofit organization have higher scores on PSM than transactional leaders. Im, Campbell, and Jeong (2013) also found that perception of organizational performance and transformational leadership strengthen the relationship between PSM and commitment. In addition, Wright, Hassan, and Park (2016) insisted that supervisors exhibiting higher ethical leadership are more likely to have subordinates with higher levels of PSM. PSM mediates the influence that servant leadership has on followers' job performance (Schwarz, Newman, Cooper, & Eva, 2016). Leadership styles matter in improving

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 16 the performance of public organizations, and public leaders should behave mainly as transformational leaders and maintain high degrees of integrity and ethics (Orazi, Turrini, & Valotti, 2013). Therefore, leaders should promote public service values to their subordinates because this c a n ha v e a s i g nifi cant positive impa c t on their PSM ( V a nde na beel e , 2014). Person organization fit. On the contrary, many scholars concluded that PSM was not a meaningful predictor of the performance of public employees (Bright, 2013). Bright (2007) argued that these mixed findings failed to consider compatibility between organizational environments and employees. Person Organization Fit (P O Fit) could explain the differences in these findings (Bright, 2013). Kim et al. (2013) argued that PSM could be the result of P O Fit, and the influence of organizational factors can cultivate PSM with the result. Wright and Pandey (2008) also pointed out that PSM’s strongest relationship was with value congruence among their other variables. In addition, value congruence between employees and an organization plays an important role in the relationship between public service motivation and job satisfaction (Wright & Pandey, 2008). From the leadershi p perspective as stated above, transformational leadership in public organizations which aligns subordinates’ values with those of the organization can depend on the employees’ perceived societal impacts on the well being of the public, which can be compared to one dimension of public service motivation: commitment to public interest (Jensen, 2017). Job characteristics. Hackman and Oldham (1975) investigated how to structure the jobs for the intrinsic motivation of employees, and they insisted that employees are intrinsically motivated because of positive internal feelings from successful work practices. Kim (2005) summarized job characteristics model and explained the following five core job characteristics: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. He also introduced Hackman and Oldham’s research insisting that managers need to focus on a psychological state of employees

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 17 that enhances their intrinsic motivation by redesigning their jobs to improve these five core job characteristics. According to Kim’s investigation (2005) about the differences in “motivating potential score” (MPS) among state government agencies, local governments and private companies in Korea, the results indicated that in the case of civil servants, MPS is at a very low level compared to the private sector employees, which implies that the possibility of intrinsic motivation through work performance is significantly lower than that of private companies. Fernandez and Moldogaziev (2015) argued that empowerment practices aimed at promoting self determination such as granting discretion to change work processes and sharing information about goals and performance have positive effects on employees’ job satisfaction. Entra nce grade level. The Korean civil service recruitment system selects a large number of personnel first with three kinds of entrance examinations by rank (Grade 5, 7, & 9) and then places them in each ministry. All the processes are operated by the MPM. The other way of recruitment, employing a person when a vacancy occurs in the position, which is operated by each ministry, is a minor recruiting method in Korea. In other words, there is a difference in characteristics among three groups according to which grade level they received upon entering public service. Therefore, it is considered that the entrance grade level will have a moderating effect on the relationship between various independent variables and PSM. “A moderator is a variable that affects the direction and/or strength of the relation between an independent variable and a dependent variable” (Baron & Kenny, 1986, p. 1174). Job attitudes . There is lots of research about relation between job attitudes and PSM in the area of public administration so far. As it plays a significant role in the relation to PSM, this project considers job attitudes as one variable. However, unlike previous studies, this study examines the moderating role of job attitudes combining job satisfaction and organizational

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 18 c ommitment to PSM , if a ppli cable. A ccordi ng to V a nde na b eele (2009), t he medi a tin g role of job satisfaction and organizational commitment enable public managers to find more openings to harness PSM effectively. Control Variables Several demographic factors are included as control variables in this study such as age, gender, affiliation, current level. In addition, as Moynihan and Pandey (2007) indicated that PSM is positively related with the level of education but negatively related to years of tenure in public organizations. Thus, this study includes measures for the level of education and years of tenure from the survey instrument. Methodology Based on literature review above, the research questions and hypotheses are presented in this section. In addition, some methodological issues such as data collection, sampling plan, measurement, and data analysis are discussed. Research Questions/Hypotheses and Propositions This study assumes that increasing PSM of employees results in enhancing performance of both individual and organization. Therefore, research questions of the current study are as follows: 1) How do public officials ’ perceptions of the internal organizational environment affect their PSM? 2) What are the moderating effects of entrance grade level on relation between employee perceptions and PSM? 3) What personnel management policies can improve the PSM of the central government officials in Korea?

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 19 Hypotheses . As stated earlier, the independent variables consist of five variables representing individual perception of the internal organizational environment: (1) the employees’ perceptions of the fairness of performance appraisal, (2) the employees’ perceptions of the training opportunities for developing themselves, (3) the employees’ perceptions of their supervisor’s leadership style, (4) the employees’ perceptions of person and organization fit, especially focused on value congruence, and (5) the employees’ perceptions of job characteristics. The dependent variable is public service motivation and two factors are considered as moderating independent variables: entrance grade level to public service and job attitudes. Based on the literature review, this study tests six hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: The employees’ perceptions of the fairness of performance appraisal will positively relate to their PSM. Hypothesis 2: The employees’ perceptions of the training opportunities for developing themselves will positively relate to their PSM. Hypothesis 3: The closer the perceived leadership style of their supervisor is to transformational leadership, the higher the level of their PSM. Hypothesis 4: Greater fit between employees and their organization will positively relate to employees’ PSM. Hypothesis 5: Motivating Potential Score (MPS) will positively relate to employees’ PSM. Hypothesis 61: The entrance grade level of the employee will moderate the relation between the independent variables and PSM. Hypothesis 6 2 : Job attitudes (Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment) will moderate the relation between the independent variables and PSM.

