Citation
Whydah Pirate Museum

Material Information

Title:
Whydah Pirate Museum
Creator:
Katz, Mara-Gai
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture
Committee Chair:
Sapohito, Paul
Committee Members:
Kroenwitter, Bob
Graduation Semester:
Fall

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
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WHYDAH
Pirate Museum


WHYDAH PIRATE MUSEUM
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture.
Mara-Gai Katz Fall 1985
Date Due


The Thesis of Mara-Gai Katz is approved
Committee Chairman
Advisor
Bob Kroenwitter
University of Colorado, Denver
Date


DEDICATION
To Tim; for being there as someone was once for him To Studs and the Princess; for their unwavering support To the enigmatic Mister Watts; for staying


OUTSIDE CONSULTANTS
1. Mark Chen / Associate Architect
Koetter, Kim Associates, Boston, MA.
Capacity: Urban and Architectural Design
2. Ricardo Guillermo / Architect
Jerry Johnson Inc. Boston, MA.
Capacity: Exhibition Design
3. Tim Pennypacker / Board of Selectmen, Town of Chatham
Planning Board, Chatham, MA.
Capacity: History
4. Barry Clifford / President, Head "Treasure Hunter" for
WHYDAH Excavation
Capacity: History of Project, Museum Ideas, Pirate Life
5. Mike Roberts / Project Director for WHYDAH Excavation
and Senior Archaeologist
Maritime Explorations, Inc. Orleans, MA.
Capacity: Archaeological Technique and WHYDAH Project
Operation


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction
Introduction........ 1.0
Project Description...... 1.1
Project in Context....... 1.2
Thesis Statement....... 2.0
Project Scope.......
Museum Concept...... 3.0
Exhibitions......... 3.1
Underwater Archaeological
Research and Educational Facility.. 3.2 The Museum School.... 3.3
The Commercial Complex... 3.4
Museum Program: Spatial Needs Assessment..........
Building Program....... 4.0
Museum........ 4.1
Museum School....... 4.2
Research Facility.... 4.3
Retail Complex......... 4.4
Existing Pier Buildings to Remain... 4.5
Museum Building
Building Technology...... 5.0
Lighting....... 5.1
Security...... 5.2
Pier Construction........ 5.3
Water Tank Details....... 5.4
Zoning........ 5.5
Codes..... 5.5
Site
The Region....... 6.0
The Town - Wareham....... 6.1
The Site - Onset Pier........ 6.2
Local Architecture....... 6.3
Context....... 6.4
Views....... 6.5
Orientation...... 6.6
Utilities........ 6.7
Traffic........ 6.8
Parking....... 6.9
Project Implications.................. 6.10
Thesis Conclusion
Thesis Conclusion........ 7.0
Drawings....... 7.1
Footnotes...... 8.0
Appendix....... 9.0
Bibliography
10.0


INTRODUCTION


1
loO INTRODUCTION
"There is, one knows not what sweet mystery about this sea, whose gentle awful stirrings seem to speak of some hidden soul beneath."
Herman Melville
Beginning late in the summer of 1984, Cape Cod newspapers began carrying stories about Barry Clifford, a self-proclaimed "treasure hunter". Clifford announced that he had found the pirate ship WHYDAH, which was wrecked in a storm in late April of 1717. The ship foundered on the shores of South Wellfleet in the area now known as Marconi Beach. Due in great part to their inebriated state, the majority of the crew was lost to the storm, which lasted through the night and into the next day, and along with them went the treasure, now valued at $400 million dollars. Eight men did survive the storm, two from the WHYDAH, and six from accompanying ships, and came up on the Wellfleet beach. Their story of the wreck of the WHYDAH was told to local people who captured them, as well as related in testimony in the Boston courts, where they were tried for piracy.
Some 250 years after the WHYDAH sank, Barry Clifford heard her legend as a child. He became fascinated by the story and decided then to find the WHYDAH and her treasures. 25 years later, Clifford fulfilled his long-time dream, and did find the WHYDAH, the first pirate ship to be recovered off North American shores.
In the first major publicity piece about his find, Clifford described his ideas for what he wanted to do with the trove of treasures he'd found:
"My dream was to find the treasure and build a pirate museum, a place where children of all ages could see and ponder relics from a long-lost era — the golden age of piracy.
My thesis proposal then, is to design a museum to house that dream.


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1.1 Project Description
The site of the WHYDAH Pirate Museum is located in Onset, Massachusetts, a point just over halfway between Boston and lower Cape Cod. Onset, a thriving resort area in the 1930's, has become stilled since transportation routes shifted. The museum complex is seen as a revitalizing force for the community of Onset. The WHYDAH Pirate Museum is the center of a complex that includes a marketplace and commercial area, as well as an underwater archaeolgoical research and educational facility to carry on the research work of the WHYDAH. and future projects of this kind, as well as to become an educational resource for the community and the region.
The museum complex itself will create a vital urban space for Onset, utilizing the immense interest in the WHYDAH Pirate Treasure Collection as a drawing card. Architecturally, the building complex will reflect the Onset character in its use of compatible materials and familiar imagery, thus informing the existing downtown waterfront area as to further development. The cohabitation of commercial and research functions within the museum complex will explore the link of serious study to commercial activity and entertainment, and will define the museum as a type within a new context.
To facilitate a comprehensive and dynamic learning experience for children and adults alike, the museum draws from four museum types; maritime, historical, aquatic, and children's, as well as integrating wet and dry, and participatory and non-participatory exhibitry.
The proposed complex is to be 50,000 square feet.


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1.2 Project in Context
The WHYDAH pirate Museum has a tremendous potential to impact both the regional and larger museum community. Currently,
Maritime Explorations, Inc., Barry Clifford's organization, has received a variety of kinds of offers from towns on the upper and lower portions of the Cape, indicating great interest in the museum, as it would house the only treasure collection from a pirate ship in North America. Tourism on the Cape is generally limited to a five-month season, between May and September, but consultants to Clifford believe that the museum would be a year-round attraction.
Initial skepticism on the part of people in the museum community in the greater Boston area as well as the Cape Cod area has diminished, giving way to support and interest since professional archaeologists have supported Clifford's claim that his site is actually the site of the WHYDAH verified from analysis of artifacts being brought up from the site.
The site of the WHYDAH wreck, off South Wellfleet shores, is in an area known as the "Graveyard". Historical documentation shows that hundreds of ships have sunk in these waters, thereby making it a prime area for salvers and archaeologists to work in. Investigation of local resources indicates that no research facility specifically for underwater archaeological research exists. The Boston area is home to many museums and laboratories; Salem, Massachusetts, a town about ten miles north of Boston, houses the Peabody Museum, which focuses on an extensive maritime collection of artifacts from the mid-1700's onward, bypassing the early 1700 history that surrounds the WHYDAH's story. The Woods Hole Marine Laboratories in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, some thirty miles from the site of the wreck, concentrates it's work on coastal ecology, geology, and marine biology with little provision for archaeological study. Harvard's Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology in Cambridge, Massachusetts just outside of Boston, houses a diverse collection of archaeological artifacts. However, their focus is on terrestrial sites, with few resources to accomodate underwater archaeological study. Mike Robert founder of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, former member of the Maritime Archaeological and Historical Research Institute and current Senior Archaeologist and Project Manager for the WHYDAH excavation, spoke for the archaeological community in expressing strong support for a research facility geared towards underwater excavation sites. However, he was less sure that this facility could act as a central laboratory, completely disengaged from the work of Maritime Explorations. He noted that:
"An interesting concept would be to look at this facility as a way to bring together those competing groups and working toward the benefit of the people of Massachusetts in doing so... I would like to see that because the construction of this facility could


4
allow that to happen.I don't have alot of hope for it."
Further discussion with Barry Clifford revealed the problems involved with developing a laboratory that could be used by any group were primarily political, and stemmed from traditional ideas on the part of salvers and archaeologists wanting to maintain high levels of privacy about their operations.
The museum itself will be unique in its combination of dry maritime and historical exhibitions and wet exhibitions, of the type found in Boston's Aquarium, using active and passive strategies such as those employed in the Children's Museum of Boston, and in Boston's Science Museum. The marketplace, as a center for both commerce and entertainment housed alongside the research and educational facility tests the marriage of private and public functions. The research and educational facility's adjacency to the museum offers a rare opportunity to use portions of the research work to become a "living" exhibition within the museum. Done properly, the WHYDAH Pirate Museum can impact both the regional museum community as well as the larger resort community surrounding it in a positive and beneficial way; fulfilling a clear need while bringing a new element into the existing economic base.


THESIS STATEMENT


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2.0 THESIS STATEMENT
The purpose of museums has changed considerably in recent times, as technological advances are made, and as public interest has required. The American Museum Association's "Belmont Report" defines a museum as:
"an institution which performs all, or most, of the following functions: collecting, preserving, exhibiting, and interpreting the natural and cultural objects of our environment."
And, while museums continue to perform these functions, mounting economic pressure, the availablility of new technology, and changing social attitudes has prompted the museum community to re-evaluate their function, and to reconsider their role within the community.
This issue is being faced on a number of levels. Museums are looking towards their travelling collections as the life-blood of their operations, and, to that end, are investigating new presentation and communication techniques to appeal to the largest audience possible. Social and cultural events sponsored by museums have increased in order to draw a larger museum-going audience.
And, for the first time, museums are investigating relationships with a variety of types of commercial ventures to provide a stronger economic base then they have had in the past. Perhaps for the first time, entertainment is a consideration in museum life.
The premise of this Master's Thesis is that the architectural design of the museum can itself create an environment which will encourage the social, cultural, commercial and entertainment objectives to flourish. Kenneth Hudson, in a comprehensive examination of museums trends for the 1980's throughout the world writes:
"One could summarize the change by saying that museums are no longer considered to be storehouses or agents for the preservation of a country's cultural heritage, but powerful instru-ments of education in the broadest sense."
This premise involves a wide range of architectural and social issues. Some issues of particular importance are:


6
Identity
Historically, museums outside of major metropolitan areas have been born in one of two settings; either in isolation, whereby a remote site is chosen, and the museum is designed as an object in the landscape; or within an existing building or dwelling, often one with some association with the collection(s), or housed within a historic landmark, that was not designed with the museum's requirements in mind. More dense urban settings house museums among the existing urban fabric or smaller gallery spaces that are created in conjunction with another primary function. Further, the nature of museums, to hold and display collections of objects, is enclosing. This inward orientation of museum buildings has emphasized their lack of connection with their environment.
As a broader vision of the museum is now necessary, it is critical to look at the relationship the museum maintains with its surrounds. Developing both economic and social relationships within the community, as opposed to functioning autonomously, has become increasingly more important, and should be considered a fundemental part of the museum's concept. The location of the museum within the community, then, is primary in the establishment of that network.
Placing the museum in a vital area of the community can strengthen connections and promote involvement. In the case of the WHYDAH Pirate Museum, becoming a strong member of the existing downtown area provides not only the opportuni to become a central component of the district, but also allows for a "reaching out" of the museum to its community.
In a larger sense, the tremendous amount of national interest in the Treasure Collection puts it in a position to become a major revitalizing element in the region. Not every museum collection would have the potential draw that the Collection does. However, the establishment of strong community ties and the exchange of both educational and commercial resources in the WHYDAH Pirate Museum sets a precedent for other communities, who, like Onset, have at some time suffered a loss to their cultural or economic base due to changing trends and circumstances.
Integration
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I. M. Pei, in his museum designs over the years, has been instrumental in bringing to the forefront the idea of the museum as a vital place, a place that offers a variety of experiences that go beyond traditional views of museums as purely serene, contemplative places. His museum designs reflect the notions that museums must offer a range of activities and experiences. In addressing this, he says:


7
"Today the museum has become a place where... families go — and spend an entire afternoon. Looking at the object that is shown, but at the same time being in the midst of a lot of excitement and activity... there is a bit of show business coming into the museum... it makes the museum accessible and exciting to large crowds."
And, although Pei's designs have not completely broken through the traditional museum "walls", they have shown clearly that the nature of the architectural spaces can have considerable impact on the total museum experience.
Ben Thompson uses a different approach from Pei in his New York South Street Seaport project, where he crossed all traditional lines, merging vital exhibitions with several types of commercial development. In doing so, he gave credence to the idea that the traditionally "enclosing" walls could be both penetrated and, in some cases, removed all together. The South Street Seaport Museum is located in an old, historic Manhattan neighborhood which runs alongside the East River. The Museum's focus, old ships that once frequented New York's Seaport, is presented in both "living" exhibits, the restored ships themselves, as well as sheltered historical exhibitions that relate the stories of those ships Added to that is a market-place, in the Faneuil Hall traditioi that Ben Thompson designed for Boston's waterfront area, whicl is housed in both restored and new buildings close to the Museum area. The success of this project supports the idea that commerce can be dynamically linked with exhibitry withou-compromising the functional requirements of either one.
Interelationships
Bringing together formally separate functions to create a new whole requires that previous attitudes and relationships be given up, or relinquished in some part, so that they may be replaced by new ones. This is especially true where strong traditional patterns and networks exist. Kenneth Hudson comments on this in looking at the traditional relationship of museums to their research components:
"It is necessary to break down old and established barriers between museums and research institutions, break down the psychological barriers between museums themselves."
As museums become increasingly "entertaining", the scholarly nature of research and museum exhibitry widens.
The addition of social and commercial activity to this


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presents the museum designer with three functions, all of differing natures. Serious consideration must be given to the relationship of these three parts to the other, to determine what blending will allow each component to perform maximally without compromising the cohesion of the whole.
The Swedish exhibition of the viking ship VASA explored this problem in their design of the museum to house the reconstructed ship. The research and reconstruction components were exposed in part to the museum audience, and this "living" exhibition enhanced the audience's understanding of the project as a comprehensive and complex endeavor. Environmental systems, reconstruction work, and conservation were incorporated into the museum sequence. In as much as serious study cannot always be done while under the gaze of curious eyes, the methodology used in the VASA exhibition to tell her story is very much a part of the story itself.
It allows the research component to become a vital part of museum life, providing for increased interaction between "professionals" and "students"; between the researchers and the museum going audeince. Clearly, research work requiring special security measures or rigidly controlled environments will not lend themselves as easily to high public exposure, if at all. Consequently, evaluation of the relationship of those areas to the public museum is necessary. Those areas may well stay behind-the-scenes as before, to insure the security and proper care of the museum collections. Storage is always a considerable part of any museum building, and traditional close links between storage, curatorial work, and conservation work will remain appropriate in many cases.
The most difficult connection may well be between the research and commercial components of the complex. Careful consideration of this relationship suggests that they will function independently of one another in part, but can draw off the resourjgs of the other when appropriate. Barry Clifford suggests that one commercial venture in the WHYDAH Pirate Museum marketplace might be replicating some pieces of the jewlery found in the WHYDAH excavation, on a scale much larger than is normally associated with a museum's gift shop. Cooperation and sharing of resources between merchant and research staff would be necessary to bring this venture about. The strongest link between these two remains their individual relationship to the museum. Diagrammatical this suggests that the museum functions as the "heart" of the museum complex, and that both commerce and research and education take their place around it.


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Education
Education is the basic reason for having museums in our culture. However, the educational capacity of a museum should be exploited on a variety of levels. First, within the museum, there are a myriad of ways to stimulate curious-ity, the quality most basic to learning. Introducing clues by means of interactive exhibits, and encouraging the pursuit of answers to these clues will result in discovery that not only supports learning but offers a meaningful "tool" as well Orienting the museum experience toward the clue, pursuit, and discovery sequence promises to satisfy the curious mind and promote joyful learning.
Nina Jensen, in exploring the behaviour of both children and adults in museums, notes that:
"Learning involves conflict between a person's conception of reality and new encounters with the real... Children (and adults also) are constantly restructuring their ideas about the world as new information is being received.
This dynamic process between the learner and his or her experiences is basic to what happens in museums.
Because the experiences of adults in museums are qualitatively different from those of children, it is often difficult for adults to understand the museum visit from the perspective of a child. An important idea from developmental psychology, with implications for children's programming in museums, is that children bring their own experiences and coneptions of the world with them. These conceptions determine how they receive what is presented^Jo them and what they will learn from it."
Providing a means for both children and adults to assimilate the newly learned information into their reality is one of the major tasks of the museum experience. Although Jensen focuses her discussion on children's conflicts in tying real and newly learned information together, it is a conflict experienced by adults as well, both inside and outside of the museum setting.
This conflict is most clearly resolved in museums in the creation of interactive exhibifry. This is not to say that all exhibitry should be interactive. However, interactive exhibitry is a lead-in device to present a topic; to expose a person to a new concept. Once that interaction takes


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place, a variety of exhibition methods, many of them traditional, can follow, and be easily comprehended. Jensen notes:
"Another important idea from developmental psychology is that interaction is the most powerful mode of learning. Interaction is the opposite of passivity. We do not simply bring experiences to the world, nor do we perceive what is there in pure form. We impose our experience on the ^ world, be it an object or another person."
Children's Museums in particular, as well as Science Museums, have worked hard to present their material with an interactive orientation. The focus on doing (active) as opposed to watching/seeing (passive) has proven to be a very successful way for children to learn new material. Springing from that "active" learning has come a kind of infectious learning. Thomas Keating, in studying the Indianapolis Children's Museum's success, addresses this:
"What might be called the Tom Sawyer psychology is also at work. When children see other children doing something that looks like fun, then it must be fun — even if it requires more attention and brain usage than the^could ever muster in a musty classroom."
The concept of interactive learning poses the question: how much involvement can or should be elicited from the audience? What has traditionally been "study" may now appear in the form of entertainment. While joyful learning implies a pleasurable experience, the museum's value remains in its ability to facilitate learning and exposure to worlds other than our own. Waldemar Kaenpffert, the first Director of the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry, spoke of the struggle that museums face in light of the increased demand for both entertaining experiences, as well as the availability of advanced technology that many museum goers are fascinated with. His resolve is clear:
"It is not the purpose of the museum to furnish entertainment, but if flashing machines hold the attention, if charts and diagrams fascinate because lights flicker within them to bring out a point and the visitor has thereby learnj^ something, the means will be justified."


