Citation
Colorado College Student Union

Material Information

Title:
Colorado College Student Union
Creator:
Goldberg, Jan S.
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture
Graduation Semester:
Fall

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
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COLORADO COLLEGE STUDENT UNION
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FASTER OF ARCHITECTURE JAN S. GOLDBERG FALL 1986


COLORADO COLLEGE STUDENT
UNION
An architectural thesis presented to the College of Architecture and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Architecture.
Jan S.Jloldberg Fall 1986
Date Due




COLORADO COLLEGE STUDENT UNION

The Thesis of Jan So Goldberg is approved
Committee Chairman
University of Colorado at Denver
December 9. 1986


COLORADO COLLEGE STUDENT UNION
TABLE OF CONTENTS History of the Student Union 1-2
History of Colorado College 3-4
Organization 5
Activity Description and Patterns 6-8
History of Colorado Springs 9-10
Demographic and Economic Base 11-12
Climate 13
-Temperature 14-15
-Humidity 16-17
-Precipitation 18-19
-Winds 20-21
-Climatic Design Guidelines 23-25
General Design Guidelines 26
Zoning 27-28
Thesis Statement 29-32
Site Analysis 33-34
Building Code Search 35-40
Design Requirements 4l
Design Analysis 42-63
Design Solution 64-68
Conclusion 69
Sources Consulted 70-71


BACKGROUND


HISTORY OF THE STUDENT UNION
Universities and colleges have always had a need for a place where students could meet, have discussions, eat and drink together and begin to develop a sense of belonging to the academic community. The development of a building intended solely for this purpose is a new idea on college campuses.
The first student unions appeared at both Cambridge and Oxford Universities in England. The Cambridge union was formed in 1815, by the uniting of the three existing debating societies. Until 1866, the sole purpose remained debating, which took place in small back rooms of local inns. The scenario was always the same - dinner before the debate, drinks afterward. In 1866, the union members built a home of their own and the functions of the union expanded beyond just a debating society. Their "home" contained a leading room and lounge, dining service, a bar, committee rooms, a smoking room, a writing room and a billiard room.
The Oxford union was formed in 1823, also by the uniting of the separate existing debating societies. In 1829 they rented three rooms in a downtown Oxford bookstore where they met until they built their own "home" in 1857. Their union building was the first of its kind in the world. The original intent of both the Cambridge and Oxford unions was to form a university-wide society, which would bypass the obstacles among the students, to try to achieve unity through the understanding of the different factions that comprised the campus.


The union, as a place for both students and the other members of the university to come together and meet informally, began to infuse itself on the colleges. The first American building designed solely as a union was Houston Hall in Pennsylvania, opened in 1896. Both need and prosperity brought an increase in union buildings on American campuses after World War I. There were many more students and the previously existing facilities were inadequate. With the heightened awareness of the importance of the union on campus came the expanded uses of the union.
". . . the days when the union was merely 'a place to meet', of an accidental supplement to housing - a kind of service station, filling accidental gaps in the provisions for out-of-class needs -are long since gone. It is now, indeed, a community center of the first order, with an identity and meaning of its own."
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COLORADO COLLEGE


HISTORY OF COLORADO COLLEGE
In 1871, when General William Palmer laid out the city of Colorado Springs, he reserved land and laid out funds for a college which was to open under the support of the Congregational Church. In 1874, Colorado College was established as a coeducational institution, two years before Colorado became a state.
Cutler Hall, the College's first building, was occupied in 1880; and the first bachelor's degrees were bestowed in 1882. Between 1882 and the mid-1950's, the College built three women's dorms, two men's dorms, a library, a fine arts hall, an athletic field, a science hall and a chapel. Since that time, the campus has been almost wholly rebuilt. The new facilities include three large residence halls, a student center, a library and subsequent addition, a natural sciences building, an ice rink, a health center, a sports center with a pool, a classroom building and an art and music hall. Of the original buildings, only Cutler Hall, the women's dorms, one of the men's dorms, the original science hall, which is now a multi-classroom facility, and the chapel remain to make up the campus.
The College now occupies 79-acres in a residential section of Colorado Springs, easily accessible to both the downtown community and the mountains.
All of the 1,850 students attending Colorado College do not take classes by semester or quarters, but rather by the block or


blocks. In 1970, the College implemented the block plan. The year is divided into nine three-and-a-half week segments called blocks. Students only take one course at a time during each block. Some courses may last one block, while others may go on for two, three, and sometimes four, blocks. Under the block plan, a course is designed to cover as much as a 15-week or 10-week course in a conventional semester or quarter system. 3.5 semester hours are earned for each block completed, earning the student one unit of credit.
The block plan creates an air of intensity. For every hour in class, a student spends about three hours outside of class doing homework. The block plan also allows classes to structure class times at any time of the day and also permits extended field trips away from the campus.
In addition, however, the block plan tends to fragment the student population. There is a lack of cohesion, of togetherness among the student body as a whole. As students have stated, "And you can't overlook the block plan. It really permeates every part of our lives." The block plan forces rigorous study. It allows classes of 25 students to get to know one another for 3 1/2 weeks. After that time, the students are off to another 3 1/2 week course with a whole new group of people. The short time spent in each class does not really allow students to get to know each other. The Student Center at Colorado College needs to be a place that fills the gap left from the short amount of time spent in each class, and therefore takes on added importance as a
crossroads for students on the block plan.
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ORGANIZATION
The Student Center is run by an Assistant Dean of Students, who is also Director of the Leisure Program. He oversees all the employees in the Center, excluding the food service and the bookstore. The Director of the Leisure Program supervises all non-academic and non-athletic activities and organizations. This includes student government, publications, guest performers, artists and lecturers, as well as campus political, environmental and religious groups.
The College as a whole is run by the Trustees through the President. The day-to-day activities are overseen by the various Directors from College Relations to Athletics, to the Director of the Leisure Program, who is also in charge of the Student Center. The Director of the Leisure Program reports to the Vice President for Student Life and is a member of the President's Cabinet.
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ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION AND PATTERNS
ACTIVITIES
The Student Center is in constant use from when it opens at 7:00 a.m. until it closes at midnight, seven days a week. The greatest amount of activity occurs around mealtimes. The Student Center is used by students, administrators, faculty and staff, as well as being a focal point for the Colorado Springs community.
The Student Center houses the bookstore, main dining hall and the campus grill, meeting rooms serving 25 people or less, and one meeting room serving 75 to 100 people. The Center serves as a place for students to watch television, eat, meet friends or have planned meetings, pick up tickets to all college sponsored events, buy books, read and study, attend career option seminars, pick up mail and messages, and catch up on current campus events. With all of the student mail boxes located in the Student Center, a student is assured to be in the building at least once a day.
With this constant flow of traffic and activity, there is a great opportunity to encounter people from past blocks or classes, and to talk to a familiar face.
Thus, the Student Center at Colorado College serves and even heightened purpose in the context of the block plan. It draws together a campus otherwise splintered and fragmented by the unique academic program.
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PATTERNS
The most predominant pattern of the College is the block and block break. Each block begins on a Monday, and ends 3 1/2 weeks later on a Wednesday at noon. At that time, the block break begins. The campus empties of most of the students and there is a mass exodus, usually to the mountains, of both students and faculty alike. The block and block break regulate the life of the campus. Students have gone as far as saying, "... you talk in blocks . . . you get sick in blocks . . . you get your hair cut in blocks . . .". The block plan produces some patterns of its own. The bookstore is jammed with students and lines out the door for the first days of every block. The library, on the other hand, is packed with students on the last Tuesday and Wednesday of the block.
The College is officially open from 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., five days a week. All of the non-resident buildings are open from 7:00 a.m. to 12:00 midnight. Breakfast is served from 7:15 to 9:15 a.m., lunch 11:30 to 12:45 p.m. and dinner from 5:00 to 6:00 p.m. The only change occurs during block break, when there is no dinner on Saturday night. Most classes after lunch are either science or language labs, therefore the bulk of the students have the afternoons free. Most every class is taught on campus, but the nature of the block plan allows for classes to be taught off-campus. Classes go to the mountains, to the Newberry Library in Chicago, to Mexico, Costa Rica and to the Far East.
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Colorado College is essentially a residential campus. The College feels that education extends into the residence hall, dining hall and Student Center. Therefore, 75% of the 1,850 students live in one of the 14 dorms. All single students with less than senior status are required to live in residence halls.
-8-


COLORADO SPRINGS


0
HISTORY OF COLORADO SPRINGS
In 1861, El Paso County was officially organized as one of the original 17 counties in the Colorado Territory. Prior to that date, El Paso County was part of Arapahoe County of the Kansas Territory.
El Paso County is now approximately 55 miles in its extreme east/west direction and 42 miles in its north/south direction; providing an area of 2,158 square miles. The surface is predominantly rolling plains in the east and south, with mountains and foothills in the west and northwest. The northern part of the county from west to east is timber covered between the Arkansas and South Platte rivers.
Colorado Springs, the county seat of El Paso County, was founded in 1871. General William Jackson Palmer, head of the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad, laid out the city of Colorado Springs along his new line from Denver. The city was primarily founded as a health resort because of its good and refreshing climate. Located where the high plains meet the Rocky Mountains at an altitude of 6,145 feet, Colorado Springs is a city of 256,000 in a metropolitan area of 364,000 people.
Due to the city's proximity to the mountains, tourism plays an important role in the economy, but Colorado Springs today is known as a center of the electronics and aerospace industries and of amateur sports. The city is increasingly shaped by high technology industry and by the military. Located in or near the
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city are Fort Carson, the United States Air Force Academy,
Peterson Air Force Base, the North American Aerospace Defense Command, the Combined Space Operations Center and the United States Olympic Training Center. The Olympic Training Center has made the city a center of world-class amateur sports activity. In addition to Colorado College, there are three other institutions of higher education in Colorado Springs: Pike's Peak Community College, a branch of the University of Colorado and Regis College.
Over the years, Colorado Springs has become an informal suburban community with numerous "big-city" attractions.
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DEMOGRAPHIC AND ECONOMIC BASE
DEMOGRAPHICS
The current population of El Paso County is 363,038, of which 255,267 people live in Colorado Springs. There is a probable growth of 36% expected by the year 2,000, that would bring the population of the county to 493,989. The median household income in 1969 was $8,170 compared to $25,427 in 1986. In 1984 there were 161,590 people employed in El Paso County. In 1986 there are 184,143 residents working, with an expected work force of 249,050 in the year 2,000.
The public school enrollment was 64,581 in El Paso County in 1973-74, and 62,163 in 1983-84. A projected enrollment of 116,250 is expected by the year 2,000.
(Information from the Pike's Peak Area Council of Government's Statistical Profiles: El Paso County.
ECONOMIC BASE
The residents of El Paso County are employed in many industries and trades. They work in government offices, finance, insurance, real estate, the aeronautics industry, manufacturing, wholesale and retail sales, construction, transportation and utilities, forestry, mining, farming and other agricultural occupations.
Agriculture and ranching are the major occupations in the areas outlying the city. Crop production and livestock grazing
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are the most predominant activities in these areas. Douglas County is predominant in the nation for breeding guarterhorses and Kit Carson County receives a large portion of the crop revenues for the state of Colorado. As we near the year 2,000, these outlying areas are likely to gain population and employment opportunities, both of which can be attributed to the growth of the aeronautics industry in the area.
An additional contribution to the economic base in El Paso County is tourism. Over two million tourists each year visit the famous Broadmoor Hotel and such scenic spots as the Cave of the Winds, Pikes Peak and the United States Air Force Academy.
-12-


