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Women & higher education leadership : the effects of mentorship on family systems & the transmission of familial funds of knowledge

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Title:
Women & higher education leadership : the effects of mentorship on family systems & the transmission of familial funds of knowledge
Creator:
Mondragon, Brie Ann Nicole
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of arts)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
School of Education and Human Development, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Education and human development
Committee Chair:
Anguiano, Ruben P. Viramontez
Committee Members:
Harrison, Sarah
Heaton, Christy

Notes

Abstract:
This thesis examined how mentorship affects the family of women in higher education leadership positions and how the spread of mentorship values and teachings convert into familial Funds of Knowledge. The findings and data were examined using Ecological Systems Theory, Family Systems Theory, and Funds of Knowledge. The guiding research questions were: How do lessons from mentorship about education transform into familial Funds of Knowledge; and What are the positive and negative effects of mentorship for women in higher education leadership positions and how does it affect their family? Three overarching themes arose from the data analysis: coaching, fictive kin and sisterhood, and the use of capital to transform the family narrative and Funds of Knowledge. Through the use of one-on-one qualitative interviews, the research discovered that these women have been able to internalize and process the lessons they learned through the process of mentorship (both as mentors and mentees) to coach, guide, and support their families and the decisions they make, change their family’s narratives around higher education, and create their own family network, or fictive kin, at their institution and throughout their ecological systems.

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University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
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Copyright Brie Ann Nicole Mondragon. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
WOMEN & HIGHER EDUCATION LEADERSHIP: THE EFFECTS OF MENTORSHIP ON FAMILY SYSTEMS & THE TRANSMISSION OF FAMILIAL FUNDS OF KNOWLEDGE
by
BRIE ANN NICOLE MONDRAGON B.S., University of Colorado Denver 2018
A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Arts Education and Human Development Program
2019


This thesis for the Master of Arts Degree by Brie Ann Nicole Mondragon has been approved for the Education and Human Development program by
Ruben P. Viramontez Anguiano, Chair Sarah Harrison Christy Heaton
Date: April 18, 2019
n


Mondragon, Brie Ann Nicole (M.A., Education and Human Development Program)
Women & Higher Education Leadership: The Effects of Mentorship on Family Systems & the
Transmission of Familial Funds of Knowledge
Thesis directed by Professor Ruben P. Viramontez Anguiano
ABSTRACT
This thesis examined how mentorship affects the family of women in higher education leadership positions and how the spread of mentorship values and teachings convert into familial Funds of Knowledge. The findings and data were examined using Ecological Systems Theory, Family Systems Theory, and Funds of Knowledge. The guiding research questions were: How do lessons from mentorship about education transform into familial Funds of Knowledge; and What are the positive and negative effects of mentorship for women in higher education leadership positions and how does it affect their family? Three overarching themes arose from the data analysis: coaching, fictive kin and sisterhood, and the use of capital to transform the family narrative and Funds of Knowledge. Through the use of one-on-one qualitative interviews, the research discovered that these women have been able to internalize and process the lessons they learned through the process of mentorship (both as mentors and mentees) to coach, guide, and support their families and the decisions they make, change their family’s narratives around higher education, and create their own family network, or fictive kin, at their institution and throughout their ecological systems.
This form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Ruben P. Viramontez Anguiano
m


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Mom and Dad, thank you so much for supporting me through my educational journey and through every part of my life. You both are my best friends and I love you both so much. Thank you for always loving me, supporting me, and giving me pep talks when I needed it. I’m so thankful for you. I love you! We did it!
Joe, there are not enough words to express how thankful I am for your support through this journey. You’ve watched me struggle and work for hours and hours on end, and you’ve always been so motivating and loving even when I was cranky. I can’t wait to see where life takes us now that we’re both finished. I can’t believe that 9 years ago I was just starting my educational career, and now I’m graduating with my MA! I love you so much. Thank you for being you. You are my best friend. I’m so proud of you.
Maddie, Jen and Taylor- Squirrel Team 6! I would have seriously lost it without you three.
Thank you for always making me laugh and pumping me up when all I wanted to do was flop. You three are my best friends and I’m so thankful that you walked alongside me in this journey.
Thesis Committee- Dr. Ruben, Dr. Sarah, Dr. Christy, thank you so much for agreeing to be on my committee and assist in my educational development. I picked you because I knew that you would be supportive yet still challenging. Dr. Ruben (school dad), you’ve been my mentor for the past few years and I would not be here without your guidance. Thank you so much for always believing in me and supporting me. Dr. Sarah, thank you for inspiring my interest in this topic and being so calm throughout the whole process. Dr. Christy, you are the best boss and I’m so thankful that you’ve been so flexible and understanding of me through this process. You all are the best. Thank you.
Special thank you: SEHD, Jenn, Norma, Hatfields, and Clarks.
IV