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 20 Data Collection / Sampling Plan / Measurement This study uses a mixed methods design. First, the author distributed the survey to approximately 600 public officials in the MPM and the other ministries in Korea, from October 10 to 24, 2017. The author sent an email with a survey link to employees using Qualtrics. The unit of analysis is an individual level. The snowball sampling method was used to increase the response rate, so the author directly sent the survey link to about 20 employees working in each division with whom the author has individual relationships and then they distributed the survey to approximately 20 colleagues in each division. For convenience of respondents, the survey was accessible by cell phone. After getting results from survey data, the author interviewed three incumbents from the MPM to supplement the explanation of the results in October 2017. Structured interviews were conducted. The interviewees are from the third reader who is the division director, an employee at a deputy director level, and a staff member in the MPM. The author also interviewed an official from the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) on October 2, 2017, to secure advice and new perspectives toward Korean personnel management system. Measurement. The items that constitute the variables are shown in Table 1. Although PSM is categorized by six dimensions, the current study used an aggregate instrument of PSM averaging the score from five questionnaires used in Alonso and Lewis (2001) , measured on a 5point Likert scale (1=totally disagree and 5=totally agree). Many PSM research use this aggregate approach in spite of less information on each dimension of PSM (Naff & Crum, 1999, as cited in V a nde na b eele, 2014). The questionnaires from Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey (OPM, 2016) and The Power of Federal Employee Engagement (MSPB, 2008) were used to measure the independent variables such as fairness of performance appraisal, opportunities for training,

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 21 supervisor’s leadership, and job satisfaction and organizational commitment with five point Likert scales. The questionnaires from Wright and Pandey (2008) were given to respondents for Person Organization Fit variable, and modified questions from Park (2017) were used for Job characteristics variable. Table 1 shows the items of measurement instrument, followed by Figure 1 which shows a concept map. Table 1. Items of measurement instrument Variable Range / Number of Questions Dependent Variable Public Service Motivation (PSM) 5 point Likert scale / 5 Questions Independent Variables (IV1) Fairness of performance appraisal 1 100 / 1 Question (IV2) Opportunities for training 5 point Likert scale / 3 Questions (IV3) Supervisor’s leadership 5 point Likert scale / 9 Questions (IV4) Person Organization Fit 5 point Likert scale / 1 Question (IV5) Job characteristics 5 point Likert scale / 5 Questions Moderating Variables (MV1) Entrance level to Public Service Grade 5 / 1 Question (MV2) Job attitudes 5 point Likert scale / Job satisfaction (3 Questions) + Organizational Commitment (5 Questions) Figure 1. Concept Map Validity and Reliability Scale and principal components analysis were conducted to secure reliability and validity. The results of reliability statistics and factor analysis are shown in Appendix 1, with a Cronbach’s

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 22 for each measure. All the values of Cronbach’s are sufficient (>.7). For example, five items of PSM were averaged, with an excellent Cronbach’s alpha .844. Full wordings of all the questionnaires can be found in Appendix 4. Next to those variables, seven control variables were included in the analysis, which are age, gender (female coded as “0”), level of education, affiliation (other ministries coded as ”), years of tenure, and current grade level. Data Analysis With collected data, the author used descriptive statistics for describing the basic features of the data in this study, and ran t Test for finding out if there is a significant difference in PSM between employees from the MPM and the other ministries. After that, a multiple linear regression was conducted to define if each independent variable has a significant influence on the dependent variable (PSM) by using PASW Statistics 18. At the same time, a series of regressions were conducted to examine the moderate effects between the independent variables and the dependent variable by moderate variables, entrance level to public service and job attitudes. Two step approach by Baron and Kenny (1986) was applied for identifying moderate effects. To avoid multicollinearity issues, mean centering method was conducted with all the continuous variables to add interaction terms. The four interviewees complemented the interpretation of the results and the answers to the research questions. Results Surveys were collected from 196 public officials within two weeks in October 2017. Regarding demographic variables, male respondents (98, 50%) were more than female (74, 37.8%, 24 missing). The range of age was from 25 to 59 while mean age was 38.42. The level of education

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 23 is classified by five items and the respondents who have bachelor’s degree accounted for the largest portion (149, 76%, 9 missing). In terms of years of tenure, most respondents have worked for 610 years (81, 41.3%) and 1115 years (46, 23.5%, 10 missing). More than a half of the respondents entered public service through grade 5 examination (100, 51%) and are currently at grade 5 (100, 51%), which is due to the snowball sampling by the author who has the same background. The respondents from the MPM were less than a half (77, 39.3%). Descriptive statistics about major variables are shown in Table 2 as below. Table 2. Descriptive Statistics Dependent Variables Obs Mean SD Min Max Variable Public Service Motivation (PSM) 186 3.3366 .64937 1.40 5.00 Independent Variables Moderate Variables Pearson's correlation analysis was conducted to identify correlations among the variables used in this study. As presented in Appendix 2, all of them showed lower than .7 except tenure and age, indicating that there was an issue of multicollinearity between tenure and age. Therefore, this study excluded age variable when running regressions. Means Comparisons As stated in the beginning, the MPM people are worried about the decline of PSM of their employees. Effectively, the MPM indicated lower mean of PSM than the other ministries, however, the difference was not significant (p>.05) based on the mean comparison tests shown in Table 3. IV1: Fairness of Performance Appraisal IV2: Training and Education 193 66.58 19.902 4 100 194 3.0859 .83639 1.00 5.00 IV3: Leadership 190 3.6930 .76871 1.00 5.00 IV4: P O Fit 191 3.37 .895 1.00 5.00 IV5: Job characteristics 190 3.6284 .63997 1.00 5.00 Entrance grade level 180 6.14 1.450 5 9 Job attitudes 188 3.5771 .72372 1.38 5.00