CLIMATE
El Paso County and its surrounding counties are generally considered rolling plains and valleys. These counties include Cheyenne, Kit Carson, Douglas, Elbert, and Lincoln; with only Teller County being predominantly mountainous. The elevation ranges from 3,875 feet in Cheyenne County to the peak of Seven Utes at 12,500 feet in Teller County, to Pike's Peak at 14,110 feet in El Paso County.
Colorado Springs, at 6,145 feet, is considered to be a flat, semi-arid area. The city is met by the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains which range from 11,000 to 14,000 feet directly west of the city. To the east there is an undulating near-flat prairie land. To the north, the area slopes upward reaching a height of approximately 8,000 feet 20 miles outside the city at the peak of the Palmer Lake divide.
The city sits in the Arkansas River drainage basin. The principle tributary that feeds the Arkansas in this area is Fountain Creek. The creek rises in the high mountains west of the city and is fed by Monument Creek with originates to the north in the Palmer Lake divide area.
The wide range of elevations surrounding the city have given Colorado Springs a mixture of plain -and-mountain climate that make it a very desirable place to live.
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TEMPERATURE
Temperatures range from cold in winter to hot in summer. The high temperature reaches 85° in July and the low temperature is approximately 16° in January.
Night time minimum temperatures are below freezing usually from October to March, but longer periods may occur.
High temperature swings between day and night occur both in winter and summer.
Extreme temperatures occur for only short durations.
The temperature difference between downtown Colorado Springs and the summit of Pike's Peak (12 air miles west) is similar to the temperature differential between Colorado Springs and Iceland.
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HUMIDITY
Humidity levels are generally low. The relative humidity averages 50%.
Higher humidity levels occur during the daytime than at night.
Humidity levels are generally similar throughout the year.
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PRECIPITATION
Rainfall is generally small, averaging 1.3 inches per month; with the minimum amount occurring in January and the maximum amount in the summer.
80% of the precipitation falls between April and September.
Afternoon and evening thunderstorms occur with regularity in the summer. They help to have a cooling effect during the peak temperature periods.
Snowfall can occur as early as October, but generally falls from November to April. The average snowfall is 35 inches per year.
Total yearly precipitation (rainfall) averages 16 inches. The precipitation at higher elevations in the Colorado Springs area are approximately twice those at lower elevations and the number of rainy days almost triple.
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WINDS
The prevailing winds are from the north. The winds increase in speed and become warmer as they lose moisture over the mountains. These warm, gusty winds characterize the Chinook winds which often occur from March to June. Maximum wind speeds are from the north and occur in April. Average yearly wind velocity is 9.6 MPH.
Arctic air masses coming from the north produce the extreme low temperatures in the winter.
-20-


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CLIMATIC DESIGN GUIDELINES
LAYOUT
Buildings should be oriented on an east-west axis with the long elevations facing north and south to increase exposure to the sun.
INDOOR/OUTDOOR ROOMS
Try to provide semiprotected areas like courtyards for year round climate moderation. These spaces should be designed for winter sun collection.
Differ the thermal response of the walls and roof according to their respective orientations using the heat capacities of different materials and their assorted time lags to achieve comfortable conditions indoors at different times of the day.
EARTH SHELTERING
If a portion of the structure is used below grade, insulate wall and the floor below grade to prevent the radial flow of heat to the surface.
WIND BREAKS
Shape and orient the building shell to minimize wind turbulence and pressure between windward and leeward sides. Smooth facades and berming on the windward side
-23-


with low streamlined roofs will reduce conductive and convective heat losses.
SOLAR WALLS AND WINDOWS
Shape and orient the building shell and glaze areas at an orientation between south and 15°east of south.
Maximize south facing glass in the form of picture windows or sliding glass doors.
Use skylights for winter solar gain and natural illumination.
THERMAL ENVELOPE
Minimize the external wall and roof area. Use compact geometric forms to minimize the surface area to volume ratio. Avoid excessive ceiling heights to achieve minimum surface area to floor area ratio.
Locate low use spaces like storage and utility as a climatic buffer against the cold winter winds.
Use a vestibule at entry of an exterior shield like wing walls which reflect wind and act as a buffer at the entry. Provide air shafts for natural or mechanically assisted in-house heat recovery. Tap appliances that generate heat with recirculating air systems that instantaneously recover and convert to various areas.
Provide double or triple glazing with interior insulating aids such as accordion shades or shutters, as well as
drapes and storm windows on the exterior.
-2k-


Apply vapor barriers on the warm side of the construction section including beneath slab on grade construction and on the floor of crawl spaces.
Use a tightly insulated basement or crawl space as a buffer zone between the interior and ground.
Use attic space as a buffer zone between the interior and exterior.
-2.5-


GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES
The structure should exhibit an air of comfort and informality. The design should have a considerable amount of functional open space, but security should be kept in mind.
The student center has many different functions, therefore it is desirable that the building be acoustically segmented to meet the needs.
It is important to remember that natural light and fenestration, skylights, ventilation, cooling, heating and all mechanically operated systems, receive special attention. The desire is that the building maintain a warm, casual, comfortable atmosphere and be functionally efficient. There should be an abundance of electrical outlets, and computer hook-ups should also be supplied. The predominantly sunny weather of Colorado Springs suggests that solar projections be carefully planned for building exposures in a 180 degree arc from the southwest to the northwest. The design of the student center should have special consideration for natural light, minimum glare and unwanted heat gain. Due to the high winds that can occur in the winter, additional consideration should be given to the location and projection of building entrances.
-26-


ZONING CODE
Colorado College is in the SU-1 (Special Use) Zone.
DESCRIPTION AND PURPOSE:
"This zone is established to provide for uses customarily located near a college or university, due to the beneficial nature of the close proximity of one to the other. The zone also allows for golf courses and encourages the use of open space within an urban environment."
MAXIMUM REQUIREMENTS:
Maximum percentage of lot to be used for principal and accessory buildings is 50%.
Maximum height of principal building is 60 feet.
Minimum frontage of lot is 50 feet.
Minimum yard dimensions:
Front Yard - 23 Feet
Side Yard - Add 2 additional feet to each side yard for every story in excess of 1 story.
City of Colorado Springs Zoning Ordinance used as the source of this information.
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THESIS STATEMENT
The student union is an important type of center serving our colleges and universities. The union (or center) is a vital part of college life. It becomes the link between students, faculty, staff and the administration. The union acts as the "living room" of the college. It provides "for the services, conveniences and amenities that members of the college family need in their daily life on campus." The union is "part of the educational program of the college and a meeting ground and social center."
The student center provides a campus crossroads. This is the main center of activity. It is a dynamic, social-cultural-recreational heart serving the entire campus with its own programs and particular method of contributing to the student's education. This crossroad serves as the hub of a wheel? someplace that draws together an otherwise fragmented campus. The student center should be just that, a center that encourages individuality and freedom of thought.
The union is the community center of the college. Its main function is to promote interaction among the members of the college. Most important to this interaction is the joining of students and faculty outside of the classroom. The purpose of the student center as a community center is to create a common ground for interaction. As a community center, the union becomes less formal than the classroom and assumes the role of a gathering place without an academic hierarchy. This atmosphere serves to
-29-


promote interaction between all sectors of the campus community.
A community dominated by students, who interestingly enough are becoming one of the largest parts of the American population.
The purpose of the union is more than just a structure housing all the functions left over from previous high-priority building efforts. Its purpose is to provide students with experiences.
The union is "a great place for students to become aware of their surroundings; To provoke, inspire, or even annoy them into noticing, analyzing, experiencing and experimenting with the space around them." Because the student spends a great deal of time in the union, it should be planned to enhance their experiences.
"You do not plan doorways, you plan the experience of entering.
You do not plan for rooms, you plan the experience of movement and mingling."
THE PROJECT
Colorado College in Colorado Springs is in need of a new student center. The existing center, built in 1959, has become increasingly inadequate, the meeting rooms are not used due to their uncomfortable nature, the dining facilities are too small to properly serve the student body, there are no facilities for off-campus (commuting) students, and the existing facility does not fulfill its obligation as a student center - it fails to promote any interaction.
The new campus center will attract both the college community, as well as the surrounding neighborhood, thus promoting an increase in interaction. The center will be sited on the corner
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of two major streets that border the southwest portion of the campus; Cascade Avenue and Cache La Poudre Street. The most important aspect of this site is its visibility to both college members and the community alike.
DESIGN IMPLICATIONS
The union has an educational function in the cultural, political, and civic development of the student. To fulfill this demand, the union should provide places for informal meetings, conversations, and sitting areas. These spaces could range from lounges to outdoor courtyards and terraces. Social activities housed and organized in the union should take place in a lecture hall that can be converted to a small movie theater or banquet room. To provide for indoor recreation, the union could have bowling alleys and/or a game room, and space for photography, ceramics or other hobby activities. There should be areas for goods and services, such as the bookstore, post office, co-op store, and a variety of food services. The union houses the offices of the student government and other organizations, and the Union Administrator. Ample space is required for their offices.
It is essential for the Student Union to have an area for art display, theaters, small seminar or meeting rooms and conference areas.
It is important that the union provide the kind of leisure-time planning the students and faculty want and need. Circulation is an essential consideration for the planning of any union. It should be direct, open and visible. Flexibility of
-31-