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Further, when Barry Clifford was asked whether the design of the WHYDAH Pirate Museum should appeal solely to children, he answered "Yes, well, children of all jges. It should be able to bring out the kid in everybody." Clifford's response reflects the magic and fantasy brought to mind by the WHYDAH's treasures, and the rich history surrounding them. It is unrealistic to assume all collections will be of this same nature, but his point is well taken. It is as children that we experience things newly, very often with great delight, both at the information and at the uniqueness of the experience. A museum collection can be designed to recall and stimulate those senses we had as children, although it may still be assimilated into an adult reality. Thomas Keating's words refer to children, but it is only our conditioning that prevents us from applying those words to our adult lives:
"To see a child making a connection with what could be a lifetime interest is a special pleasure. It is impossible to know precisely when such a thing occurs, but there is a sense...that this won^grous event is happenning all around you."
If we are to take Clifford's words to heart, what Thomas Keating sees at the Indianapolis Children's Museum could be a sight in any museum — "One irreplacable treasure is always oj^display here: the shining delight in the eyes of the young."
Looking beyond the museum's walls, there is the museum as a learning resource for the community to be considered. Full utilization of the museum's educational potential requires looking at new ways in which to work within communities, as well as re-examining old networks, to see where missed opportunities exist. Mike Roberts, in speaking of the potential of the WHYDAH Pirate Museum as a resource, talks about an idea being explored by Maritime Explorations, Inc. :
"And one of the things that Barry and I have talked about and I'm going to be starting before too long, I hope, is beginning to take a close look at developing teacher-training moduels that go into school programs and modules that go into the schools... focusing on this project the WHYDAH excavation but basically talking about New England history and this period and what was going on, using the WHYDAH as a catalytic agent to get the people interested in it. There's an ancient history module in the sixth grade history class in Massachusetts that deals with archaeology which could


12
work nicely with this."
Commonly, schools have used the museums as a resource whereby school groups visit a collection to learn more about specific subject matter. Roberts suggests here that there is a much greater potential for give and take between the two; that the museum can act as a training facility for teachers, allowing the museum's resources to be brought back into the classroom in a more integrated, and permenant way. Roberts, in referring to another project he is managi the excavation of eleven historic sites in Charlestown, outside of Boston, talks about a different kind of student and teacher participation. He says:
"... in fact what we're really talking about is how you get teachers and students to actually participate in archaeological work. In the Charlestown project we have a site interpreter who will be responsible for giving tours of the site, giving information about what we are doing there. We anticipate being inundated by the school systems wanting to take their kids though the project...I mean there you have the chance to walk around, get the history^see a little archaeology digging..."
While this case revolves around a set of archaeological sites, and museums are not typically comprised of those, the museum can easily be the agent for such an activity, offering yet another service to the schools. Roberts has pointed out two promising methods of school and museum interaction. Clearly the schools comprise a large portion of any community's involvment. The museum can reach out to other elements of the community as well. In the past, services to both community and museum members have included offering classes and seminars, films, receptions for new exhibitions, as well as tour services for the museum facilit itself. By designing a museum facility that is geared toward accomodating a wider range of services, the museum can expand its outreach potential. While museum education brings to mind those things going on within the museum, exploring ways in which the museum can extend itself out into the community is quickly becoming an important aspect of museum education.


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Place and Spirit
Our perceptions of the world are directly related to our memories. Creating a strong "sense of place" requires facilitating emotional responses to the experience of that place, the surrounds, or both. How closely we connect determines the impact that place will have on us. Over many years, architect Charles Moore has investigated the components that, when combined, make up a "sense of place." He notes that:
"Memorable places...are always distingishable from what lies beside or around them...you know when you've arrive^ and you know when you've left."
It may be that singular physical elements in the environment create this bonding to a place, or sensations that evoke strong responses from us, or allow attachment to grow. Appealing to a wider range of human sensibilities can evoke stronger emotions, and aid in the creation of a "special place"; a place to which we would want to return.
In addition to visual stimulation, the provision for both tactility and smell enriches the total experience and allows us another means of recalling our experience; thereby reinforcing our bond.
Driving along a main street in Salem, Massachusetts, one is invariably struck by a coloured house. For people unfamiliar with the area and its history, the house has no particular significance. And, although the house has no prominence on the block, by stepping away from it, by being positioned on a corner, or by being stylistically different from the surrounding homes, it never-the-less stands out. As you get closer, you notice that it is the home of the Salem Witches House. Initially, the combinatioi of its unusually dark color, and its seven gabled roof make it stand out. For those familiar with Salem's history, and the public support for burning witches of the period between 1600 and 1692, the house evokes stronger associations. I went there as a child: and although I can no longer recall the exact nature of the collection, (13 scenes inside depict the history of witchcraft), I did recall the women tour guid< dressed in period garb, the heavy smell of the fire kept constantly burning in the hearth, and most especially the long straight candy sticks you could buy at the end of the exhibitions. Over twenty years later I rode through Salem en route to their Peabody Museum. As I drove I began looking to both sides of the street. My recollection of the Witches House was that it was on a corner, and that it was a very dark charcoal grey colour. In fact it is not on a corner, nor is it charcoal grey. It is mid-block and it's


14
deep colour is closer to a red-brown. Regardless, before ever seeing its sign, I knew I was at the Salem Witches House.
The house that is home to this museum is not, in fact, one of the houses where witches had lived. Yet it fulfills our image of witchcraft perfectly, both by its forboding colour, it's dark entrance, and it's gabled sillouette. And, while the three elements alone do not bring us instant associations with witches, the combination of them within a particular context, does.
The WHYDAH Pirate Museum, like the Salem Witches House, carries very strong and specific connotations, "...the Robert Louis Stevenson idea of the pirate, the flamboyancy of the jolly rouge...the treasure and the Carribean and the Spanish Main, Port Roayl, Madagascar, the who],<= golden age of piracy which was from about 1714 to 1724." The building, both in form and language, must capture that image and express it.
Basic to our vision of the pirate is the water, for pirates lived on the water. Further, it was at places where land and water met that they moved into and out of "legal" society. Pirates came in and out of harbors, but more importantly, they used those meeting places of land and water, peninsulas, points, inlets, coves, bluffs, cliffs, beaches, and islands as reference guides in their voyages. The pirates knew a far more virgin coastline than we know today. Yet the places where land and water join continue to intrigue us, and draw us to them. The composition of any seaside village is fundementally different from land-locked villages. The town center will invariably focus around the water's edge, recalling a time when trade and commerce was primarily by boat and harbors were the center of life and business. In larger cities, such as Boston, the harbor has gone through periods of neglect and decay. Yet in planning for revitalization of the city it was clear that the harbor area, with all of its pier sites, would be the natural and logical place to develop. The creation of a new life along the water literally saved Boston's downtown from dying in that the thriving waterfron area spurred new development in the North End and, more importantly, in the financial district. Today, in place of abandoned warehouses and empty docks, an exciting and busy waterfront has been revived.
Onset, although less dramatic in its plight, faces similar problems. A once active and thriving resort community has lost a substantial portion of its tourist industry through a shift from direct rail transport from Boston to sole transport by car or bus, along two major highways. The town center still leads to the water, yet there is no


15
focus around what remains of the town's heart; its pier.
In choosing the pier site, two objectives are achieved: first, it locates the museum in a place that is intrinsical.' linked with the town center, and secondly, setting the museum in a place where land and water meet gives both context and association to the museum complex that is true to the nature of the museum's collection.
A sense of pirate life can be drawn into the museum complex not only by depiction in its exhibits, but in the building form and in its relationship to the land and water. The initial transitional space, where one goes through the process of leaving one world and entering another, is typically the first space in a sequence within museums.
The elements of the outside world that are brought in, and the nature of the gesture that the space makes to the internal and external environments, sets the tone for the rest of the sequence, and in that, is a strong link between the two environments. Offering related activities and events that stimulate us as part of of that transitiona space, providing a gradual move from "outside" to "inside" can benefit the experience, and diminish some of the barriers that our museum's physical walls create. In the same vein, surrounding the museum with vital spaces will alter our perception of the museum as fundamentally contemplative. The staging of dynamic events "leaking" into or out of the museum, may provide a means to integrate the different worlds, while other architectural spaces can be designed to foster the meditative ambience that traditional museums have taught us to expect and that remain a most valuable part of the experience. The form that this layering of spaces takes will serve to identify the place within. The indoor-outdoor spaces, letting salt sun and sea-air move freely through the complex, designing water and harbor views as guides through the complex, designing eateries to spill their smells through the commerce area and designing the circulation system to rely on "landmarks" along the path where water and land meet will recall a sense of the sea-man's life. Identifiable observation spaces, a system of transparency through the building as well as into and out of it, can be incorporated to facilita a dynamic interchange of places within and outside of the museum "walls". The notion of flag and sail, color agains the ocean being the marking of a ship's location can be transformed in the building imagery to provide a further identifiable element. Thus the museum complex becomes an "object", but one that is linked with the existing activity and amenities of Onset's pier life, and set against the constant backdrop of the sea and the harbor. The use then, of colour, a rhythm of wall and transparency, familic coastal elements and the activity of harbor life will serv« to portray the pirate's spirit held within the museum. Y< it will be a smell, a piece of bright cloth flying and the


16
image of a relic half-buried in the sand that will recall the WHYDAH Pirate Museum as a "place".


PROJECT SCOPE


17
3.0 MUSEUM CONCEPT
The WHYDAH Pirate Museum complex proposes to address new issues in museum design while creating a place that responds to the romantic base of its primary collection: the WHYDAH's treasures. While many museum types are more generic, i.e. art museums, science museums, children's museums, in concept, all face common design problems. Resolution of those problems must be methodical, and an initial look at the specific museum audience is necessary to begin that process. Because of the tourist nature of Cape Cod, the WHYDAH Pirate Museum's location builds in a certain national audience, much to its benefit. Mike Roberts comments further on the museum's projected audience:
"You've got a transient audience, especially on the Cape; they might come once and never come again... and there are messages you need to tell these people. But then you have the local and regional population, who should be enticed to come back time after time... and you won't be able to do that unless the exhibition i^elf is dynamic.. .unless its changing..."
Roberts suggests that for the one-time museum goer, much must be communicated about the WHYDAH's own history and the stories that surround it. This indicates that the initial impression of the museum's exhibitions should focus on the WHYDAH's treasure. While that exhibition is by no means static, as new artifacts will be brought up over a projected 10-year period, it can be considered a permenant collection, for the artifacts will be of the same nature, and on "permenant" exhibition at the museum. Traveling or changing exhibitions will be those exhibitions dealing with the peripheral stories, and with collections related to archaeological excavation.
It is those exhibitions that must appeal to the local and regional populations,; those exhibitions which must be carefully designed to spark interest in both first-timers and repeat visitors. The notion that the repeat visitors will be somewhat familiar with the museum layout suggests that they do not necessarily need the immediacy of experience desirable for first time museum goers. The abstracted diagram here indicates that the WHYDAH treasure collection is central, while other exhibits are more flexible in their location. A range of problems are inherent in developing the nature and quality of the museum experience at this point. Those problems include circulation, entry sequence, interior space, lighting, environmental systems, and site orientation.


18
Circulation
In exploring museum types, a wide range of solutions are apparent. However they all attempt to solve a primary issue: whether visitors should move in carefully planned paths, or be allowed to choose their own. How this is resolved depends in great part on the nature of the collection, but even more on the control the designer chooses to extend over the museum audience.
Cambridge Seven, in both their designs for Boston's New England Aquarium and the National Aquarium in Baltimore, have worked with a controlled circulation scheme in which visitors are well guided, but given constant opportunities for a variety of exhibition experiences along that path.
In their earlier project, the New England Aquarium, a rectangular spiral of relatively narrow ramps wind around the permimeter of a rectanglular plan for upwardly moving traffic. Their major exhibition, the Giant Ocean Tank, is the center-peice of this plan. Although^^he ramps "minimize the distance of the viewer to the exhibits" the top ramps afford an opportunity to view marine life being fed from the ring-shaped platform. At this level fish can be seen from above, giving new perspective on the marine life that, until that point, has been viewed from the side. Views across the central space, as well as up and down, enhance the ramped journey.
The ideas born in the New England Aquarium were developed further in the later project; the National Aquarium in Baltimore. Again using a one-way circulation, around a large central tank exhibition, the ramp winds up through the central atrium which is lined with exhibit galleries. The path emerges at the rooftop rain forest, then zig-zags back down again along scissored ramps through the center of the huge ring tank. Projecting balconies, decks, and crisscrossing bridges overlook the dolphin pools adjacent to the huge tank, and lead to the main exhibiton area. More options for both views and exhibition choice are offered in this scheme, and the dynamic circulation path over and through the main exhibition space clarify many of the ideas attempted in Boston's Aquarium. What Cambridge Seven responded to in their scheme development was the question of how rigidly they should control the audience's experience. More options are evident in the Baltimore plan. While not altering the basic oneway ramp system, more flexibility was built in.


19
THE NATIONAL AQUARIUM IN BALTIMORE:
CAMBRIDGE SEVEN ASSOCIATES


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22
Peabody Museum of Salem, and the Whaling Museum of New Bedford offer less dramatic museum experiences than either of the aquariums, but point out the difficulties of circulation in a dry marine exhibition situation. The Peabody Museum, America's oldest continuously operating museum, focuses on Maritime History and the Natural History of New England. Noted particularly for its maritime trade collections, the initial exhibition is focused on coastal trade, and is housed in a large central space. However, there is no suggested pathway from that point on. Rooms feed off the center exhibit room, while stairs to a second floor space which contain the changing exhibit area, are set off this main room as well. Visitors can move easily from room to room, yet no particular sequence of movement or experience is suggested by the circulation path. The completely random nature of this circulation scheme responds to the generic nature of this museum collection, where there are many stories, all housed separately, and there is very little interdependency from one exhibit to another. What the spatial layout has provided for however, are small intermediary spaces which work nicely for the museum to use for auxilary purposes.
In one instance the stair landing of the two-story entry space was filled with musicians playing old sea chanties, a preview for an afternoon performance of Sea-man's music in their historic East India Marine Hall (the original museum building), a large, wonderfully proportioned room in the rear of the museum well used for special events.
Peabody Museum of Salem

V '
Museum Hours mm.-sui m 5 suiv-hnlulis'' l
second
floor


23
Looking at this problem in New Bedford's Whaling Museum, some interesting variations are evident. The Whaling Museum's collection is focused around a central exhibit, the whaling boat LAGODA, built at half-scale. Although the peripheral exhibitions pertain to whaling life, the LAGODA remains the primary attraction. The Whaling Museum attracts its largest audience in the summer, many of them coming en route to or from Cape Cod, as New Bedford falls along a main route from New York to Cape Cod. While the same basic circulation scheme is displayed here, a main room with rooms feeding off of it, the LAGODA is housed in the Jonathan Bourne Building, next to the room you enter into.
To accomodate the increased summer population and the nature of their visit as opposed to those who use the museum year-round, a summer entrance exists which leads you into the Jonathan Bourne Building, and brings you face to face with the magnificently reconstructed whaling vessel. While this change of entrance satisfies the problem of two different museum populations (a twenty-five minute tour of the museum satisfies most tourists), some awkward problems arise from this. No orientation as to the contents of the entire museum collection is provided, and the lobby service spaces, for gift shop, museum theatre, and rest rooms, are bypassed. Clearly this solution traded an asset for a liability. While controlling the initial experience of the museum, the comprehensive experience is compromised. While the Whaling Museum's circulation scheme does not offer an adequate solution, it does address the problems of specialized as opposed to generic museums.