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 24 Table 3. Comparison of mean PSM between the employees from the MPM and the other ministries Measure MPM Other Minis trie s t Test Obs Mean SD Obs Mean SD Score p PSM 76 3.3000 .63791 109 3.3651 .66100 .669 .504 Multiple Regression To answer the first and the second research questions, multiple regression analysis was implemented. Appendix 3 shows the results of a series of regressions with entrance grade level being a moderator. Model 1 predicts the effects of independent variables on PSM and Model 2 tests moderating effects of entrance grade level. The results of testing hypotheses are shown in Table 4. Table 4. Hypothesis testing results Num. Model Hypothesis Result H1 Model 1 The employees’ perceptions of the fairness of performance appraisal will positively relate to their PSM. Rejected H2 Model 1 The employees’ perceptions of the training opportunities for developing themselves will positively relate to their PSM. Accepted H3 Model 1 The closer the perceived leadership style of their supervisor is to transformational leadership, the higher the level of their PSM. Rejected H4 Model 1 Greater fit between employees and their organization will positively relate to employees’ PSM. Accepted H5 Model 1 Motivating Potential Score (MPS) will positively relate to employees’ PSM. Rejected H6 1 Model 2 The entrance grade level of the employee will moderate the relation between the independent variables and PSM. Partially Accepted H6 2 Model 2 Job attitudes (Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment) will moderate the relation between the independent variables and PSM. Rejected Research Question 1: the factors that affect PSM. Model 1 indicates that there is a highly significant relationship between the independent variables in the model and PSM with F=5.961 and significance=.000. Model 1 explains 30.6% of the variance in the dependent variable (PSM) with R2=.306. The employees’ perception of the training opportunities for developing themselves

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 25 significantly have a positive effect on their public service motivation ( =.156, p<.05). In addition, Person Organization Fit is significant and positively related to their public service motivation ( =.174, p<.01). Among control variables, male officials are more likely to have higher PSM ( =.358, p<.001) and the lower level officials tend to have higher PSM ( =.170, p<.05, as coded reverse). Therefore, this study supports hypothesis 2, the employees’ perceptions of the training opportunities for themselves will positively relate to their PSM, and hypothesis 4, greater fit between employees and their organization will positively relate to employees’ PSM. Research Question 2: the factors that moderate the relation between the independent variables and PSM. Model 2 added a moderating variable of entrance grade level to the regression equation. Entrance grade level added a significant and substantial portion to the explained variance with additional R2=.019. As an interaction term with P O Fit is significant at .10 level, this study finds evidence of one moderation effect, however, the evidence is weaker than the other findings. With the moderating effect of entrance grade level, the coefficient of personorganization fit increased ( =.174 =.228). The moderating effect of job attitudes was not significant and was not reported. Structured Interviews The interviews with Korean government officials and an official from the U.S. federal agency, the Office of Personnel Management (OPM), provided the answers and insights to the third research question. Research Question 3: the policies that can improve PSM. The additional questionnaires asked the respondents to select three major policy instruments out of fourteen items for motivating public officials, as shown in Appendix 4. The results of this question aligned with the interviews. The major items are: 1) pay increase (n=105), 2) fairness and rationality of promotion (n=89), 3)

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 26 fairness and rationality of career path management (n=75), 4) Improving working environment (n=70). The fourth item is in line with the view of U.S. government official from the OPM who pointed out that the managers in public sectors should try to create flexible working conditions based on the trust of their employees. By doing this, the government can create a working environment that can make public officials take pride in working for their organizations and provide a foundation for focusing on public values without worrying about other issues. In addition, for the questions about which areas of education should be fostered, the results from the survey and the interviews were the same. All three interviewees from Korean government argued that training programs for professionalism and leadership improvement should be emphasized, which are the same results as the survey. There were 175 respondents (89.3%) and 147 respondents (75%) who selected “very important” and “important” respectively at questions asking the importance of professional development and leadership training, which are the highest responses of six categories. Regarding the fairness issues in performance appraisal, all the interviewees expressed the same opinion that seniority based evaluation is one of the most serious problems in human resources management among central agencies in Korea, which was consistent with the survey results that showed 82.1% (n=161) of the respondents selected “strongly agree” or “agree” to the question asking if the seniority and years of tenure have the greatest influence on the performance appraisal. Discussion and Recommendations Based on these findings, this section provides the interpretations of the results, extracts some implications, and provides suggestions to the client. Regression analysis revealed that three of the five independent variables were not significant. First, the employees’ perceptions of the

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 27 fairness of performance appraisal did not have a significant impact on PSM. This is consistent with the reports of previous studies in which the intrinsic factor PSM is not affected by the extrinsic rewards of performance evaluation, however, it does not support the previous study (Park, 2014), which this study used as the basis for setting this independent variable. Considering the intrinsic nature of PSM being influenced by intrinsic motivators rather than extrinsic, it is speculated that this variable extracted by MPM officials would rather affect job satisfaction than PSM. However, as a majority of respondents (82.1%, n=161) answered that seniority has the greatest effect on performance evaluation, it is necessary to continuously make efforts for performance based appraisal. In addition, more than a half of respondents (58.7%, n=115) said that the management of poor performers is not operating properly, so it is necessary to thoroughly foster work on that. Second, for supervisor’s leadership variable, although this study assumed that PSM will be affected by leadership, it would be difficult for respondents to answer very honestly about their boss considering the cultural characteristics of Korean society. In other words, there seems to be a limitation to the accuracy of this answer. However, according to the discussion with the MPM officials about the survey results, they expressed the same opinion that the importance of leadership cannot be too much emphasized. Third, job characteristics did not have a significant effect on PSM due to the personnel system of the Korean government, which does frequent job rotations. As a job rotation occurs frequently within one to two years, it seems that the respondents have a low level of awareness of their job characteristics to influence PSM. In the case of job attitudes, this study tried to grasp the moderating effect of job attitudes on PSM but there was no moderating effect. The effect of job attitudes on PSM has been reported in various studies, so the description of job attitudes in this study was minimized.