«
space is key to the success of any union. Rooms have to be multifunctional and easy to alter. There is a requirement for an adequate supply of appropriate spaces, and careful attention should be paid for the allocation of space. Rooms that are seldom in use should be located accordingly and quiet spaces need to be isolated.
The Union is the most heavily used building on campus. It is therefore essential that the quality of space be open, light and appealing in nature.
DESIRES AS DESIGN GOALS
To design an environment conducive to relaxation and interaction among the differing factions of the college community.
To promote an awareness that the Student Union is to be used and enjoyed.
To consolidate Student Center services for dining, information, mail service, books, supplies and leisure programming.
To become an attractive source of college identity and information to visitors and prospective students.
To improve the image and prominence of the Student Center as viewed from the central campus quadrangle as a focal point and destination.
To interface Student Center functions such as grill, commons, and lounge areas with the center of campus by sidewalk seating, open assembly areas, and serve major
pedestrian circulation patterns.
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SITE ANALYSIS
The site is bounded on the east and south by two major, heavily traveled streets: Cascade Avenue and Cache La Poudre Street, respectively. Cascade Avenue, bounding the east, is one of the main north-south arteries in the city. The view of the mountains, particularly Pike's Peak, is the highlight of the western boundary of the site. There is an ice rink and sports center also to the west, but they slope down a hill which falls away from the site. There is an existing asphalt drive directly to the north which may be removed if necessary. Beyond the drive is a large green commons area. The boundaries of the site measure approximately 218' (north-south) by 290' (east-west).
The high point of the site occurs at the east end with an elevation of 100' and drops to 88' at the west (see attached sheet). The sidewalk to the east and south bordering the street have elevations of 99.4' to 97.9' from north to south and 97.' to 90.1' from west to east.
There is a 4" gas line 40' and a 6" water line 47' east of the property line under Cascade Avenue. There is also an 18" water line 23' and a 10" water line 51' south of the property line under the street. Also occurring under this east-west street is a sanitary sewer 33' from the property line. This sewer also cuts through the east portion of the site. There are electric power lines running overhead 13' from the property line on the south.
The electric lines run underground on the west along with another
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gas line, a 6" water line and a 6" sanitary sewer line. There is a telephone line adjacent, but very accessible to the site on the north (see attached drawing).
There are many trees on the north, south and east side of the site. The trees to the north are older, approximately 30-35' high, while those to the south are approximately 10-20' high. Standing in the center of the site, the immediate views in each direction are quite different. To the north, the most prevalent item is the large common greens where students play frisbee, volleyball, read or walk across on their way from one side of the campus to the other. The administration building is directly across Cascade Avenue to the east. It is a four story, red brick building. Packard Hall of Art and Music is across the street to the south. This building is a cream concrete building, with an abstraction of piano keys made out of tile directly facing the site. To the west is the ice rink. Because the site slopes away, six barrel vaults of the rink roof area are most dominant features, and, of course, beyond the rink is Pike's Peak.
There is no on-site parking required. There is parking available on both of the major streets, but the majority of those who use the Student Center walk from campus. The volume of traffic is greater on Cascade Avenue, with 12,200 cars counted daily and 7,500 cars reported on Cache La Poudre. The greatest amount of traffic occurs from 7:30 to 8:30 a.m. and from 4:30 to 5:30 p.m.
The site sits on the south end of the campus. It visually belongs to the campus, but due to its location on the fringe, it
has an additional impact on the neighborhood nearby.
-34-


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The Colorado College Campus
Mr
tjor College Buildings
Armstrong Hall: Admission office and other administrative offices; Armstrong Theater; computing services; classics, drama, English, foreign languages, philosophy and religion departments Olin Hall: biology, chemistry and physics departments Palmer Hall: anthropology, business economics, economics, geology, history, mathematics, political science, psychology and sociology departments Cutler Hall: Alumni, Development and College Relations Offices Rastall Student Center: College bookstore, main dining hall; "Hub” snack bar, Benjamin’s Basement, arts and crafts area; leisure program Packard Hall: music and art departments
Cossitt Hall: drama and dance department; student publications; writing center
Residence Halls
1 Mathias
2 Arthur House
3 Jackson House (and The Press at Colorado College)
4 Slocum
5 Bemis (and Bemis Taylor Dining Halls; Office of Residential Life)
6 McGregor
7 Ticknor (and Career Center)
8 Montgomery
9 Loomis (and Conference Center)
10 Tenney House
11 Wood House
Language Houses (Residential)
12 Mullett (Spanish)
13 Max Kade (German)
14 Haskell (French)
Fraternity Houses (Residential)
15 Kappa Sigma
16 Phi Gamma Delta
17 Phi Delta Theta
18 Sigma Chi
19 Beta Theta Pi
Sorority Houses (Non-residential)
20 Gamma Phi Beta
21 Delta Gamma
22 Kappa Kappa Gamma
23 Kappa Alpha Theta
Classroom and Other Houses
24 Political Action House
25 Hamlin House
26 President’s House
27 Stewart House
28 Dern House (classrooms and Southwest Studies)
29 Mierow House (education department)
30 Gill House (Summer Session office)
31 Biological Sciences Curriculum Study
32 KRCC radio
33 Tutt House


BUILDING CODE SEARCH
PROJECT NAME: _. kr_______
LOCATI ON: ^^
APPLICABLE CODE NAME: ___DATE:____\&Jz..
Code Check By:__________________________________________________
Chap. Page Item Table N/A
1. Fire Zone
'a>?>P2,C'
J?2£_
U .
o><4
£A
7.
8.
Occupancy Classification______
Princi pal Occupancy_____
Others (Specify)_________
Consturction Type_jT^fe^I0TJ.__
Occupancy Separations Required
.A.l.
to
to
to
to
to
A*?
. hi
Hours
Hours
Hours
Hours
Hours
Maximum Allowable Floor Area ftp£> ~v0>-"IE- — I A Z- • I - I ' A^P • I
If adacent to open area on two or more sides:
_£?sl_JJ_fLfs.xr_£V If over one story:
I f spr i nk 1 ed:
Maximum Allowable Height
Feet:_ _£/•_?> _ ,_________________________
St or i es: 2 Lifi.„PS^TAS?.1< JL*(L *5_^IC5c\fc^e3
Towers spires steeples_____________________
Fire resistance of exterior wall (see occupancy type and construction type)
JH. JZJju«C _L /_p J_fJsiC_ ____
^ _ 1 dgkr. Mj^i2KfeS__ «6A&£3i46_ 3l jpe.
J* 1?ErtSfejairru v^T
-ihkWJ | -+\rU£ 4HC-L Jp^nc^'c^
-35-


Chap. Page
Tabl e N/A
— 9.
(jc^_ 10
it£lA _fii 11
_^_Z- 12
13
Openings in Exterior Walls
extgrlor docrf's_____________LriJf?1 ^
e x t ept"or w i pcT::â–  w s_C$>_ *_ _
inpet cgdrt wpTT s_____________________________
Windows Required in Rooms________ _____________
wi ndow area: jJczr_L-SJ^^L_A *£_j&LJT f^A L_<^cA endosed or semi -end osed courts-size required:
Minimum Ceiling Heights in Rooms:__________
-TP Uchit*^ r£^Pjfc^5fToC3
Minimum Floor Area ot Rooms: _____________1c>_^
I sJ A
Fire Resistive Requirements
Exterior Bearing Walls______________J______Hours
Interior Esearing Walls_____________[______Hours
Ext. Non-Bearing Walls______________!______Hours
Structural Frame____________________[______Hours
Permanent Partitions________________j______Hours
Vertical Openings__________________j.______Hours
FI oors_____________________________L______Hours
Root s_____________________________________Hours
Exterior Doors___________._________________Hours
Inner Court Wal 1 5_]A£lMJ__________J______Hours
Mezzanine Floors (area allowed)_____1______Hours
Root Coverings______________________1______Hours
Boiler Room Enclosure I Hours
V\
14.
Structural
Framework,
Stairs____
FIoors
Root s_____
Parti ti ons
Requirements
MA (2-1^
Hours
Hours
Hours
Hours
Hours
15- Exits
Occupancy Type Basis
Actual Loaid
*5 4 Lp
Number ot Exits Required: _ ir£ *5^ "h^v.
Minimum Width of Ex i ts: HcT L. ^
Exit Separation Arr anciement: IP , p\ <=rsAvl cfc-
_f4.CT_ JAjfs^L _ L L _ _ _MAk > tdlilA- ji^jCec Max. Distance to Exits:_______________________(ii’PJ_
-36-


16.
Chap. Page Table N/A 'ZrJiiS'zC

Allowable Exit Sequences H^\/J£_c^^_j^rr_--^uc-L,<2?*-1-
^ I^T^fcjTivT# c«rVl IF T^.c^crr
Exit Corridors
Max i mum al .1 owab 1 e Width:
Hei qht.:
----- ---— — —---------—•-- ~~——r-—i ----------
Dead End Corridors - Length:___________________________
Wall Fire Resistance Required: v^c-T (.-TTV* ___________________________
Openings______________________________________
Doors and Frames Fire Resistance Required:_____________
^cA 17. Exit Doors
Swing:_____________________________________________
Minimum Width: PcpT Cfe^^-TTVAiJ___^b'
Hei ght: ___________________________________
Maximum Leaf Width: _____________
Special Door:______________________________________
Width Required for Number of Occupants:
18-
Stairways „
Min. Width___r^__
o?0>"
Rise and Run Max.
Occupant Load Of Riser: *1 »*- Min.
Hpcp C>L MoCfc Tread: I o’
Winding Circular, Spiral Stairways
Landings____________________________________
Minimum Wi dth: WlJEQ\_
Max i mum Wi dth Requi red:_________________
Vertical Distance Between Landings:____LZrl_
Jz*£j!r Handrails u
Requir ed at Each Side:
Intermediate Rails Req'd. at St a i r s: _L5_btipfc_. J2^f’2rj fe-tp’
Max. Width Between Int. Rails: __
Exceptions Applicable: : ___________
Height Above Nosing: _Jr^L^fz_ J^?£L_£*r"_2"ft v
Balusters Required:________________________________
Projecti on:_______________________________________
Max. Post Spacing:___________._____________________
Handrails Return to Wall at Ends: SrFzSQ^-.S'Sr' ,s'
Handrails Extend Beyond Stai r: ^ ^
____ ____ Access to Roof Requi red: ________________________
-37-


Chap. Page?
Table N/A

I1H
Stair Access to Roof Requi red: J __'i.
Exterior Stairway:_
____ Horizontal Exit Requirements:__________________________
(5^2 M 19. Ramps
Wi dth:________________________________________________
Max i mum SI ope:_iLjTI _)_?_! ________________________
Landings:______________________________________________
Handrai 1 s Required: l£ ~TTV\vi \ • _____
Exit Signs Required: -At QcrT .yX^V^'T^*?
-If" L-cAt? •N^’teCs-
__{.c?c> 20. Guardrails
Where Required: J/J___________________fSr&£*Z
PJ^rLlA 4..defect-'_ frfcJ=^Awl^ C<- ••-
Balconies:_____________________________________________
Rail Opening Spacing:__________________________________
Height Required:____\Sc7\ pfc. Ai-Vu-i Z-"________
Intermediate Rails Requi red: L^’
____ 21. Exit Enclosures
Stairways Ramps escalator shall be enclosed except:________________________________________________
Enclosure Construction:
Openings into Enclosures:
Extent of Enclosure:-:
22. Elevators - Review Chapter for applicable requi rements:________________________________
23. Toilet Room Requirements Code Used: _QJL4'1
Fixture Count Requirements:
Men Basis Actual
Lavatories _______ _______________)___
Water Closets _______ ___________________
Urinals
Women
Lavatories _______ ______________)_
Water Closets Z-
• -38-


Chap.
Tabl e
4^25
4._2_
4^3_
4j5_4_
4.5_
4.B_
4^?_
4-12
Paqe
N/A
Dr i nki ng Fountai n Reqmnts. : _EbQA2^rz.
24. Requirements -for Handicapped
Scope/Required:___
Site Development:
Par k inq:_____________
Accessible Sites:______
Stairs:________________
Elevators:_____________
Doors/Gates:___________
Drinking Fountains:____
Toilet Room:___________
Accessible Buildings
Accessible Route:______
Overhanging Objects:___
Ground Floor Surfaces: Stai rs:
Passenger Elevators:
Doors:_______________
Principal Entrance:_
Drinking Fountain:___
Toilet Room:
44_ Storage Facilities:_______________
14_ Space Allowances and Reach Ranges
_15_ Accessible Route:_________
_15_ Protruding Objects:_______
_22_ Ground and Floor Surfaces:
_24_ Ramps:_____________________
____ Stairs:____________________
2?_ Elevators:_________________
Doors:
-39-


Width
Chap. Page Table N/A
____ ____ Thresholds:
Entrances:
Water Closets:
Toi1et Stalls:
Urinals:
Handrai1s/Grab Bars/Shower Seats:
-40-


DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
Post Office 1,200 S.F.
Information Desk 590 S.F.
Game Room 1,600 S.F.
Campus Pub 4,000 S.F.
Bowling Alley 4,050 S.F.
Lg. Conference/Lecture Room 1,320 S.F.
Meeting Rooms (5 Small) 1,500, S.F.
Meeting Room 600 S.F.
Arts and Crafts 4,000 S.F.
Bookstore Office and Sales 5,400 S.F.
Bookstore Storage/Receiving 1,650 S.F.
Lounges (3) 3,000 S.F.
Campus Center Staff Offices 840 S.F.
Career Center 1,350 S.F.
Campus Grille (The Hub) 4,000 S.F.
Grille Servery 960 S.F.
Food Service Kitchen 4,150 S.F.
Dining Servery 2,080 S.F.
Dining Hall 8,600 S.F.
Campus Organizations 3,800 S.F.
Food Service Storage 1,800 S.F.
Mechanical/Equiptment Room 2,750 S.F.