24
then, leading into the lobby should provide enough excitement to the visitor so that he/she is happily, willingly, drawn in.
Interior Space
As with most museum design, a primary concern in designing interior space is flexibility. As indicated above, the entry area and initial exhibition will be somewhat permenant. However, there are many stories to be told surrounding the main collection, and these exhibits should have maximum freedom in their design. The notion of removing inpenetrable walls however, is as important to express on the inside as it is on the outside of the building. Designing a fluid space which
can expand and contract easily to meet a variety of sets of needs is foremost in the design concept. Manfred Lehmbruck of Stuttgart, German architect and professor, studied new museums worldwide. Architect of the German National Museum in Nurnberg, Professor Lehmbruck concluded that:
"Since one cannot forecast what the change in feeling and thinking of the next fifty or so years are going to be, one can only anticipate them by designing highly flexible buildings.
Ideally the museum building should be nothing more than a shell, a shelter, within which all divisions, floors, stairs and lifts can^^e easily rearranged as new needs arise."
With this view in mine, there is a risk of designing an over-generalized building, one that could be many other things besides a museum. So while the fluidity of the interior space is important, it is important as well to develop a strong enough internal character to make the idea of "museum" very evident.
As the complex is comprised of three parts; the museum, the research facility and the commercial complex, it is further important that the interior architecture identify these separate pieces. Walls, floor coverings, and openings should be coordinated in order for the museum visitor or employee to have a clear sense of when he/she is entering a different component. While this differentiation is necessary, it is important that the architectural gesture not be inhibitive — rather that it be the marking of a transition.


25
Exploration of these circulation schemes suggest several things. Firstly, that some measure of control is desirable in telling an integrated story. Secondly, that the initial exhibition experience is critical and sets up the tone for the rest of the sequence. And finally, that a well controlled circulation path that offers a variety of options along its way may best serve the needs of a specialized and cohesive collection. Diagrammatically, this suggests that the WHYDAH Pirate Museum should design its initial exhibition experience for the one-time museum goer without losing the entry and lobby services that are important functions for its entire audience to have easy access to. Peripheral supporting exhibitions need to be closely aligned with the central exhibit so that a short museum tour will adequately communicate the story.
Entry
As indicated in earlier explorations of museums, the entry of a museum must facilitate a variety of functions, as well as capture the interest of visitors. In the WHYDAH Pirate Museum, the entry to the museum must also link the commercial activities to the museum. This transition must be carefully designed to bring the outside world in (entry) and the inside world out (departure). While a strong relationship between commercial space and the museum is desirable, the environmental systems of each will differ. The design of views into commercic areas from the museum as a forecourt to the entry will aid in setting up a festive, active atmosphere. The entry area itself should utilize a layering of outside to inside spaces, both to heighten the sense of transition into another world, and to set up the experiential orientation of the museum. Therefore, the use of a series of spaces leading up to the actual museum entry is desirable. These spaces should provide varied exposures ranging from the ouside sounds and smells of both the complex activities and the sea, to the more compressive setting of the initial exhibition area. While these spaces need not be as formal as forecourts found in the entry sequence of many monumental structures, they must never the less serve the same purpose; to prepare the visitor.
The lobby must serve as an orientation point, and should have clear expression both within the building, and from outside.
The outside festivites can be "brought in" to this space with views to them, while clear architectural gestures should indicate that the treasure hunt has begun. This space must work effectively as a beginning, place, a meeting space, and the place from which you leave. It must, additionally, both respect and facilitate the various relationships within the museum complex of research, education and administration, and must make provision for extended community outreach. A series of spaces,


Lighting
DAYLIGHT — Throughout the 19th century most museum galleries had skylights and translucent ceilings. The bright ceiling plane produced reflected glare which caused problems for museum objects, and provoked designers in the early 20th century to experiment with clerestory lighting. In time, the angled clerestory light prompted the further development of devices to control the quality and amount of light that came in with the clerestory lighting. Current control mechanisms for lighting are used in a variety of ways, and allow museum designers maximuj daylighting options. Glass walls can be used and controlled by way of light reducing mesh hung behind the glass wall. Skylights can again be used in conjunction with low transmission panels hung below. Louvers, adjustable panels, and filters are used in a variety of clerestory and skylight situations to accurately control the incoming natural light.
Within the WHYDAH Pirate Museum, daylighting is an important feature. While "safe" areas such as the entry, lobby, and publications/gift shop should utilize daylighting maximally, controlled daylighting in the "less safe" areas such as the galleries, and in a portion of the work spaces is also desirable Clerestory lighting in combination with special areas where natural light can be brought in through the side walls, both high and low, (small rest areas, shifts in floor levels, etc.) will allow a variety of kinds of light to come in, as well as vary the visual experience the exhibition, and utimately, the museum, offers. A change in lighting is one way to combat "museum fatigue", and current museum trends indicate that natural light is a preferable source.
Flexibility is a primary concern with lighting as with interior space design, and the lighting system needs to address that concern first and foremost. While architectural solutions to closing off natural light sources such as fitted panels are used in some museum situations, more controllable devices such as movable panels and louvers are preferable, as they provide a range of lighting options. As with most museum artifacts,
the WHYDAH treasure is subject to decay and damage, if not kept in the proper environment. Uncontrolled direct illumination can cause deterioration to both wood and leather objects, both of which are included in the treasure collection, and need to be carefully placed away from such situations. However, proper design should allow for some daylighting options throughout the complex, and in the galleries as well, although all gallery daylighting should be able to be controlled.


27
This sectional view, adopted from the IFS Lighting MHii(IlxK)k, shows the optimum placement of electric lamps for preventing glare or frame shadows. It assumes an ideal utilization of light cones and a minimum effective viewing distance relative to the height of the object on the wall. In this model, height A~ll is 52 inches for a 30-degree cove and A—(I is 65 inches fora 00-degree cone. Increase horizontal dimensions lr\ 1.5 inches for every I-inch increase in the height of the object.
ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING — Artificial lighting technology in museums has advanced greatly in the last few decades. Most museums use a combination of overhead and task-type lighting for their gallery areas. Current trends in museum lighting suggest that a combination of systems offers maximum flexibility for curators and exhibit designers to work with. While some exhibitions will have their own lighting systems built in, provision must be made for overhead lighting through all gallery spaces. Flexible track lighting as opposed to fixed lamps in a coffered or paneled ceiling situation, for example, will be highly flexible and most effective, allowing a variety of effects to be acheived by contrasting highly lit spaces with low light spaces. The nature of the museum experience is such that lighting will vary from exhibit to exhibit, and should utilize a lighting system that can be easily changed. Lighting control zones need to be small enough to accomodate this frequen change.
Environmental Systems
The environmental systems in the WHYDAH Pirate Museum will need to respond to the requirements of the three different components of the complex. The museum area itself will need to be fully controlled year-round. The research area will need to be fully controlled through fall, winter and spring, with portions of the research area needing only partial control during the summer. The commercial area will only need partial controls through fall, spring, and summer, while they will require full control through the winter months. This variation in environmental control requirements suggests several things. First, that the commercial area be individually controlled, and therefore zoned relatively to their projected commercial use. Second, that for the museum areas, a fully


29
controlled system be designed which can be assumed to be in use year-round, except in the entry sequence which will be, in parts, outside. And finally, that the research area be designed carefully to separate the areas needing the most restrictive environmental controls (storage, conservation and restoration laboratories), from those needing less control.
An additional consideration for the WHYDAH Pirate Museum complex is the use of wet exhibitry within the museum, as well as the wet needs of the research laboratories. Water spaces should be kept carefully segregated from dry exhibitry for both maintenance and security reasons. This segregation is important because behind-the-scenes equipment to support water exhibits is extensive, and therefore should be centralized as much as possible. Unlike the aquariums discussed earlier, the WHYDAH Pirate Museum's water exhibitry will not be the major portion of the exhibition, although it plays a significant role. Within the research facility, water requirements will be necessary throughout the laboratory and conservation areas.
The same reasoning applies to these areas, although the consideration of aesthetics is not as crucial here as in the museum exhibition areas, for what is behind-the-scenes in the exhibitior gallery may be in the forefront in the laboratory.


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Site Orientation
The pier at Onset Bay, the site chosen for the proposed museum complex, has been in its location for many years, and shows up in the 1878 plan of Onset, although in a different configuration than the present-day one. The district of Onset Bay has always focused its attention around its pier, and originally flanked it with parks, creating an entire recreation area which included beach as well. Today the downtown has crept closer and only a portion of the parklands remain, yet Onset Bay's pier remains the heart of the downtown district.
Architect Charles Moore has explored many places by the water, looking for reasons why people are so drawn to them. About piers he writes:
"One last category of headlands or points is the man-made version, the pier which sticks out into the sea from beaches and headlands across the world. Something about the actual, physical invasion of the sea's territory seems to bring out an exhilaration, a sense of celebration, which causes piers everywhere to be places people go for relaxation and enjoyment.
Sometimes these things have to do with fishing or the things one actually does on the sea, sometimes they just have to do with the excitment of the ocean crashing below and the thrill of being so perched^gut, almost dangerously, above the waves."
The siting of any museum is basic to its design concept.
Siting the WHYDAH Pirate Museum on a pier presents some unique design problems, as there will be water on three sides of it. While this affords a multitude of exciting design opportunities not usually present, the distinction between the land side and water sides become important in terms of climatic considerations, views, circulation both in and around the complex, and most especially, accessibility in and out of the building for the different components of the complex. The siting of the museum building on a pier, creating in effect, a marina, also addresses the issue of how the land (pier) and water will meet in the design of the building.
The articulation of outdoor areas, many which can draw from local forms such as porches or widow's walks, will be generated from the buildings orientation, and must be designed to maximize the observation potential of each of the sides facing the water, as well as the side facing land and the downtown district. Twc water sides, eastern and southern exposures, offer an opportunit to design for outdoor/indoor spaces, suggesting that commercial ventures such as cafes and eateries will want to make use of out


31
door spaces, will be well suited to these sides. The western exposure, which faces the popular Onset Beach, presently carries the harbor's tie-up dock in the summer, and would do well to maintain boat access for the research laboratories needs, as well as for the fishing pier which will remain a part of the pier life once the museum is built. The Harbor Master, presently located at the piers end in a small pavillion, necessarily needs clear viewing of the entire harbor. Subsequently, though the pavillion will be relocated on the pier, it will remain specially placed to be a prominent and easily identifiable feature for those entering the harbor.
Respect for the current pier activity in Onset Bay is integral to the projects feasibility. While the museum complex is a promising addition to the community, it is important to provide a continuim which will maintain the pier as being central to the downtown district. Local involvement in traditional activities off the pier will insure a continued attachment to the pier as a place around which the townspeople circulate.


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3.1 EXHIBITIONS
The exhibitions within the WHYDAH Pirate Museum will be centered around the actual collection of treasure now being excavated by Maritime Explorations, Inc. Eight "stories" supporting that collection will be told, and designed for the initial exhibition design. While these stories are important to understanding the significance of the WHYDAH's collection, they are not permenant exhibitions, and will change with other important stories from time to time. Additionally, a traveling exhibitions space for special exhibitions pertinent to both the WHYDAH's history and the field of underwater archaeology will be designed. Brief descriptions of the contents of the exhibitions are set forth here. 1
1. THE WHYDAH TREASURE COLLECTION
* Simulated Excavation Pit Tank
* Personal Belongings
* Seaman's Gear
* Gold and Silver Coins, Jewelry, Bars and Tokens
* Ordnance
* Storage Containers and Foodstuffs
* Miscellaneous Ship's Parts
* Miscellaneous Items
* Mounted and Hanging Artifacts
*
Model Replica of Ship


HISTORY OF THE WHYDAH
* How Captain "Black" Bellamy Became a Pirate
* The Lives of the WHYDAH"S Pirates: Life Aboard the Ship
* Black Bellamy's Tryst with Maria Hallett
* The Night the WHYDAH Wrecked
* The Trial At Boston
* The WHYDAH Legend: Fact and Fiction
BARRY CLIFFORD1S SEARCH FOR THE WHYDAH
* Learning the Legend
* The Legend Unfolding; Putting the Pieces Together
* The Search by Boat: The Vast Explorer II
* Aboard the Vast Explorer II: A Mobile Laboratory
* Finding the Dream: The First Artifact
WHY I WANT A PIRATE MUSEUM
FOR 267 YEARS.CAFE Codders have been scheming up ways to find the pirate treasure of Sam Bellamy. My uncle. Bill Carr, was one of these people. Uncle Bill, a master storyteller, first told me of the Whidah one night when I was about 8. The story never faded.
I started exploring the ocean bottom when I was very young. I'd driftdive for miles with the current off Cape Cod. I pretended I was a time-traveler wandering in liquid space. Letting my mind wander back through history. I would dream of the shipwrecks I'd discover.
The shifting sands of Cape Cod cover hundreds of vessels—buried time capsules that hold precious secrets of oar heritage. As I got older, my interest in there shipwrecks grew. I soon found myself spending as much time in the archives reading about them as I did looking for them underwater.
Most old Cape Cod families have their own version of Captain Bellamy's exploits and the whereabouts of his treasure. From candlelit taverns where would-be salvors planned their expedi-
tions to the bedroom of my 6-year-old son. Brandon, the legend of the Whidah has been listened to with wide-eyed wonder. Separating the fact from the folklore became my challenge.
My primary sources of information were the accounts of Cape. Cyprian Southack, the salvor dispatched in 1717 by Massachusetts Gov. Samuel Shute to retrieve the Whidah'% treasure. Captain Southack arrived at the Whidah wreck site four days after the disaster. For more than two weeks, he watched helplessly as the waves pounded her to pieces. The Whidah was stranded less than one-quarter mile from shore. A mapmakerby profession, Southack was a precise man. In ooe book, his letters to Governor Shute detailed both the exact site of the Whidah and his efforts to salvage the wreck. One lenience, however, left me confused. Southack wrolc that “there have been 200 men from 20 miles distance plundering the wreck.**
This did not make sense to me. The Whidah went down in a northeaster, and it is impossible to work in the surf after a major storm, especially in April, when the water is still freezing. By chance.
By Barry Clifford
several years later, while researching another vessel, I stumbled upon South-ack's log. I knew my life was about to change when I read that “there had been 200 men from 20 miles distance plundering the wreck of what came ashore.** I’d finally found the missing link. Now it all made sense. All that had been salvaged in April 1717 was what had washed ashore. The stormy seas and bad weather had made it impossible to salvage the wreck itself.
It was then that I decided to search for the Whidah. I promised myself that, if I ever found her. I would keep her riches in a place for everyone to share. My dream was to find the treasure and build a pirate museum, a place where children of aB ages could see and ponder relics from along-lost era—the golden age of pracy
In the fall of 1982. JO years after Uncle Bill told me my bedtime story. I sat on the edge of Uncle Bill’s bed This time it was my turn lo tell him a pirate story. He knew I'd found her. His eyes sparkled like a child's in anticipation. Uncle Bill died later that night. I’m sure he dreamed of treasure


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4. SEARCHING FOR BURIED TREASURE
* The World of Underwater Archaeology
* Locating and Detecting the Treasure Site
* Underwater Mapping
* The Air-Lift Operation
* Unearthing the Past: Archaeological Techniques of Excavation
* The Laboratory - From Sea to Land
5. THE GOLDEN AGE OF PIRACY: 1714-1724
* Where Did the Pirates Come From?
* The Lost City of Port Royal
* Pirating in the Carribean
* The Ships: Predators, Prey, and Protectors
* The Pirates: The Lawless Seamen
*
Famous Pirates


35
4. SEARCHING FOR BURIED TREASURE
* The World of Underwater Archaeology
* Locating and Detecting the Treasure Site
* Underwater Mapping
* The Air-Lift Operation
* Unearthing the Past: Archaeological Techniques of Excavation
* The Laboratory - From Sea to Land
5. THE GOLDEN AGE OF PIRACY: 1714-1724
* Where Did the Pirates Come From?
* The Lost City of Port Royal
* Pirating in the Carribean
* The Ships: Predators, Prey, and Protectors
* The Pirates: The Lawless Seamen
* Famous Pirates


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6. LIFE ON CAPE COD
* The Indians and the First Settlers
* Cape Cod Trade: Privateering vs. Pirateering
* Village Life in the Early 1700's
7. SHIPWRECKS
* The "Graveyard"
* Coastal Geologic Formations
* The Beachcomber's Delight: The Erosion of Cape Cod
* Identifying Shipwreck Remains


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8. THE END OF A GOLDEN AGE
* The Demise of Blackbeard
* Capturing the Last Mutineers
* The Conviction and Death of Eight Pirates
* The Return of the Merchants, the Restoration of Trade
9. RESTORATION OF THE WHIDAH'S TREASURES
* Live Exhibition Showing Portions of the Conservation and Restoration of the Treasure.