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 28 Based on the meaningful results of this study, three important implications can be drawn. First, as the perceptions of training opportunities have a significant impact on PSM, it is necessary to increase interest and investment in education and training to improve their PSM. Particularly, as the survey showed a high demand for training in professional field, it can be understood that they are practically willing to contribute to the national development by improving their expertise rather than enhancing the conscious aspects of contribution and sacrifice to the public interest. This also means that the desire for self development among public officials is strong. The main public opinion is that the level of education and training for Korean public officials is low. As the Korean government personnel system is based on the person, not the position, it is more necessary to invest more efforts and time in 'developing' the talented people who were selected rather than recruiting the prepared people. Second, PSM is closely related to the value congruence issue of Person Organization Fit. As the previous study argued that the organization can develop PSM levels of employees by helping them understand the link between the mission of the agency and their actions (Jacobson, 2016), the Korean government should focus on this value congruence. Transformational leadership training for managers will help employees to match organizational values with their own values, which will enhance PSM. Third, entrance grade level has the moderating effect on the relation between P O Fit and PSM. This suggests that customized personnel management is required for each entry level group. It needs to differentiate efforts to increase PSM through lifecyclebased HR management techniques. The results show that there is a limitation to the monotonous personnel management. There can be several ways to customize personnel management for each group such as a mentoring program and a specialized career path management.

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 29 Limitations The author sees three limitations of this study. First, the mediating effect of job attitude toward PSM was analyzed in the previous study, but in this study, it was limited to the moderating effect. Second, as the respondents were belonging to different ministries, there was a lack of analysis on the influence of the characteristics of their own organizations. Third, the majority of samples were collected by the researcher's acquaintance who is from grade 5 entrance examination and age of 3040. This bias seems to have affected the answers. Conclusion This study is meaningful in that it carried out empirical studies on the various factors affecting PSM with the public officials of the central government agencies in Korea. The factors that have a significant effect on PSM are the training opportunities and the value congruence between individual and organization. The finding also suggests that the MPM needs to customize personnel management techniques for the respective groups of each entrance grade level to enhance their person organization fit. Through interviews from public officials in Korea and the U.S., the current study gained policy implications that securing flexibility in working conditions based on trust and improving the fairness of performance appraisal will also greatly contribute to the motivation of public officials. Important next steps for scholars are to extend these findings through better refined research for improving PSM of public officials.

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 30 References Allen, N. J. and J. P. Meyer: 1990, The Measurement and Antecedents of Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the Organization, Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 1–18. Alonso, P., & Lewis, G. (2001). Public Service Motivation and Job Performance Evidence from the federal sector. American Review of Public Administration, 31(4), 363380. Ambrose, M. L., Arnaud, A., & Schminke, M. (2008). Individual Moral Development and Ethical Climate: The Influence of Person –Organization Fit on Job Attitudes. Journal of Business Ethics, 77(3), 323–333. Bae, M. S. (2017, January 3). “In the crisis situation, the government is supported only by civil servants. Should have more sense of duty”. HeraldCorp. Retrieved from http://news.heraldcorp.com/view.php?ud=20170103000458 Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 51, 11731182. Brayfield, A. H. and H. F. Rothe: 1951, An Index of Job Satisfaction, Journal of Applied Psychology, 35 , 307–311. Bright, L. (2013). Where Does Public Service Motivation Count the Most in Government Work Environments? A Preliminary Empirical Investigation and Hypotheses. Public Personnel Management, 42(1), 526. Cho, K. H. (2012). A Study on the Perception of Fairness Factors of Performance Appraisal of Public Officials. Korean Public Personnel Administration Review, 11(3), 309330.

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 31 Choi, M. H., & Jo, C. H. (2013). Empirical Analysis on the Public Service Motivation (PSM) and Job Attitudes among Korean Public Officers: Focusing on Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment. The Korean Journal of Loc al Government Studies, 17(1), 343366. Deci, E. L. (1975). Intrinsic motivation . New York: Plenum. Fazzi, G., & Zamaro, N. (2016). Exploring the interplay between leadership styles and PSM in two organisational settings. International Journal of Manpower, 37(5), 859877. Fernandez, S. and Moldogaziev, T. (2015). Employee Empowerment and Job Satisfaction in the U.S. Federal Bureaucracy: A Self Determination Theory Perspective. American Review of Public Administration, 45(4), 375–401. Giauque, D., Anderfuhren Biget, S. and V a ro ne , F. (2013). HRM practices, intrinsic motivators, and organizational performance in the public sector. Public Personnel Management, 42(2), 123150. Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1975). Development of the job diagnostic survey. Journal of Applied psychology, 60(2), 159170. Homb e r g , F ., & V o g e l, R. (2016). Hum a n r e sour c e manag e ment ( H RM) a nd public s e rvi c e motivation (PSM): Where are we, and where do we go from here? International Journal of Manpower , 37(5), 746763. Im, T., Campbell, J. W. and Jeong. J. (2013). Commitment Intensity in Public Organizations: Performance, Innovation, Leadership, and PSM. Review of Public Personnel Administration , 36(3), 219239. Ismail, H. N. (2016). Training and organizational commitment: exploring the moderating role of goal orientation in the Lebanese context, Human Resource Development