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-63-


THESIS SOLUTION: COLORADO COLLEGE STUDENT UNION




L


Ground Floor Plan


----------
North Elevation
South Elevation
East Elevation
hfit Tffp “ ■


Section B


Cut-away Axonometrk


CONCLUSION
As i reread my Thesis Statement I wonder; have I done what I said I wanted to do? Yes, I think I have.
I created a Student Union that would indeed promote interaction among the students and college staff. The Student Union I designed is a building with most of the activity occuring on the inside. I even brought the exterior building materials of the other campus buildings into the heart of my building. I wanted the building to be a focal point from the central campus quadrangle, and to draw students to the center, so I included a pedestrian walkway in my design to ease the flow of traffic to and from the union across Cascade Avenue.
The union should be a campus crossroad; the main center of activity.
I created this crossroad by designing all of the functions around a majorand minor circulation path. These paths act as streets, carrying their "pedestrians" to the center of the building. All of the activity radiates out from this crossroad, while the vertical circulation branches out from, but returns to,the center or heart of the union.
The union is the "living room of the campus". It is the only place on campus where students and faculty alike can go to relax and interact with oneanother. To be successful, the union needs to promote interaction among all the sectors of the campus community. In the case of Colorado College the union takes on added importance; it needs to join together a rather fragmented student population. I believe this union is the first step to solving this important problem.
-69-


SOURCES CONSULTED
Alexander, Christopher, Sara Ishakowa, and Murry Silverstein. A Pattern Language. New York: Oxford Press, 1971.
Clark, Roger, and Michael Pause. Precedents in Architecture.
New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1985.
Koberg, Don and Jim Bagnall. The Universe Traveler. William,
Inc., 1973.
Krasnoff, Howard 0. Campus Buildings that Work. Philadelphia: North American Publishing Co., 1972.
Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City. Boston: M.I.T. Press,
1960.
Lynch, Kevin. Site Planning. Boston: M.I.T. Press, 1962.
March, Lionel and Philip Steadman. The Geometry of Environment. Boston: M.I.T. Press, 1971.
Packard, Robert T. Ed. Architectural Graphic Standards. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1981.
Palmer, Mickey. The Architect's Guide to Facility Programming.
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981.
Panero, Julis and Martin Selnik. Human Dimension & Interior Space. New York: Whitney Library of Design, 1979.
Pena, William. Problem Seeking. Boston: Cahners Books International, 1977.
Read, Alice Gray and Peter C. Doo, Ed. Via 6 Architecture and Visual Perception. Boston: M.I.T. Press, 1983.
Reid, J. Juan. Colorado College: The First Century, 1874-1974. Colorado Springs: The Colorado College, 1979.
Sternberg, Eugene and Barbara. Community Centers and Student Unions. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1971.
The Colorado College Bulletin, The College Relations Office, Ed. Colorado Springs: The Colorado College, 1985.
White, Ken. Bookstore Planning and Design. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1982.
-70-


Wong, Wucius. Principles of Three-Dimensional Design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1977.
Wright, David. Natural Solar Architecture: A Passive Primer.
New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1978.
A Post-Occupancy Evaluation of the Wentworth Building, Institute for Environmental Education. School of Architecture and Planning. University of New Mexico, 1981.
Facilities Program - The Colorado College Campus Center, John James Wallace & Associates Architects.
Interview with David Ives - Director of the Leisure Program, Colorado College.
The New Mexico Union. Regents of the University of New Mexico, 1981.
Timesaver Standards for Building Design.
University of Denver Student Center by Debra Berger, 1982.
University of Denver Student Center by Robert West, 1978.
-71-


s* UUOUU uuuuu.uu uu
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MHP
MHS
RVP
SU
PBC
^iy« ■uTil
C-4

C-5
C-6
NBZ
PBP
M-l
M-2
PIP
APD
UV
CU
*.7 ‘ »*" * ►
Development
Mobile Homes Park
Mobile Homes Subdivision
Recreational Vehicle Park
Special Use No 1.2 and 3
Planned Business Center
Neighborhood
Business
Intermediate
Business
General
Business
Neighborhood Business Zone
Planned Business Park
L igh' Industrial
Heavy
Industrial
Planned Industrial Park No / and 2
Airport Planned Development
Use Variance
Conditional Use
Tourist 7one
*
City Limits
Zone subject to Conditions of Record
High R/se Zone
T'*'*'* Air Approach Zone
Navigation Preservation (Plan Development) Zone
Hillside Area
PCITY PLANNING DEPARTMENT
post oppicb iok -lava color*do mninoi, Colorado
REVISION DATf
1-1-80
500 1000
00 NOT SCALE
SHEET 2 6


Full Text

PAGE 1

itCHIVES D 190 .72 986 624 COLORADO COLLEGE STUDENT UNION ENVlRONMNTAL E S I )' AURARIA U R , ' ' . . ...... .. .... r1ASTER OF ARCHITECTURE JAN S. GOLDBERG FALL 1986

PAGE 2

COLORADO / C 0 L L E G E S T U D E N T U N I 0 N An architectural thesis presented to the College of Architecture and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Architecture. Jan s. . Fall 1986 .. ... Date Due .. l I I ' .. . .. ' ...... ____ ,_ _.......,., . --. _i

PAGE 3

C 0 1 0 R A D 0 C 0 1 1 E G E S T t' D ; , N T The Thesi s of Jan S . is approved Committee Chairman Univursity of Colorado at Denver Dec e mber 9, 1986 U N I 0 N

PAGE 4

COLORADO C 0 L L E G E TABLE OF CONTENTS History of the Student Union History of Colorado College Organizatfuon Activity Description and Patterns History of Colorado Springs Demographic and Economic Base Climate -Temperature -Humidity -Precipitation -Winds -Climatic Design Guidelines General Design Guidelines Zoning Thesis Statement Site Analysis Building Code Search Design Requirements Design Analysis Design Solution nonclusion Sources Consulted S T U D E N T U N I 0 N 1-2 3-4 5 6-8 9-10 11-12 13 14-15 16-17 18-19 20-21 23-25 26 27-28 29-32 33-34 35-40 41 42-63 64-68 69 70-71

PAGE 5

0 z ::) 0 lJ u <( co

PAGE 6

HISTORY OF THE STUDENT UNION Universities and colleges have always had a need for a place where students could meet, have discussions, eat and drink together and begin to develop a sense of belonging to the academic community. The development of a building intended solely for this purpose is a new idea on college campuses. The first student unions appeared at both Cambridge and Oxford Universities in England. The Cambridge union was formed in 1815, by the uniting of the three existing debating societies. Until 1866, the sole purpose remained debating, which took place in small back rooms of local inns. The scenario was always the same -dinner before the debate, drinks afterward. In 1866, the union members built a home of their own and the functions of the union expanded beyond just a debating society. Their "home" contained a leading room and lounge, dining service, a bar, committee rooms, a smoking room, a writing room and a billiard room. The Oxford union was formed in 1823, also by the uniting of the separate existing debating societies. In 1829 they rented three rooms in a downtown Oxford bookstore where they met until they built their own "home" in 1857. Their union building was the first of its kind in the world. The original intent of both the Cambridge and Oxford unions was to form a university-wide society, which would bypass the obstacles among the students, to try to achieve unity through the understanding of the different factions that comprised the campus.

PAGE 7

The union, as a place for both students and the other members of the university to come together and meet informally, began to infuse itself on the colleges. The first American building designed solely as a union was Houston Hall in Pennsylvania, opened in 1896. Both need and prosperity brought an increase in union buildings on American campuses after World War I. There were many more students and the previously existing facilities were inadequate. With the heightened awareness of the importance of the union on campus came the expanded uses of the union. " the days when the union was merely 'a place to meet', of an accidental supplement to housing -a kind of service station, filling accidental gaps in the provisions for out-of-class needs -are long since gone. It is now, indeed, a community center of the first order, with an identity and meaning of its own." -2-

PAGE 8

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PAGE 9

HISTORY OF COLORADO COLLEGE In 1871, when General William Palmer laid out the city of Colorado Springs, he reserved land and laid out funds for a college which was to open under the support of the Congregational Church. In 1874, Colorado College was established as a coeducational institution, two years before Colorado became a state. Cutler Hall, the College's first building, was occupied in 1880; and the first bachelor's degrees were bestowed in 1882. Between 1882 and the mid-1950's, the College built three women's dorms, two men's dorms, a library, a fine arts hall, an athletic field, a science hall and a chapel. Since that time, the campus has been almost wholly rebuilt. The new facilities include three large residence halls, a student center, a library and subsequent addition, a natural sciences building, an ice rink, a health center, a sports center with a pool, a classroom building and an art and music hall. Of the original buildings, only Cutler Hall, the women's dorms, one of the men's dorms, the original science hall, which is now a multi-classroom facility, and the chapel remain to make up the campus. The College now occupies 79-acres in a residential section of Colorado Springs, easily accessible to both the downtown community and the mountains. All of the 1,850 students attending Colorado College do not take classes by semester or quarters, but rather by the block or -3-

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blocks. In 1970, the College implemented the block plan. The year is divided into nine three-and-a-half week segments called blocks. Students only take one course at a time during each block. Some courses may last one block, while others may go on for two, three, and sometimes four, blocks. Under the block plan, a course is designed to cover as much as a 15-week or 10-week course in a conventional semester or quarter system. 3.5 semester hours are earned for each block completed, earning the student one unit of credit. The block plan creates an air of intensity. For every hour in class, a student spends about three hours outside of class doing homework. The block plan also allows classes to structure class times at any time of the day and also permits extended field trips away from the campus. In addition, however, the block plan tends to fragment the student population. There is a lack of cohesion, of togetherness among the student body as a whole. As students have stated, "And you can't overlook the block plan. It really permeates every part of our lives." The block plan forces rigorous study. It allows classes of 25 students to get to know one another for 3 1/2 weeks. After that time, the students are off to another 3 1/2 week course with a whole new group of people. The short time spent in each class does not really allow students to get to know each other. The Student Center at Colorado College needs to be a place that fills the gap left from the short amount of time spent in each class, and therefore takes on added importance as a crossroads for students on the block plan. -4-