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3.2 UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATIONAL FACILITY
The Underwater Research and Educational Facility's primary purposes are outlined below:
* to continue to faciliate research on the WHYDAH wreck excavation
* to facilitate new research on new Maritime Exploration projects as well as other projects that will be sanctioned by Maritime Explorations,
Inc.
* to facilitate work required and desired by the museum staff
* to serve as an exhibition for the public to understand to process of conservation and restoration of artifacts
* to accomodate educational programs sponsored by the research and museum components


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3.3 THE MUSEUM SCHOOL
The Museum School is an educational program offering classes and seminars to both interested community members and to museum members. A component comprised of four courses is offered to graduate students as a field or interim term from their home programs. Several of the classes are taught in separate sessions for children and adults. Diving classes, due to climatic constraints, are offered in the summer only.
A portion of the classes offered are listed below:
* New England History and Folklore (Children/Adult)
* Cape Cod Folklore (Children)
* New England Coastal Ecology (Adult)
* Cape Cod Wildlife (Children/Adult)
* Introduction to Underwater Excavation (Adult)
* Diving for Archaeological Excavation and Salvage (Adults with
diving certification)
* Underwater Archaeological Techniques for Excavation and Dating (Graduate)
* The Mobile Laboratory (Graduate)
* Conservation and Restoration Techniques (Graduate)
* Shipwrecks from 1600 - Present along the Eastern Seaboard (Gradua
Once thipuiieck tiemu-nt have, been located beneath the tea. the tuAliit it an ideal digging tool (oa caae^ul removal oi Loote tand and mid ^nom the teaAch aaea.
AIR LIFT
MIXTURE OF MUD, WATER. AND AIR'
UPWARD SURGE OF WATER CREATES SUCTION DRAWING THE MATERIAL UP THROUGH PIPE
WATER
t TO SURFACE
AIR AT 80 LBS. PRESSURE FORCEI DOWNWARDS


39
The Museum School, while a small component, is designed to accomodate the needs and desires of the research and museum's staffs, Maritime Explorations Inc. and community interest groups. Therefore the School facility is a shared resource among those groups, and is coordinated independently from each administration, although it is ultimately responsible to the Museum's Board of Trustees.
The Museum School, while carrying out its own programs, is responsible for developing the community out-reach program, and is responsible for setting up activities with outside community interest groups.
Direction of movement of glacier
North


40
3.4 THE COMMERCIAL COMPLEX
The commercial component of the museum complex is designed to house a variety of retail ventures that will support the activities of the museum. The complex will be comprised of retail merchants who maintain a pre-determined financial obligation to the museum, therefore all commercial ventures will be sanctioned ultimately by Maritime Explorations, Inc. Their purpose is two-fold:
* to create an active market-place atmosphere surrounding the museum
* to bring a strong economic base to the Museum's collections, thus avoiding any danger of having to sell any part of the museum collection to maintain the Museum's operations
This retail complex will undoubtedly shift and change and will be designed with this in mind. However, the complex seeks the following types of ventures:
* 2 cafes
* 1 restaurant
* 3 food booths
* jewelry shop
* fine gift shop
* children's toy store
* open air market
* specialty clothing shop
While each store will be tenant designed as to the interior space, general guidelines will be given as to any modifications or signage for the shop facades by the Museum.


MUSEUM PROGRAM
Spatial Needs Assessment


41
4.0
BUILDING PROGRAM
The spatial requirements of the WHYDAH Museum Complex are as follows:
sq. ft.
Museum
Museum School
Research/Administration
WSIO
Retail
Total (NSF)


42
4.1. BUILDING PROGRAM
Museum sq. ft.
Entry and Lobby
Sales *3.OO
Main Exhibition Hall
Secondary Exhibition Areas
Changing Exhibition Gallery
Auditorium / Theatre
Exhibit Support Area
Storage Vault ^S>CPO Z\r,riCD
Total


COMPONENT:
Museum
ROOM: Entry/Lobby
OBJECTIVES: The entry is a circulation area which allows arrival
and orientation for visitors and visiting groups.
Within the lobby there should be a controlled counter information and for the charging of admission. Public phones, rest rooms, drinking fountains, coat storage and lockers should be within close proximity of the controlled counter. The entry space should introduce the excitement of the WHYDAH Pirate Ship's story and riches.
NOTES:


44
Museum: Entry/Lobby
SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS:
Private :
i Public
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service

Shared «
Flexible
Expandable

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
1 Under 12 1
Over 12'
lb stories Bf
2 stories
t
LIGHTING
Daylight
Controlled Dayliqht
Artificial Light
Combination of Artificial
& Dayliqht

SYSTEMS
BUILDING USE:
10-6 Tue -_Sun [.10-6 Tue - Fri
1 8-4 Tue - Fri_____
| 8-5 Mon - Fri_____
j 8-6 Tue - Sun_____
| Open at all times | Open as required
FURNITURE:
Description______________# Dimen;
Adjustable Shelving
Storage Bins
Flat Files
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls
Conference Table
Storage Shelves
Display Case
Desk
Desk with Side Table
Open Shelving
Tackable Wallspace
Chairs
Computer Terminal
Drawing Board
Storage Cabinet
Work Table
Other:


iMfinPMAml ooou
churnsf •fzxwrAU■&>
4^
J 'It? WM

! Security
Human m
Electronic
Humidity Controlled
i Automatic Sprinkler
| Wet Wall
Concrete Floor
I Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door



45
COMPONENT:
ROOM:
OBJECTIVES:
ADJACENCIES:
Museum
Publications/Sales Area S<1-
This area will sell publications, prints, maps, cards as well as a small collection of items related to the WHIDAH treasure collection.
NOTES:


46
Museum: Sales
SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: BUILDING USE:
Private n
Public M
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service

Shared â– 
Flexible / i
Expandable '/l
HI
FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12' m
Over 12'
1;3 stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
1 Daylight
1 Controlled Davlidht hi
Artificial Light
Combination of Artificial
& Daylight

SYSTEMS
[ 10-6 Tue - Sun
! 10-6 Tue - Fri
I 8-4 Tue - Fri
j 8-5 Mon -Fri
j 8-6 Tue - Sun
Open at all times
Open as required

FURNITURE:
Description______________# Dimens
Adjustable Shelving r-^Ts1
Storage Bins
Flat Files
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter I
Storage Stalls
Conference Table
Storage Shelves
Display Case Desk
Desk with Side Table 1 ....
Open Shelving * S'
Tackable Wallspace
Chairs 2
Computer Terminal
Drawing Board
Storage Cabinet
Work Table
Other:


Security —
Human m
Electronic
Humidity Controlled
Automatic Sprinkler — m
Wet Wall
Concrete Floor
Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door



47
COMPONENT:
ROOM:
OBJECTIVES:
ADJACENCIES:
NOTES:
Museum
Main Exhibition Hall sq.
The Main Exhibition Hall will house the primary exhibit of the WHIDAH's Treasure Collection and needs to be a vital and exciting space.
1. Provide visual access for staff, preferably with a single control point.
2. Allow flexibility of ceiling heights.
3. Room needs to have very good sound absorptive capabilities.
4. This room will probably require special water/tank systems.
5.
There should be two small rest areas in this area.


48
Museum: Main Exhibition
SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS:
Private m
Public
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service

Shared
Flexible
Expandable

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
LIGHTING
Daylight
Controlled Dayliqht
! Artificial Light IK
Combination of Artificial
& Dayliqht

SYSTEMS
BUILDING USE:
I 10-6 Tue - Sun jlO-6 Tue - Fri
| 8-4 Tue - Fri___
I 8-5 Mon -Fri ___
; 8-6 Tue - Sun___
j Open at _all times | Open as required
FURNITURE:
Description_____________ # Dimeni
Adjustable Shelving —
Storage Bins
Flat Files
Stainless Steel Counter 1
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls
Conference Table
Storage Shelves
Display Case
Desk
Desk with Side Table
Open Shelving
Tackable Wallspace
Chairs
Computer Terminal
Drawing Board
Storage Cabinet
Work Table
Other:
i
j



Security r —
Human
Electronic
Humidity Controlled
Automatic Sprinkler
Wet Wall
' Concrete Floor
I Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door



49
COMPONENT:
ROOM:
OBJECTIVES:
ADJACENCIES:
NOTES:
Museum
Secondary Exhibition Areas sq.
These spaces will be used for the portrayal of stories related to the WHYDAH's story. They will, in most cases, change from time to time, so they will need a good degree of flexibiity built in.
1. Visual Access by centrally located security personnell is desirable.
2. Small seating areas should be designed to fit in/among these exhibition areas.
3. Special plumbing and drains will be required in parts of this space for wet exhibits.
4. Flexible lighting system is desirable.
5. Sound absorptivity is important through all areas.
6. All electrical outlets should be inaccessible to children.
7. Each module should have it's own storage area


50
Museum: Secondary Exhibitions
SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: BUILDING USE:
Private
Public m
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service
_
Shared
Flexible m
Expandable

Pi0-6 TueSun ri.0-6 Tue -Fri
I 6-4 Tue - Fri__
1 8-5 Mon - Fri__
8-6 Tue - Sun Open at all times Open as required
FURNITURE:
FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12'
Over 12'
lh stories
2 stories
Up
LIGHTING
Daylight
Controlled Dayliqht
Artificial Light
Combination of Artificial m
& Dayliqht

SYSTEMS
Description____________ # Dimens:
Adjustable Shelving
Storage Bins
Flat Files
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls
Conference Table . .
Storage Shelves
Display Case
Desk
Desk with Side Table
Open Shelving
Tackable Wallspace
Chairs
Computer Terminal
Drawing Board
Storage Cabinet
Work Table
Other:







Security
Human
Electronic
Humidity Controlled
Automatic Sprinkler I
Wet Wall
r_Concrete Floor i- |
j Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door



51
COMPONENT: Museum
ROOM: Auditorium/Theatre

_sq.
OBJECTIVES: This space should be suitable for use to show a documentary
film on Maritime Explorations, Inc. search for the WHYDAH on a continuing basis; to be used as a lecture hall and theatre for museum-related activities; and to be used by community members for special events, films and lectures.
NOTES:
1. Should be easily accessible for handicapped patrons.
2. Projection room should be able to accomodate storage for films and tapes that are shown on a regular basis.
3. Stage should be able to accomodate theatre productions as well as films.
4. Entry to auditorium/theatre should be accessible to lobby and to outside plaza area so that it may be used at times when the museum is not open.
5. A rear service access for this space is desirable.
6. This space should be designed to accomodate musical recitals.


52
Museum: Auditorium / Theatre
STATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: BUILDING USE:
Private
Public
Controlled Public i n
Open to Outside
Open to Service

Shared 9
Flexible
Expandable

10-6 Tue _- Sun jLO-6 Tue - Fri 8-4 Tue - Fri
8-5 Mon - Fri_____
8-6 Tue - Sun______
Open at all times Open as required
FURNITURE:
FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12'
Over 12'
1*2 stories IP
2 stories
l
LIGHTING
Daylight
Controlled Daylight
Artificial Light »
Combination of Artificial
& Daylight

SYSTEMS
Description_____________ # Dimen
Adjustable Shelving
Storage Bins
Flat Files
Stainless Steel Counter 1
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls
Conference Table
Storage Shelves
Display Case
Desk
Desk with Side Table
Open Shelving
Tackable Wallspace
Chairs
Computer Terminal
Drawing Board
Storage Cabinet
Work Table
Other:
ftzojeoiicu fSCOlH
MO flLMTT/Y^





[ Security I
Human
Electronic m m
I Humidity Controlled
Automatic Sprinkler
! Wet Wall
f Concrete Floor
i Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door |B
I I


53
COMPONENT: Museum
ROOM: Exhibit Support Area sq. ft.
OBJECTIVES: This area will be used to design, prepare, and repair exhibits
for the museum exhibitions. This area also includes the loading and unloading of changing exhibitions, and the storage and preparation of these exhibitions. This area also includes a darkroom of
300 sq. ft. and a framing and mounting area of 400 sq. ft.
1. Loading area could be close to research facility loading area to share service entrance.
2. Loading dock should be of such height to accomodate a tractor-trailer.
3. Construction workshop should be designed to diminish noise.
4. Construction workshop needs a sink/wet wall area.
5. Changing storage stalls should be partitioned stall areas to allow separation between exhibitions.
6. Preparation areas need to be fully controlled as to humidity and need to be separated from areas of this space not requiring such stringent controls.


54
Museum: Exhibit Support Area
SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: BUILDING USE:
Private m
Public
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service s

Shared
Flexible
Expandable

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12' m
Over 12'
1^ stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
Daylight
Controlled Daylight
Artificial Light m
Combination of Artificial
& Daylight

SYSTEMS
Security
Human
Electronic
Humidity Controlled Wjm'
Automatic Sprinkler
Wet Wall
Concrete Floor
Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door
“'Ve±iTiL&naJ
p0=6. Tue - Sun I 10-6 Tue - Fri 1 8-4 Tue - Fri
8-5 Mon - Fri
,8-6 Tue - Sun
Open at all times
Open as required

FURNITURE:
Description______________# Dimens
Adjustable Shelving WM 1 i
Storage Bins 1 l
Flat Files 1
Stainless Steel Counter iff
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls 1
Conference Table
Storage Shelves mt
Display Case
Desk
Desk with Side Table 1
Open Shelving , 1
Tackable Wallspace j Ilia i
Chairs 1
Computer Terminal
j Drawing Board l
Storage Cabinet P f
Work Table
Other:
wamomwei eoam&Ji

LIGHT 1ACL6
Jttftcf



Notes: Normal operational procedures
follow this pattern: 1) unloading material at dock 2) receiving and unpacking 3) recording, examination and photography 4) temporary storage 5) exhibition, then back through the same process. This will hold true primarily for the changing exhibition


55
COMPONENT: ROOM:
OBJECTIVE'S:
ADJACENCIES:
Museum
Storage Vault sq. f
This area is to be used to store the museum's permenant collection, exhibitions that are displayed in either the Main Exhibition Hall, or the secondary exhibition areas. It is to be secured at all times, and is to be monitored by the Registrar, or his assistant. It will also house exhibitions on loan to the museum while not on display. The wet area and dry area are to be separated.
NOTES:
1.
All storage furniture must be movable to allow changing collections.


56
Museum: Storage Vault
SFATIAL CONSIDERATIONS:
Private
Public
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service

Shared !
Flexible H
Expandable

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12' Z3
Over 12' m
1*5 stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
Daylight
Controlled Dayliqht m
Artificial Light
Combination of Artificial
& Dayliqht

SYSTEMS
BUILDING USE:
10-6 Tue - Sun
10-6 Tue - Fri ...
I 8-4 Tue - Fri____
8-5 Mon - Fri_____
8-6 Tue - Sun Open at all times Open as required
FURNITURE:
Description_____________ # Dimens
Adjustable Shelving
Storage Bins
Flat Files
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls
Conference Table
Storage Shelves
Display Case
Desk
Desk with Side Table
Open Shelving
Tackable Wallspace
Chairs
Computer Terminal
Drawing Board
Storage Cabinet
Work Table
Other:


!


Security
Human
Electronic
Humidity Controlled
i Automatic Sprinkler ‘
' Wet Wall
Concrete Floor
Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule m
Double - Width Door



57
COMPONENT: ROOM:
OBJECTIVES:
ADJACENCIES:
Museum
Changing Exhibition Gallery \ Sg. f
The changing exhibition gallery will be changing with more frequency than any other exhibition in the museum. It may change as much as 10 times in a year. It will house special exhibitions that are related to the general subjects of maritime history, underwater archaeology, and New England history, and will attempt to attract the collections of other treasures uncovered, both buried and sunken, as it's specialty.
This space should be designed for maximum flexibility, and needs one section capable of taking wet systems. As it is also the space to be used by outside groups for receptions, it may want to ally itself closely with the theatre area, which the community groups are most likely to use. It should be able to function independently from the main and secondary exhibition areas if necessary, when it is used at night, for example.
NOTES:


58
Museum: Changing Exhibition Area
SrATIAL CONSIDERATIONS:
Private Z]
Public HI
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service

Shared m
Flexible
Expandable

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12' m
Over 12'
1*2 stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
Daylight
Controlled Dayliqht
Artificial Light â– 
Combination of Artificial
& Dayliqht

SYSTEMS
BUILDING USE:
10-6 Tue _-_Sun___
10-6 Tue_- Fri _
8-4 Tue - Fri_____
8-5 Mon - Fri_____
8-6 Tue - Sun__
Open at all times Open as required
FURNITURE:
Description_____________ ft Dimens
Adjustable Shelving
Storage Bins
Flat Files
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls
Conference Table
Storage Shelves
Display Case â– â– 
Desk
Desk with Side Table
Open Shelving
Tackable Wallspace
Chairs
Computer Terminal
Drawing Board
Storage Cabinet
Work Table
Other:





[ Security
Human
Electronic
Humidity Controlled
Automatic Sprinkler
Wet Wall
Concrete Floor
Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door



59
4.2 BUILDING PROGRAM
Museum School sq. ft.
Reception “ZfcO
Classrooms (4) \rl3Q
Equipment Room
Library lOO
Small Screening Room
Instructor's Workroom / Conference Room A OQ
Graduate Workroom 4(00
Rest Rooms
Total A VIO


COMPONENT:
Museum School
ROOM:
OBJECTIVES:
ADJACENCIES
NOTES:
Reception 2^2
The reception area should be the point of control for all activities within the school. The Museum School Coordinator and a part-time secretary/receptionist will share this space. Registration for classes will take place here.
1. The Coordinator's office should have some transparent portion to enable the monitoring of the reception area when the secretary/receptionist isn't present.
2. There should be a small waiting space.
3. Display cases should be designed to explain/promote the school's activities.