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 33 Kohn, A. (1993). Punished by rewards: The trouble with gold stars, incentive plans, A’s, praise, and other bribes . Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Kroll, A. and Vogel, D. (2014), The PSM –LEADERSHIP FIT: A Model of Performance Information Use. Public Administration , 92(4), 974–991. Kulik, C. T., Oldham, G. R., & Hackman, J. R. (1987). Work design as an approach to personenvironment fit. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 31, 278296. Lee, D. S. (2011). The Organizational Culture and Leadership of Korea's Government. Keimyung Korean Studies Journal, 42, 141176. Lee, H. J. (2016, November 1). “This is the first time in 30 years, shocked public service”. HeraldCorp. Retrieve d from http://news.heraldcorp.com/view.php?ud=20161101000299 Ministry of Personnel Management. (2017). About MPM. Retrieved from http://www.mpm.go.kr/english/about/aboutMinistry/ Moynihan D. P., Pandey S. K. (2007). The role of organizations in fostering public service motivation. Public Administration Review , 67, 40 53. Naff, K. C., & Crum, J. (1999). Working for America: Does public service motivation make a difference? Review of Public Personnel Administration , 19(4), 516. Orazi, D. C., Turrini, A., & Valotti, Giovanni. (2013). Public sector leadership: new perspectives for research and practice. International R eview of Administrative Sciences. 79(3), 486504. Park, S. (2014). Motivation of Public Managers as Raters in Performance Appraisal. Public Personnel Management, 43(4), 387 414.

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 34 Park, S. (2017). Identifying the Determinants of Perception toward the Negative Impacts of Low performers: The Case of Gyeonggi Province Local Governments. Korean Review of Organizational Studies, 14(2), 129150. Park, S. A., & Lee, H. Y. (2017). The Effect of Public Service Motivation and Performance related Rewards on Performance: Empirical Analysis of Crowding out of PSM. Korean Review of Organizational Studies , 14(2), 97128. Perry J. L., Hondeghem, A. (Eds.). (2008). Motivation in public management: The call of public service. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Perry, J. L., Hondeghem, A., & Wise, L. R. (2010). Revisiting the motivational bases of public service: Twenty years of research and an agenda for the future. Public Administration Review , 70, 681 690. Perry, J. L., & Wise, L. R. (1990). The motivational bases of public service. Public Administration Review, 50(3), 367373. Perry, J. L. (1996). Measuring public service motivation: An assessment of construct reliability and validity. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory , 6(1), 522. Poister, T. H. (2003). Measuring Performance in Public and Nonprofit Organizations . San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Ritz, A., Brewer, G.A. and Neumann, O. (2016), “Public service motivation: a systematic literature review and outlook”, Public Administration Review , 76(3), 414426. Rogers, S. (1990). Performance management in local government : Longman. Schwarz, G., Newman, A., Cooper, B., and Eva, N. (2016). Servant Leadership and Follower Job Performance: The Mediating Effect of Public Service Motivation. Public Administration , 94(4), 10251041. doi:10.1111/padm.12266

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 35 Seo, W. S. (2010). Improving Public Sector Performance Through Boosting Government Employee Morale . The Korean Institute of Public Administration. The U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board (2008). The Power of Federal Employee Engagement. The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (2016). Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey. V a nde na b eele, W . (2009). The m e diating e f f ect of job s a tis f action a nd or g a ni z a tion a l commitment on self reported performance: more robust evidence of the PSM performance relationship. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 75(1), 1134. V a nde na b eele, W . (2014). E x plaining Public S e rvi c e Motiv a tion: The Role of L ead e rship a nd Basic Needs Satisfaction. Review of Public Personnel Administration , 34(2), 153 173. Wright, B. E., Hassan, S., & Park, J. (2016). Does a public service ethic encourage ethical behavior? Public Service Motivation, Ethical leadership and the Willingness to report Ethical problems. Public Administration, 94(3), 647–663. Wright, B. E., & Pandey, S. K. (2008). Public Service Motivation and the Assumption of Person —Organization Fit: Testing the Mediating Effect of Value Congruence. Administration & Society, 40(5), 502 521. Yoon B. S., Lee, Y. A., and Lee, H. J. (2010). The Effects of Justice Perception with regard to Performance Pay System on Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: With Focus on the Police Officials’ Perceptions. The Journal of Korean Policy Studies, 10(3), 219238.

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 36 App e ndix 1. V a lidit y a nd re lia bilit y test for v a ri a bl e s Item Component IV2 IV3 IV5 M V 2 DV IV2_1 IV2_2 IV23 .840 .817 .779 .198 .219 .316 .180 .113 .087 .212 .255 .147 .106 .251 .158 IV3_1 IV3_2 IV3_3 IV3_4 IV3_5 IV3_6 IV3_7 IV3_8 IV3_9 .205 .209 .103 .036 .081 .104 .154 .062 .067 .687 .813 .835 .853 .880 .883 .790 .741 .868 .021 .166 .210 .215 .152 .169 .130 .054 .104 .230 .075 .029 .104 .169 .149 .160 .139 .096 .036 .003 .066 .045 .058 .019 .116 .142 .074 IV5_1 IV5_2 IV5_3 IV5_4 IV5_5 .082 .121 .027 .018 .180 .158 .095 .135 .295 .300 .711 .713 .708 .591 .625 .038 .182 .247 .355 .252 .237 .029 .110 .067 .051 JS_1 JS_2 JS_3 OC_1 OC_2 OC_3 OC_4 OC_5 .061 .008 .091 .058 .137 .271 .156 .183 .227 .143 .190 .115 .172 .109 .167 .172 .527 .433 .388 .057 .128 .081 .160 .186 .626 .742 .756 .609 .716 .768 .813 .763 .108 .098 .056 .509 .327 .068 .244 .295 DV_1 DV_2 DV_3 DV_4 DV_5 .011 .162 .124 .111 .079 .037 .126 .049 .044 .016 .108 .083 .088 .020 .077 .241 .257 .128 .127 .052 .671 .549 .825 .858 .806 Cronbach’s .890 .949 .799 .930 .844 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 37 Appendix 2: Pearson Correlation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 PSM 1 IV1 .235** 1 IV2 .365** .393** 1 IV3 .182** .383** .447** 1 IV4 .404** .346** .384** .445** 1 IV5 .275** .327** .380** .458** .400** 1 MV1 .139* .123 .179** .184** .043 .025 1 MV2 .471** .356** .478** .408** .622** .613** .108 1 Sex .354** .079 .181** .222** .264** .089 .030 .250** 1 Age .301** .113 .124* .180** .135* .159* .456** .224** .209** 1 Edu .132* .117 .008 .070 .101 .118 .050 .092 .008 .223** 1 Tenure .197** .198** .090 .151* .085 .159* .512** .237** .059 .814** .058 1 Currlvl .029 .083 .045 .026 .091 .043 .528** .103 .260** .131* .097 .179** 1 Affiliation .049 .060 .093 .010 .054 .141* .188** .047 .070 .127* .070 .132* .108 1 * : p<0.5, ** : p<0.01