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ORGANIZATION The Student Center is run by an Assistant Dean of Students, who is also Director of the Leisure Program. He oversees all the employees in the Center, excluding the food service and the bookstore. The Director of the Leisure Program supervises all non-academic and non-athletic activities and organizations. This includes student government, publications, guest performers, artists and lecturers, as well as campus political, environmental and religious groups. The College as a whole is run by the Trustees through the President. The day-to-day activities are overseen by the various Directors from College Relations to Athletics, to the Director of the Leisure Program, who is also in charge of the Student Center. The Director of the Leisure Program reports to the Vice President for Student Life and is a member of the President's Cabinet. -5-

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ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION AND PATTERNS ACTIVITIES The Student Center is in constant use from when it opens at 7:00 a.m. until it closes at midnight, seven days a week. The of activity occurs around mealtimes. The Student Center is used by students, administrators, faculty and staff, as well as being a focal point for the Colorado Springs community. The Student Center houses the bookstore, main dining hall and the campus grill, meeting rooms serving 25 people or less, and one meeting room serving 75 to 100 people. The Center serves as a place for students to watch television, eat, meet friends or have planned meetings, pick up tickets to all college sponsored events, buy books, read and study, attend career option seminars, pick up mail and messages, and catch up on current campus events. With all of the student mail boxes located in the Student Center, a student is assured to be in the building at least once a day. With this constant flow of traffic and activity, there is a great opportunity to encounter people from past blocks or classes, and to talk to a familiar face. Thus, the Student Center at Colorado College serves and even heightened purpose in the context of the block plan. It draws together a campus otherwise splintered and fragmented by the unique academic program. -6-

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PATTERNS The most predominant pattern of the College is the block and block break. Each block begins on a Monday, and ends 3 1/2 weeks later on a Wednesday at noon. At that time, the block break begins. The campus empties of most of the students and there is a mass exodus, usually to the mountains, of both students and faculty alike. The block and block break regulate the life of the campus. Students have gone as far as saying, " • you talk in blocks • • • you get sick in blocks • • • you get your hair cut in blocks • n . . . The block plan produces some patterns of its own. The bookstore is jammed with students and lines out the door for the first days of every block. The library, on the other hand, is packed with students on the last Tuesday and Wednesday of the block. The College is officially open from 8:30a.m. to 5:00p.m., five days a week. All of the non-resident buildings are open from 7:00 a.m. to 12:00 midnight. Breakfast is served from 7:15 to 9:15a.m., lunch 11:30 to 12:45 p.m. and dinner from 5:00 to 6:00 p.m. The only change occurs during block break, when there is no dinner on Saturday night. Most classes after lunch are either science or language labs, therefore the bulk of the students have the afternoons free. Most every class is taught on campus, but the nature of the block plan allows for classes to be taught off-campus. Classes go to the mountains, to the Newberry Library in Chicago, to Mexico, Costa Rica and to the Far East. -7-

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Colorado College is essentially a residential campus. The College feels that education extends into the residence hall, dining hall and Student Center. Therefore, 75% of the 1,850 students live in one of the 14 dorms. All single students with less than senior status are required to live in residence halls. -8-

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, HISTORY OF COLORADO SPRINGS In 1861, El Paso County was officially organized as one of the original 17 counties in the Colorado Territory. Prior to that date, El Paso County was part of Arapahoe County of the Kansas Territory. El Paso County is now approximately 55 miles in its extreme east/west direction and 42 miles in its north/south direction; providing an area of 2,158 square miles. The surface is predominantly rolling plains in the east and south, with mountains and foothills in the west and northwest. The northern part of the county from west to east is timber covered between the Arkansas and South Platte rivers. Colorado Springs, the county seat of El Paso County, was founded in 1871. General William Jackson Palmer, head of the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad, laid out the city of Colorado Springs along his new line from Denver. The city was primarily founded as a health resort because of its good and refreshing climate. Located where the high plains meet the Rocky Mountains at an altitude of 6,145 feet, Colorado Springs is a city of 256,000 in a metropolitan area of 364,000 people. Due to the city's proximity to the mountains, tourism plays an important role in the economy, but Colorado Springs today is known as a center of the electronics and aerospace industries and of amateur sports. The city is increasingly shaped by high technology industry and by the military. Located in or near the -9-

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city are Fort Carson, the United States Air Force Academy, Peterson Air Force Base, the North American Aerospace Defense Command, the Combined Space Operations Center and the United States Olympic Training Center. The Olympic Training Center has made the city a center of world-class amateur sports activity. In addition to Colorado College, there are three other institutions of higher education in Colorado Springs: Pike's Peak Community College, a branch of the University of Colorado and Regis College. Over the years, Colorado Springs has become an informal suburban community with numerous "big-city" attractions. -10-

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DEMOGRAPHIC AND ECONOMIC BASE DEMOGRAPHICS The current population of El Paso County is 363,038, of which 255,267 people live in Colorado Springs. There is a probable growth of 36% expected by the year 2,000, that would bring the population of the county to 493,989. The median household income in 1969 was $8,170 compared to $25,427 in 1986. In 1984 there were 161,590 people employed in El Paso County. In 1986 there are 184,143 residents working, with an expected work force of 249,050 in the year 2,000. The public school enrollment was 64,581 in El Paso County in 1973-74, and 62,163 in 1983-84. A projected enrollment of 116,250 is expected by the year 2,000. (Information from the Pike's Peak Area Council of Government's Statistical Profiles: El Paso County. ECONOMIC BASE The residents of El Paso County are employed in many industries and trades. They work in government offices, finance, insurance, real estate, the aeronautics industry, manufacturing, wholesale and retail sales, construction, transportation and utilities, forestry, mining, farming and other agricultural occupations. Agriculture and ranching are the major occupations in the areas outlying the city. Crop production and livestock grazing -11-

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are the most predominant activities in these areas. Douglas County is predominant in the nation for breeding quarterhorses and Kit Carson County receives a large portion of the crop revenues for the state of Colorado. As we near the year 2,000, these outlying areas are likely to gain population and employment opportunities, both of which can be attributed to the growth of the aeronautics industry in the area. An additional contribution to the economic base in El Paso County is tourism. Over two million tourists each year visit the famous Broadmoor Hotel and such scenic spots as the Cave of the Winds, Pikes Peak and the United States,Air Force Academy. -12-

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CLIMATE El Paso County and its surrounding counties are generally considered rolling plains and valleys. These counties include Cheyenne, Kit Carson, Douglas, Elbert, and Lincoln: with only Teller County being predominantly mountainous. The elevation ranges from 3,875 feet in Cheyenne County to the peak of Seven Utes at 12,500 feet in Teller County, to Pike's Peak at 14,110 feet in El Paso County. Colorado Springs, at 6,145 feet, is considered to be a flat, semi-arid area. The city is met by the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains which range from 11,000 to 14,000 feet directly west of the city. To the east there is an undulating near-flat prairie land. To the north, the area slopes upward reaching a height of approximately 8,000 feet 20 miles outside the city at the peak of the Palmer Lake divide. The city sits in the Arkansas River drainage basin. The principle tributary that feeds the Arkansas in this area is Fountain Creek. The creek rises in the high mountains west of the city and is fed by Monument Creek with originates to the north in the Palmer Lake divide area. The wide range of elevations surrounding the city have given Colorado Springs a mixture of plain -and-mountain climate that make it a very desirable place to live. -13-

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TEMPERATURE Temperatures range from cold in winter to hot in summer. The high temperature reaches 85 in July and the low temperature is approximately 16 in January. Night time minimum temperatures are below freezing usually from October to March, but longer periods may occur. High temperature swings between day and night occur both in winter and summer. Extreme temperatures occur for only short durations. The temperature difference between downtown Colorado Springs and the summit of Pike's Peak (12 air miles west} is similar to the temperature differential between Colorado Springs and Iceland. -14-

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HUMIDITY Humidity levels are generally low. The relative humidity averages 50%. Higher humidity levels occur during the daytime than at night. Humidity levels are generally similar throughout the year. -16-

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PRECIPITATION Rainfall is generally small, averaging 1.3 inches per month; with the minimum amount occurring in January and the maximum amount in the summer. 80% of the precipitation falls between April and September. Afternoon and evening thunderstorms occur with regularity in the summer. They help to have a cooling effect during the peak temperature periods. Snowfall can occur as early as October, but generally falls from November to April. The average snowfall is 35 inches per year. Total yearly precipitation {rainfall) averages 16 inches. The precipitation at higher elevations in the Colorado Springs area are approximately twice those at lower elevations and the number of rainy days almost triple.

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WINDS The prevailing winds are from the north. The winds increase in speed and become warmer as they lose moisture over the mountains. These warm, gusty winds characterize the chinook winds which often occur from March to June. Maximum wind speeds are from the north and occur in April. Average yearly wind velocity is 9.6 MPH. Arctic air masses coming from the north produce the extreme low temperatures in the winter. -20-

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LAYOUT CLIMATIC DESIGN GUIDELINES Buildings should be oriented on an east-west axis with the long elevations facing north and south to increase exposure to the sun. INDOOR/OUTDOOR ROOMS Try to provide semiprotected areas like courtyards for year round climate moderation. These spaces should be designed for winter sun collection. Differ the thermal response of the walls and roof according to their respective orientations using the heat capacities of different materials and their assorted time lags to achieve comfortable conditions indoors at different times of the day. EARTH SHELTERING If a portion of the structure is used below grade, insulate wall and the floor below grade to prevent the radial flow of heat to the surface. WIND BREAKS Shape and orient the building shell to minimize wind turbulence and pressure between windward and leeward sides. Smooth facades and berming on the windward side -23-

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with low streamlined roofs will reduce conductive and convective heat losses. SOLAR WALLS AND WINDOWS Shape and orient the building shell and glaze areas at an orientation between south and l5east of south. Maximize south facing glass in the form of picture windows or sliding glass doors. Use skylights for winter solar gain and natural illumination. THERMAL ENVELOPE Minimize the external wall and roof area. Use compact geometric forms to minimize the surface area to volume ratio. Avoid excessive ceiling heights to achieve minimum surface area to floor area ratio. Locate low use spaces like storage and utility as a climatic buffer against the cold winter winds. Use a vestibule at entry of an exterior shield like wing walls which reflect wind and act as a buffer at the entry. Provide air shafts for natural or mechanically assisted in-house heat recovery. Tap appliances that generate heat with recirculating air systems that instantaneously recover and convert to various areas. Provide double or triple glazing with interior insulating aids such as accordion shades or shutters, as well as drapes and storm windows on the exterior. -24-

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Apply vapor barriers on the warm side of the construction section including beneath slab on grade construction and on the floor of crawl spaces. Use a tightly insulated basement or crawl space as a buffer zone between the interior and ground. Use attic space as a buffer zone between the interior and exterior.