61
Museum School: Reception
SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: BUILDING USE:
Private *
Public
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service

Shared Hf
Flexible
Expandable

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12' m
Over 12'
1^ stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
Daylight m
Controlled Daylight
Artificial Light
Combination of Artificial
& Daylight

SYSTEMS
10-6 Tue - Sun_____________________
10-6 Tue - .Fri ___________________
8-4 Tue - Fri______________________
8-5 Mon - Fri_____________
8-6 Tue - Sun______________________
Open at all times__________________
Open as required evening clQ&ZC0*
FURNITURE:
Description______________# Dimen si'
Adjustable Shelving
Storage Bins
Flat Files
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls
Conference Table
Storage Shelves
Display Case m
Desk
Desk with Side Table
Open Shelving 1
Tackable Wallspace
Chairs t)
Computer Terminal WM •
Drawing Board
Storage Cabinet mu
Work Table
Other:
2 6MAU. euo






Security
Human m
Electronic
Humidity Controlled
| Automatic Sprinkler
; Wet Wall
Concrete Floor
Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door


62
COMPONENT: Museum School ROOM: Classrooms (4)
OBJECTIVES: These classrooms are to be used for all activities ongoing in the Museum School Program, as well as to be shared with the Research Facility's staff for graduate training sessions. Two of these classrooms need to be able to accomodate wet equipment and sinks.
ADJACENCIES:
WfcT
«2-i
1. A sliding partition wall between two classrooms is desirable to allow them to become one double-size classroom. 2 3 4 5
2. A chalkboard and built-in screen are necessary features of each classroom.
3. Two work counters are to be built in to each room.
4. There should be a locking storage closet in each room.
5. The wet space of the two classrooms should be sunken 1' below the floor of the classroom.
sq.


63
Museum School: Classrooms
SI'ATIAL CONSIDERATIONS:
Private
Public
Controlled Public â– 1
Open to Outside
Open to Service

Shared m
Flexible
Expandable

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12*
Over 12’
1^ stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
SYSTEMS
BUILDING USE:
pLO-6 Tue - Sun
10-6 Tue - Fri
8-4 Tue - Fri
8-5 Mon - Fri
r 8-6 Tue - Sun
Open at all times
Open as required

FURNITURE:
Description______________# Dimens
Adjustable Shelving
Storage Bins
Flat Files
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls
Conference Table -
Storage Shelves MB
Display Case
De sk
Desk with Side Table
Open Shelving
Tackable Wallspace
Chairs
Computer Terminal
Drawing Board
Storage Cabinet mt
Work Table
Other:





Security
Human
Electronic
Humidity Controlled
Automatic Sprinkler
Wet Wall
Concrete Floor m
Tile Floorud we-f
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door



64
COMPONENT:
ROOM:
OBJECTIVES:
ADJACENCIES
NOTES:
Museum School
Equipment Room sq.
This room is used to store and prepare equipment used in classrooms for classes. It must accomodate scuba diving equipment as well as equipment used for underwater archaeological research.
1. Ventilation is necessary in this room
2.
Maximum electricap capacity is necessary in this room


65
Museum School: Equipment Room
SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: BUILDING USE:
Private m
Public
Controlled Public
Open to Outside to
Open to Service

Shared Z]
Flexible m
Expandable
1
| 10-6 Tue - Sun_________________________
I 10-6 Tue - Fri ________________________
! 8-4 Tue - Fri________________________
i 8-5 Mon - Fri________________________
8-6 Tue - Sun_______________________
| Open at all times _____________________
i Open as required 0V t-JB&CXs’
FURNITURE:
FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12' 19
Over 12'
Ih stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
Daylight
Controlled Dayliqht
Artificial Light m
Combination of Artificial
& Dayliqht

SYSTEMS
Description_____________ # Dimensi'
Adjustable Shelving —
Storage Bins
Flat Files
Stainless Steel Counter!
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls
Conference Table
Storage Shelves ip
Display Case
Desk
| Desk with Side Table
Open Shelving
Tackable Wallspace WA
Chairs 2.
Computer Terminal
Drawing Board
Storage Cabinet
Work Table
Other:
caib-




f Security
Human
Electronic
Humidity Controlled
Automatic Sprinkler
1 Wet Wall /i
Concrete Floor
Tile Floor P
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door



66
COMPONENT: Museum School
ROOM: Library sq. ft
OBJECTIVES: The library will be used by students of the Museum School. It will also house the audio-visual equipment for the school. All library materials are to be used in the library.
NOTES:
1
Museum School Coordinator monitors the use of audio-visual equipment from the library and should be placed next to the library.


67
Museum School: Library
SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: BUILDING USE:
Private
Public
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service

Shared
Flexible
Expandable

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12' m
Over 12'
1^ stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
I Daylight
! Controlled Dayliqht
Artificial Light m
Combination of Artificial
& Dayliqht

SYSTEMS
FURNITURE:
Description # Dimensi
Adjustable Shelving wm i
Storage Bins
Flat Files i
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls
Conference Table J
Storage Shelves WSML â–º
Display Case
Desk
Desk with Side Table
Open Shelving
Tackable Wallspace '0%
Chairs 2£>
Computer Terminal |||| ’
Drawing Board —d-
Storage Cabinet ]
Work Table 4
Other:
z.
ye##, wac±\\de.
veen 0
1
r


Security m
Human
Electronic
1 Humidity Controlled m
Automatic Sprinkler
Wet Wall
f Concrete Floor
Tile Floor
j Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door



68
COMPONENT:
ROOM:
OBJECTIVES:
ADJACENCIES 1 2
NOTES:
Museum School
Small Screening Room _____ sq.
This room will be used for both museum school students and the research staff. It will be used for viewing films and tapes.
It must be able to seat forty people.
1. Small screening room must be accessible to handicapped students.
2. Small screening room should be able to completely contain its ow; sound with its acoustical design so as not to disturb the adjoin
rooms.


69
Museum School: Small Screening Room
SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: BUILDING USE:
Private m
Public
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service

Shared
Flexible
Expandable

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12' 53
Over 12'
1*5 stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
Daylight
Controlled Daylight i m
Artificial Light
Combination of Artificial H
& Daylight
ZJ
SYSTEMS
FURNITURE:
Description______________# Dimen
Adjustable Shelving i t
Storage Bins
Flat Files
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter ^ wt
Storage Stalls .
Conference Table
[storage Shelves
Display Case
Desk
Desk with Side Table
Open Shelving 1
Tackable Wallspace
Chairs 2
Computer Terminal 1
Drawing Board 1
Storage Cabinet 1
Work Table
Other:
1 PRcozcnoJ m ecuwtlit WM





! Security
Human
Electronic
Humidity Controlled
Automatic Sprinkler
Wet Wall
Concrete Floor
Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door



70
COMPONENT:
ROOM:
OBJECTIVES:
ADJACENCIES
Museum School
Instructor's Workroom / Conference Room 4(20____ sq.
This room should be an all purpose room for instructors; for class preparation, for meetings among the staff, and for conferences between the coordinator and staff. It should include a small kitchen area to enable the instructors to make coffee, warm food, or prepare snacks.
NOTES:


71
Museum School: Instructor's Work/Conference Room
SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: BUILDING USE:
Private â– 
Public
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service

Shared «
Flexible
Expandable

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12' m
Over 12'
lh stories
2 stories
!
LIGHTING
Daylight
Controlled Dayliqht
Artificial Light wm Vm
Combination of Artificial
& Dayliqht

SYSTEMS
FURNITURE:
Description_____________ # Dimensi(
Adjustable Shelving
Storage Bins
Flat Files
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls
Conference Table \-or %>
Storage Shelves
Display Case
Desk
| Desk with Side Table
Open Shelving
Tackable Wallspace
Chairs
Computer Terminal
Drawing Board
Storage Cabinet W6
Work Table
Other:





Security
Human
Electronic
Humidity Controlled
Automatic Sprinkler
Wet Wall
Concrete Floor
Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door



72
COMPONENT:
ROOM:
OBJECTIVES:
ADJACENCIES
NOTES:
Museum School
Graduate Workroom ^rOD______ sq. ft
This room is to be used by graduate students involved in the Museum School internship program. They will use this space as their only work space in the museum complex. It should have six work stations.
1. This room should be well ventilated and have as much daylight as is possible.
2.
Giving this room a view would be preferable.


73
Museum School: Graduate Workroom
SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: BUILDING USE:
Private m
Public
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service

Shared
Flexible
Expandable

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12' m
| Over 12'
1H stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
Daylight
Controlled Dayliqht
Artificial Light m
Combination of Artificial
& Daylight

SYSTEMS
| 10-6 Tue - Sun
10-6 Tue - Fri
! 8-4 Tue - Fri
8-5 Mon - Fri
! 8-6 Tue - Sun
Open at all time s _
Open as required
wilt Hfr/e yzico
FURNITURE:
Description______________# Dimensi(
Adjustable Shelving
Storage Bins
Flat Files $90
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls
Conference Table
Storage Shelves
Display Case
Desk
Desk with Side Table
Open Shelving
Tackable Wallspace
Chairs
Computer Terminal { jyi
Drawing Board •
Storage Cabinet
Work Table
Other:
ptCCX&lfr
i




1 Security
Human
Electronic
Humidity Controlled
Automatic Sprinkler
Wet Wall
f Concrete Floor
j Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door



74
4.3 BUILDING PROGRAM
Research Facility sq. ft.
Reception and Display Room Z^O
Administrative Offices:
Museum
Research 6^0
Maritime Explorations, Inc. "Z\OO
Retail
Conference Rooms (2)
Work Room AOC>
Research Library
Rest Rooms (4) £>OQ
Kitchen \QO>
Lab Offices (4) (&OQ
Receiving
Conservation 12*00
Storage Vault
Research Laboratory \6pOO
Equipment Testing and Storage {400
Preparation t!ZX^C>
f^7 o
Total


75
COMPONENT:
ROOM:
OBJECTIVES:
ADJACENCIES
NOTES:
Research Facility
Reception and Display Room __/2-ftCD sq. i
This area will receive clients for the museum staff, research staff, and for Maritime Explorations Inc. This area should be designed to display works-in-progress as well as to serve as a control point for the administrative offices. There will be one full-time receptionist, and one full-time secretary.
1. It is desirable that this area should have a water-view.
2. This area should be able to accomodate standing display cases.
3. This area should also be designed with built-in wall display cases.
4. As a control point, this area should have maximum access to the offices it serves.


76
Research: Reception and Display
SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: BUILDING USE:
Private 1
Public
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service

Shared m
Flexible
Expandable

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12'
Over 12'
1*5 stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
Daylight
Controlled Dayliqht
Artificial Light â– 
Combination of Artificial
& Dayliqht

SYSTEMS
10-6 Tue - Sun___
j 10-6 Tue - Fri
] 8-4 Tue - Fri____
8-5 Mon - Fri____
8-6 Tue - Sun____
Open at all times Open as required
FURNITURE:
Description # Dimensi
Adjustable Shelving —
Storage Bins
Flat Files
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter MS
Storage Stalls
Conference Table
Storage Shelves
Display Case
Desk
Desk with Side Table i
Open Shelving
Tackable Wallspace
Chairs <2>
Computer Terminal
Drawing Board
Storage Cabinet Ml
Work Table
Other:





Security
Human
Electronic
Humidity Controlled
Automatic Sprinkler -
Wet Wall
Concrete Floor
Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door



77
COMPONENT:
ROOM:
OBJECTIVES:
Research Facility
Administrative Offices sq. ft
Museum Administration Office space will be provided for: total
Executive Director and Assistant Financial Director Marketing Director Community Arts Director
Creative Director and 2 Graphic Design/Illustrators Museum Curator and Assistant Program Director
Clerical, Mail, Publications, etc.
Research Facility Offices will be provided for: total
Research Program Director ^OC>
Senior Archaeologist 7^0
Staff Archaeologists (2)
Maritime Explorations, Inc. Offices will be provided for: %.\t>£> total
M.E.I President
President's Assistant IOC>
Financial Director and Assistant Project Manager
Project Archaeologist 7-CQ
Project Diver 7*60
Public Relations Director and Assistant 'ZCO
Drafting Room Clerical and Mail
Retail Offices will be provided for:
Retail Properties Director and Assistant
total
Total


Research
Maritime Explorations, Inc.
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79
Museum: Executive Director and Assistant
SFAT1AL CONSIDERATIONS: BUILDING USE:
Private m 10-6 Tue - Sun
Public 10-6 Tue - Fri
Controlled Public 8-4 Tue - Fri
Open to Outside 8-5 Mon - Fri
Open to Service 8-6 Tue - Sun
Open at all times
Open as required
Shared
Flexible
Expandable FURNITURE:

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12' m
Over 12’
lh stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
Daylight
Controlled Dayliqht
Artificial Light m
Combination of Artificial
& Dayliqht

SYSTEMS
[ Security
Human
Electronic
Humidity Controlled
Automatic Sprinkler
Wet Wall
Concrete Floor
Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door

Description____________ # Dimens
Adjustable Shelving
Storage Bins
Flat Files
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls
Conference Table
Storage Shelves i (vo)
Display Case i (&o)
Desk -2 1 cod'
Desk with Side Table / to
Open Shelving 1 to
Tackable Wallspace l to
Chairs e>
Computer Terminal i to
Drawing Board
Storage Cabinet 'l \ e^ch
Work Table
Other:
FILE dA&lUeT 2. 1




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L
Note:
1. This room should have a view to the water.


80
Museum: Financial Director
SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS:
Private
Public
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service

Shared
Flexible
Expandable

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
1 Under 12' m
Over 12'
l3* stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
Daylight
! Controlled Dayliqht
Artificial Liqht «f
Combination of Artificial
& Dayliqht

SYSTEMS
BUILDING USE:
j_10-6 Tue - Sun
10-6 Tue - Fri
Tue - Fri
8-5 Mon - Fri
8-6 Tue - Sun
Open at all times
Open as required

FURNITURE:
Description____________ # Dimensic
Adjustable Shelving
Storage Bins
Flat Files
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls
Conference Table
Storage Shelves wm
Display Case
Desk i
Desk with Side Table
Open Shelving
Tackable Wallspace i
Chairs 2
Computer Terminal 1
Drawing Board
Storage Cabinet 1
Work Table 1
Other:
f\fc ue-r 2




[ Security
Human
Electronic
Humidity Controlled
Automatic Sprinkler
Wet Wall
Concrete Floor
Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door



81
Museum: Marketing Director
SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: BUILDING USE:
Private
Public
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service

Shared
Flexible
Expandable

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12' m
Over 12'
Ih stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
Daylight
Controlled Daylight
Artificial Light
Combination of Artificial m
& Daylight

SYSTEMS
10-6 Tue - Sun
10-6 Tue - Fri
8-4 Tue - Fri
| 8-5 Mon - Fri
8-6 Tue - Sun
Open at all times
Open as required

FURNITURE:
Description_____________ # Dimen
Adjustable Shelving
Storage Bins
Flat Files
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls
Conference Table
Storage Shelves I
Display Case J
Desk 1
Desk with Side Table
Open Shelving
Tackable Wallspace 1
Chairs
Computer Terminal '
Drawing Board
Storage Cabinet j 1
Work Table
Other:
file Oftiue* | 2

1




Security
Human
Electronic
Humidity Controlled
Automatic Sprinkler
Wet Wall
Concrete Floor
Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door



82
Museum: Community Arts Director
SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: BUILDING USE:
Private IfeSf
Public
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service

U°-6 Tue - Sun | 10-6 Tue -Fri L8-4 Tue - Fri
j 8-5 Mon - Fri FIT-6 Tue - Sun
Open at all times
Open as required
Shared m FURNITURE:
Flexible
Expandable

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12' m
Over 12'
1*5 stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
Daylight
Controlled Dayliqht
Artificial Light m
Combination of Artificial
& Dayliqht

SYSTEMS
Description______________# Dimens
Adjustable Shelving
Storage Bins
Flat Files
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls
Conference Table
Storage Shelves i
Display Case WM
Desk
Desk with Side Table i
Open Shelving
Tackab.le Wall space i
Chairs
Computer Terminal
Drawing Board
Storage Cabinet i
Work Table ' i
Other:
tfic oexoer 2






Security
Human
Electronic
Humidity Controlled
Automatic Sprinkler
Wet Wall
Concrete Floor
Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door



83
Museum: Creative Director and 2 Graphic Design/Illustrators
SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS:
Private m
Public
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service
1
Shared m
Flexible
Expandable

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12'
Over 12'
1*5 stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
Daylight
Controlled Daylight
Artificial Light m
Combination of Artificial
& Daylight

SYSTEMS
Security
Human
Electronic
Humidity Controlled
Automatic Sprinkler
Wet Wall
Concrete Floor
Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door
BUILDING USE:
10-6 Tue - Sun___
10-6 Tue - Fri
|8-4 Tue - Fri_____
j 8-5 Mon - Fri____
| 8-6 Tue - Sun____
Open at all times Open as required
FURNITURE :
Description____________ # Dimens
Adjustable Shelving
Storage Bins
Flat Files
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls
Conference Table
Storage Shelves
Display Case
Desk 2-
Desk with Side Table - 1
Open Shelving
Tackable Wallspace fails
Chairs j ^
Computer Terminal
Drawing Board 4
Storage Cabinet
Work Table
Other:
file. Ct>4blUei
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Note:
1. This room should have a northern orientation, and a view to the water is preferred.