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 38 DV: Public Service Motivation p<.10 *p<.05. **p<.01. ***p<.001. Appendix 3. Multiple regression models of PSM Model 1 Model 2 Variables (SE) (SE) Fairness of Performance Appraisal .002(.003) .002(.003) Training and Education .156*(.063) .180**(.065) Independent Variables Supervisor’s Leadership .132(.077) .169*(.081) P O Fit (Value congruence) .174**(.060) .228**(.066) Job characteristics .056(.084) .017(.087) Entrance grade level .055(.057) .043(.058) Gender .358***(.095) .413***(.100) Education level .104(.084) .099(.087) Control Variables Current grade level .170*(.082) .159(.083) Affiliation .133(.094) .148(.095) Tenure .115(.060) .092(.061) Entrance grade level IV1 .009(.046) Entrance grade level IV2 .029(.043) Interaction Terms Entrance grade level IV3 .054(.063) Entrance grade level IV4 .105 (.056) Entrance grade level IV5 .054(.067) N 161 161 R 2 .306 .325 Adj. R2 .254 .251 F 5.961 4.343 Significance .000 .000

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 39 Appendix 4: Items used in measurement instruments I nd e pe nde nt V a ri a bl e s 1. Fairness of Performance Appraisal (4) MSPB (1) How would you rate the overall fairness of performance appraisal in your organization? ( ) % (0 Completely Unfair 100 Completely Fair) (1) ( ) ? ( 3 ) ( ) % (0 100 ) (2) Seniority and Individual Performance appraisal – Seniority and Individual Performance appraisal Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree Tenure and Seniority have the strongest impact on the individual performance appraisal. ( , ) . 1 2 3 4 5 (3) Importance of factors that affect promotion Rate the importance of factors that affect promotion Unimportant 1 Somewhat unimportant 2 Neither Important nor Unimportant 3 Somewhat Important 4 Very Important 5 Job performance () Tenure and seniority (, ) Importance of current position ( bs; ) Interpersonal relationships Informal Network (old boy network, nepotism, etc.) (4) Dealing with a Poor Performer – FEVS Dealing with a Poor Performer Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree In my work unit, steps are taken to deal with a poor performer who cannot or will not improve. . 1 2 3 4 5

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 40 2. Opportunities for Training (4) – KIPA, FEVS, MSPB Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree (1) I am given a real opportunity to improve my skills in my organization. / . 1 2 3 4 5 (2) I am satisfied with the training I receive for my present job. . (3) My training needs are assessed. . (4) Rate the importance of training programs to participate Unimportant 1 Somewhat unimportant 2 Neither Important nor Unimportant 3 Somewhat Important 4 Very Important 5 Public Service Values, Public Service Ethics / / Professional development Improving Leadership Developing individual preference (Humanities, Science, and Art) Developing foreign language skills Information Technology Skills

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 41 3. Supervisor’s Leadership (7) FEVS Leadership Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree (1) My supervisor supports my need to balance work and other life issues. . 1 2 3 4 5 (2) My supervisor provides me with constructive suggestions to improve my job performance. . (3) My supervisor listens to what I have to say. . (4) My supervisor treats me with respect. . (5) My supervisor generates high levels of organizational commitment in the workforce. . (6) My supervisor generates high levels of motivation in the workforce. . (7) My supervisor communicates the goals of the organization. . (8) My supervisor communicates the priorities of the job. . (9) I have trust and confidence in my supervisor. . 4. Person Organization Fit (4) – Wright & Pandey Individual and organizational value congruence Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree (1) I find that my values and the organization’s values are very similar. . 1 2 3 4 5 (2) If the values of this organization were different, I would not be as attached to this organization. . (3) What this organization stands for is more important than my own values. .

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 42 5. Job Characteristics (5) _MSPB, Park Job Characteristics Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree (1) My job allows me to perform a variety of tasks that require a wide range of knowledge, skills, and abilities. , , . 1 2 3 4 5 (2) My job allows me to complete a single piece of work (rather than bits and pieces) from beginning to end. ( ). (3) My job has a significant positive impact on others, either within the organization or the public in general. . (4) My job gives me the freedom to make decisions regarding how I accomplish my work. . (5) I receive information about my job performance and the effectiveness of my efforts, either directly from the work itself or from others. ‘ b?q . Job Satisfaction (3) FEVS Job Satisfaction Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree (1) My work gives me a feeling of personal accomplishment. . 1 2 3 4 5 (2) I like the kind of work I do. . (3) Considering everything, I am satisfied with my job. , . Organizational Commitment (5) Meyer, Allen, and Smith (1993). (Benkhoff, 1997), FEVS Organizational Commitment Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree (1) I am willing to put in a great deal of effort beyond that what is normally expected in order to help this organization to be successful. . 1 2 3 4 5 (2) I am proud to tell others that I am part of this organization. . (3) I recommend my organization as a good place to work. . (4) I feel ‘emotionally attached’ to this organization. . (5) I feel a strong sense of belonging to my organization. .