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GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES The structure should exhibit an air of comfort and informality. The design should have a considerable amount of functional open space, but security should be kept in mind. The student center has many different functions, therefore it is desirable that the building be acoustically segmented to meet the needs. It is important to remember that natural light and fenestration, skylights, ventilation, cooling, heating and all mechanically operated systems, receive special attention. The desire is that the building maintain a warm, casual, comfortable atmosphere and be functionally efficient. There should be an abundance of electrical outlets, and computer hook-ups should also be supplied. The predominantly sunny weather of Colorado Springs suggests that solar projections be carefully planned for building exposures in a 180 degree arc from the southwest to the northwest. The design of the student center should have special consideration for natural light, minimum glare and unwanted heat gain. Due to the high winds that can occur in the winter, additional consideration should be given to the location and projection of building entrances.

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ZONING CODE Colorado College is in the SU-1 (Special Use) Zone. DESCRIPTION AND PURPOSE: "This zone is established to provide for uses customarily located near a college or university, due to the beneficial nature of the close proximity of one to the other. The zone also allows for golf courses and encourages the use of open space within an urban environment." MAXIMUM REQUIREMENTS: Maximum percentage of lot to be used for principal and accessory buildings is 50%. Maximum height of principal building is 60 feet. Minimum frontage of lot is 50 feet. Minimum yard dimensions: Front Yard 2 S Feet Side Yard -Add 2 additional feet to each side yard for every story in excess of 1 story. City of Colorado Springs Zoning Ordinance used as the source of this information. -27 -

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THESIS STATEMENT The student union is an important type of center serving our colleges and.universities. The union (or center) is a vital part of college life. It becomes the link between students, faculty, staff and the administration. The union acts as the "living room" of the college. It provides "for the services, conveniences and amenities that members of the college family need in their daily life on campus." The union is "part of the educational program of the college and a meeting ground and social center." The student center provides a campus crossroads. This is the main center of activity. It is a dynamic, social-culturalrecreational heart serving the entire campus with its own programs and particular method of contributing to the student's education. This crossroad serves as the hub of a wheel; someplace that draws together an otherwise fragmented campus. The student center should be just that, a center that encourages individuality and freedom of thought. The union is the community center of the college. Its main function is to promote interaction among the members of the college. Most important to this interaction is the joining of students and faculty outside of the classroom. The purpose of the student center as a community center is to create a common ground for interaction. As a community center, the union becomes less formal than the classroom and assumes the role of a gathering place without an academic hierarchy. This atmosphere serves to -29-

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promote interaction between all sectors of the campus community. A community dominated by students, who interestingly enough are becoming one of the largest parts of the American population. The purpose of the union is more than just a structure housing all the functions left over from previous high-priority building efforts. Its purpose is to provide students with experiences. The union is "a great place for students to become aware of their surroundings; To provoke, inspire, or even annoy them into noticing, analyzing, experiencing and experimenting with the space around them." Because the student spends a great deal of time in the union, it should be planned to enhance their experiences. "You do not plan doorways, you plan the experience of entering. You do not plan for rooms, you plan the experience of movement and mingling." THE PROJECT Colorado College in Colorado Springs is in need of a new student center. The existing center, built in 1959, has become increasingly inadequate, the meeting rooms are not used due to their uncomfortable nature, the dining facilities are too small to properly serve the student body, there are no facilities for off-campus (commuting) students, and the existing facility does not fulfill its obligation as a student center -it fails to promote any interaction. The new campus center will attract both the college community, as well as the surrounding neighborhood, thus promoting an increase in interaction. The center will be sited on the corner -307

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of two major streets that border the southwest portion of the campus: Cascade Avenue and Cache La Poudre Street. The most important aspect of this site is its visibility to both college members and the community alike. DESIGN IMPLICATIONS The union has an educational function in the cultural, political, and civic development of the student. To fulfill this demand, the union should provide places for informal meetings, conversations, and sitting areas. These spaces could range from lounges to outdoor courtyards and terraces. Social activities housed and organized in the union should take place in a lecture hall that can be converted to a small movie theater or banquet room. To provide for indoor recreation, the union could have bowling alleys and/or a game room, and space for photography, ceramics or other hobby activities. There should be areas for goods and services, such as the bookstore, post office, co-op store, and a variety of food services. The union houses the offices of the student government and other organizations, and the Union Administrator. Ample space is required for their offices. It is essential for the Student Union to have an area for art display, theaters, small seminar or meeting rooms and conference areas. It is important that the union provide the kind of leisure-time planning the students and faculty want and need. Circulation is an essential consideration for the planning of any union. It should be direct, open visible. Flexibility of

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' space is key to the success of any union. Rooms have to be multi-functional and easy to alter. There is a requirement for an ade-quate supply of appropriate spaces, and careful attention should be paid for the allocation of space. Rooms that are seldom in use should be located accordingly and quiet spaces need to be isolated. The Union is the most heavily used building on campus. It is therefore essential that the quality of space be open, light and appealing in nature. DESIRES AS DESIGN GOALS To design an environment conducive to relaxation and interaction among the differing factions of the college community. To promote an awareness that the Student Union is to be used and enjoyed. To consolidate Student Center services for dining, information, mail service, books, supplies and leisure programming. To become an attractive source of college identity and information to visitors and prospective students. To improve the image and prominence of the Student Center as viewed from the central campus quadrangle as a focal point and destination. To interface Student Center functions such as grill, commons, and lounge areas with the center of campus by sidewalk seating, open assembly areas, and serve major pedestrian circulation patterns. -32-

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SITE ANALYSIS The site is bounded on the east and south by two major, heavily traveled streets: Cascade Avenue and Cache La Poudre Street, respectively. Cascade Avenue, bounding the east, is one of the main north-south arteries in the city. The view of the mountains, particularly Pike's Peak, is the highlight of the western boundary of the site. There is an ice rink and sports center also to the west, but they slope down a hill which falls away from the site. There is an existing asphalt drive directly to the north which may be removed if necessary. Beyond the drive is a large green commons area. The boundaries of the site measure approximately 218' (north-south) by 290' (east-west). The high point of the site occurs at the east end with an elevation of 100' and drops to 88' at the west (see attached sheet). The sidewalk to the east and south bordering the street have elevations of 99.4' to 97.9' from north to south and 97.' to 90.1' from west to east. There is a 4" gas line 40' and a 6" water line 47' east of the property line under Cascade Avenue. There is also an 18" water line 23' and a 10" water line 51' south of the property line under the street. Also occurring under this east-west street is a sanitary sewer 33' from the property line. This sewer also cuts through the east portion of the site. There are electric power lines running overhead 13' from the property line on the south. The electric lines run underground on the west along with another -33-'

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gas line, a 6" water line and a 6" sanitary sewer line. There is a telephone line adjacent, but very accessable to the site on the north (see attached drawing). There are many trees on the north, south and east side of the site. The trees to the north are older, approximately 30-35' high, while those to the south are approximately 10-20' high. Standing in the center of the site, the immediate views in each direction are quite different. To the north, the most prevalent item is the large common greens where students play frisbee, volleyball, read or walk across on their way from one side of the campus to the other. The administration building is directly across Cascade Avenue to the east. It is a four story, red brick building. Packard Hall of Art and Music is across the street to the south. This building is a cream concrete building, with an abstraction of piano keys made out of tile directly facing the site. To the west is 'the ice rink. Because the site slopes away, six barrel vaults of the rink roof area are most dominant features, and, of course, beyond the rink is Pike's Peak. There is no on-site parking required. There is parking avail-able on both of the major streets, but the majority of those who use the Student Center walk from campus. The volume of traffic is greater on Cascade Avenue, with 12,200 cars counted daily and 7,500 cars reported on Cache La Poudre. The greatest amount of traffic occurs from 7:30 to 8:30 a.m. and from 4:30 to 5:30 p.m. The site sits on the south end of the campus. It visually belongs to the campus, but due to its location on the fringe, it has an additional impact on the neighborhood nearby. -34-

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ajor College Buildings Armstrong Hall: Admi s sion office and othe r administrative offices ; Armstrong Theater; computing services ; cla ss ics, drama, English, foreign language s , philosophy and r e ligion departments Olin Hall: biology, chemistry and physics d epartments Palmer Hall: anthropology, business economics, economics, geology, hi s tory, mathematics, political science , p s ychology and sociology departments Cutler Hall: Alumni, Development and College R elations Offic e s Rastall Student Center: College bookstore, main dining hall; "Hub" sn a ck bar , Benjamin ' s Basement , arts and crafts area; leisure pr.ogram P ackard Hall: music and art d epartments Cossitt Hall : drama and dance depart m ent; student publications ; writing center The Colorado College Campus Residence Halls 1 Mathia s 2 Arthur Hous e 3 Jackson House (and Th e Pres s at Colorado College ) 4 Slocum 5 B e mi s (and Bemi s T a ylor Dining Halls; Offic e of R es i dentia l Life) 6 McGr ego r 7 Ticknor (and Caree r Center) 8 Montgom ery 9 Loomis (and Confe r e nc e Center) 10 Tenne y House 11 Wood House Language Houses (Residential) 12 Mull ett (Spanish) 13 Max Kade (Germa n ) 14 Has k e ll (Fre nch ) Fraternity Houses (Residential) 15 Kappa Sigm a 16 Phi Gamma Delta 17 Phi D elta Theta 18 Si g m a Chi 19 Beta The t a Pi Sorority Houses (Non-residential) 20 G amma Phi Beta 21 D elta G amma 22 K a pp a K a pp a G amma 23 K a pp a Alpha Theta Classroom and Other Houses 24 P olit i ca l Action H o u se 25 H a mlin Hou se 26 P resi d e nt's Hou se 27 Stewart Hou se 28 D ern H o u se (classro om s a nd S o u t h wes t S t ud ies) 29 Mierow House (educati o n d e p artment) 30 G ill H o u se (Summer Ses s i o n offi ce) 31 Biol og i ca l Sci e n ces C urrietl lum Stud y 32 KR CC r a dio 33 Tutt Hou se

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BUILDING CODE SEARCH LOCATION: APPLICABLE CODE NAME: Code Check By=--------------------------------------------------Chap. Page Item :Table N/A 1. Fire Zone ______________________________________ _ . . Occupancy Classification _______________________ _ Pti n c i p a 1 Dec up ctn c (Spec i f y ) 3. Consturcti on Type __ -:r.:::(&-_k..._ ____________________ _ 4. Occupancy Separations Required &'-I 6. _A 1' t o = tJ Hout-s ------------------------to = Hours -------------------------to = Hours ---------------------to Hours ---------------------to = Hours ---------------------Ma>:i mum All owab 1 e Floor Area fo., --rl'f ' 'f:::... -rc I A Z.. t t "S.::>, t:;oP ; .:-I If ada. cent to open area on two o r more sides: ... If onE If spr ink 1 ed: Maximum Allowable Height Feet: &t:> i 7. Towers spires steeples _________________________ _ 8. Fire resistance of e>:terior wall
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Chap. Page Tc:lble N/A lt-__ &_lJ_ qz. lo1 9. 1 0. 11. 12. 13. Windows Required in Rooms ___ , , -r--------------------vJi ndov1 enclosed or semi-enclosed courts-size required: ' " MinimLtm Ceiling Heights in Rooms: "1-o. c.LLP Mini mum Floor Area of Rooms: __ ud __ Fire Resistive Requirements Exterior Bearing Walls _____________ l _______ Hours Interio r Bearing Walls _____________ l _______ Hours Ext. Non-Bearing Walls _____________ j _______ Hours Stt-uctur al Fr c:ime I Hour s Permanent Vertical Openings ___ ===============r====== = Hours Floors _________ ____________________ l _______ Hours Roofs ______________________________________ Hours E:-: t er i mDoors HoLtr s Inner CoLtrt Mez zanine Floors :i t s Occupancy Type Basis Actual Load -36-