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION.........................................................1
Overview ...........................................................1
Purpose of the Study................................................1
Guiding Research Questions .........................................2
Personal Identification of the Topic ...............................2
II. LITERATURE REVIEW ...................................................3
Introduction .......................................................3
Conceptual Framework ...............................................4
Higher Education Leadership .......................................10
Family Support & Funds of Knowledge............................... 11
How Colleges Support Women Leaders & their Families................15
Trends in the Literature & Needs for Further Research..............17
Conclusion........................................................ 17
III. PUBLISHABLE MANUSCRIPT .............................................18
Abstract...........................................................18
Introduction ......................................................19
Literature Review .................................................19
Family Support & Funds of Knowledge............................ 19
Mentorship......................................................20
Conceptual Framework............................................21
Methods ...........................................................23
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Guiding Research Questions.........................................23
Sample.............................................................23
Interview Protocol.................................................24
Data Collection....................................................25
Data Analysis......................................................25
Findings .............................................................26
Coaching...........................................................27
Using Capital to Transform the Family Narrative....................31
Fictive Kin and Sisterhood.........................................35
Discussion............................................................38
Strengths and Limitations..........................................39
Implications for Practice and Future Research......................40
Conclusion ...........................................................41
IV. DISCUSSION............................................................44
Discussion............................................................44
Strengths and Limitations..........................................45
Implications for Policy and Practice...............................46
Conclusion ...........................................................47
REFERENCES...................................................................48
APPENDICES ..................................................................52
A. COMIRB Approval Form.................................................52
B. Informed Consent Form ...............................................53
C. Interview Guide .....................................................56
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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Overview
The purpose of this thesis was to examine how mentorship affects the family of women in higher education leadership positions (both positively and negatively) and how the transmission of mentorship values and teachings transform into familial Funds of Knowledge. The findings and data were examined using Ecological Systems Theory, Family Systems Theory, and attempt to begin to fill in the gaps on Funds of Knowledge. The guiding research questions were: How do lessons from mentorship about education transform into familial Funds of Knowledge; and What are the positive and negative effects of mentorship for women in higher education leadership positions and how does it affect their family? This qualitatively-based thesis used four semi-structured interviews and then data mined the transcripts to find common themes. Purpose of the Study
This project aimed to study how mentorship affects women in higher education leadership positions at a higher education institution in the Midwest United States, and how the act of being mentored affects their families- specifically how the knowledge gained from mentorship turns into Funds of Knowledge and transfers to the family. This research addresses gaps in the literature about Funds of Knowledge and inclusive educational and familial policies. Qualitative data was obtained through one-on-one interviews, and as such this research qualifies as human subjects research. This research was completed with approval from the COMIRB from the University of Colorado Denver. Coding and other qualitative analysis was used to identify themes and categories.
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Guiding Research Questions
This study is guided by two research questions:
1. How do lessons from mentorship about education transform into familial Funds of Knowledge?
2. What are the positive and negative effects of mentorship for women in higher education leadership positions and how does it affect their family?
Personal Identification of the Topic
This topic is extremely important to me because of my mother, Dr. Sandy Snyder-Mondragon. From a young age, my mother told me that pursuing an education was one of the most powerful and important things that women can do for themselves, granted they have access to the resources necessary to pursue higher education. She instilled in me the values of education, collectivistic progress in higher education administration, and honest hard work. This thesis is respectfully dedicated to her and her pursuit of education and the fact that it helped shape me in to the woman I am today. My career in higher education is not for her, but because of her. I’m forever thankful that we share the same passion- helping students succeed and achieve their educational goals.
In addition to my mother, my educational mentors have had a massive effect on my future career and educational goals. Dr. Ruben Viramontez Anguiano and Jenn Grieving have been instrumental in my pursuit of knowledge and education and are the reason that I chose to focus on mentorship. I have internalized their lessons about education, leadership, and mentorship into my own form of cultural capital and have shared those lessons with my family and friends. Without my mentors, I simply would not be here.
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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
Introduction
This literature review will present the research about this subject in a thoughtful and carefully planned manner. First, key terms will be defined to further solidify common knowledge of the topic, and the purpose of the review will be explained. Next, the three theoretical frameworks, Ecological Systems Theory/Human Ecological Theory, Family Systems Theory, and Funds of Knowledge will be defined, linked to the subject, and rationalized for the review. After that, the review will delve into family support and Funds of Knowledge, including a brief section on mentorship and family structure. Finally, the examination will cover how colleges support women leaders through various programs and initiatives. The examination will conclude with a personal experience and professional application, trends in the literature, areas that need further research, and a conclusion.
An important portion of this literature review are the key terms introduced in the abstract. The key terms for this review include leadership, higher education, Family Systems Theory, Ecological Systems Theory, and Funds of Knowledge. Leadership will be defined as the role an individual (in this case, someone that identifies as a woman) takes when in a position to unify, inspire others, and construct a course of action to collectively meet team objectives (Ferrara & LaMeau, 2015). Leadership also encompasses activities, an interpersonal relationship with followers or coworkers, strategic strategies and planning, communication, transformative practices, and influence on others (McDade, Nooks, King, Sloma-Williams, Chuang, Richman,
& Morahan, 2009). Higher education institutions will be defined as:
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“Any United States education institution that admits regular students that have a certificate of graduation from a school that provides secondary education; is legally authorized by the State to provide postsecondary education; provides educational programs and degrees and awards a Bachelor’s degree or produces a not less than a two-year program that can be used for full credit towards a Bachelor’s degree; is a public or nonprofit institution; and is accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or organization or has been granted preaccreditation status” (1998 Amendments to the Higher Education Act of 1965, 1998).
Family Systems Theory, Ecological Systems Theory, and Funds of Knowledge will be defined in their respective sections. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on how mentorship for women in higher education leadership positions affects their family (both positively and negatively) and how these ideas about mentorship transform into familial Funds of Knowledge.
Conceptual Framework
Ecological Systems Theory. Ecological Systems Theory, made popular by Urie Bronfenbrenner in the 1970’s, focuses its scope of investigation on the interactions and layers of interdependence between humans as biological and social beings and their surrounding and intertwined environments (Bronfenbrenner, 1977). This theory, which can also be called Human Ecological Theory, often criticized for being too broad and multifaceted, chooses to delve into the interrelatedness between “systems” intertwined with individual humans, families, or groups (Smith & Ham on, 2017). It provides a rationale for how the subject’s systems interact with each other to influence not only the individual or family in question, but how the individual or family influences their concentric systems (Bronfenbrenner, 1977). While Bronfenbrenner has been
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credited as the creator of this theory, its roots were created by Ellen Swallow Richards, who developed the field of human ecology/oekology in order to improve people’s lives within their respective environments (Smith & Hamon, 2017).
The systems involved in this theory include the microsystem, mesosystem, macrosystem, exosystem, and chronosystem; Bronfenbrenner added the chronosystem at a later date to provide a more well-rounded structure for the theory and to investigate changes over time and how they affect developing individuals (Bronfenbrenner, 1977). The microsystem can be thought of as the immediate environment around the individual or family in focus and should be used as the “base point” for the developing individual/family (Smith & Hamon, 2017). This can include the direct links with the woman in the leadership position in a higher education environment; it can encompass her family, friends, and workplace. The mesosystem refers to the links between two or more microsystems and can be used to examine how outside individuals can influence the focus individual/family (Smith & Hamon, 2017). For example, the mesosystem could include the woman having to bring her child to work to access in-house daycare facilities. The exosystem encompasses environments that the focus subject(s) don’t directly interact with but may affect their development and their immediate environment (Smith & Hamon, 2017). An example of the exosystem is the woman’s work environment and how it affects her partner when she gets home at the end of the day. The macrosystem includes cultures, attitudes, ideologies, and can be thought of as the “laws of the land” that the individual or family participate in (Smith & Hamon, 2017). An obvious example of the macrosystem is the fact that recent historical changes have protected women in higher education institutions from sex-based discrimination, thus allowing them the freedom to pursue their career of choice. Finally, the chronosystem contains major societal and world changes over time, which can include social, cultural, and/or economic
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changes and transitions (Bronfenbrenner, 1977). Changes in the law over time can also be recognized in the chronosystem.
Ecological Systems Theory is especially useful when examining the literature on women in leadership roles in higher education environments. As stated above, women were allowed their legal rights to pursue an education, a career, or even vote. These major political changes constitute part of any woman’s macrosystem and/or chronosystem. The jobs that women have and the leadership positions that they fulfill are a part of their microsystem, since they interact with their coworkers, peers, and (potentially) other businesses on a daily basis. Various forms of discrimination are interwoven throughout every environmental system, and women may experience these at every different sphere of their lives. Ecological Systems Theory can be implemented when discussing the relationships that women in leadership have with their families and children, if they so choose to procreate and have families. Since this thesis investigates the effects mentorship has on the families on women in higher education leadership positions and how mentorship has changed their lives and careers, this theory is critical to support the literature.
Family Systems Theory. Family Systems Theory, made popular by Murray Bowen and developed in the 1960s, states that families should be viewed as systems with complex interwoven parts, and that individual members of the family interact with each other, have certain complex behaviors, and have some degree of interdependence (Bowen, 1974, as cited in Chibucos, Leidy, & Weis, 2005). The key concepts of the theory include interdependent components, inputs/outputs, boundaries, a hierarchy of systems, rules, goals, feedback mechanisms, nonsummativity, change, and equifinality (Chibucos et. al., 2005). The theory also has some basic assumptions: that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts, that individual
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and family behavior must be understood within the context of a certain situation or environment, that a family is a goal-seeking system, a family is self-reflexive and capable of regulating itself as a system, a family is continually influenced by feedback (both negative and positive), that family systems are defined by their ways and processes of communication, and that the locus of pathology is not within the person but is a system of disfunction (Smith & Hamon, 2017). Family Systems Theory is often using in family/couples’ therapy and counseling, but it applies to this situation as well because a component of this review is to inquire into how mentorship affects the family of the woman occupying a higher education leadership position.
Family Systems Theory is commonly used in conjunction with Ecological Systems Theory (Chen, Hughes, & Austin, 2017). Since the purpose of this review is to investigate into how mentorship affects the woman’s family, it is important to include this theory. Families are interconnected systems that impact each individual member, and effects that the woman in question faces will in turn influence each member; no family system can separate itself from the impacts of the culture that they participate in or the intersections of race, gender, or income (Chen et. al., 2017).
Funds of Knowledge. Funds of Knowledge, while most commonly used in the teaching context, are a great way to examine how an individual’s ways of knowing are shaped through and by their community, environment, and family influence (Esteban-Guitart & Moll, 2014a). Funds of Knowledge are defined as social skills and “real-world” knowledge of how to perform actions, carry one’s self, and navigate through various situations based on familial context (Esteban-Guitart & Moll, 2014a). Funds of Knowledge are not just metaphysical actions, beliefs, and information; they have been passed down the family (sometimes for generations) as a type of tool for the individual to use as they see fit (Esteban-Guitart & Moll, 2014a). Funds of
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Knowledge can also be defined by the community context and is often used to support educational advancements (Esteban-Guitart & Moll, 2014a). These “nuggets of wisdom” include family traditions, cultural expectations, and family values (Esteban-Guitart & Moll, 2014a).
While this concept is certainly not new, the research on it is, and there is a need for scholars and researchers to apply Funds of Knowledge as a framework to various environments, types of families, and communities. The researcher was unable to find published research on Funds of Knowledge and how they are absorbed from higher education mentorship. Since there is a lack of published data on how familial funds of knowledge about education and leadership are passed on to women’s families, this thesis uses qualitative research to begin the process of filling in the gaps in the literature.
Rationale & Connection between Theories. Ecological Systems theory, Family Systems Theory, and Funds of Knowledge work in tandem to create a strong framework because a systems perspective is the most comprehensive way to gather as much relevant information as possible about the woman, her family, her role in her respective family, how culture and various systems influence her decisions, and how her Funds of Knowledge apply to her family system. Funds of Knowledge are passed down through the family, and the family’s structure and dynamics (as investigated through the use of Family Systems Theory), may influence which Funds of Knowledge the woman passes on about higher education. She may influence and be influenced by her various ecological systems, which in turn affect her family through the use of Ecological Systems Theory and Family Systems Theory. While commonly used together, Ecological Systems Theory and Family Systems Theory provide support and assist in the use of Funds of Knowledge as both a framework and a key term due to the lack of current research on the subject.
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These theories are also connected through a common medium- family. The figure below (Figure 1) provides a visual representation of how these theories connect to apply to women in higher education leadership positions and family support. Below is the basic pictorial representation of Ecological Systems Theory, and to the right is a highly generalized family structure that includes the woman in the higher education leadership position. It is worth mentioning that part of the expectation behind the family tree portion of the figure is that the family tree is defined by the woman- she does not need to include every family member and can define family in her own way. Her spot in the family tree is linked to the center of the microsystem, and the arrow in-between the charts is used to represent the chronosystem. The theory behind this arrow is that familial Funds of Knowledge are passed through the family (dependent on family structure) through the microsystem, since some Funds of Knowledge are generational. The family structure can also interfere and intersect which Funds of Knowledge the woman in the leadership position passes on, and to whom. This thesis examines what happens to the woman’s ecological systems and family systems and how she passes on Funds of Knowledge, so this conceptual framework is necessary for the review and following research.
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Figure 1.
-—“"MACROSYSTEM ■"
Attitudes and id«olofi«s of the culture
EXOSYSTEM
MESOSYSTEM
Industry
.Social service!
MICROSYSTEM
Family
INDIVIDUAL (sex. afe. health, etc.)
Neighbor Si
local politics
Grandparent
Mother
Uncle (sibling)
Woman in higher education
Sister (sibing)
Cousin
Higher Education Leadership
It is important to begin this section with a brief background and some basic information about higher education leadership and the roles that women take in these positions. As noted below, there is a gendered wage gap between men and women in multiple countries across the world, including the United States. Part of this could be attributed to the five common barriers that hinder women in trying to reach leadership positions in higher education institutions: work relationships, the environment of the college or university, invisible rules that are unbeknownst to the woman, proactivity issues, and personal circumstances (Airini, Codings, Conner, McPherson, Midson, & Wilson, 2010). Despite women occupying a greater number of college and university presidential roles, the percentage of women in these roles is still miniscule when compared to men (Bornstein, 2007). As of 2016, women only occupy 30% of presidential roles in higher education institutions (American Council on Education, 2017). Oppressive barriers that prevent women from reaching these positions may include the male-dominated workplace, which
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can hinder their potential and drive to provide quality leadership or to exercise their authoritative right over their peers and coworkers due to intimidation, being uncomfortable, or discreet sexism in the workplace (Neigel, 2015). It is imperative that higher education environments promote a supportive environment for these women through the use of direction to leadership opportunities and advancement, assisting in the destruction of barriers to help them reach their leadership goals, and creating programs to assist in the development of leadership and mentorship skills (Redmond, Gutke, Galligan, Howard, & Newman, 2016).
Family Support & Funds of Knowledge
Funds of Knowledge Overview. There is insufficient research on how Funds of Knowledge about education are passed down through the family; instead, most of the research is about how schools can use a student’s Funds of Knowledge to better generate a curriculum and positive and supportive learning environment to build on these Funds of Knowledge (Esteban-Guitart & Moll, 2014b). Undeniably, most of the research on how family values about education for women are passed down are usually from a deficit-based perspective that focuses on family and cultural values that prevent the woman from branching out; one article mentions that conservative cultures focus more on family-oriented work for women instead of encouraging her to pursue an education or a career (Mateju, Smith, Weidnerova, & Anyzova, 2017). Most other research focuses on parental practices and how they raise socially aware children due to the parents’ social class influencing the child’s potential class-related outcome, and while there is a mention of family values and funds of knowledge, there is little information on how these values about education are passed directly to women (Irwin & Elley, 2011).
Conversely, one article discussed how Funds of Knowledge about educational ideologies transferred in Mexican-American families through the use of Funds of Knowledge as a
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theoretical framework (Kiyama, 2010). This article stated that families pass down this information through forming and maintaining positive and helpful ideologies about education that expressly detail the college-going process, by drawing information about college from things like social networks and college-related symbols (such as class rings or college sports teams), and by discussing the realities of going to college (Kiyama, 2010). In addition to these activities, families also utilize consejos, or “advice-giving narratives” about the importance of education and the family’s expectations about their child’s education (Delgado-Gaitan, 1994, as cited in Kiyama, 2010).
An important component of Funds of Knowledge is the oral facet (Olmedo, 1997). Oral history delivered down the family through generations can also contribute to a family member’s intersectional way of knowing through these oral Funds of Knowledge. In particular, in LatinX families (in the case of the article referenced, Puerto Rican families), the oral history and connection to an elder in the family can provide a connection of knowledge between generations and provide a more supportive family network for all participants of the family, regardless of age (Olmedo, 1997). Children can then take these Funds of Knowledge and apply them against historical information in their education, which can then support them in creating their own Funds of Knowledge about a particular topic (Olmedo, 1997). Finally, this oral transmission of Funds of Knowledge can create social and cultural capital for various family members (Olmedo, 1997). These aspects can combine to support the woman into how she expresses herself intersectionally through sustenance from her family’s Funds of Knowledge.
Family Structure. The “mommy track” is the most commonly used stereotype for women that choose to have an advanced career with leadership roles instead of raising a family. This outdated stereotype absolutely does not accurately investigate or represent modern
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American women and how they find balance between their careers in higher education (and in general) and their ability to have a family. Research has shown that women find a balance between their personal and professional lives while remaining competent in their treatment to their coworkers and peers, are flexible with commitments to work and family, and practice teamwork both at home and at work (Janaina Raquel dos Santos Canabarro & Salvagni, 2015).