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 43 D e pe nde nt V a ri a bl e s (5) Public Service Motivation – Wright & Pandey, Alonso & Lewis, 2001 Public Service Motivation Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree (1) Meaningful public service is very important to me. . 1 2 3 4 5 (2) I am often reminded by daily events about how dependent we are on one another. . (3) Making a difference in society means more to me than personal achievements. . (4) I am prepared to make enormous sacrifices for the good of society. . (5) I am not afraid to go to bat for the rights of others, even if it means that I will be ridiculed. . (Extra Question) What do you think is the most important factor to motivate Public Servant in Korea? Pick three factors. 1 ( ) 2 ( ) 3 ( ) ( ) ? 3 . KIPA 1) Raise payment 2) Improving Supervisor’s leadership 3) Fairness of promotion 4) Fairness of Performance Appraisal 5) Fairness of Pay for Performance 6) Fairness of Career Advancement ( , ) 7) Increasing Opportunities for Developing oneself and Qualities of Training Program 8) Empowerment 9) Work Environment (physical conditions, flexible work schedules) ( , ) 10) Enriching Public Service Pension 11) Welfare Service ( ) 12) Protecting whistleblowers 13) Securing Union Activities 14) Operating Prize system fairly

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 44 Demographics (7) 1. ? 1) 2) 3) 1. What is your gender? 1) Male 2) Female 3) Other 2. ? 2. What is your age? ( ) 3. ? 1) 2) 2 3) 4 4) 5) 3. What is your current education level? 1) High school diploma or less 2) Associates’ college degree 3) Bachelor’s degree 4) Master’s degree 5) Academic or scientific doctorate (Ph.D.) 4. ? 1) 2) ( ) 3) ( ) 4) 5) 4. Which agency are you affiliated at this moment? 1) Ministry of Personnel Management 2) Central agency in Seoul (Including Gwacheon) 3) Central agency in Sejong city (except MPM) 4) Central agency in Daejeon 5) Other ( ) 5. ? 1) 1 5 2) 6 10 3) 1115 4) 1620 5) 20 5. How many years have you been a civil service employee? 1) 1 5 years 2) 6 10 years 3) 1115 years 4) 1620 years 5) more than 20 years 6. ? ( ) 6. What was the grade when you first entered the public service? Grade ( ) 7. ? ( ) 7. What is your current grade? Grade ( )

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 45 Appendix 5: Interview protocol OPM #1. Are there any factors that evaluate the applicant's public service values in the recruitment process in OPM? How do you use those factors in the recruitment process? #2. What are the criteria that OPM focuses on when evaluating performance of employees? If you have some factors to evaluate employees’ public service values, how are those factors used in the evaluation process? #21. In conjunction with question # 2, is there any incentive for employees with high public service values? In other words, what would be the incentives that an employee who got a high score for public service values in the evaluation process can get? #3. How often are the training programs provided to employees regarding improving public service values? Are those programs mandatory or optional? #4. Are there other OPM’s efforts to motivate employees other than promotion or remuneration? #5. I would like to ask you if you have good ideas to reflect public service values of employees on the whole human resources management process. #6. How do employees in your office respond to the boss's orders that they think are not unlawful but unfair? #7. I would like to know about your leadership education program. Background for questionnaires The Korean government is verifying the applicant's public service values through typified questions in interviews when recruiting them. However, the motivation of young public servants has gradually weakened due to the seniority based performance evaluation culture and it is prevalent among younger generations these days to seek their personal well being first rather than public interest as they will not get incentives even though they perform their best at work.

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 46 Ap pendix 6: Areas of course competencies The author of this capstone project took Accelerated Master of Public Administration (AMPA) program at School of Public Affairs, University of Colorado Denver, from fall 2016 to spring 2017. The course was composed of nine courses, which provided most important and basic skills and knowledge about public administration and policy. In carrying out this capstone project, it is obvious that these courses helped in many ways such as choosing and applying research methods and understanding the basic concepts of public administration. Here is some evidence. Competency 1. To lead and manage in public governance From Introduction to Public Administration and Public Service (PUAD 5001) course, the author could understand the unique context of public sector and current issues of public administration such as Public Service Motivation (PSM), job satisfaction, ad organizational commitment. As those concepts are the main issues of this capstone project, this course gave the author a solid foundation in investigating these topics. This course also helped applying other basic knowledge about human resources management, organizational theory, and behavior to organizational improvement to the real field in South Korea by using a textbook “Politics of the Administrative Process” by Donald F. Kettl. Organizational Management and Behavior (5002) course also provided some background knowledge about organizational management so that the author could design this project in a better way and make suggestions to the client based on those theories. From Public Service Leadership (5006) course, the author learned about transformational leadership which was one of the independent variables of this project. As this project argued a lot about leadership in public organization, this course was helpful for the author to design and analyze the survey and to make some suggestions regarding public service leadership.

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 47 Competency 3. To analyze, synthesize, think critically, solve problems and make decisions The author took Research and Analytic Methods (PUAD 5003) course in the third quarter. This was the most significant course among all the other courses because the knowledge and skills about the methods the author used in this project were all from this course. The author ran a T test to find out if there is any significant difference in PSM between two groups. The author also ran a multiple regression to define if each independent variable has a significant influence on the dependent variable. The instructor of this course helped the author to use a more advanced skill such as interpreting the moderating effect in analyzing the data, so the project could make more abundant discussion about the relation between the independent variables and the dependent variables. Overall, the author could use appropriate research methods to analyze data through this course. Those statistical skills were surely essential for performing this project. Evidence Based Decision Making (P UAD 5008) course provided skills about designing a survey, sampling, data collection and the role of evidence in decision making. Competency 4. To articulate and apply a public service perspective Introduction to Public Administration and Public Service (PUAD 5001) course provided fundamental knowledge about a public service perspective. There were assignments called ‘reading analysis’ and the author wrote about workplace motivation and the morale of public officials, which is a similar topic to this project. Thus, the author could practice and think deeply about the public service area through these assignments. In addition, the textbook of this course explained a lot about public service values and integrity so that the author could use the knowledge in interviewing public officials. Competency 5. To communicate and interact productively with a diverse and changing workforce and citizenry

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WORKPL ACE PERCEP T I O N S A N D PUBL I C S E R V I CE 48 Most courses demanded the author to work in teams and make presentations occasionally in front of the cohorts. That made the author appreciate the value of diverse viewpoints and communicate effectively in a spoken format which helped the author make an oral presentation for the project. Especially, the author could practice communicating effectively in writing through Grant writing for the Nonprofit and Public Sector (PUAD 5115) course. In addition, through all the courses in AMPA program, the author practiced how to do literature review and how to write in APA style, which helped the author to develop the ability to write in an academical way.