84
Museum: Curator and Assistant
SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS:
Private m
Public
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service

Shared m
Flexible
Expandable

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12’
Over 12'
1*5 stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
Daylight
Controlled Dayliqht
Artificial Light m
Combination of Artificial
& Dayliqht

SYSTEMS
BUILDING USE:
10-6 Tue - Sun____
10-6 Tue - Fri
; 8-4 Tue - Fri____
8-5 Mon - Fri_____
8-6 Tue - Sun Open at all times Open as required
FURNITURE:
Description_____________ # Dimen £
Adjustable Shelving
Storage Bins
Flat Files \ CfAc)
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls
Conference Table
Storage Shelves t CMC)
Display Case 1 c yic)
Desk l
Desk with Side Table 1
Open Shelving 1 CAl
Tackable Wallspace 1
Chairs z i eac\^
Computer Terminal l CMC7
Drawing Board 1 (A)
Storage Cabinet z
Work Table
Other:
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Security
Human
Electronic m
Humidity Controlled
| Automatic Sprinkler
[ Wet Wall
Concrete Floor
Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door



85
Museum: Clerical, Mail and Publications
SrATIAL CONSIDERATIONS:
Private m
Public
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service
i
Shared ffi
Flexible
Expandable

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12' m
Over 12'
1^ stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
Daylight H
Controlled Dayliqht J
Artificial Light
Combination of Artificial
& Daylight

SYSTEMS
Security
Human
Electronic
Humidity Controlled
Automatic Sprinkler
Wet Wall
Concrete Floor
Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door
BUILDING USE:
FURNITURE:
Description_____________ # Dimens
Adjustable Shelving
Storage Bins
Flat Files
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls
Conference Table
Storage Shelves
Display Case
Desk
Desk with Side Table
Open Shelving
Tackable Wallspace
Chairs 1
Computer Terminal
Dravidng Board
Storage Cabinet
Work Table
Other:
â– â– 






Note: - • •*
1. This room needs good ventilation.
2. This room needs extra electrical capacity.


86
Research: Research Program Director
SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS:
Private m
Public
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service

Shared
Flexible
Expandable

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12' â–¡
Over 12' m
1*5 stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
Daylight
Controlled Dayliqht
Artificial Light m
Combination of Artificial
& Dayliqht

SYSTEMS
BUILDING USE:
i_10-6 Tue - Sun
10-6 Tue - Fri
8-4 Tue - Fri
8-5 Mon - Fri
8-6 Tue - Sun
j Open at all times I Open as required
FURNITURE:
Description______________# Dimens
Adjustable Shelving
Storage Bins
Flat Files vm
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls
Conference Table
Storage Shelves
Display Case
Desk
Desk with Side Table
Open Shelving
Tackable Wallspace
Chairs t
Computer Terminal
Drawing Board
Storage Cabinet
Work Table
Other:
fits tt>e>iue-r




Security
Human
Electronic m
Humidity Controlled
Automatic Sprinkler
Wet Wall
Concrete Floor
Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door



Research: Senior Archaeologist
SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS:
BUILDING USE:
Private ' m
Public
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service

10-6 Tue - Sun 10-6 Tue - Fri 8-4 Tue - Fri
Shared
Flexible
Expandable FURNITURE:

8-5 Mon - Fri
8-6 Tue - Sun
Open at all times
Open as required

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12' m
Over 12'
1^ stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
Daylight
Controlled Dayliqht
Artificial Light m
Combination of Artificial
& Dayliqht

SYSTEMS
Description
Adjustable Shelving____
Storage Bins___________
Flat Files_____________
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter_______
Storage Stalls_________
Conference Table
Storage Shelves
Display Case
Desk
Desk with Side Table Open Shelving Tackable Wallspace
Chairs
Computer Terminal
Drawing Board
Storage Cabinet
Work Table
Other:
flue c&eapier
Security
Human
Electronic
Humidity Controlled m
Automatic Sprinkler
Wet Wall
Concrete Floor
Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door



88
Research: Staff Archaeologists
SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS:
Private m
Public
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service

Shared m
Flexible
Expandable

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12' m
Over 12'
1*2 stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
Daylight
Controlled Daylight
Artificial Light m
Combination of Artificial
& Daylight

SYSTEMS
BUILDING USE:
_10-6 Tue - Sun 10-6 Tue - Fri
8-4 Tue - Fri
8-5 Mon - Fri
8-6 Tue - Sun
Open at all times
Open as required

FURNITURE:
Description_____________# Dimens
Adjustable Shelving j
Storage Bins ;
Flat Files
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter am
Storage Stalls
Conference Table
Storage Shelves
Display Case
Desk l
Desk with Side Table 1
Open Shelving wm
Tackable Wallspace
Chairs 2-
Computer Terminal m
Drawing Board
Storage Cabinet 1
Work Table
Other:
'hue: 2




Security
Human
Electronic â– 
Humidity Controlled
Automatic Sprinkler
j Wet Wall
j Concrete Floor
Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door



89
M.E.I. : M.E.I. President STAT1AL CONSIDERATIONS:
Private
Public
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service

Shared
Flexible
Expandable

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12' m!
Over 12'
lh stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
Daylight
Controlled Daylight
Artificial Light m
Combination of Artificial
& Daylight

SYSTEMS
Security —
Human
Electronic
Humidity Controlled
Automatic Sprinkler
Wet Wall
Concrete Floor
Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door
BUILDING USE:
10-6 Tue - Sun 10-6 Tue - Fri
! 8-4 Tue ~ Fri_____
8-5 Mon _-_Fri.___
8-6 Tue - Sun_____
| Open at all times Open as required
FURNITURE:
Description______________# Dimens
Adjustable Shelving
Storage Bins
Flat Files m
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls
Conference Table -6r â– 4-
Storage Shelves
Display Case
Desk
Desk with Side Table
Open Shelving
Tackable Wallspace
Chairs
Computer Terminal m
Drawing Board
Storage Cabinet BfiSi
Work Table
Other:
Pile U^PH-ie-T z.
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Note:
1. Give this office a view to the water.


90
President's Assistant SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS:
Private m
Public
Controlled Public
Open to Outside
Open to Service
l
Shared
Flexible
Expandable

FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT:
Under 12' m
Over 12'
1*5 stories
2 stories

LIGHTING
Daylight
Controlled Dayliqht
Artificial Liqht m
Combination of Artificial
& Dayliqht

SYSTEMS
BUILDING USE:
10-6 Tue-Sun 10-6 Tue - Fri
i 8-4 Tue - Fri___
| 8-5 Mon - Fri___
8-6 Tue - Sun____
| Open at all times Open as required
FURNITURE:
Description_____________ # Dimens
Adjustable Shelving m —
Storage Bins
Flat Files
Stainless Steel Counter
Standard Counter
Storage Stalls
Conference Table
Storage Shelves
Display Case
Desk
Desk with Side Table ] EH
Open Shelving
Tackable Wallspace
Chairs 2
Computer Terminal
Drawing Board
Storage Cabinet
Work Table
Other:
ri,uza&>\a&r 2,




[ Security
Human
Electronic GK
Humidity Controlled
Automatic Sprinkler
Wet Wall
Concrete Floor
Tile Floor
Double Entry Vestibule
Double - Width Door



Full Text

PAGE 1

WHYDAH Pirate

PAGE 2

I I WHYDAH PIRATE MUSEUM An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture. Mara-Gai Katz Fall 1985 Date Due ! ---I -I I .................. ,. .. ---

PAGE 3

The Thesis of Mara-Gai Katz is approved Committee Chairman University of Colorado , Denver Date

PAGE 4

DEDICATION To Tim; for being there as someone was once for him To Studs and the Princess; for their unwavering support To the enigmatic Mister Watts; for staying

PAGE 5

OUTSIDE CONSULTANTS l . Mark Chen I Associate Architect Koetter, Kim Associates, Boston, MA. Capacity: Urban and Architectural Design 2 . Ricardo Guillermo I Architect Jerry Johnson Inc. Boston, MA. Capacity: Exhibition Design 3 . Tim Pennypacker I Board of Selectmen, Town of Chatham Planning Board, Chatham, MA. Capacity: History 4 . Barry Clifford I President, Head "Treasure Hunter" for WHYDAH Excavation Capacity: History of Project, Museum Ideas, Pirate Life 5 . Mike Roberts I Project Director for WHYDAH Excavation and Senior Archaeologist Maritime Explorations, Inc. Orleans, MA. Capacity: Archaeological Technique and WHYDAH Project Operation

PAGE 6

TABLE O F CONTENTS Introduction Introduction ...... . Project Description ..... . Project in Context .•..... Thesis Statement ...... . Project Scope ...... . Museum Concept ..... . Exhibitions ..... . . Underwater Archaeological 1.0 l.l 1.2 2 . 0 3.0 3.1 Research and Educational Facility .. 3 . 2 The Museum School. . . . 3 . 3 The Commercial Complex... 3 . 4 Museum Program: Spatial Needs Assessment ..... . . Building Program ... . ••. Museum ...... . Museum SchooL .... . . 4 . 0 4 . 1 4 . 2 Research Facility.... 4 . 3 Retail Complex........ 4 . 4 Existing Pier Buildings to Remain ... 4 . 5 Museum Building Building Technology ...... . Lighting ...... . Security .....• Pier Construction . •..... Water Tank Details ...... . Zoning ....... . Codes .... . Site The Region ...... . The Town-Wareham ...... . The Site-Onset Pier ...... . Local Architecture ...... . Context. ..... . Views ...... . Orientation . .... . Utilities ... ... . Traffic ...... . . Parking ...... . Project Implications ...... . Thesis Conclusion Thesis Conclusion ••••••• Drawings ••••••• Footnotes ••••••• Ap pendix ••••••• Bibliography ••••••. 5 . 0 5 . 1 5 . 2 5 . 3 5 . 4 5 . 5 5 . 6 6 . 0 6.1 6 . 2 6 . 3 6.4 6 . 5 6.6 6.7 6 . 8 6 . 9 6.10 7 . 0 7 . 1 8 . 0 9 . 0 10. 0

PAGE 7

INTRODUCTION . ------.

PAGE 8

loO INTRO D UCTION "There is, one knows not what sweet mystery about this sea, whose gentle awful stirrings seem to speak of some hidden soul beneath." Herman Melville Beginning late in the summer of 1984, Cape Cod newspapers began carrying stories about Barry Clifford, a self-proclaimed "treasure hunter". Clifford announced that he had found the pirate ship WHYDAH, which was wrecked in a storm in late April of 1717. The ship foundered on the shores of South Wellfleet in the area now known as Marconi Beach. Due in great part to their inebriated state, the majority of the crew was lost to the storm, which lasted through the night and into the next day, and along with them went the treasure, now valued at $400 million dollars. Eight men did survive the storm, two from the WHYDAH, and six from accompanying ships, and came up on the Wellfleet beach. Their story of the wreck of the WHYDAH was told to local people who captured them, as well as related in testimony in the Boston courts, where they were tried for piracy. Some 250 years after the WHYDAH sank, Barry Clifford heard her legend as a child. He became fascinated by the story and decided then to find the WHYDAH and her treasures. 25 years later, Clifford fulfilled his long-time dream, and did find the WHYDAH, the first pirate ship to be recovered off North Amlrican shores. In the first major publicity piece about his find, Clifford described his ideas for what he wanted to do with the trove of treasures he' d found: "My dream was to find the treasure and build a pirate museum, a place where children of all ages could see and ponder relics from a longlost era--the golden age of piracy." My thesis proposal then, is to design a museum to house that dream. 1

PAGE 9

l . l Project Description The site of the WHYDAH Pirate Museum is located in Onset, Massachusetts, a point just over halfway between Boston and lower Cape Cod. Onset, a thriving resort area in the 1930's, has become stilled since transportation routes shifted. The museum complex is seen as a revitalizing force for the community of Onset. The WHYDAH Pirate Museum is the center of a complex that includes a marketplace and commercial area, as well as an underwater archaeolgoical research and educational facility to carry on the research work of the WHYDA and future projects of this kind, as well as to become an educational resource for the community and the region. The museum complex itself will create a vital urban space for 2 Onset, utilizing the immense interest in the WHYDAH Pirate Treasure Collection as a drawing card. Architecturally, the building complex will reflect the Onset character in its use of compatible materials and familiar imagery, thus informing the existing downtown waterfront area as to further development. The cohabitation of commercial and research functions within the museum complex will explore the link of serious study to commercial activity and entertainment, and will define the museum as a type within a new context. To facilitate a comprehensive and dynamic learning experience for children and adults alike, the museum draws from four museum types; maritime, historical, aquatic, and children' s , as well as integrating wet and dry, and participatory and non-participatory exhibitry. The proposed complex is to be 50,000 square feet.

PAGE 10

1.2 3 Project in Context The WHYDAH Pirate Museum has a tremendous potential to impact both the regional and larger museum community. Currently, Maritime Explorations, Inc., Barry Clifford' s organization, has received a variety of kinds of offers from towns on the upper and lower portions of the Cape, indicating great interest in the museum, as it would house the only treasure collection from a pirate ship in North America. Tourism on the Cape is generally limited to a five-month season, between May and September, but consultants to 2 Clifford believe that the museum would be a attraction. Initial skepticism on the part of people in the museum community in the greater Boston area as well as the Cape Cod area has diminished, giving way to support and interest since professional archaeologists have supported Clifford's claim that his site is actually the site of the WHYDAH verified from analysis of artifacts being brought up from the site. The site of the WHYDAH wreck, off South Wellfleet shores, is in an area known as the "Graveyard". Historical documentation shows that hundreds of ships have sunk in these waters, thereby making it a prime area for salvers and archaeologists to work in. Investigation of local resources indicates that no research facility specifically for underwater archaeological research exists. The Boston area is home to many museums and laboratories; Salem, Massachusetts, a town about ten miles north of Boston, houses the Peabody Museum, which focuses o n an extensive maritime collection of artifacts from the mid-1700' s onward, bypassing the early 1700 history that surrounds the WHYDAH's story. The Woods Hole Marine Laboratories in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, some thirty miles from the site of the wreck, concentrates it' s work on coastal ecology, geology, and marine biology with little provision for archaeological study. Harvard' s Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology in Cambridge, Massachusetts just outside of Boston, houses a diverse collection of archaeological artifacts. However, their focus is on terrestrial sites, with few resources to accomodate underwater archaeological study. Mike Robert founder of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, former member of the Maritime Archaeological and Historical Research Institute and current Senior Archaeologist and Project Manager for the WHYDAH excavation, spoke for the archaeological community in expressing strong support for a research facility geared towards underwater excavation sites. However, h e was less sure that this facility could act as a central laboratory, completely disengaged from the work of Maritime Explorations. He noted that: " An interesting concept would b e to look at this facility as a way to bring together those competing groups and working toward the benefit of the people of Massachusetts in doing so ... I would like to see that because the construction of this facility could

PAGE 11

allow that to happen.4 . I don't have alot of hope for it. " 4 Further discussion with Barry Clifford revealed the problems involved with developing a laboratory that could be used by any group were primarily political, and stemmed from traditional ideas on the part of salvers and archaeologists wanting to maintain high levels of privacy about their operations. The museum itself will be unique in its combination of dry maritime and historical exhibitions and wet exhibitions, of the type found in Boston' s Aquarium, using active and passive strategies such as those employed in the Children's Museum of Boston, and in Boston's Science Museum. The marketplace, as a center for both commerce and entertainment housed alongside the research and educational facility tests the marriage of private and public functions. The research and educational facility's adjacency to the museum offers a rare opportunity to use portions of the research work to become a "living" exhibition within the museum. Done properly, the WHYDAH Pirate Museum can impact both the regional museum community as well as the larger resort community surrounding it in a positive and beneficial way; fulfilling a clear need while bringing a new element into the existing economic base.