It is also important to investigate how relationships between partners and spouses are affected when the woman reaches or occupies a leadership role. Sometimes, the superior status of the woman may cause their spouses (who are often male husbands) to feel uneasy with the idea of deviating from modem American sex and gender roles at home (Cheung & Halpern, 2010). In supportive and healthy marriages (in this case, a marriage between a man and a woman, as defined in the study), the husbands partook in more housework, child care, and provided their wives with emotional support and positive encouragement about their career and workload (Cheung & Halpern, 2010). These husbands also tend to hold more egalitarian views toward their marriage, women, and the split of work in the home (Cheung & Halpern, 2010). They also disregard the traditional patriarchal views as the norm in their family, and do not feel threatened by their wife’s power and the reversal of traditional gender roles (Cheung & Halpern, 2010).
When the researchers asked the women in the partnerships (who were still happily married at the end of the study) what they valued in their marriages, most replied that their relationships became stronger due to the change in her career role (Cheung & Halpern, 2010). They exhibited healthy couple behaviors, including owning responsibility for their own actions, having similar relationship goals, encouraging each other and accepting perceived flaws, being fully committed to their marriage, staying empathetic with each other when times were tough, practicing positive
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communication, showing a willingness to discuss their relationships, and navigate conflict resolution in a safe, healthy manner (Cheung & Halpern, 2010).
If a family chooses to have children, child care can affect the woman’s role in a leadership position in a higher education institution. Women in these positions tend to rely on multiple levels and sources of assistance, including spousal support, extended family and kinship networks, and sometimes hired help (Cheung & Halpern, 2010). The couples’ extended family, in particular, has been shown to be a massive help with child care and household chores if both parents are working (Cheung & Halpern, 2010). This level directly interacts with the woman’s microsystem since she is relying on those close to her for help. In relation to Family Systems Theory, the extended kinship networks work together to provide a supportive family environment to support the partners and their child (or children). This will also ripple out through each individual person’s ecological systems and their own families. Every action that a family member makes affects the others.
While the majority of this literature review is based on research that assumes the family is nuclear in shape and is constituted as what would be defined of as a “typical American family” or “benchmark family”, it is important to note that not all families have the same structure, and non-traditional families are just as important to investigate when considering women in leadership positions in higher education institutions. Stephens includes the following definitions of a non-traditional family:
“. . . the nontraditional family definitions such as single parent families might come to mind or step family, one parent with child(ren), a cohabiting couple with children, same sex family, a single person who either adopts or decides to have a baby without the benefit of marriage, or a single person with god children” (2013).
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It is also important to note that a family (or non-traditional family) does not need to have children to be defined as a family. Families come in many different shapes, sizes, orientations, and structures.
By using Family Systems Theory, we can conclude that since every family has a different structure, then the role of the woman in the higher education leadership position may vary by family structure. If she has children, she may act as a mother, which may shape her work life and her relationship with her partner(s), if applicable. She may live at home to support her aging parents and set money aside to pay for their care. She may be a single mother that relies on her family, kinship networks, and fictive kin for childcare. Families are complex, interwoven systems, and regardless of structure, having a stable support system both at home and at her workplace are factors that can support her, encourage her to reach for her goals, and succeed in her leadership position. One aspect of family is fictive kin, and the woman may choose to define important people in her life as family, including mentors in her workplace.
How Colleges Support Women Leaders & their Families
Mentorship. Mentorship in higher education institutions is typically a process where one individual that is normally of a higher rank and has documented achievements and successes in the institution and throughout their career guides the development of an individual (Savage,
Karp, & Logue, 2004). One thing that faculty members can do to support a comprehensive and supportive learning environment for incoming coworkers and fellow leaders is to assist in the development of knowledge about how to balance the professional and personal life, especially for women and women of color. Not all mentees have the same family structure or life, so maintaining awareness about familial and cultural diversity within the faculty network can
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ensure the removal of some potential institutional, cultural, and social barriers for women leaders at higher education institutions (Savage et. al., 2004).
Research has shown that woman-mentor and woman-mentee relationships foster more opportunities for advancement, involve the mentee in more psychosocial functions, and typically create an empathetic bond, potentially furthering the connections that the mentee can make at the institution (Chandler, 1996). For academic and higher education leadership, the most important mentor characteristics are their willingness to share knowledge, honesty, willingness to let the mentee grow, their competence as a mentor and leader, their willingness to give both positive and negative feedback, and having a straightforward method of communication with the mentee (Chandler, 1996). However, there are some barriers that may prevent women from accessing a mentor at their institution, such as family responsibilities, entering the organization or career force late, having a lack of mentors at the institution, and tokenism in male-dominated fields (Chandler, 1996).
An important policy and law that affects women in higher education leadership positions involves discrimination and their right to pursue a leadership role without fear of sexual discrimination. Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972 states that: “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance” (Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972, 1972). There have since been multiple amendments to this statute that allow for more women to be protected in various states, institutions, and for their various places in higher education. This chronosystem-level and macrosystem-level change has allowed women to feel more secure in their careers, thus furthering their leadership skills, access to resources for themselves and their families, and
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helping to pave the way for other women that wish to pursue a leadership role in a higher education environment. This potential for stability and expansion of leadership skills and how it affects the women and their families are best supported by research and qualitative studies that directly ask women about their experiences as leaders in higher education and student affairs. Trends in the Literature & Needs for Further Research
There is no research on how Funds of Knowledge about how education or leadership apply to how a woman shares these ideas from mentorship affect her family and are then transformed into familial Funds of Knowledge. Additionally, most research on Funds of Knowledge have been assessed with LatinX families, so there is room for a more diverse review of Funds of Knowledge and how it applies to culturally and ethnically diverse families and individuals.
Conclusion
Women in higher education leadership positions are becoming more common in modern American society, and the assistance of mentors in the institution, family support, and funds of knowledge about higher education can be attributed to this increase. Through the use of Ecological Systems Theory, Family Systems Theory, and Funds of Knowledge, we can begin to fill in the gaps between the release of information from mentorship and how it affects the family.
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CHAPTER III
PUBLISHABLE MANUSCRIPT
Women & Higher Education Leadership: The Effects of Mentorship on Family Systems & the
Transmission of Familial Funds of Knowledge Brie Ann Nicole Mondragon, Master’s Candidate School of Education and Human Development University of Colorado Denver
Abstract
This thesis examined how mentorship affects the family of women in higher education leadership positions and how the spread of mentorship values and teachings convert into familial Funds of Knowledge. The findings and data were examined using Ecological Systems Theory, Family Systems Theory, and Funds of Knowledge. The guiding research questions are: How do lessons from mentorship about education transform into familial Funds of Knowledge; and What are the positive and negative effects of mentorship for women in higher education leadership positions and how does it affect their family? Three overarching themes surfaced from the data analysis: coaching, fictive kind and sisterhood, and the use of capital to transform the family narrative and Funds of Knowledge. Through the use of one-on-one qualitative interviews, the investigation discovered that these women have been able to internalize and process the lessons they absorbed through the course of mentorship (both as mentors and mentees) to coach, guide, and support their families and the decisions they make, change their family’s narratives around higher education, and construct their own family network, or fictive kin, at their institution and throughout their ecological systems.
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“I'm a first gen college student, or completer. I think it impacted my family in terms of respecting and understanding the role of higher education as a critical entity within societal norms and values and beliefs. It so much influences my philosophy. I think that's where maybe the mentoring also comes into play with my family.
I feel that education is the center of the universe, and the opportunities for education are so extremely critical. I think that my family clearly saw the value of me being involved in higher education. ”
-Sapphire
Introduction
Since the implementation of Title IX and the increased amount of women occupying leadership roles in higher education institutions, mentorship has become an almost essential aspect in the development and maintenance of the careers of these women. This thesis aimed to examine how mentorship affects these women (both positively and negatively) and how the lessons they’ve gained through mentorship transform into familial Funds of Knowledge. Funds of Knowledge has never been used in this context; a review of the literature found that there is currently no published application to higher education or explicitly to women. This qualitatively-based research attempted to fill in the gaps on Funds of Knowledge to begin the discussion on how Funds of Knowledge and mentorship are connected through the mediums of mentorship, higher education, and family systems.
Literature Review
Family Support & Funds of Knowledge
There is insufficient research on how Funds of Knowledge about education are passed down through the family; instead, most of the research is about how schools can use a student’s Funds
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of Knowledge to better generate curriculum and positive and supportive learning environments to build on these Funds of Knowledge (Esteban-Guitart & Moll, 2014b). Undeniably, most of the research on how family values about education for women are passed down are usually from a deficit-based perspective that focuses on family and cultural values that prevent the woman from branching out; one article mentions that conservative cultures focus more on family-oriented work for women instead of encouraging her to pursue an education or a career (Mateju, Smith, Weidnerova, & Anyzova, 2017). Families may also utilize consejos, or “advice-giving narratives” about the importance of education and the family’s expectations about their child’s education (Delgado-Gaitan, 1994, as cited in Kiyama, 2010).
An important component of Funds of Knowledge is the oral facet (Olmedo, 1997). Oral history delivered down the family through generations can also contribute to a family member’s intersectional way of knowing through these oral funds of knowledge. In particular, in LatinX families (in the case of the article referenced, Puerto Rican families), the oral history and connection to an elder in the family can provide a connection of knowledge between generations and provide a more supportive family network for all participants of the family, regardless of age (Olmedo, 1997). This oral transmission of funds of knowledge can create social and cultural capital for various family members (Olmedo, 1997). These aspects can combine to support the woman into how she expresses herself intersectionally through sustenance from her family’s Funds of Knowledge. Additionally, Funds of Knowledge may be transmitted through the process of mentorship, although families usually do not participate in formal mentorship.
Mentorship
Mentorship in higher education institutions is typically a process where one individual that is normally of a higher rank and has documented achievements and successes in the institution and
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throughout their career guides the development of an individual (Savage, Karp, & Logue, 2004). One thing that faculty members can do to support a comprehensive and supportive learning environment for incoming coworkers and fellow leaders is to assist in the development of knowledge about how to balance the professional and personal life, especially for women and women of color. Not all mentees have the same family structure or life, so maintaining awareness about familial and cultural diversity within the faculty network can ensure the removal of some potential institutional, cultural, and social barriers for women leaders at higher education institutions (Savage et. al., 2004).
Research has shown that woman-mentor and woman-mentee relationships foster more opportunities for advancement, involve the mentee in more psychosocial functions, and typically create an empathetic bond, potentially furthering the connections that the mentee can make at the institution (Chandler, 1996). For academic and higher education leadership, the most important mentor characteristics are their willingness to share knowledge, honesty, willingness to let the mentee grow, their competence as a mentor and leader, their willingness to give both positive and negative feedback, and having a straightforward method of communication with the mentee (Chandler, 1996).
Conceptual Framework
Ecological Systems Theory, Family Systems Theory, and Funds of Knowledge work in tandem to create a strong framework because a systems perspective is the most comprehensive way to gather as much relevant information as possible about the woman, her family, her role in her respective family, how culture and various systems influence her decisions, and how her Funds of Knowledge apply to her family system. Funds of Knowledge are passed down through the family, and the family’s structure and dynamics (as investigated through the use of Family
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Systems Theory), may influence which funds of knowledge the woman passes on about higher education. She may influence and be influenced by her various ecological systems, which in turn affect her family through the use of Ecological Systems Theory and Family Systems Theory. While commonly used together, Ecological Systems Theory and Family Systems Theory provide support and assist in the use of Funds of Knowledge as both a framework and a key term due to the lack of current research on the subject.
The figure below (Figure 1) provides a visual representation of how these theories connect to apply to women in higher education leadership positions and family support. To the left is the basic pictorial representation of Ecological Systems Theory, and to the right is a highly generalized family structure that includes the woman in the higher education leadership position. It is worth mentioning that part of the expectation behind the family tree portion of the figure is that the family tree is defined by the woman- she does not need to include every family member and can define family in her own way. Her spot in the family tree is linked to the center of the microsystem, and the arrow in-between the charts is used to represent the chronosystem. The theory behind this arrow is that familial Funds of Knowledge are passed through the family (dependent on family structure) through the microsystem, since some Funds of Knowledge are generational. The family structure can also interfere and intersect which Funds of Knowledge the woman in the leadership position passes on, and to whom.
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Figure 1.
METHODS
Guiding Research Questions
This study is guided by two research questions:
1. How do lessons from mentorship about education transform into familial Funds of Knowledge?
2. What are the positive and negative effects of mentorship for women in higher education leadership positions and how does it affect their family?
Sample
The interviewees for this research were four individuals that self-identify as women, have completed a Doctoral degree, and occupy a leadership position at a university. There were no restrictions for age. Race and ethnicity were optionally disclosed by the interviewee; since the parameters for investigation explicitly state that interviewees have full anonymity, any
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demographics related to age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or any other identifiable information were given willingly. Subjects were identified by personal contacts through snowball sampling. Interviewees were also allowed to choose a pseudonym to ensure anonymity for this research (with the exception of Carol Danvers, which was chosen by the researcher). All of the participants had at least one intersectional way of knowing or identifying that related to a marginalized identity. Participants were located after approval from the COMIRB at the University of Colorado Denver to follow ethical research guidelines. All of the women interviewed are current upper-level administrators at a large research institution in the Midwest United States.
Pseudonym Interview Length
Grace 16 minutes
Laurie 46 minutes
Sapphire 30 minutes
Carol Danvers 35 minutes
Interview Protocol
The interview structure allowed for additional probing questions meant to support the guiding research questions. Interviews were on average 32 minutes in duration. After reviewing the consent form, the interviewees were made aware of the recording device on the researcher’s phone. Immediately after the interview, the audio recording was transferred to a password-protected computer. Member checking was allowed when all interviews were transcribed to provide the interviewees with the opportunity to provide feedback on their transcripts and ensure
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quality. After approval from the participants, the transcripts were uploaded to Dedoose for coding and analysis. Dedoose is an online coding and organizational software system.
Data Collection
There were six open-ended qualitative interview questions. Interviewees were allowed to choose a pseudonym for the interview to further protect their identity. These questions were designed to allow for flexibility during the interview process, and some questions ended with “please provide examples” to allow for personal narratives. The use of semi-structured interviews allowed the researcher to “follow” the participants; instead of sticking to strict interview questions, the researcher was able to gain core information while still gaining narratives (Belotto, 2018). After transcription of the interviews, participants were allowed to member check their transcripts to ensure that the transcriptions were accurately representing the participant’s viewpoints (Krefting, 1991).
Data Analysis
Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Once interviews were transcribed and member checked with the interviewees, recordings were destroyed in accordance with IRB requirements. During the transcription process, recording files were kept on a password-protected computer. No names were collected as part of this research, and every effort was made to remove identifying details from the transcripts. Once interviews were transcribed, theme analysis was conducted by analyzing the data by sifting through the transcripts to find key themes based on Ecological Systems Theory and Family Systems Theory. This process of data triangulation through Ecological Systems Theory and Family Systems Theory help create a supportive framework for analyzing the three key themes that emerged after data analysis (Johnson, 1997). For this research, Ecological Systems Theory can be viewed as the “structure” of the analysis;
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general concepts and key themes are analyzed using this paradigm to gain general understanding of how various ecological factors affect each key theme. Family Systems Theory is the “walls” of the house; the interviewee’s family system and structure will determine how the final piece, Funds of Knowledge, are passed down and “fill the house”. The combination of all three theories creates a strong and interwoven network for theme analysis.
Findings
After coding and analysis, three themes emerged based on the guiding research questions and extracted from the four interviews. First, how do lessons from mentorship about education transform into familial Funds of Knowledge? From this question, the theme of coaching emerged. These women internalized their knowledge gained from mentorship (both from being mentored and acting as mentor to others) and their various ecological systems and were able to use those skills to coach members of their own family in decision-making processes. Eventually, these skills may be passed down as Funds of Knowledge.
This qualitative research was also guided by a second question: What are the positive and negative effects of mentorship for women in higher education leadership positions and how does it affect their family? From this question, a second theme emerged; these women use their capital gained from the process of mentorship and their education to transform their family’s narrative and add to their Funds of Knowledge. Because these women have immersed themselves into the culture of higher education, they are experts on the various aspects of higher education and can influence their family’s internal narratives and thoughts about higher education and its role in their family and society. The participants that have close and enmeshed bonds with their family system have been able to influence their family in this regard.
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A third theme emerged from combining both of the guiding research questions. This theme is fictive kin and sisterhood. Multiple women explained how they created their own families throughout their higher education experience, both in their processes of getting degrees and their careers in higher education. These women pull individuals from various ecological systems; the fictive kin that they cultivate do not only stem from their microsystems but can come from their mesosystems from their microsystems of their mentors. By developing a network of fictive kin in both their higher education institution and outside of it, they have had the opportunity to create their own supportive family system that ranges far beyond their own microsystem. These three key themes will be examined using the combination of Ecological Systems Theory, Family Systems Theory, and Funds of Knowledge to provide an in-depth and rational qualitative analysis.
Coaching
The theme of coaching was discovered from the first guiding research question, “how do lessons from mentorship about education transform into familial Funds of Knowledge?” through coding analysis and data mining for consistency. Three out of the four women shared stories about assisting their family members- usually a niece or nephew, with making life choices that mostly centered around higher education or career choices. The way that they coached their family members was consistent with how they were coached by their own mentors at the start of their careers; they asked questions of their family about their dreams, offered different choices for each situation, and maintained a sense of wisdom, openness, and were there to support them in whatever decision they ultimately chose.
Laurie has been able to directly coach her nephew with his decisions on higher education and career choices:
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He decided to drop out of college, and his situation was that his dad said, “you get a job, you go to college, or you go to the military”. So, he said, “Not so much, dad.” There was this rift. And so, he felt, as many young students do, this enormous pressure to do what his dad wanted him to do. He just did not want to do it. I helped get him to this place of accepting the consequences of not doing what his dad wants him to do, like a lifetime of consequences now, versus the pros and cons of just doing what he wanted to do. So, kind of getting him to that place and thinking about it in that way was challenging.
Laurie was able to help her nephew think critically about his educational and life choices, which is a skill partially taught to her from her mentor and from her role as a mentor to others. Her nephew is in her microsystem and they have a stable and connected relationship, so her impact on his life has helped him make informed, rational decisions about his future. This then will impact her nephew’s ecological systems based on his career decisions- specifically, Laurie’s knowledge about mentorship and coaching directly impacted her nephew’s mesosystem. The mesosystem describes the interactions between the microsystem of two or more individuals (Bronfenbrenner, 1977). Laurie pulled on knowledge gained from mentorship through her mentors (in her own microsystem), to impact her nephew’s microsystem, so the exchange of coaching knowledge lies in the mesosystem.
Laurie’s knowledge about how to act as a coach to her family members will also affect other members in her family, most likely on her nephew’s side. She explained that her nephew’s father wanted him to go to the military, and her helping him reach the decision to pursue a different career will most likely impact the interconnected relationship between her nephew, his father, and their family system. One of this family’s Funds of Knowledge is that if you don’t go to college, you go to the military, so the disruption of that narrative will affect the family system.
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One of the tenets of Family Systems Theory is how families communicate, solve problems, and regain homeostasis; this career decision may cause the balance between Laurie’s nephew and his father to go off-balance, so they will need to re-negotiate their familial expectations.
In juxtaposition to this positive aspect of coaching and mentorship, Laurie also expressed the desire to pass on her information gained through mentorship to her step-daughter, but the dynamics of their relationship makes it nearly impossible:
I just don't know if you can mentor your own kids. I mean you have to be a parent. You still have to set the boundaries. You can talk with them and be like a coach. That's how I see the relationship. And even with my husband, we talk about it all the time. He is a coach to her. I suppose you could be a mentor if you had a great relationship with your kid, but if you don't, then you become a coach, or you become the bad guy. How do you sort of navigate and do that right when it's not always welcome or accepted? I think my family's complicated. Maybe everybody has said that, but because of the step family, because of the disparity between her mother and I, because *** sees herself in a particular way in comparison to me it's just harder for me to serve in that role- and her dad even to a degree- because she sees us as perfect. She's not going to listen to people that are perfect because she'll never be perfect.
This example perfectly animates Laurie’s immediate family system and the conflicts that may arise from her attempting to coach her stepdaughter. In order to maintain equilibrium in her immediate family unit, Laurie needs to be a “cheerleader” for her stepdaughter and not attempt to mentor or coach her because of the way her stepdaughter views her through her role in higher education. Laurie went on to say that families are messy, and as much as she may want to mentor her stepdaughter, all she can do is support her and wish her the best. Her step-daughter may
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transition in different careers, so having multiple mentors and coaches- both informal and formal, may help her achieve her goals; Laurie may eventually find herself in one of those roles if her family structure changes.
Similarly to Laurie’s first example, Sapphire shared a comparable situation with a niece and nephew:
I was thinking of some particular situations with a niece and nephew about career kinds of things and really being there instead of saying, “this is what I think you should do”, being better to listen and step back and saying “so I think that you just said five things. Have you looked at a career in this area?” There are some of the same guiding principles in a friendship. Would I sometimes say, “this is what I think you should do”? Yeah, I do that more than I would in a professional relationship. But I think most of the guiding principles are the same for family.
Just as with Laurie’s first example, Sapphire asked questions of her niece and nephew to help guide and coach them to realizing their own answer. This echoes Laurie’s example: Sapphire is sharing her capital and own Funds of Knowledge about decision-making gained through mentorship and her role in higher education, and this microsystem-level interaction will in turn affect her extended family system.
Finally, Grace’s family system and their own Funds of Knowledge about higher education has prevented her from mentoring or coaching them in any way. Instead, Grace has committed herself to supporting her family and wishing them positive wellbeing. This degree of separation in Grace’s family system can be examined using the process of individuation (Bell & Bell, 2009). Between Grace and her family, Grace has become autonomous and disconnected from her family’s predominant narrative through creating clear interpersonal boundaries (as
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discussed in her formation of fictive kin), maintaining her own ideas about higher education, and validation of her own narrative (Bell & Bell, 2009). As discussed later in the findings, Grace’s family views higher education in a less than positive light. Grace has disconnected from her family back home and is far from being enmeshed in her family system of origin. Grace stated: As a first-generation college student where the rest of my family never went to college at all, and now being who I am in this role, where it’s completely unknown to them, I have not been able to mentor them in the role I now inhabit. What has that meant for me? So, I haven’t even mentored my family in a professional context. Certainly, everything that I just talked about with mentoring, which is all about being attuned and committed to the growth and wellbeing of that person, I try to enact that with my family.
An extensive search of the current literature provided no mention of coaching families using mentorship skills, and there was no mention of women in higher education. This means that this key theme- women coaching their family members in their life decisions through the use of skills gained through higher education mentorship- is a new discovery in the field of higher education leadership and mentorship. These women have been able to internalize lessons gained through mentorship and use it as a form of capital to coach their own family members, thus effectively practicing what they teach. This blend of their education-related ecological factors then seeps into their family systems and has the potential to transform their family’s narratives around coaching and help their family members gain their own cultural capital through higher education.
Using Capital to Transform the Family Narrative and Funds of Knowledge
The theme of using capital to transform the family narrative and Funds of Knowledge was discovered in response to the second guiding research question: What are the positive and
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negative effects of mentorship for women in higher education leadership positions and how does it affect their family? Funds of Knowledge used in tandem with Ecological Systems Theory and Family Systems Theory can investigate how an individual’s ways of knowing are shaped through and by their community, environment, and family influence- in this case, how a woman in a higher education leadership position may influence how her family views the role of higher education (Esteban-Guitart & Moll, 2014a). Funds of Knowledge are a family’s skills and narratives about “real-world” knowledge of howto perform actions, carry one’s self, and navigate through various situations, which also relates to the key theme of coaching (Esteban-Guitart & Moll, 2014a).
Participants agreed that they have been able to internalize their capital gained through their career and education and actively change their family’s narratives around higher education. They can also influence this narrative to create new (and transform existing) Funds of Knowledge in their families. This action can be both positive or negative depending on their family’s structure and ecological factors.
While Laurie has been able to coach her nephew and discuss higher education narratives with her husband, her relationship with her stepdaughter has not allowed her to transform her internal narrative around higher education. Laurie stated:
Now that I have *** and she did not go to college, it is extraordinarily painful because I do believe in the power of higher ed. I really do believe it is life changing for people and can change their narrative, can change their trajectory, can change how they view themselves. The whole thing. If you have the right faculty, the right mentors, the right opportunities, it all comes together like magic. So, since she's not in it, it sucks.
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Even with all the resources, opportunity, and stability in her various ecological systems, Laurie’s step-daughter not going to college shows that the knowledge gained from mentorship about mentoring capability and information about higher education only goes so far in families- they must absorb the information willingly and use it at their discretion. While Laurie did not go into much detail about her relationship with her step-daughter, her step-daughter’s close relationship with her birth mother may be a contributing factor in her inability to change her step-daughter’s narrative about higher education.
In terms of sanguine family, Sapphire shared that she has been able to teach her family how to respect and understand the role of higher education within her paradigm of being a first-generation college student, or “finisher”. She is able to have critical conversations with them about the role of higher education and her mentoring experience has allowed her to delve into these sometimes-difficult conversations to guide her family’s thinking about higher education. Due to this social and cultural capital gained from higher education mentorship and access, Sapphire has been able to completely change her family’s narrative about higher education:
I think that's where maybe the mentoring also comes into play with my family. How it impacted my family is being able to share some of those values and beliefs that I'm not sure would have been shaped as critically and is precisely as being involved in a career in higher education, whether it's about a societal issue or about an educational issue. Certainly, dinner conversations were probably different just based on Higher Ed. But I think mentorship also played a role in that too because as I answered previously, I think I've been able to share some things with other family members to help educate them, help influence them, help guide them.
Sapphire also shared her family’s current narrative on higher education:
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I don't have any children, so I've had to do it through other family members that I think are also educators. So as often happens in a family, I'm surrounded- I'm the only higher education person in my immediate family, but it's still about education in general and about the importance; I think more than anything about how education helps to stimulate, educate, narrate, and invigorate views of life in general. I think they value higher education and its role within society and not just subject matter expertise but in societal norms and societal values. I also think people in my family seeing that I've achieved a Doctorate and seeing that opportunity, you can do that too if you want that. It's not mentoring but role models. You can do this and here's how you do it. And I think is this something that influences narratives about higher ed within the family.
Sapphire’s intersectionality as a first-generation student and her ability to transform her family’s narrative and Funds of Knowledge about higher education is supported by previous research. In addition, Sapphire sharing her own knowledge about higher education can lend her family capital, thus creating the possibility for her family members to break through the generational cycle and gain their own educational and socio-cultural capital (Gofen, 2009).
The theme of using capital gained from mentorship and higher education to transform the family narrative and Funds of Knowledge was consistent across the interviews. While not always successful due to the nature of their family system, all of the women expressed the desire to inform their family’s narratives about higher education in relation to their place in society. Through discussions around the dinner table, coaching loved ones, or by simply supporting them in their educational and career goals, these women attempt to produce a positive family outlook on higher education. Positive and negative ecological factors that can influence the family’s narrative include the type of relationship with their family members, cohesion level of the
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family, and being a first-generation college student. These combined factors create a new addition to the existing literature, although there is existing research on how the changed narrative about education affects later generations (Gofen, 2009). This previous step- coaching to transform the family narrative and Funds of Knowledge, is a new development. The transmission of these values and narratives is inherently dependent on family structure, so these women may create their own fictive kin as a medium for support and as a vessel for these funds of knowledge.
Fictive Kin and Sisterhood
The final theme, fictive kin and sisterhood, was unexpected, and is best analyzed using all three theories. Fictive kin encompasses “. . . relationships that serve to broaden mutual support networks, create a sense of community, and enhance social control” (Spruill, Coleman, Powell-Young, Williams, & Magwood, 2014). Fictive kin can be analyzed using Family Systems Theory the same as any other family; the family decides the roles each member occupies and the boundaries and relationships within the family. Furthermore, the process of spreading funds of knowledge through the fictive kinship network depends on the interpersonal relationships in the fictive family.
Multiple participants articulated the feeling of creating a network that was more than just career-related; instead of surface-level relationships within higher education systems and their career networks, the women detailed how they formed their own fictive kin and close interpersonal ties with their mentors and mentees. Carol explained that since her mentor taught her how to navigate her profession, she was then able to pass on that knowledge to future mentees and create a kinship network with the individuals that she mentored:
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As I was going through entering the field, my former mentor *** moved- she left the program before I finished. She would actually send her undergraduate or masters students to me because they were interested in going into the field. She's like, well, why don't you go talk to CD because she's going to be at that conference and can talk to you about the graduate school process, or she can talk to you about how she stumbled into it. In that sense I was sort of creating this larger family of sorts of friends who were interested in this field or who eventually entered the field.
Some of the participants stated that they created their own family within their mentorship network; this form of fictive kin was often the main recipient of the transmission of the Funds of Knowledge. When asked if they passed on any of the lessons gained through mentorship to their families, all of the participants noted that they shared these lessons with their mentees, although not all called them “family” or “fictive kin”. In relation to Ecological Systems Theory, this macro-level system is based around the created culture of higher education and fictive kinship networks. This kinship network can then internalize the Funds of Knowledge and narratives about higher education and spread them across each individual member’s ecological systems, including their sanguine family network. These kinship networks are also structured the same way as a “nuclear” or “typical” family- they have interpersonal relationships, family dynamics, boundaries, communication styles, and support systems.
Grace, in particular, created her own family through higher education mentorship, and posited that she walked alongside life with them and supported them as her mentor had done for her. Her capital gained through higher education and mentorship has been transmitted to her mentees, or fictive kin, since her relationship with her sanguine family is disconnected and not in her immediate microsystem. The women that she mentors and walks alongside are, and the
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interconnected ecological systems of this female kinship network has become Grace’s main proponent of her narratives and Funds of Knowledge about higher education. Grace stated:
As I’ve now had to create family for myself, I often found that as a professor working with a lot of doc students- especially young women who are younger than me and in doctoral programs coming from all across the world- I’ve had close relationships and many of those women are like younger sisters to me. Some are older sisters to me, but along those lines and I feel like in that world of people who I would call sister I have done a lot of mentoring along the kind that we just talked about. I’ve coauthored with them, I’ve done research with them, I’ve presented at conferences with them, I’ve helped them interview. I’ve walked alongside them in that journey from a doc student to becoming a professor and mentored them in that role.
An article by Tierney and Vargas states that “. . . peers have the potential to create fictive kin networks, and in this role, peers become a social support that helps enable a culture of success” (2006). The participants that discussed their fictive kinship networks do not have children of their own, which directly aligns with research by Allen, Blieszner, and Roberto: “Those most likely to have named fictive kin who were “kind of like grandchildren” were childless. . .” (2011). By creating their own fictive kinship network through their mentees, the women interviewed have the potential to live the first two themes of coaching and influencing the narrative and Funds of Knowledge of their fictive kin.
Through examining this with the lens of Ecological Systems Theory, we can conclude that since this fictive kinship network is closely related, the Funds of Knowledge and narratives about higher education resonate through the individual’s microsystem, and the lessons can then be spread through microsystems through the mesosystem of the women in the kinship network.
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A shared culture of knowledge and passion for higher education occupies the macrosystem, and if the women work in the same institution or affiliation, the narratives can occupy their exosystems as well. The interconnected relationship has also created a separate family system, which holds the same standards and regulations as any other family. This directly relates to the previous two key themes in that these fictive kinship networks and “sisterhoods” are the medium for which the narratives and funds of knowledge pass through and inhabit.
Discussion
Through the use of one-on-one open-ended qualitative interviews, member checking, and coding, the data revealed three overarching themes: that women in higher education leadership positions have been able to use the lessons learned through the process of mentorship to coach, guide, and support their families, change their family narrative around higher education, and create their own family network (fictive kin) at their institution and throughout their ecological systems. These key themes are important because they contribute to existing literature on higher education mentorship and the theory of Funds of Knowledge. The success of changing the narrative and the ability to coach their own families in their education systems is dependent on family structure. There has been previous research on the effects that mentors have on their mentees in higher education settings, but not of how women directly pass on their knowledge about higher education to their own families. There is currently no published research using the conceptual framework of Ecological Systems Theory and Family Systems Theory.
While they can’t always mentor their own families, these women can create their own form of family at their workplace through the process of mentorship and can shape their family’s narrative about higher education through their own cultural and social capital. This fictive kinship network creates its own family system through which the higher education narratives and
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Funds of Knowledge can transmit. This study showed that mentorship allows for the creation of networks in and out of higher education workplaces and provides women in higher education leadership positions with the opportunity for career development and advancement. Their mentors help set them up for success in their field, which they can then pass on to their mentees (both formal and informal). They can teach their families how to understand the role of higher education in today’s society and culture and show them how to think critically about issues that go outside of higher education. They can informally mentor their family members and help guide them to make the right choices for themselves. These women learned from their own mentors how to coach others at work and at home without overstepping boundaries or holding their hand the entire time. They may have difficulties connecting with their families because of their profession and knowledge about higher education, but more often this is due to their family’s structure, not for a lack of trying. Finally, these women have found a way to create their own family systems and are able to act as a liaison for both sanguine and fictive kin.
Strengths and Limitations
Strengths of this thesis include the ability for participants to define family in whatever way was best for them, the allowance of flexible interview questions for a more conversational and fluid feel, the breakdown of the guiding questions to encompass all of the themes extracted from the transcripts, and the option to include personal narratives and storytelling during interviews. The conceptual framework, Ecological Systems Theory and Family Systems Theory, work in tandem to support the key themes in a strengths-based perspective. While this research was done on an extremely small scale, there was so much information gained from the participants that the data could be used for an expansion on this research.
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A limitation of this thesis is the lack of intersectionality as a way of personal knowing and as a framework. Future research should include the women’s identities as they relate to intersectionality- namely the identifying demographics including race/ethnicity, gender identity, religion, socioeconomic status, or any other intersectional identifying factor. This research originally intended to include intersectionality in those forms, but since the interviews were completely anonymous and participants were not asked to disclose any identifiable information, there was no room to include intersectionality and it did not fit with the research analysis. Intersectionality can try to explain the different experiences that some women have through their own identities and how their families and Funds of Knowledge have shaped how they choose to identify themselves. Intersectionality can be fluidly defined based on the context, but understanding how women choose to define themselves (and how they are defined by their various ecological systems) can help us recognize how their families and the funds of knowledge passed down to them throughout the years influence and shape their decisions and aspirations to pursue a leadership position in higher education. For future research on this topic, intersectionality as a way of knowing and a framework should be incorporated to provide a more in-depth and culturally responsible review. The research would also benefit from a wider participant pool from various universities.
Implications for Practice and Future Research
While higher education has made strides in the opportunities for women in leadership roles, there is always room for improvement. Creating a campus culture that supports and encourages mentorship could greatly increase the opportunities and networks for women on campus- not just women in leadership roles. As stated in the strengths and limitations, including intersectionality in future research on the topic would provide a more culturally-responsive view,
40