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Form Name: capstone repository permission Submission Time: December 18, 2017 4:33 am Browser: Mozilla rv:11.0 / Windows IP Address: 68.175.3.216 Unique ID: 372110080 Location: 40.77619934082, 73.954803466797 Description Area SCHOOL OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS ELECTRONIC CAPSTONE REPOSITORY Description Area Dear Capstone Author and Capstone Client:The Auraria Library Digital Library Program is a nonprofit center responsible for the collection and preservation of digital resources for education.The caps tone project, protected by your copyright, and/or created under the supervision of the client has been identified as important to the educational mission of the University of Colorado Denver and Auraria Library.The University of Colorado Denver and Auraria Library respectfully requests nonexclusive rights to digitize the capstone project for Internet distribution in image and text formats for an unlimited term. Digitized versions will be made available via the Internet, for onand off line educational use, with a statement identifying your rights as copyright holder and the terms of the grant of permissions.Please review, sign and return the follow Grant of Permissions. Please do not hesitate to call me or email your questions.Sincerely,Matthew C . MarinerAuraria LibraryDigital Collections ManagerMatthew.mariner@ucdenver.edu303.556.5817 Grant of Permissions Description Area In reference to the following title(s): Author (Student Name) Wonki Hong Title (Capstone Project Title) Workplace Perceptions and Public Service Motivation: The Moderating Roles of Entrance grade level to public service: With focus on the employees of the Korean central government agencies Publication Date 2018 I am the: Author (student) Description Area As copyright holder or licensee with the authority to grant copyright permissions for the aforementioned title(s), I hereby authorize Auraria Library and University of Colorado Denver to digitize, distribute, and archive the title(s) for nonprofit, educational purposes via the Internet or successive technologies.

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Description Area This is a nonexclusive grant of permissions for online and off line use for an indefinite term. Off line uses shall be consistent either for educational uses, with the terms of U.S. copyright legislation's "fair use" provisions or, by the University of Colorado Denver and/or Auraria Library, with the maintenance and preservation of an archival copy. Digitization allows the University of Colorado Denver and/or Auraria Library to generate imageand text based versions as appropriate and to provide and enhance access using search software. This grant of permissions prohibits use of the digitized versions for commercial use or profit. Date 18 DEC 2017 Email Address ATTENTION Description Area Grant of Permissions is provided to: Auraria Digital Library Program / Matthew C. MarinerAuraria Library1100 Lawrence | Denver, CO 80204matthew.mariner@ucdenver.edu3035565817 Signature Your Name SUNGHEE PARK

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Form Name: capstone repository permission Submission Time: December 5, 2017 11:14 am Browser: Chrome 62.0.3202.94 / Windows IP Address: 132.194.33.156 Unique ID: 369280000 Location: 39.736999511719, 105.02030181885 Description Area SCHOOL OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS ELECTRONIC CAPSTONE REPOSITORY Description Area Dear Capstone Author and Capstone Client:The Auraria Library Digital Library Program is a nonprofit center responsible for the collection and preservation of digital resources for education.The caps tone project, protected by your copyright, and/or created under the supervision of the client has been identified as important to the educational mission of the University of Colorado Denver and Auraria Library.The University of Colorado Denver and Auraria Library respectfully requests nonexclusive rights to digitize the capstone project for Internet distribution in image and text formats for an unlimited term. Digitized versions will be made available via the Internet, for onand off line educational use, with a statement identifying your rights as copyright holder and the terms of the grant of permissions.Please review, sign and return the follow Grant of Permissions. Please do not hesitate to call me or email your questions.Sincerely,Matthew C . MarinerAuraria LibraryDigital Collections ManagerMatthew.mariner@ucdenver.edu303.556.5817 Grant of Permissions Description Area In reference to the following title(s): Author (Student Name) Wonki Hong Title (Capstone Project Title) Workplace perceptions and Public Service Motivation: An empirical analysis of Korean publ ic service employees Publication Date 12/4/17 I am the: Author (student) Description Area As copyright holder or licensee with the authority to grant copyright permissions for the aforementioned titl e(s), I hereby authorize Auraria Library and University of Colorado Denver to digitize, distribute, and archive the title(s) for nonprofit, educational purposes via the Internet or successive technologies.

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Description Area This is a nonexclusive grant of permissions for online and off line use for an indefinite term. Off line uses shall be consistent either for educational uses, with the terms of U.S. copyright legislation's "fair use" provisions or, by the University of Colorado Denver and/or Auraria Library, with the maintenance and preservation of an archival copy. Digitization allows the University of Colorado Denver and/or Auraria Library to generate i mageand text based versions as appropriate and to provide and enhance access using search software. This grant of permissions prohibits use of the digitized versions for commercial use or profit. Date 12/5/17 Email Address ATTENTION Description Area Grant of Permissions is provided to: Auraria Digital Library Program / Matthew C. MarinerAuraria Library1100 Lawrence | Denver, CO 80204matthew.mariner@ucdenver.edu3035565817 Signature Your Name Wonki Hong