PAGE 12

THESIS STATEMENT

PAGE 13

2.0 THESIS STATEMENT The purpose of museums has changed considerably in recent times, as technological advances are made, and as public interest has required. The American Museum Association's "Belmont Report" defines a museum as: "an institution which performs all, or most, of the following functions: collecting, preserving, exhibiting, and interpreting the natural and 5 cultural objects of our environment." And, while museums continue to perform these functions, mounting economic pressure, the availablility of new technology, and changing social attitudes has prompted the museum community to re-evaluate their function, and to reconsider their role within the community. This issue is being faced on a number of levels. Museums are looking towards their travelling collections as the life-blood 5 of their operations, and, to that end, are investigating new presentation and communication techniques to appeal to the largest audience possible. Social and cultural events sponsored by museums have increased in order to draw a larger museum-going audience. And, for the first time, museums are investigating relationships with a variety of types of commercial ventures to provide a stronger economic base then they have had in the past. Perhaps for the first time, entertainment is a consideration in museum life. The premise of this Master's Thesis is that the architectural design of the museum can itself create an environment which will encourage the social, cultural, commercial and entertainment objectives to flourish. Kenneth Hudson, in a comprehensive examination of museums trends for the 1980's throughout the world writes: "One could summarize the change by saying that museums are no longer considered to be storehouses or agents for the preservation of a country's cultural heritage, but powerful instru-6 ments of education in the broadest sense." This premise involves a wide range of architectural and social issues. Some issues of particular importance are:

PAGE 14

6 Identity Historically, museums outside of major metropolitan areas have been born in one of two settings; either in isolation, whereby a remote site is chosen, and the museum is designed as an object in the landscape; or within an existing building or dwelling, often one with some association with the collection(s), or housed within a historic landmark, that was not designed with the museum' s requirements in mind. More dense urban settings house museums among the existing urban fabric or smaller gallery spaces that are created in conjunction with another primary function. Further, the nature of museums, to hold and display collections of objects, is enclosing. This inward orientation of museum buildings has emphasized their lack of connection wit h their environment. As a broader vision of the museum is now necessary, it is critical to look at the relationship the museum maintains wit h its surrounds. Developing both economic and social relationships within the communit y , as opposed to functioning autonomously, has become increasingly more important, and should be considered a fundemental part of the museum's concept. The location of the museum within the community, then, is primary in the establishment of that network. Placing t h e museum in a vital area of the community can strengthen connections and promote involvement. In the case of the WHYDAH Pirate Museum , becoming a strong member of the existing downtown area provides not only the opportuni to become a central component of the district, but also allows for a "reaching out" of the museum to its community. In a larger sense, the tremendous amount of national interest in the Treasure Collection puts it in a position to become a m ajor revitalizing element in the region. Not every museum collection woul d have the potential draw that the Collection does. However, the establishment of strong community ties and the exchange of both educational and commercial resources in the WHYDAH Pirate Huseum sets a precedent for other communities, who , like Onset, have at some tim e suffered a loss to their c ultural or economic base due to changing trends and circumstances. Integration I. M . Pei, in his museum designs over the years,7 has been instrumental in bringing to the forefront the idea of the museum as a vital p lace, a place that offers a variety of experiences that go beyond traditional views of museums as purely serene, contemplative places. His museum designs reflect the notions that museums must offer a range of activities and experiences. In addressing this, he says:

PAGE 15

' • 7 "Today the museum has become a place where . . . families go --and spend an entire afternoon. Looking at the object that is shown, but at the same time being in the midst of a lot of excitement and activity ... there is a bit of show business coming into the museum ... it makes the musegrn accessible and exciting to large crowds." And, although Pei' s designs have not completely broken through the traditional museum "walls", they have shown clearly that the nature of the architectural spaces can have considerable impact on the total museum experience. Ben Thompson uses a different approach from Pei in his New York South Street Seaport project, where he crossed all traditional l ines, merging vital exhibitions with several types of commercial development. In doing so, he gave credence to the idea that the traditionally "enclosing" walls could be both penetrated and, in some cases, removed all tog ether. The South Street Seaport Museum is located in an old, historic Manhattan neighborhood which runs alongside the East River. The Museum ' s focus, old ships that once frequented New York' s Seaport, is presented in both "living" exhibits, the r estored ships themselves, as well as sheltered historical exhibitions that relate the stories of those ships Added to that is a market-place, in the Faneuil Hall traditio1 that Ben Thompson designed for Boston' s waterfront area, whicl is housed in both restored and new buildings close to the Museum area. The success of this project supports the idea that commerce can be dynamically linked with exhibitry withou compromising the functional requirements of either one. Interelationships Bringing together formally separate functions to create a new whole requires that previous attitudes and relationships be given up, or relinquished in some part, so that they may be replaced by new ones. This is especially true where strong traditional patterns and networks exist. Kenneth Hudson comments on this in looking at the traditional relationship of museums to their research components: "It is necessary to break down old and established barriers between museums and research institutions, break down the psycholoical barriers between museums themselves." As museums become increasingly "entertaining", the scholarly nature of research and museum exhibitry widens. The addition of social and commercial activity to this

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8 presents the museum designer with three functions, all of differing natures. Serious consideration must be given to the relationship of these three parts to the other, to determine what blending will allow each component to perform maximally without compromising the cohesion of the whole. The Swedish exhibition of the viking ship VASA explored this problem in their design of the museum to house the reconstructed ship. The research and reconstruction components were exposed in part to the museum audience, and this "living" exhibition enhanced the audience' s understanding of the project as a comprehensive and complex endeavor. Environmental systems, reconstruction work, and conservation were incorporated into the museum sequence. In as much as serious study cannot always be done while under the gaze of curious eyes, the methodology used in the VASA exhibition to tell her story is very much a part of the story itself. It allows the research component to become a vital part of museum life, providing for increased interaction between "professionals" and "students" ; between the researchers and the museum going audeince. Clearly, research work requiring special security measures or rigidly controlled environments will not lend themselves as easily to high public exposure, if at all. Consequently, evaluation of the relationship of those areas to the public museum is necessary. Those areas may well stay behind-the-scenes as before, to insure the security and proper care of the museum collections. Storage is always a considerable part of any museum building, and traditional close links between storage, curatorial work, and conservation work will remain appropriate in many cases. The most difficult connection may well be between the research and commercial components of the complex. Careful consideration of this relationship suggests that they will function independently of one another in part, but can draw off the resourros of the other when appropriate. Barry Clifford suggests that one commercial venture in the WHYDAH Pirate Museum marketplace might be replicating some pieces of the jewlery found in the WHYDAH excavation, on a scale much larger than is normally associated with a museum' E gift shop. Cooperation and sharing of resources between merchant and research staff would be necessary to bring this venture about. The strongest link between these two remainE their individual relationship to the museum. DiagrammaticaJ this suggests that the museum functions as the "heart" of the museum complex, and that both commerce and research and education take their place around it.

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9 Education Education is the basic reason for having museums in our culture. However, the educational capacity of a museum should be exploited on a variety of levels. First, within the museum, there are a myriad of ways to stimulate curiousity, the quality most basic to learning. Introducing clues by means of interactive exhibits, and encouraging the pursuit of answers to these clues will result in discovery that not only supports learning but offers a meaningful "tool" as well Orienting the museum experience toward the clue, pursuit, and discovery sequence promises to satisfy the curious mind and promote joyful learning. Nina Jensen, in exploring the behaviour of both children and adults in museums, notes that: "Learning involves conflict between a person' s conception of reality and new encounters with the real .•. Chil-dren (and adults also) are constantly restructuring their ideas about the world as new information is being received. This dynamic process between the learner and his or her experiences is basic to what happens in museums. Because the experiences of adults in museums are qualitatively different from those of children, it is often difficult for adults to understand the museum visit from the perspective of a child. An important idea from developmental psychology, with implications for children' s programming in museums, is that children bring their own experiences and coneptions of the world with them. These conceptions determine how they receive what is presented1to them and what they will learn from it." Providing a means for both children and adults to assimilate the newly learned information into their reality is one of the major tasks of the museum experience. Although Jensen focuses her discussion on children' s conflicts in tying real and newly learned information together, it is a conflict experienced by adults as well, both inside and outside of the museum setting. This conflict is most clearly resolved in museums in the creation of interactive exhibitry. This is not to say that all exhibitry should be interactive. However, interactive exhibitry is a lead-in device to present a topic; to expose a person to a new concept. Once that interaction takes

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place, a variety of exhibitionmethods, many of them traditional, can follow, and be easily comprehended. Jensen notes: "Another important idea from developmental psychology is that interaction is the most powerful mode of learning. Interaction is the opposite of passivity. We do not simply bring experiences to the world, nor do we perceive what is there in pure form. We impose our experience on the 12 world, be it an object or another person." Children's Museums in particular, as well as Science Museums, have worked hard to present their material with an interactive orientation. The focus on doing (active) as opposed to watching/seeing (passive) has proven to be a very successful way for children to learn 10 new material. Springing from that "active" learning has come a kind of infectious learning. Thomas Keating, in studying the Indianapolis Children' s Museum ' s success, addresses this: "What might be called the Tom Sawyer psychology is also at work. When children see other children doing something that looks like fun, then it must be fun --even if it requires more attention and brain usage than ever muster in a musty classroom." The concept of interactive learning poses the question: how much involvement can or should be elicited from the audience? What has traditionally been "study " may now appear in the form of entertainment. While joyful learning implies a pleasurable experience, the museum's value remains in its ability to facilitate learning and exposure to worlds other than our own. Waldemar Kaenpffert, the first Director of the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry , spoke of the struggle that museums face in light of the increased demand for both entertaining experiences, as well as the availability of advanced technology that many museum goers are fascinated with. His resolve is clear: "It is not the purpose of the museum to furnish entertainment, but if flashing machines hold the attention, if charts and diagrams fascinate because lights flicker within them to bring out a point and the visitor has thereby something, the means will be justified."

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Further, when Barry Clifford was asked whether the design of the WHYDAH Pirate Museum should appeal solely to children, he answered "Yes, well, children of all fges. It shoula be able to bring out the kid in everybody." Clifford's response reflects the ma gic and fantasy brought to mind by the WEYDMI's treasures, and the rich history surrounding them. It is unrealistic to assume all collections will be of this same nature, but his point is well taken. It is as children that we experience things newly, very often with great delight, both at the information and at the uniqueness of the experience. A museum collection can be designed to recall and stimulate those senses we had as children, although it may still be assimilatea into an adult reality. Thomas Keating's words refer to children, but it is only our conditioning that prevents us from applying those words to our adult lives: "To see a child making a connection with what could be a lifetime interest is a special pleasure. It is impossible to know precisely when such a thing occurs, but there is a sense ••• that this event is happenning all around you." If we are to take Clifford's words to heart, what Thomas Keating sees at the Indianapolis Children's Museum could be a sight in any museum -"One irreplacable treasure is always here: the shining delight in the eyes of the young." 11 Looking beyond the museum's walls, there is the museum as a learning resource for the community to be considered. Full utilization of the museum's educational potential requires looking at new ways in which to work within communities, as well as re-examining old networks, to see where missed opportunities exist. Mike Roberts, in speaking of the potential of the WHYDAH Pirate Museum as a resource, talks about an idea being explored by Maritime Explorations, Inc.: "And one of the things that Barry and I have talked about and I'm going to be starting before too long, I hope, is beginning to take a close look at developing teacher-training moduels that go into school programs and modules that go into the schools ••• focusing on this project the WHYDAH excavation but basically talking about New England history and this period and what was going on, using the WHYDAH as a catalytic agent t o get the people interested in it. There's an ancient history module in the sixth grade history class in Massachusetts that deals with archaeology which could

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12 work nicely with this. "18 Common l y , schools have used the museums as a resource whereby school groups visit a collection to learn more about specific subject matter. Roberts suggests here that there is a much greater potential for give and take between the two; that the museum can act as a training facility for teachers, a llowing the museum's resources to be brought back into the classroom in a more integrated, and permenant way. Roberts, in referring to another project he is managi the excavation of eleven historic sites in Charlestown, outside of Boston, talks about a different kind of student and teacher participation. H e says: " ... in fact what we 're really talking about is how you get teachers and students to actually participate in archaeological work. In the Charlestown project we have a site interpreter who will be responsible for giving tours of the site, giving informatio n about what we are doing there. We anticipate being inundated by the school systems wanting to take their kids though the project ... I mean there you have the chance to walk around, get the history19see a little archaeology digging •.. " While this case revolves around a set of archaeological sites, and museums are not typically comprised of those, the museum can easily be the agent for such an activity, offering yet another service to the schools. Roberts has pointed out two promising methods of school and museum interaction. Clearly the schools comprise a large portion of any community' s involvment. The museum can reach out to other elements of the community as well. In the past, services to both community and museum members have included offering classes and seminars, films, receptions for new exhibitions, as well as tour services for the museum facilit itself. By designing a museum facility that is geared toward accomodating a wider range of services, the museum can expand its outreach potential. While museum education brings to mind those things going on within the museum, exploring ways in which the museum can extend itself out into the community is quickly becoming an important aspect of museum education.

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l3 Place and Spirit Our perceptions of the world are directly related to our memories. Creating a strong "sense of place" requires facilitating emotional responses to the experience of that place, the surrounds, or both. How closely we connect determines the impact that place will have on us. Over many years, architect Charles Moore has investigated the components that, when combined, make up a "sense of place." He notes that: "Memorable places ... are always distingishable from what lies beside or around them ... you know when you've and you know when you've left." It may be that singular physical elements in the environment create this bonding to a place, or sensations that evoke strong responses from us, or allow attachment to grow. Appealing to a wider range of human sensibilities can evoke stronger emotions, and aid in the creation of a "special place"; a place to which we would want to return. In addition to visual stimulation, the provision for both tactility and smell enriches the total experience and allows us another means of recalling our experience; thereby reinforcing our bond. Driving along a main street in Salem, Massachusetts, one is invariably struck by a col.oured house. For people unfamiliar with the area and its history, the house has no particular significance. And, although the house has no prominence on the block, by stepping away from it, by being positioned on a corner, or b y being stylistically different from the surrounding homes, it never-the-less stands out. As you get closer, you notice that it is the home of the Salem Witches House. Initially, the combinatio1 of its unusually dark color, and its seven gabled roof make it stand out. For those familiar with Salem's history, and the public support for burning witches of the period between 1600 and 1692, the house evokes stronger associations. I went there as a child: and although I can no longer recall the exact nature of the collection, (13 scenes inside depict the history of witchcraft), I did recall the women tour guid1 dressed in period garb, the heavy smell of the fire kept constantly burning in the hearth, and most especially the long straight candy sticks you could buy at the end of the exhibitions. Over twenty years later I rode through Salem en route to their Peabody Museum. As I drove I began looking to both sides of the street. My recollection of the Witches House was that it was on a corner, and that it was a very dark charcoal grey colour. In fact it is not on a corner, nor is it charcoal grey. It is mid-block and it' s

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14 deep colour is closer to a red-brown. Regardless, before ever seeing its sign, I knew I was at the Salem Witches House. The h ouse that is home to this museum is not, in fact, one of the houses where witches had lived. Yet it fulfills our image of witchcraft perfectly, both by its forboding colour, it' s dark entrance, and it' s gabled sillouette. And , while the three elements alone do not bring us instant associations with witches, the combination of them within a particular context, does. The WHYDAH Pirate Museum, like the Salem Witches House, carries very strong and specific connotations, " ... the Robert Louis Stevenson idea of the pirate, the flamboyancy of the jolly rouge ... the treasure and the Carribean and the Spanish Main, Port Roayl, Madagascar, the golden age of piracy which was from about 1714 to 1724. " The building, both in form and language, must capture that image and express it. Basic to our vision of the pirate is the water, for pirates lived on the water. Further, it was at places where land and water met that they moved into and out of "legal" society. Pirates came in and out of harbors, but more importantly, they used those meeting places of land and water, peninsulas, points, inlets, coves, bluffs, cliffs, beaches, and islands as reference guides in their voyages. The pirates knew a far more virgin coastline than we know today. Yet the places where land and water join continue to intrigue us, and draw us to them. The composition of any seaside village is fundementally different from land-locked villages. The town center will invariably focus around the water' s edge, recalling a time when trade and commerce was primarily by boat and harbors were the center of life and business. In larger cities, such as Boston, the harbor has gone through periods of neglect and decay. Yet in planning for revitalization of the city it was clear that the harbor area, with all of its pier sites, would be the natural and logical place to develop. The creation of a new life along the water literally saved Boston' s downtown from dying in that the thriving waterfron area spurred new development in the North End and, more importantly, in the financial district. Today, in place of abandoned warehouses and empty docks, an exciting and busy waterfront has been revived. Onset, although less dramatic in its plight, faces similar problems. A once active and thriving resort community haE lost a substantial portion of its tourist industry through a shift from direct rail transport from Boston to sole transport by car or bus, along two major highways. The town center still leads t o the water, yet there is no