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Chap. Page T;:,bl e N/A 16. All ovJ;:,bl e E) : :it Seguence: 1c;.,,._l I N t;:-lt-.:h'Vl.V .. fiNCP I r p1 L..t:.-CT'" t> 0 '"7 I c.A ';:o Exit Corridors . Mt:i:-: i mum all 0\1\t;:,b 1 e W:i dth: Height: __________________________ DEad End Con i clor s -Length: ___ :JE__ __ _________ ---Openings _______________________________________ _ Doors and Frames Fire Resistance Required: _____ _ 17. E>:it Doors 0!7' 18. ---Swing: _________ 0 _ ______________________________ _ Mini mum __ _0" __ Hei ght: __________________ y.----------------Ma>: i . mum Lec-l'f vJi dth: Special Door: __________________________________ _ l•Ji dth F:equi red for Number of Occupants: ot--1 l--uAD. ------------------------------------------------------Stairways _1 _ 1 , Min. Width L-f"-'f Occupant Load Of C,o c:R.-".AoVi:. 1'/ . __ Rise and RLm Ma::. Riser: _____ !::__ t1i n. Tread: _jp_:__ Winding Spiral Stairways _____________ _ Landings _______________________________________ _ Minimum l!-Jidth: "io W1!7Tl-\ oc -M.:n: i mum Width . Vertical Distance Betv1een Landings: __ j_z__:. _______ _ Handrai 1 s. Required ;:,t Each Side: __ l __ Intermediate Rails Req'd. at Me\) :. l!-Ji clth Bet wE en Int. Rai 1::. : _ _ _ E: :ce::ptions __ t{''.:_..!.t:! __ . , 1 _ Hei gt"1t Above Nosing: __ Balusters Projection: ____________________________________ _ Ma x . Post Spacing: __________ , Hc-,ndrai 1 s Retur n to Wall at Ends: Handrai 1 s E>:tend Beyond Stair: I Access to Roof -37-

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Page Tabl e N/A St<: d Ac:cE=!;s to Roof Requi !'"Ed: ';:.."'=--0"--Exterior Stairway: _____________________________ _ Horizontal Exit Requirements: _______________ ___ _ 19. Ramps W idth: Ma:-: i Landings=--------------------------------------H andr.:d 1 s Required: ____ _ . oc::::. c:.-L 1 L...A-:r:> St? o1?f oo 20. GLtardrai 1 s Where Required: Jtl0 _ _ 1 '.:..c Balconies: _____________________________________ _ Rai. 1 Openi n•;J Spac i Height Requi reel: 1 . Intermedi ctte R.::d. l s F:equi red: _ _ L& ' . 21. Exit Enclosures Stairways Ramps escalator shall be enclosed except=-----------------------------------------Enclosure Construction: ________________________ _ Openings into Enclosures: _____________________ _ _ Extent o f Enclosure: ___________________________ _ 22. Elevators -Review Chapter for applicable requirements= ---------------------------------23. Toi 1 et Room Requirements Code Used: _(.}_tf-______ _ Fixture Count Requirements: M e n Basis Le:1vator .. i es Wate• r Clos ets Uri nc:tl s l.Jomen Lave:1tor i es Water Closets . -38___ j __ _ ___ _k_. _ \ ---z,----------

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Page T.:1blE.• N/A 24. Requirements for Handicapped Scope/Required: ________________________________ _ Site Development: ______________________________ _ Parking=----------------------------------------Accessible Sites=-------------------------------Stairs=-----------------------------------------Elevators=--------------------------------------Doors/Gates: ___________________________________ _ Drinking Toi 1 et Room: -----------------------------------Accessible Buildings Accessible Route : ______________________ ________ _ Overhanging Objects: ___________________________ _ G round Floor Surfaces: _________________________ _ Stairs: Passenger Elevators: ___________________________ _ Doors=-----------------------------------------p, -inc i pal Entrance:-----------------------------Drinking Fountain: _____________________________ _ Toilet Room: ___________________________________ _ Storage Facilities: ____________________________ _ Space Allowances and Reach Ranges Accessible Route=------------------------------Protruding Objects: ___ _ ________________________ _ Ground and Floor Surfaces: _____________________ _ F:amps: -------------------------------------------Stairs=----------------------------------------Elevators=--------------------------------------Doors=-------------------------------------------39-

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Chap. Table Page N/A Width: Thresholds : Entrances: Water Closets: Toilet Stalls: Urinals: Handrails/Grab Bars/Shower Seats: . -40-

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DESIGN REQUIREMENTS P ost Office Information Desk Game Room Campus Pub B owling Alley L. Conference/Lecture Room M eeting Rooms (5 Small) Meeting Room Arts and Crafts B .ookstore Office and Sales B ookstore Storage/Receiving L ounges (J) Campus Center Staff Offices Career Center Campus Grille (The Hub) Grille Servery . F o od Service Kitchen Dining Servery Dining Hall Campus Organizations Food Service Storage Mechanical/Equiptment Room -411,200 S.F. 590 S.F. 1,600 S.F. 4,000 S.F. 4,050 S.F. 1,)20 S.F. 1, 500 . S .F. 600 S.F. 4,000 S.F. 5,400 S.F. 1,650 S.F. J,OOO S.F. 840 S.F. 1,350 S.F. 4,000 S.F. 960 S.F. 4,150 S.F. 2 , 080 S.F. 8,600 S.F. ),800 S.F. 1,800 S.F. 2,750 S.F.

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Space Users . Pv .e?r 1 ct.Group No. Rqd . Sq. Ft. Cc I 1,-z..c:o Activity/Scheduling Special Needs &w Characteristics Adjacencies L -J -t:::? N\A 1 L-. Design Characteristics v A.Jo /'cl.; . )) Finishes & Furnishings R e lated Activity Sheets

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-Space Users -;+\1( e-,A N :>t_ 1""5 ;1\-,J D Li..-C.AC tv\U J \""\(" -No. Rqd. Special Needs Group l Sq . Ft .. 0'1v . .. Characteristics -?"(' AU--c:::..---c-6 "(_\I \.0 ALL--:a-(. 1 c..--AJv 'ot:: o ..y v'Af--( -Adjacencies t\ lcrr c:::;\ r::;;f2-,A c;,:,c -c c:::;;r t.E.. M D At-L L l ; \ C-C..'Z;: ?"S I E::Finishes & Furnishings . ::7 Related Activity Sheets 43I

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Space Group No. Rqd. \ Sq. Ft. \ I &c.-t:,;; Users -r-tt t: uA t .. ft= t l '!;> C::.h4 A i .l--1 n-( Activity/Scheduling Special Needs fC;UIL:bl JG *1,k .. Behavorial Characteristics L\<-_:.,'C.-1,.; l I J ..-Ll \ tt-;..--h I Adjacencies Design Characteristics Finishes & Furnishings Related Activity Sheets

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Group No. Rqd . \ Sq. Ft. 4, Ot,Y..;? Users Activity/ Schedu I i ng Special Needs \ ... I .. Characteristics . / ,t.\? l-cOP ./X( -({ -\...< f.,,; Adjacencies -........... Design Characteristics Finishes & Furnishings ...r Related Activity Sheets

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Space J1J L--1 ,.J 0 At--r.c-1 .:6 Group L.AG.O i.No. Rqd. 4 Users -1-r-kc C:A h-'1 rL I "'7 C<--/ I I ). t-1 \ -r( Activity/Scheduling Special Needs .,MJo I .. Characteristics c::::oJ.t., t? )<\ Adjacencies "'I Design Character i s tics Finishes & Furnishings Related Activity Sheets J,L

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Space G &CvtJ' (:.... oc.... / L-l e--ruuc No. Rqd. I Sq. Ft. Users t=>Y .. Characteristics .,kr , J .1\1--lo tolZ-Adjacencies -:--D .esign Characteristics -rz:;:> .f4iJD , .A1Jo ;(o Co N\N'\L, I tJ. n-1 Finishes & Furnishings Related Activity Sheets l Lt'7

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Spac e Users ...... A .l rr-1 Group No. Rqd . Sq. Ft. c? Activityi Scheduling Special Needs IV 'PO tZ-t J G C't2-)xr . .. Characteristics 6
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Space Group No . Rqd. \ Sq. Ft. &C/o Users '"io fof2. 6A1-l occU'w tJ G --r:::t-\11 e-1":-.. Characteristics 6lL\ JG::9? J A9 j acen c t-.1-.A----. -, ,.,. 0 \ tJ.:::-?(..1 LA-noW lil Design Characteristics .... -tt:::> (...o c;A-rc::: N I '11 t?ohlG? ;.lo fc:)Z-4o'' Finishes & Furnishings ,. Related Activity She ets t:?

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Space Group No. Rqd. Sq. Ft. . , l \, ?.;?:!7? Users I Activity/Scheduling Special Needs 4 . oo.::::> At.L 4 .f-1, ..... A . ./X(' 1--1 I Gt-{-j ee11 J 111 , Characteristics WctJL-b ?.:;? t:::: .--. u t:::>l -:;( -kl fJ I G*t"f .hJo O.AJ L 0 c::c:M'\A C\" Adjacencies Design Characteristics 'PC? A l-df cr N.A-11J u\1....-{_;\ 1 • r-<_l --r \)1--::.l c;1t:-[., l Finishes & Furnishings • G-... -'fJcC. C'(::Mv\ I Related Activity Sheets C:.rl

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Space Us ers ovt-1 ..1 79 (..;12--::;; No. Rqd . Sq. Ft l c;, I -4 DO Activity/Scheduling Special Needs l8t.J-(I tl b J!?c-o\:-.c:o./ 1 c.:.-X, \:pfL. I t::r--:.. t . ,.. -1 , G -r;zA r c _. Characteristics / y , ,..... ; L 11:::-C-1:"; .1--V\ .J i:?L) G ::;;> C..<-EAdjacencies .-.. .-----_. _A(2..b.t .7 ;!? _ -G-\1-'--(' v F? l \C:::> D .esign Characteristics ... C:::\ 'E-CV v\ -.... 1J.fo Fin i shes & Furnishings -"P t? ) yz:::f<==? Related Activity Sheets _j,

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Space Users P-:z.--o\c--L:r. '"'::5'1 { ;_,. \ c : ... :::... / Uc Cf:::" \V' t Group No. Rqd . Sq. Ft. j, &eGo Activity/ Schedu I i ng Special Needs \ (Cf"Ac..C'(' ..Ac -tv(r::.-1 +-1 ' .. Characteristics I Adjacencies I -t-1\ao .,/>... T o c::>Y' I t--lCd-/t l JG Design Characteristics Finishes & Furnishings ....?W o Related Activity Sheets