which could be used by colleges and universities to help enact culturally competent and supportive mentorship networks. It would also be useful to include the families of these women in future research to gain more insight into the family structure and how the woman’s career and mentorship values have been passed on to family members.
Conclusion
Through an extensive literature review on mentorship and women in higher education leadership positions and the above research, the research shows that there is a connection between lessons gained through mentorship and the transmission of these wisdoms into familial Funds of Knowledge. The four women interviewed for this research shared their experiences with being mentored, mentoring others, and how they became knowledgeable on how to navigate their careers (and help others do the same) through the use of the teachings they learned through the progression of mentorship. While not always explicitly straightforward, the processes that they employ with their mentees are extremely similar to what they do for their own families, especially younger family members. They also create their own families at work and coach them the same way they would their sanguine kin, thus maintaining and creating Funds of Knowledge in their respective ecological systems. Their ability to transform their family’s narratives about higher education depends on their ecological systems and the structure of their family system. However, there is still massive amounts of research to be done on this topic; this research is just barely scratching the surface into how mentorship in higher education transforms into familial Funds of Knowledge.
41


REFERENCES
Allen, K. R., Blieszner, R., & Roberto, K. A. (2011). Perspectives on extended family and fictive kin in the later years: Strategies and meanings of kin reinterpretation. Journal of Family Issues, 32(9), 1156-1177.
Bell, L. G., & Bell, D. C. (2009). Effects of family connection and family individuation. Attachment & Human Development, 11(5), 471-490.
Bel otto, M. J. (2018). Data analysis methods for qualitative research: Managing the challenges of coding, interrater reliability, and thematic analysis. The Qualitative Report, 23(11), 2622 2633.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an Experimental Ecology of Human Development. American Psychologist, 32(7), 513-531.
Chandler, C. (1996). Mentoring and women in academia: Reevaluating the traditional model. NWSA Journal, 8(3), 79-100.
Esteban-Guitart, M., & Moll, L. C. (2014a). Funds of identity: A new concept based on the funds of knowledge approach. Culture & Psychology, 20(1), 31-48.
Esteban-Guitart, M., & Moll, L. C. (2014b). Lived experience, funds of identity and education. Culture & Psychology, 20(1), 70-81.
Gofen, A. (2009). Family capital: How first-generation higher education students break the intergenerational cycle. Family Relations, 58(1), 104-120.
Johnson, R. B. (1997). Examining the validity structure of qualitative research. Education,
118(2), 282.
42


Kiyama, J. M. (2010). College aspirations and limitations: The role of educational ideologies and funds of knowledge in Mexican American families. American Educational Research Journal, 47(2), 330-356.
Krefting, L. (1991). Rigor in qualitative research: The assessment of trustworthiness. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 45(3), 214-222.
Mateju, P., Smith, M. L., Weidnerova, S., & Anyzova, P. (2017). The role of basic values and
education on women’s work and family preferences in Europe. The International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 37(9/10), 494.
Olmedo, I. M. (1997). Voices of our past: Using oral history to explore funds of knowledge within a Puerto Rican family. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 28(4), 550-573.
Savage, H. E., Karp, R. S., & Logue, R. (2004). Faculty mentorship at colleges and universities. College Teaching, 52(1), 21-24.
Spruill I.J., Coleman B.L., Powell-Young, Y.M., Williams, T.H., & Magwood, G. Non
biological (fictive kin and othermothers): Embracing the need for a culturally appropriate pedigree nomenclature in African American families. J Natl Black Nurses Assoc. 2014;25(2):23-30.
Tierney, W. G., & Venegas, K. M. (2006). Fictive kin and social capital: The role of peer groups in applying and paying for college. American Behavioral Scientist, 49(12), 1687-1702.
43


CHAPTER IV
DISCUSSION
Through the use of one-on-one open-ended qualitative interviews, member checking, and coding, the data revealed three overarching themes: that women in higher education leadership positions have been able to use the lessons learned through the process of mentorship to coach, guide, and support their families, change their family narrative around higher education, and create their own family network (fictive kin) at their institution and throughout their ecological systems. These key themes are important because they contribute to existing literature on higher education mentorship and the theory of Funds of Knowledge. The success of changing the narrative and the ability to coach their own families in their education systems is dependent on family structure. There has been previous research on the effects that mentors have on their mentees in higher education settings, but not of how women directly pass on their knowledge about higher education to their own families. There is currently no published research using the conceptual framework of Ecological Systems Theory and Family Systems Theory.
While they can’t always mentor their own families, these women can create their own form of family at their workplace through the process of mentorship and can shape their family’s narrative about higher education through their own cultural and social capital. This fictive kinship network creates its own family system through which the higher education narratives and Funds of Knowledge can transmit. This study showed that mentorship allows for the creation of networks in and out of higher education workplaces and provides women in higher education leadership positions with the opportunity for career development and advancement. Their mentors help set them up for success in their field, which they can then pass on to their mentees (both formal and informal). They can teach their families how to understand the role of higher
44


education in today’s society and culture and show them how to think critically about issues that go outside of higher education. They can informally mentor their family members and help guide them to make the right choices for themselves. These women learned from their own mentors how to coach others at work and at home without overstepping boundaries or holding their hand the entire time. They may have difficulties connecting with their families because of their profession and knowledge about higher education, but more often this is due to their family’s structure, not for a lack of trying. Finally, these women have found a way to create their own family systems and are able to act as a liaison for both sanguine and fictive kin.
Strengths and Limitations
Strengths of this thesis include the ability for participants to define family in whatever way was best for them, the allowance of flexible interview questions for a more conversational and fluid feel, the breakdown of the guiding questions to encompass all of the themes extracted from the transcripts, and the option to include personal narratives and storytelling during interviews. The conceptual framework, Ecological Systems Theory and Family Systems Theory, work in tandem to support the key themes in a strengths-based perspective. While this research was done on an extremely small scale, there was so much information gained from the participants that the data could be used for an expansion on this research.
A limitation of this thesis is the lack of intersectionality as a way of personal knowing and as a framework. Future research should include the women’s identities as they relate to intersectionality; namely the identifying demographics including race/ethnicity, gender identity, religion, socioeconomic status, or any other intersectional identifying factor. This research originally intended to include intersectionality in those forms, but since the interviews were completely anonymous and participants were not asked to disclose any identifiable information,
45


there was no room to include intersectionality and it did not fit with the research analysis. Intersectionality can try to explain the different experiences that some women have through their own identities and how their families and Funds of Knowledge have shaped how they choose to identify themselves. Intersectionality can be fluidly defined based on the context, but understanding how women choose to define themselves (and how they are defined by their various ecological systems) can help us recognize how their families and the funds of knowledge passed down to them throughout the years influence and shape their decisions and aspirations to pursue a leadership position in higher education. For future research on this topic, intersectionality as a way of knowing and a framework should be incorporated to provide a more in-depth and culturally responsible review. The research would also benefit from a wider participant pool from various universities.
Implications for Practice and Future Research
While higher education has made strides in the opportunities for women in leadership roles, there is always room for improvement. Creating a campus culture that supports and encourages mentorship could greatly increase the opportunities and networks for women on campus- not just women in leadership roles. As stated in the strengths and limitations, including intersectionality in future research on the topic would provide a more culturally-responsive view, which could be used by colleges and universities to help enact culturally competent and supportive mentorship networks. It would also be useful to include the families of these women in future research to gain more insight into the family structure and how the woman’s career and mentorship values have been passed on to family members.
46


Conclusion
Through an extensive literature review on mentorship and women in higher education leadership positions and the above research, the research shows that there is a connection between lessons gained through mentorship and the transmission of these wisdoms into familial Funds of Knowledge. The four women interviewed for this research shared their experiences with being mentored, mentoring others, and how they became knowledgeable on how to navigate their careers (and help others do the same) through the use of the teachings they learned through the progression of mentorship. While not always explicitly straightforward, the processes that they employ with their mentees are extremely similar to what they do for their own families, especially younger family members. They also create their own families at work and coach them the same way they would their sanguine kin, thus maintaining and creating Funds of Knowledge in their respective ecological systems. Their ability to transform their family’s narratives about higher education depends on their ecological systems and the structure of their family system. However, there is still massive amounts of research to be done on this topic; this research is just barely scratching the surface into how mentorship in higher education transforms into familial Funds of Knowledge.
47


REFERENCES
1998 Amendments to the Higher Education Act of 1965, § 101: Revision of Title I (1998).
Airini., Codings, S., Conner, L., McPherson, K., Midson, B., & Wilson, C. (2010). Learning to be leaders in higher education: What helps or hinders women’s advancement as leaders in universities. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 39(1), 44-62.
Allen, K. R., Blieszner, R., & Roberto, K. A. (2011). Perspectives on extended family and fictive kin in the later years: Strategies and meanings of kin reinterpretation. Journal of Family Issues, 32(9), 1156-1177.
American Council on Education. (2017, September 20). Report Updates the Status of Women in the Higher Education Pipeline. Retrieved from https://www.acenet.edu/news room/Pages/Report-Updates-the-Status-of-Women-in-the-Higher-Education Pipeline, aspx
Bell, L. G., & Bell, D. C. (2009). Effects of family connection and family individuation. Attachment & Human Development, 11(5), 471-490.
Bel otto, M. J. (2018). Data analysis methods for qualitative research: Managing the challenges of coding, interrater reliability, and thematic analysis. The Qualitative Report, 23(11), 2622 2633.
Bomstein, R. (2007). Why women make good college presidents. Presidency, 10(2), 2023.
Bowen, M. (1974). Alcoholism as viewed through family systems theory and family
psychotherapy. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 233(1 The Person wi), 115-122.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an Experimental Ecology of Human Development. American Psychologist, 32(7), 513-531.
48


Chandler, C. (1996). Mentoring and women in academia: Reevaluating the traditional model. NWSA Journal, 8(3), 79-100.
Chen, R., Hughes, A. C., & Austin, J. P. (2017). The use of theory in family therapy research: Content analysis and update. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 43(3), 514-525.
Cheung, F. M., & Halpem, D. F. (2010). Women at the top: Powerful leaders define successes work + family in a culture of gender. American Psychologist, 65(3), 182-193.
Chibucos, T. R., Leite, R. W., & Weis, D. L. (2005). Readings in family theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Esteban-Guitart, M., & Moll, L. C. (2014a). Funds of identity: A new concept based on the funds of knowledge approach. Culture & Psychology, 20(1), 31-48.
Esteban-Guitart, M., & Moll, L. C. (2014b). Lived experience, funds of identity and education. Culture & Psychology, 20(1), 70-81.
Ferrara, M. H. & LaMeau, M. P. (2015). Overview: Teamwork, Collaboration, and Leadership Skills. Life and Career Skills Series Vol. 4. Social Skills (pp. 265-272). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale.
Gofen, A. (2009). Family capital: How first-generation higher education students break the intergenerational cycle. Family Relations, 58(1), 104-120.
Irwin, S., & Elley, S. (2011). Concerted cultivation? Parenting values, education and class diversity. Sociology, 45(3), 480-495.
Janaina Raquel dos Santos Canabarro, & Salvagni, J. (2015). Women leaders: The gender inequality, career and family in work organizations. Gesec, 6(2), 88-110.
Johnson, R. B. (1997). Examining the validity structure of qualitative research. Education,
118(2), 282.
49