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Space Group \fA No. Rqd . Sq. Ft. Users Activity/Scheduling Special Needs l...cl--1 ,J 6 I t-.1 C;;l "-WI) L.-l I t--1 (._7 "-\.A-I'Z.-'S N t-f::;nl--1 6 ... Characteristics CcJJ 1/if:_(.. Adjacencies Design Characteristics ,.kf oJ ;c:,.. \/LA c..-rcD /,_\ cF--fl t!(... cl\ v rr(" Finishes & Furnishing s ... c:.ccl et+t.. -s A;--\ D J ''""'' ' \ . I vVI"'-' t-r'1 ..-..-"1-Relat e d Activity Sheets

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Space Users 0 / l l""? vc tiC;(. \0(...<=:: _-;v C-t:>-trt:JGroup No. Rqd. Sq. Ft. .1\AtA . .--( v-\o Activity/Scheduling Special Needs wtJ -Rhe. \0 -0 A1-J p D -n-c...U-11 / A e--n v nl ' c or::----r==ttL _ oc. ' .. Characteristics Adjacencies . ---D _esign Characteristics J. 11\ Y Ck:. c::=:;; t-.k_ "I Finishes & Furnishings t:..\G. C.'f:.. c--0 -lh: .. t ()C}..\1 ' tJ Related Activity Sheets

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Space Group No. Rqd. I Sq. Ft. Users ".? :( Activity/Scheduling Special Needs tAi::-t-.1-r c:s Lode-\ J Cc ,A-1 ../ ' Jc;: '\;? :::> c::. . ' .. Characteristics Adjacencies ( \ Design Character i s tics C-Jt. 1!::-"(... V I C-IC c::=IC."-2C.Xc. Ac::::;"'St "ST-A,..jT _ L,.ke-C::::Ic-'IZ.--t...---f o L-eo"--# iJ(vu-,Jttf\D-I Fini s hes & Furnishings ..-("./\ w {(.) _ 12:.."'5 --\ v Relat e d Activity Sheets c;,t

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Space Group . O.fZctlp No. Rqd . \ Activity/ S chedu I i ng Sq. Ft. (3;Je.ILL 1 : t0 .A"A--II :uo p.-1 ( D.A-(
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Space Group No. Rqd . 1 Sq. Ft. VJ&v Users 7"'\i-\C:--Yv'C ::> \ C.l!-t p . . c...:>l-:::.J'-" .. 3 Activity/Scheduling Special Needs /. r""?\ J (5:. v 'Z::..t:---1 .. Characteristics ?-f -vt. e-t t..1 v tAL-C. "'? , 127L.I--I 1\t..""!::>o ;nJ-f Adjacencies ----. As D1 ,.J 6 \C:..e...'(" Design Character i s tics '5tAM (:_. \'N 6 1Ge-( Finishes & Furnishings 'SAt-;l fC._ \::)I J I Related Activity Sheets u e.I L-L

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SpJce I CLGroup No. Rqd. Sq. Ft. Users -1\lJ ' d'l\ fU...-(-G.((;..s Activity/Scheduling Special Needs 'P.:;:::o(c.-o•c=-"'51 -i\1----;::.> -:::> ---rt-V) ..,--V' )vt v\C -r1 w1 rc:s . .!? 6i {) Characteristics [.,o(' c:::< A c1l J n-f .;k.ctJ J f) N1 rvt . CL.l tJ 1-1 I (:;;! .;\lf.O) .j v .,t \-1 -fl-\t...• --:-tZ;:. -r\1'1\ 1z:::. Adjacencies Design Characteristics (..,l Finishes & Furnishings A L..c:7\ OY Au.Jblt I J L) ty'\ oJ 0C Related Activity Sheets DtJ.1J6

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Group No. Rqd. \ tJ 0 M ?'--e.. cr.-r't::. ortx-c.. Activity/ Schedu I i ng 1\t..L C / ' .. Behavorial Characteristics Sq. Ft. V 'f., e..-(' ?-::t. 1 s\"' -\ J 0 t-.;\ }.Jt t. 0 Adjacencies Users -n '"$\::: c,v l IC:Jv t cu...--GUc s Special Needs tJ 0 ---10 rbr--F" c;:C.A FcoO +b-1 .(-\1-J D c.c<-O C:Ol-Y' . Design Characteristics , '10 c.L-12:.h-l -eA c:::-(' C:S I "\"'"t? .A1-1D Finishes & Furnishings -ro Related Activity Sheets o J 1 J o \-+AU...-

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Spoce oiJ \ & -0:/\l ,L. Group No. Rqd . Sq. Ft. I A... ' f I A ctivity/ Sch edu I i ng ..;. -J C; U...-'::-,-\ L I . , :.: r ' '-I I C:,H .: w , ,i , -r : 5 ( ""'.::::> c..-i Characte ri stics Adjacenc i es User s l D (..j-}\o:;:.,. \1' c..-tl (._. --r-( e7,/ \/U .. ..>I /\, ... \I .... . 1 lt. .._\ Special Needs A -ro a :u:c.. r.._.,.t--'fll 0 D e si g n Characteristics L-1 6 1 "'\ 1 _:.. I : -.;_ 0--' < c: r c::L-t:./ 1 Fin is h es & Furnishings .k R e l a t e d Activity Sheet s \'\ J I 0 'f-c ('. -c--) I cr...:.-

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srace c...-A };/ \ I "S Group I . I LA..No. Rqd. I Users Sq. Ft. A ctivity/Sc h eduling Spec ial N eeds \'1 1 1--k. ;:.. -lt..-::.,J c tt .-r ' c.r.c:. • :...Characteristics Adjacencies t::.A-c+-+ 1 c.J f";_ t I -::;;;:, J.\J r!\--t..,L 1 .,A \ -C' .J --:A-0 1 / -'Z::: .f"-1 ...... 4 Design Characteristics Nc:\JA ':?-' L tc:..-r' c:-r I I oJ.:-"'...:> ...;.\ c.tc...A-tl -r-o G ' _;\ -pCL..L-x. 7;/'o ur----\C-k..-c::.-1..::> A ---!Z::-' "c. Fini s hes & Furnishings ... -l\ff\..t....;<. rt.... . .,; e-I """_.7 -',) ' G ,;,.ft-\ I ._.:... I L--=c:.. R elate d Activity She e ts

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SpilCe User s Group No. Rqd . Sq. Ft. \ Activity/Scheduling Special Needs I {? t _ 'C> • I C: f::._ c.-t.1 Q/ A1J& ";--::; u 0 rc... (.--\ ..., Behavorial Characteristics Design Characteristics Adjacencies

PAGE 72

SpiKe Users tl I I c./ t..... / rc c:::-,. (..\ '0 . r "-r. Group No. Rqd . Sq. Ft. I --7 1 (...., Spec ial Needs A ctivity/Sc h eduling \ Characteristics Adjacencies , , j ;t . J--t:::;d-n l:::A"11 ( <(:_ c.C . Design Characteristics Fini shes & Furnishings Relat e d Activity Sheet s -63-

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z 0 -z :J rz L.W 0 :J r-CJ) L.W lJ L.W -I -I o . U 0 0 < 0 -I 0 u . . z 0 r--:J -I 0 CJ) CJ) CJ) L.W I r--

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. 1 o I ,/f ....,.-.k,., f)(' I ! ' l . , }-v Hf?oo] _ q 1 d • L SILl ' \ j ' 1\ lrl'tlopt ft , ,.., t J \ . \ • I _l I \tllJlltJff'

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.1-•. ,. I h1rd floor Plan . \ \ .\ Plan .

PAGE 76

-----Ground Floor Plan

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North Elevation South Elevation East Elevation Section A Section B

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I I ' '"'-Cut -away Axonometric

PAGE 79

CONCLUSION As i reread Thesis Statement I wonder; have I done what I said I wanted to do? Yes, I think I have. I created a Student Union that would indeed promote interaction among the students and college staff. The Student Union designed is a building with most of the activity occuring on the inside. I even brought the exterior building materials of the other campus buildings into the heart of my building. I wanted the building to be a focal point fr.om the central campus quadrangle, and to draw students to the center, so I included a pedestrian walkway in my design to ease the flow of traffic to and from the union across Cascade Avenue. The union should be a campus crossroad; the main center of activity. created this crossroad by designing all of the functions around a majorand minor circulation path. These paths act as streets, carrying their "pedest r ians" to the center of the building. All of the activity radiates out from this crossroad, while the vertical circulation branches out from, but returns to,the center or heart of the union. The union is the "living room of the campus". It is the only place on campus where students and faculty alike can go to relax and interact with oneanother. To be successful, the union needs to promote interaction among all the sectors of the campus community. In the case of Colorado College the union takes on added importance; it needs to join together a rather fragmented student population. I believe this union is the first step to solving this important problem. -69-

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SOURCES CONSULTED Alexander, Christopher, Sara Ishakowa, and Murry Silverstein. A Pattern Language. New York: Oxford Press, 1971. Clark, Roger, and Michael Pause. Precedents in Architecture. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1985. Koberg, Don and Jim Bagnall. The Universe Traveler. William, Inc., 1973. Krasnoff, Howard o. Campus Buildings that Work. Philadelphia: North American Publishing Co., 1972. Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City. Boston: M.I.T. Press, 1960. Lynch, Kevin. Site Planning. Boston: M.I.T. Press, 1962. March, Lionel and Philip Steadman. The Geometry of Environment. Boston: M.I.T. Press, 1971. Packard, Robert T. Ed. Architectural Graphic Standards. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1981. Palmer, Mickey. The Architect's Guide to Facility Programming. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981. Panero, Julis and Martin Selnik. Human Dimension & Interior Space. New York: Whitney Library of Design, 1979. Pena, William. Problem Seeking. Boston: Cahners Books International, 1977. Read, Alice Gray and Peter c. Doo, Ed. Via 6 Architecture and Visual Perception. Boston: M.I.T. Press, 1983. Reid, J. Juan. Colorado College: The First Century, 1874-1974. Colorado Springs: The Colorado College, 1979. Sternberg, Eugene and Barbara. Community Centers and Student Unions. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1971. The Colorado College Bulletin, The College Relations Office, Ed. Colorado Springs: The Colorado College, 1985. White, Ken. Bookstore Planning and Design. New York: McGrawHill Book Co., 1982. -70-

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Wong, Wucius. Principles of Three-Dimensional Design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1977. Wright, David. Natural Solar Arohitecturez A Passive Primer. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1978. A Post-Occupancy Evaluation of the Wentworth Building, Institute for Environmental Education. School of Architecture and Planning. University of New Mexico, 1981. Facilities Program The Colorado College Campus Center, John James Wallace & Associates Architects. Interview with David Ives -Director of the Leisure Program, Colorado College. The New Mexico Union. Regents of the University of New Mexico, 1981. Timesaver Standards for Building.Design. University of Denver Student Center by Debra Berger, 1982. University of Denver Student Center by Robert West, 1978. -71-

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I 1 -80 o lj; SHEET 2 6 DO NOT SCALE