Kiyama, J. M. (2010). College aspirations and limitations: The role of educational ideologies and funds of knowledge in Mexican American families. American Educational Research Journal, 47(2), 330-356.
Krefting, L. (1991). Rigor in qualitative research: The assessment of trustworthiness. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 45(3), 214-222.
Mateju, P., Smith, M. L., Weidnerova, S., & Anyzova, P. (2017). The role of basic values and
education on women's work and family preferences in Europe. The International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 37(9/10), 494.
McDade, S. A., Nooks, K. A., King, P. J., Sloma-Williams, L., Chuang, Y., Richman, R. C., & Morahan, P. S. (2009;2008;). A window into the culture of leadership within higher education through the leadership definitions of women faculty: A case study of ELAM women faculty alumnae. NASPA Journal about Women in Higher Education, 1(1), 5.
Neigel, C. (2015). LIS Leadership and Leadership Education: A Matter of Gender. Journal of Library Administration, 55(7), 521-534.
Olmedo, I. M. (1997). Voices of our past: Using oral history to explore funds of knowledge within a Puerto Rican family. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 28(4), 550-573.
Redmond, P., Gutke, H., Galligan, L., Howard, A., & Newman, T. (2016). Becoming a female leader in higher education: Investigations from a regional university. Gender and Education, 29(3), 332-351.
Savage, H. E., Karp, R. S., & Logue, R. (2004). Faculty mentorship at colleges and universities. College Teaching, 52(1), 21-24.
Smith, S. R., & Ham on, R. R. (2017). Exploring family theories. New York: Oxford University Press.
50


Spruill I.J., Coleman B.L., Powell-Young, Y.M., Williams, T.H., & Magwood, G. Non
biological (fictive kin and othermothers): Embracing the need for a culturally appropriate pedigree nomenclature in African American families. JNatl Black Nurses Assoc. 2014;25(2):23-30.
Stephens, M. E. (2013). The non-traditional family: An introduction. The Review of Black Political Economy, 40(1), 27-29.
Tierney, W. G., & Venegas, K. M. (2006). Fictive kin and social capital: The role of peer groups in applying and paying for college. American Behavioral Scientist, 49(12), 1687-1702.
Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972, 20 U.S.C. 1681-1688 (1972).
51


APPENDIX A
COMIRB Approval
University Research
UNWERSTY OF COLORADO DENVER | ANSCHUTZ MEDICAL CAMPUS
Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board, CB F490
University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus 13001 E. 17th Place, Building 500, Room N3214 Aurora, Colorado 80045
303.724.1055 [Phone] 303.724.0990 [Fax] COMIRB Home Page [Web] cariirb@ucdenver.edu [E-Mail] FWA00005070 [FWA]
University of Colorado Hospital I Denver Health Medical Center I Colorado Prevention Center I Children's Hospital Colorado I Denver Health and Hospital Authority I VA Eastern Colorado Health Care System (Denver VAMC)
Certificate of Exemption
07-Mar-2019
Women & Higher Education Leadership: The Effects of Mentorship on Family and the Transmission of Familial Funds of Knowledge COMIRB Protocol 19-0548 Initial Application Brie Ann Mondragon No Sponsor-07-Mar-2019 2
APP001-1
SUBMISSION DESCRIPTION:
Initial Exempt Application
Title:
Subject:
Investigator:
Sponsor(s):
Effective Date: Exemption Category: Submission ID:
Your COMIRB Initial submission APP001-1 has been determined to be EXEMPT from IRB review. There is no requirement for continuing review and your study has not been given an expiration date.
For the duration of your protocol, any change to the Principal Investigator, or any changes that may affect the exemption determination must be submitted to COMIRB before implementation of the changes. Information on how to submit changes (amendments) and reports of unanticipated problems for your study to COMIRB can be found on the COMIRB website http://www.ucdenver.edu/research/comirb/submissions/.
When your research is complete, please notify COMIRB by e-mail at COMIRB@ucdenver.edu REVIEW DETAILS:
Category 2: This protocol meets the criteria for exempt Category 2, as it involve interview procedures.
COMIRB does not stamp or approve any documents for Exempt studies. Copies of the study documents are available for download via eRA (InfoEd).
Click here to access your submission: Submission Page
Please reply to the email containing this letter, contact the COMIRB Help Desk atCOMIRB@ucdenver.edu or call 303-724-1055 if you have questions or concerns.
Sincerely,
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APPENDIX B
Informed Consent Form
Consent Form
Principal Investigator: Brie Ann Mondragon COMIRB No:
Version Date: February 23, 2019
Study Title: Women & Higher Education Leadership: The Effects of Mentorship on Family and the Transmission of Familial Funds of Knowledge
You are being asked to be in a research study. This form provides you with information about the study. A member of the research team will describe this study to you and answer all of your questions. Please read the information below and ask questions about anything you don’t understand before deciding whether or not to take part.
Why is this study being done?
This study plans to learn more about the impacts of mentorship on female PhD holders in higher education student affairs positions and the transfer of knowledge to family members.
You are being asked to participate in this research study because you have been referenced by another higher education professional from the University of Colorado Denver. You also fit the interviewee requirements: you self-identify as a woman, hold a Doctoral degree, and occupy a leadership position at the University of Colorado Denver.
Up to 5 people will participate in the study.
What happens if I join this study?
If you join the study, you will assist in filling gaps in the literature about how educational mentorship for women affects their families and how this knowledge gained transforms into familial Funds of Knowledge. You will be interviewed one time for approximately 30 minutes to an hour. All of your information will be kept confidential under a password-protected computer, you will be able to choose a pseudonym to protect your identity, and will be allowed to check your interview transcript. This study will last for approximately one semester, but your participation will last for the duration of the interview and review of your transcript.
What are the possible discomforts or risks?
Discomforts you may experience while in this study include reliving potentially traumatic or uncomfortable memories related to past mentorship experience or career experience. However, this is has no more potential for risk than everyday life.
Consent Social and Behavioral CF-156, Effective 10-24-18 Page 1 of 3
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Consent Form
What are the possible benefits of the study?
This study is designed for the researcher to learn more about mentorship, affects on family systems, and filling in the gaps on Funds of Knowledge for women in higher education leadership positions.
Will I be paid for being in the study? Will I have to pay for anything?
You will not be paid to participate in this study. This study is intended to comply with university policy as part of a Master’s thesis.
Is my participation voluntary?
Taking part in this study is voluntary. You have the right to choose not to take part in this study. If you choose to take part, you have the right to stop at any time. If you refuse or decide to withdraw later, you will not lose any benefits or rights to which you are entitled.
Who do I call if I have questions?
The researcher carrying out this study is Brie Ann Mondragon. You may ask any questions you have now. If you have questions later, you may call Brie at 720-936-2770 or email her at brie.mondragon@ucdenver.edu.
You may have questions about your rights as someone in this study. You can call Brie Mondragon with questions. You can also call the Multiple Institutional Review Board (IRB). You can call them at 303-724-1055.
Who will see my research information?
We will do everything we can to keep your records a secret. It cannot be guaranteed.
Both the records that identify you and the consent form signed by you may be looked at by others.
â–  Federal agencies that monitor human subject research
â–  Human Subject Research Committee
â–  The group doing the study
â–  Regulatory officials from the institution where the research is being conducted who want to make sure the research is safe
The data we collect will be used for this study but may also be important for future research. Your data may be used for future research or distributed to other
Consent Social and Behavioral CF-156, Effective 10-24-18 Page 2 of3
54


Consent Form
researchers for future study without additional consent if information that identifies you is removed from the data.
The results from the research may be shared at a meeting. The results from the research may be in published articles. Your name will be kept private when information is presented.
â–  Some things we cannot keep private. If you give us any information about child abuse or neglect, we have to report that to state Social Services. Also, if we get a court order to turn over your study records, we will have to do that.
â–  Some things we cannot keep private: If you tell us you are going to physically hurt yourself or someone else, we have to report that to the state police or other agency. Also, if we get a court order to turn over your study records, we will have to do that.
â–  Since this research is being conducted through the use of audio recordings, all information and data will be stored on a password-protected computer. Once the data is compiled, coded, and has gone through the correct stages of analysis as detailed in the official guidelines, the audio recordings will be deleted.
Agreement to be in this study
I have read this paper about the study or it was read to me. I understand the possible risks and benefits of this study. I know that being in this study is voluntary. I choose to be in this study. I will get a copy of this consent form.
Signature:______________________________________________ Date:_____________
Print Name:_____________________________________________
Consent form explained by:____________________________________ Date:
Print Name: __________________________________________________
Consent Social and Behavioral CF-156, Effective 10-24-18 Page 3 of3
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APPENDIX C
Interview Questions and Guide
Interview Questions
1. What is your own personal definition of mentorship?
2. What are some of the lessons- educational or otherwise- that you learned through the process of mentorship? Please provide examples.
3. Have you shared any of these lessons with your family?
4. Has mentorship impacted your career, and if so, how? Please provide examples.
5. In what ways has your career in higher education impacted your family? Do you attribute mentorship to any of this?
6. Does your family have any narratives about higher education? Please provide examples.
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PAGE 13

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PAGE 19

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PAGE 22

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PAGE 23

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PAGE 48

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PAGE 49

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PAGE 50

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PAGE 54

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PAGE 56

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! gK & 2QAN>FF&) ; c ; <&.DF@OG=&: ; 1 ; <&3DY@FF ^ 6DN=S < & 6 ; # ; <&!>FF>GOB < & 0 ; ( ; < & ' & #GSYDDH < & *;&%D= & 8 >DFDS>PGF&W E >PC>?@ & ] >=&G=H& D CM@AODCM@ABX4&$O8AGP>=S&CM@& = @@H&EDA&G& P NFCNAGFF9& G QQADQ A>GC@ & Q @H>SA@@ & = DO@=PFGCNA@&>=& / EA>PG=& / O@A>PG= & E GO>F>@B;& *$O%4/$T/%<=$O802+2$J22"< ; & IJKf[IgWIX4Ie t eJ; & 2C@QM@=B<&#;&$;&WIJKeX;&0M@ & =D= ^ CAGH>C>D=GF&EGO>F94&/=&>= CADHNPC>D=;& -1+$7+F,+E$"C$T/%<= $ N"/,4,<%/$Q<"&"#. <&fJWKX<&Ih ^ IT; & 0>@A=@9<&!;&*;<&'&U@=@SGB<&7;&#;&WIJJbX;&5>PC>?@& ] >=&G=H& B DP>GF& P GQ>CGF4&0M@& A DF@&DE& Q @@A & S ADNQB & >=& G QQF9>=S&G=H& Q G9>=S&EDA& P DFF@S@;& J#+0,<%&$T+1%F,"0%/$:<,+&4,2 4 <&fTWKIX< & KbLh t KhJI; & 0>CF@&)o<&$HNPGC>D=&/O@=HO@=CB&DE&KThI<& IJ&-;2;.; & KbLK ^ KbLL&WKThIX; & & & & & & & ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

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! gI & !33-).5R'! ' &*05%"'!==9>7GJ ' Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board, CB F490 University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus 13001 E. 17th Place, Building 500, Room N3214 Aurora, Colorado 80045 303.724.1055 303.724.0990 COMIRB Home Page comirb@ucdenver.edu FWA00005070 [ Phone] [Fax] [Web] [E-Mail] [FWA] University of Colorado Hospital | Denver Health Medical Center | Colorado Prevention Center | Children's Hospital Colorado | Denver Health and Hospital Authority | VA Eastern Colorado Health Care System (Denver VAMC) Certificate of Exemption 07-Mar-2019 Title: Women & Higher Education Leadership: The Effects of Mentorship on Family and the Transmission of Familial Funds of Knowledge Subject: COMIRB Protocol 19-0548 Initial Application Investigator: Brie Ann Mondragon Sponsor(s): No Sponsor~ Effective Date: 07-Mar-2019 Exemption Category: 2 Submission ID: APP001-1 SUBMISSION DESCRIPTION: Initial Exempt Application Your COMIRB Initial submission APP001-1 has been determined to be EXEMPT from IRB review. There is no requirement for continuing review and your study has not been given an expiration date. For the duration of your protocol, any change to the Principal Investigator, or any changes that may affect the exemption determination must be submitted to COMIRB before implementation of the changes. Information on how to submit changes (amendments) and reports of unanticipated problems for your study to COMIRB can be found on the COMIRB website http://www.ucdenver.edu/research/comirb/submissions/. When your research is complete, please notify COMIRB by e-mail at COMIRB@ucdenver.edu REVIEW DETAILS: Category 2: This protocol meets the criteria for exempt Category 2, as it involve interview procedures. COMIRB does not stamp or approve any documents for Exempt studies. Copies of the study documents are available for download via eRA (InfoEd). Click here to access your submission: Submission Page Please reply to the email containing this letter, contact the COMIRB Help Desk at COMIRB@ucdenver.edu or call 303-724-1055 if you have questions or concerns. Sincerely,

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! ge & !33-).5R'" ' 5E@>9M8C'&>E?8EA'1>9M' ' !"#$%#& ' (")* ! "#$%&$' ! (#)*+, ! +$! .&/+0*#1+, ! "2 3 4567 ! 899&)'*0& ! 4: 3 ;< 3 4= ! >+?& ! + ! #9 ! , ! ! !"#$%#&'( ) *$+,-.#/'.0"1 ) 2"#, ) 3$$ ) 40$5"'/0$ ) ) 674*82 ) 901 ) ) ) :,"-#0$ ) ;'.,1 ) <,=">'"? ) @AB ) @CDE ) ) ) ) ' F.>5? ) G#.(,1 ! H0I,$ ) J ) K#/L," ) M5>%'.#0$ ) N,'5,"-L#&1 ) GL, ) MOO,%.) 0O ) 4,$.0"-L#& ) 0$ ) <'I#(? ) '$5 ) .L, ) G"'$-I#--#0$ ) 0O ) <'I#(#'( ) <>$5) 0O ) P$0Q(,5/, ) ) ' ! ' "#$ ! %&' ! (')*+ ! %,-'. ! /# ! (' ! )* ! % ! &','%&01 ! ,/$.23 ! 41), ! 5#&6 ! 7).', ! 2#$ ! 9)/1 ! )*5#&6%/)#* ! %(#$/ ! /1' ! ,/$.23 ! : ! 6'6('& ! #5 ! /1' ! &','%&01 ! /'%6 ! 9);; ! .',0&)(' ! /1), ! ,/$.2 ! /# ! 2#$ ! %*. ! %*,9'& ! %;; ! #5 ! 2#$& ! <$',/)#*,3 ! =;'%,' ! &'%. ! /1' ! )*5#&6%/)#* ! (';#9 ! %*. ! %,! <$',/)#*, ! %(#$/ ! %*2/1)*+ ! 2#$ ! ! $*.'&,/%*. ! ('5#&' ! .'0).)*+ ! 91'/1'& ! #& ! *#/ ! /# ! /%-' ! 7%&/3 ! ! ! HL? ) #) .L#) -.>5? ) =,#$/ ) 50$,R ) 41), ! ,/$.2 ! 7;%*, ! /# ! ;'%&* ! 6#&' ! %(#$/ ! /1' ! )67%0/, ! #5 ! 6'*/#&,1)7 ! #* ! 5'6%;' ! =1> ! 1#;.'&, ! )* ! 1)+1'& ! '.$0%/)#* ! ,/$.'*/ ! %55%)&, ! 7#,)/)#*, ! %*. ! /1' ! /&%*,5'& ! #5 ! -*#9;'.+' ! /# ! 5%6);2 ! 6'6('&,3 ! "#$ ! %&' ! (')*+ ! %,-'. ! /# ! 7%&/)0)7%/' ! )* ! /1), ! &','%&01 ! ,/$.2 ! ('0%$,' ! 2#$ ! 1%8' ! (''* ! &'5'&'*0'. ! (2 ! %*#/1'& ! 1)+1'& ! '.$0%/)#* ! 7',,)#*%; ! 5 ! /1' ! ?*)8'&,)/2 ! #5 ! @#;#&%.# ! >'*8'&3 ! "#$ ! %;,# ! 5)/ ! /1' ! )*/'&8)'9'' ! &'<$)&'6'*/,A ! 2#$ ! ,';5 B ).'*/)52 ! %, ! % ! 9#6%*C ! 1#;. ! % ! >#0/#&%; ! .'+&''C ! %*. ! #00$72 ! % ! ;'%.'&,1)7 ! 7#,)/)#* ! %/ ! /1' ! ?*)8'&,)/2 ! #5 ! @#;#&%.# ! >'*8'&3 ! ! ! ?7 ! /# ! D ! 7'#7;' ! 9);; ! 7%&/)0)7%/' ! )* ! /1' ! ,/$.23 ! ! HL'. ) L'&&,$) #O ) * ) S0#$ ) .L#) -.>5?R ) E5 ! 2#$ ! F#)* ! /1' ! ,/$.2C ! 2#$ ! 9);; ! %,,),/ ! )* ! 5);;)*+ ! +%7, ! )* ! /1' ! ;)/'&%/$&' ! %(#$/ ! 1#9 ! '.$0%/)#*%; ! 6'*/#&,1)7 ! 5#& ! 9#6'* ! %55'0/, ! /1')& ! 5%6);)', ! %*. ! 1#9 ! /1), ! -*#9;'.+' ! +%)*'. ! /&%*,5#&6, ! )*/# ! 5%6);)%; ! G$*., ! #5 ! H*#9;'.+'3 ! "#$ ! 9);; ! (' ! )*/'&8)'9'. ! #*' ! /)6' ! 5#& ! %77&#I)6%/';2 ! JK ! 6)*$/', ! /# ! %* ! 1#$&3 ! :;; ! #5 ! 2#$& ! )*5#&6%/)#* ! 9);; ! ( ' ! -'7/ ! 0#*5).'*/)%; ! $*.'& ! % ! 7%,,9#&. B 7&#/'0/'. ! 0#67$/'&C ! 2#$ ! 9);; ! (' ! %(;' ! /# ! 01##,' ! % ! 7,'$.#*26 ! /# ! 7&#/'0/ ! 2#$& ! ).'*/)/2C ! %*. ! 9);; ! (' ! %;;#9'. ! /# ! 01'0! 2#$& ! )*/'&8)'9 ! /&%*,0&)7/3 ! 41), ! ,/$.2 ! 9);; ! ;%,/ ! 5#& ! %77&#I)6%/';2 ! #*' ! ,'6',/'&C ! ($/ ! 2#$& ! 7%&/)0)7%/)#* ! 9) ;; ! ;%,/ ! 5#& ! /1' ! .$&%/)#* ! #5 ! /1' ! )*/'&8)'9 ! %*. ! &'8)'9 ! #5 ! 2#$& ! /&%*,0&)7/3 ! ! HL'. ) '", ) .L, ) &0--#=(, ) 5#-%0IO0".) 0" ) "#-T-R ) >),0#65#&/, ! 2#$ ! 6%2 ! 'I7'&)'*0' ! 91);' ! )* ! /1), ! ,/$.2 ! )*0;$.' ! &';)8)*+ ! 7#/'*/)%;;2 ! /&%$6%/)0 ! #& ! $*0#65#&/%(;' ! 6'6#&)', ! &';%/'. ! /# ! 7%,/ ! 6'*/#& ,1)7 ! 'I7'&)'*0' ! #& ! 0%&''& ! 'I7'&)'*0'3 ! L#9'8'&C ! /1), ! ), ! 1%, ! *# ! 6#&' ! 7#/'*/)%; ! 5#& ! &),! /1%* ! '8'&2.%2 ! ;)5'3 ! ! !

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! gf & ' ' Consent Form Consent Social and Behavioral CF 156, Effective 10 24 18 Page 2 of 3 What are the possible benefits of the study? This study is designed for the researcher to learn more about mentorship, affects on family systems, a nd filling in the gaps on Funds of Knowledge for women in higher education leadership positions. Will I be paid for being in the study? Will I have to pay for anything? You will not be paid to participate in this study. This study is intended to comply with university policy as part of a thesis. Is my participation voluntary? Taking part in this study is voluntary. You have the right to choose not to take part in this study. If you choose to take part, you have the right to stop at any time. If you refuse or decide to withdraw later, you will not lose any benefits or rights to which you are entitled. Who do I call if I have questions? The researcher carrying out this study is Brie Ann Mondragon. You may ask any questions you have now. If you h ave questions later, you may call Brie at 720 936 2770 or email her at brie.mondragon@ucdenver.edu . You may have questions about your rights as someone in this study. You can call Brie Mondragon with que stions. You can also call the Multiple Institutional Review Board (IRB). You can call them at 303 724 1055. Who will see my research information? We will do everything we can to keep your records a secret. It cannot be guaranteed. Both the records that identify you and the consent form signed by you may be looked at by others. Federal agencies that monitor human subject research Human Subject Res earch Committee The group doing the study Regulatory officials from the institution where the research is being conducted who want to make sure the research is safe The data we collect will be used for this study but may also be important for future research. Your data may be used for future research or distributed to other

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! gg & ' ' Consent Form Consent Social and Behavioral CF 156, Effective 10 24 18 Page 3 of 3 researchers for future study without additional consent if information that identifies you is removed from the data. The results from the research may be shared at a meeting. The r esults from the research may be in published articles. Your name will be kept private when information is presented. Some things we cannot keep private. If you give us any information about child abuse or neglect, we have to report that to state Social Se rvices. Also, if we get a court order to turn over your study records, we will have to do that. Some things we cannot keep private: If you tell us you are going to physically hurt yourself or someone else, we have to report that to the state police or othe r agency. Also, if we get a court order to turn over your study records, we will have to do that. Since this research is being conducted through the use of audio recordings, all information and data will be stored on a password protected computer. Once the data is compiled, coded, and has gone through the correct stages of analysis as detailed in the official guidelines, the audio recordings will be deleted. Agreement to be in this study I have read this paper about the study or it was read to me. I unders tand the possible risks and benefits of this study. I know that being in this study is voluntary. I choose to be in this study. I will get a copy of this consent form. Signature: Date: Print Name: Consent form explained by: Date: Print Name:

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! gb & !33-).5R'& ' 5EA897:8;'I<8?A:>E?'GEC'/<:C8 ' )=C@A?>@Y&dN@BC>D=B & K; ! !MGC&>B&9DNA&DY=&Q@ABD=GF & H@E>=>C>D=&DE&O@=CDABM>Q\ & I; ! !MGC&GA@&BDO@&DE&CM@&F@BBD=B ^ & @HNPGC>D=GF&DA&DCM@AY>B@ ^ & CMGC&9DN&F@GA=@H&CMADNSM&CM@& QADP@BB&DE&O@=CDABM>Q\&3F@GB@&QAD?>H@&@ZGOQF@B;& & e; ! (G?@&9DN&BMGA@H&G=9&DE&CM@B@&F@BBD=B&Y>CM&9DNA&EGO>F9\ & f; ! (GB&O@=CDABM>Q&>OQGPC@H&9DNA&PGA@@A<&G=H & >E&BD<&MDY\&3F@GB@&QAD?>H@ & @ZGOQF@B;& & g; ! )=&YMGC&YG9B&MGB&9DNA&PGA@@A&>=&M>SM@A&@HNPGC>D=&>OQGPC@H&9DNA&EGO>F9\&,D&9DN&GCCA>8NC@& O@=CDABM>Q&CD&G=9&DE&CM>B\ & b; ! ,D@B&9DNA&EGO>F9&MG?@&G=9&=GAAGC>?@B&G8DNC&M>SM@A&@HNPGC>D=\&3F@GB@&QAD?>H@&@ZGOQF@B;& & & & &