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15 focus around what remains of the town's heart; its pier. In choosing the pier site, two objectives are achieved: first, it locates the museum in a place that is intrinsical: linked with the town center, and secondly, setting the museum in a place where land and water meet gives both context and association to the museum complex that is true to the nature of the museum's collection. A sense of pirate life can be drawn into the museum complex not only by depiction in its exhibits, but in the building form and in its relationship to the land and water. The initial transitional space, where one goes through the process of leaving one world and entering another, is typically the first space in a sequence within museums. The elements of the outside world that are brought in, and the nature of the gesture that the space makes to the internal and external environments, sets the tone for the rest of the sequence, and in that, is a strong link between the two environments. Offering related activities and events that stimulate us as part of of that transitiona space, providing a gradual move from "outside" to "inside" can benefit the experience, and diminish some of the barriers that our museum's physical walls create. In the same vein, surrounding the museum with vital spaces will alter our perception of the museum as fundementally contemplative. The staging of dynamic events "leaking" into or out of the museum, may provide a means to integrate the different worlds, while other architectural spaces can be designed to foster the meditative ambience that traditional museums have taught us to expect and that remain a most valuable part of the experience. The form that this layering of spaces takes will serve to identify the place within. The indoor-outdoor spaces, letting salt sun and sea-air move freely through the complex, designing water and harbor views as guides through the complex, designing eateries to spill their smells through the commerci area and designing the circulation system to rely on "landmarks" along the path where water and land meet will recall a sense of the sea-man' s life. Identifiable observation spaces, a system of transparency through the building as well as into and out of it, can be incorporated to facilitc a dynamic interchange of places within and outside of the museum "walls". The notion of flag and sail, color the ocean being the marking of a ship' s location can be transformed in the building imagery to provide a further identifiable element. Thus the museum complex becomes an "object", but one that is linked with the existing activit] and amenities of Onset's pier life, and set against the constant backdrop of the sea and the harbor. The use then, of colour, a rhythm of wall and transparency, famili< coastal elements and the activity of harbor life will servE to portray the pirate' s s pirit held within the museum. YE it will be a smell, a piece of bright cloth flying and the

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image of a relic half-buried in the sand that will recall the WHYDAH Pirate Museum as a "place". 16

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PROJECT SCOPE . . .,.,---

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17 3 . 0 MUSEUM CONCEPT The WHYDAH Pirate Museum complex proposes to address new issues in museum design while creating a place that responds to the romantic base of its primary collection: the WHYDAH' s treasures. While many museum types are more generic, i . e . art museums, science museums, children' s museums, in concept, all face comm o n design problems. Resolution of those problems must be methodical, and an initial look at the specific museum audience is necessary to begin that process. Because of the tourist nature of Cape Cod, the WHYDAH Pirate Museum' s location builds in a certain national audience, much to its benefit. Mike Roberts comments further on the museum' s projected audience: " You 've got a transient audience, especially on the Cape; they might c ome once and never come again • . . and there are messages you need to tell these people. But then you have the local and regional population, who should be enticed to come back time after time ... and you won' t be able to do that unless the exhibition is dynamic ... unless its changing ... " Roberts suggests that for the one-time museum goer, much must be communicated about the WHYDAH' s own history and the stories that surround it. This indicates that the initial impression of the muse um ' s exhibitions should focus on the WHYDAH' s treasure. While that exhibition is by no means static, as new artifacts will be brought up over a projected 10-year period, it can be considered a permenant collection, for the artifacts will be of the same nature, and on "permenant" exhibition at the museum. Traveling or changing exhibitions will be those exhibitions dealing with the peripheral stories, and with collections related to archaeological excavation. It is those exhibitions that must appeal to the local and regional populations, ; those exhibitions which must be carefully designed to spark interest in both first-timers and repeat visitors. The notion that the repeat visitors will be somewhat familiar with the museum layout suggests that they do not necessarily need the immediacy of experience desirable for first time museum goers. The abstracted diagram here indicates that the WHYDAH treasure collection is central, while other exhibits are more flexible in their location. A range of problems are inherent in developing the nature and quality of the museum experience at this point. Those problems include circulation, entry sequence, interior space, lighting, environmental systems, and site orientation.

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Circulation In exploring museum types, a wide range of solutions are apparent. However they all attempt to solve a primary issue: whether visitors should move in carefully planned paths, or be allowed to choose their own . How this is resolved depends in great part on the nature of the collection, but even more on the control the designer chooses to extend over the museum audience. Cambridge Seven, in both their designs for Boston's New England Aquarium and the National Aquarium in Baltimore, have worked with a controlled circulation scheme in which visitors are well guided, but given constant opportunities for a variety of exhibition experiences along that path. 18 In their earlier project, the New England Aquarium, a rectangular spiral of relatively narrow ramps wind around the permimeter of a rectanglular plan for upwardly moving traffic. Their major exhibition, the Giant Ocean Tank, is the centerpeice of this plan. Although21he ramps "minimize the distance of the viewer to the exhibits" the top ramps afford an opportunity to view marine life being fed from the ring-shaped platform. At this level fish can be seen from above, giving new perspective on the marine life that, until that point, has been viewed from the side. Views across the central space, as well as up and down, enhance the ramped journey. The ideas born in the New England Aquarium were developed further in the later project; the National Aquarium in Baltimore. Again using a one-way circulation, around a large central tank exhibition, the ramp winds up through the central atrium which is lined with exhibit galleries. The path emerges at the rooftop rain forest, then zig-zags back down again along scissored ramps through the center of the huge ring tank. Projecting balconies, decks, and crisscrossing bridges overlook the dolphin pools adjacent to the huge tank, and lead to the main exhibiton area. More options for both views and exhibition choice are offered in this scheme, and the dynamic circulation path over and through the main exhibition space clarify many of the ideas attempted in Boston' s Aquarium. What Cambridge Seven responded to in their scheme development was the question of how rigidly they should control the audience' s experience. More options are evident in the Baltimore plan. While not altering the basic one-way ramp system, more flexibility was built in.

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THE NATIONAL AQUARIUM IN BALTIMORE: CAMBRIDGE SEVEN ASSOCIATES 1 9

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20

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21 THE NA TIO Al AQUARIUM IN BALTIMORE

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22 Peabody Museum of Salem, and the Whaling Museum of New Bedford offer less dramatic museum experiences than either of the aquariums, but point out the difficulties of circulation in a dry marine exhibition situation. The Peabody Museum, America's oldest continuously operating museum, focuses on Maritime History and the Natural History of New England. Noted particularly for its maritime trade collections, the initial exhibition is focused on coastal trade, and is housed in a large central space. However, there is no suggested pathway from that point on. Roons feed off the center exhibit room, while stairs to a second floor space which contain the changing exhibit area, are set off this main room as well. Visitors can move easily from room to room, yet no particular sequence of movement or experience is suggested by the circulation path. The completely random nature of this circulation scheme responds to the generic nature of this museum collection, where there are many stories, all housed separately, and there is very little interdependency from one exhibit to another. What the spatial layout has provided for however, are small intermediary spaces which work nicely for the museum to use for auxilary purposes. In one instance the stair landing of the two-story entry space was filled with musicians playing old sea chanties, a preview for an afternoon performance of Sea-man' s music in their historic East India Marine Hall (the original museum building), a large, wonderfully proportioned room in the rear of the museum well used for special events. first floor M ll:-;c'lUl'llk•tlrS l))llll S i.IIICJS ... t • • • • ,. .. • • ... • . second floor ''l'•hm,

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Looking at this problem in New Bedford's Whaling Museum, some interesting variations are evident. The Whaling Museum's collection is focused around a central exhibit, the whaling boat LAGODA, built at half-scale. Although the peripheral exhibitions pertain to whaling life, the LAGODA remains the primary attraction. The Whaling Museum attracts its largest audience in the summer, many of them coming en route to or from Cap e Cod, as New Bedford falls along a main route from New York to Cape Cod. While the same basic circulation scheme is displayed here, a main room with rooms feeding off of it, the LAGODA is housed in 23 the Jonathan Bourne Building, next to the room you enter into. To accomodate the increased summer population and the nature of their visit as opposed to those who use the museum year-round, a summer entrance exists which leads you into the Jonathan Bourne Building, and brings you face to face with the magnificently reconstructed whaling vessel. While this change of entrance satisfies the problem of two different museum populations (a twenty-five minute tour of the museum satisfies most tourists) , some awkward problems arise from this. No orientation as to the contents of the entire museum collection is provided, and the lobby service spaces, for gift shop , museum theatre, and rest rooms, are bypassed. Clearly this solution traded an asset for a liability. While controlling the initial experience of the museum, the comprehensive experience is compromised. While the Whaling Museum ' s circulation scheme does not offer an adequate solution, it does address the problems of specialized as opposed to generic museums. WuuJ f\u& I Jmt.: Lr,or l ._, h m Enrran cf' Summt' r E n tranct"

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24 then, leading into the lobby should provide enough excitement to the visitor so that he/she is happily, willingly, drawn in. Interior S pace As with most museum design, a primary concern in designing interior space is flexibility. As indicated above, the entry area and initial exhibition will be somewhat permenant. However, there are many stories to be told surrounding the main collection, and these exhibits should have maximum freedom in their design. The notion of removing inpenetrable walls however, is as important to express on the inside as it is on the outside of the building. Designing a fluid s pace which can expand and contract easily to meet a variety of sets of needs is foremost in the design concep t . Manfred Lehmbruck of Stuttgart, German architect and professor, studied new museums worldwide. Architect of the German National Museum in Nurnberg, Professor Lehmbruck concluded that: "Since one cannot forecast what the change in feeling and thinking of the next fifty or so years are going to be, one can only anticipate them by designing highly flexible buildings. Ideally the museum building should be nothing more than a shell, a shelter, within which all divisions, floors, stairs and lifts easily rearranged as new needs arise." With this view in mine, there is a risk of designing an over-generalized building , one that could be many other things besides a museum. So while the fluidity of the interior space is important, it is important as well to develop a strong enough internal character t o make the idea of "museum" very evident. As the complex is comprised of three parts; the museum, the research facility and the commercial comp lex, it is further important that the interior architecture identify these separate pieces . Walls, floor coverings, and openings should be coordinated in order for the museum visitor or em ployee to have a clear sense of when he/she is entering a different component. While this differentiation is necessary , it is important that the architectural gesture not b e inhibitive -rather that it be the marking of a transition.

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25 Exploration of these circulation schemes s uggest several things. Firstl y , that some measure of control is desirable in telling an integrated story. Secondly, that the initial ,:exhibition experience is critical and sets up the tone for the rest of the sequence. And finally, that a well controlled circulation path that offers a variety of options along its way may best serve the needs of a specialized and cohesive collection. Diagrammatically, this suggests that the WHYDAH Pirate Museum should design its initial exhibition experience for the one-time museum goer without losing the entry and lobby services that are important functions for its entire audience to have easy access to. Peripheral supporting exhibitions need to be closely aligned with the central exhibit so that a short museum tour will adequately communicate the story. Entry As indicated i n earlier explorations of museums, the entry of a museum must facilitate a variety of functions, as well as capture the interest of visitors. In the WHYDAH Pirate Museum, the entry to the museum must also link the commercial activities to the museum. This transition must be carefully designed to bring the outside world in (entry) and the inside world out (departure) . While a strong relationship between commercial space and the museum is desirable, the environmental systems of each will differ. The design of views into commercic areas from the museum as a forecourt to the entry will aid in setting up a festive, active atmosphere. The entry area itself should utilize a layering of outside to inside spaces, both to heighten the sense of transition into another world, and to set up the experiential orientation of the museum. Therefore, the use of a series of spaces leading up to the actual museum entry is desirable. These spaces should provide varied exposures ranging from the ouside sounds and smells of both the complex activities and the sea, to the more compressive setting of the initial exhibition area. While these spaces need not be as formal as forecourts found in the entry sequence of many monumental structures, they must never the less serve the same purpose; to prepare the visitor. The lobby must serve as an orientation point, and should have clear expression both within the building, and from outside. The outside festivites can be "brought in" to this space with views to them, while clear architectural gestures should indicate that the treasure hunt has begun. This space must work effectively as place, a meeting space, and the place from which you leave. It must, additionally, both respect and facilitate the various relationships within the museum complex of research, education and administration, and must make provision for extended community outreach. A series of spaces,

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' 26 Lighting DAYLIGHT Throughout the 19th century most museum galleries had skylights and translucent ceilings. The bright ceiling plane produced reflected glare which caused problems for museum objects, and provoked designers in the early 20th century to experiment with clerestory lighting. In time, the angled clerestory light prompted the further development of devices to control the quality and amount of light that came in with the clerestory lighting. Current control mechanisms for lighting are used i n a variety of ways, and allow museum designers maximu daylighting options. Glass walls can be used and controlled by wa y of light reducing mesh hung behind the glass wall. Sky lights can again be used in conjunction with low transmission panels hung below. Louvers, adjustable panels, and filters are used in a variety of clerestory and skylight situations to accurately control the incoming natural light. Within the WHYDAH Pirate Museum, daylighting is an important feature. While "safe" areas such as the entry, lobby, and publications/gift shop should utilize daylighting maximally, controlled daylighting in the "less safe" areas such as the galleries, and in a portion of the work spaces is also desirable Clerestory lighting in combination with special areas where natural light can be brought in through the side walls, both high and low, (small rest areas, shifts in floor levels, etc.) will allow a variety of kinds of light to come in, as well as vary the visual experience the exhibition, and utimately, the museum, offers. A change in lighting is one way to combat "museum fatigue", and current museum trends indicate that natural light is a preferable source. Flexibility is a primary concern with lighting as with interior space design, and the lighting system needs to address that concern first and foremost. While architectural solutions to closing off natural light sources such as fitted panels are used in some museum situations, more controllable devices such as movable panels and louvers are preferable, as they provide a range of lighting options. As with most museum artifacts, the WHYDAH treasure is subject to decay and damage, if not kept in the proper environment. Uncontrolled direct illumination can cause deterioration to both wood and leather objects, both of which are included in the treasure collection, and need to be carefully placed away from such situations. However, proper design should allow for some daylighting throughout the complex, and in the galleries as well, although all gallery daylighting should be able to be controlled.

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SIGHT liNt 1 / J Thi . l.lfrtimwf T'il'lt•, ndnf>lt>d frnm thr , _ _ •. WAf AM I . II k h i-----.i--------------IFS l.ig lloo • .1 ""'' I thr nptimum pfarrmnt/ of rfrrtrir (amp< ji1r or frnmf' .1hadou• . 1 . It n.l. \11111'' m1 td r nf utifizn1 I I I linn of mnr.< nnd n minimum rffrrtit • r Piru"'ii rr/uti1•r tn thf hf'it{hl ofthr ohjrrt on thf' wnfl. In thi' mrulr/, hf'lf,;hf A -11 i.1 52 inrhf' . \ fnr a JOd rlf'H rn111' rl/1(1 A-Cis IS 5 inrhr . 1[ur n 60-dPg'!'fr cnw•. lnrumf' hori zontal dimt>nsions i'rl / . 5 iwhfl for n •ny 1 -iwh inrrm1r in thr hrif(ht nf thf' nhjrrl. PERIME'Tl:R (VIEWING ) ZONES 27 ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING --Artificial lighting technology in museums has advanced greatly in the last few decades. Most museums use a combination of overhead and task-type lighting for their gallery areas. Current trends in museum lighting suggest that a combination of systems offers maximum flexibility for curators and exhibit designers to work with. While some exhibitions will have their own lighting systems built in, provision must be made for overhead lighting through all gallery spaces. Flexible track lighting as opposed to fixed lamp s in a coffered or paneled ceiling situation, for example, will be highly flexible and most effective, allowing a variety of effects to be acheived by contrasting highly lit spaces with low light spaces. The nature of the museum experience is such that lighting will vary from exhibit to exhibit, and should utilize a lighting system that can be easily changed. Lighting control zones need to be small enough to accomodate this frequen change. Environmental Systems The environmental systems in the WHYDAH Pirate Museum will need to respond to the requirements of the three different components of the complex. The museum area itself will need to be fully controlled year-round. The research area will need to be fully controlled through fall, winter and spring, with portions of the research area needing only partial control during the summer. The commercial area will only need partial controls through fall, spring, and summer, while they will require full control throug h the winter months. variation in environmental control requirements suggests severaJ things. First, that the commercial area be individually controlled, and therefore zoned relatively to their projected commercial use. Second, that for the museum areas, a fully

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controlled system be designed which can be assumed to be in use year-round, except in the entry sequence which will be, in parts, outside. And finally, that the research area be designed carefully to separate the areas needing the 29 most restrictive environmental controls (storage, conservation and restoration laboratories), from those needing less control. An additional consideration for the WHYDAH Pirate Museum complex is the use of wet exhibitry within the museum, as well as the wet needs of the research laboratories. Water spaces should be kept carefully segregated from dry exhibitry for both maintenance and security reasons. This segregation is important because behind-the-scenes equipment to support water exhibits is extensive, and therefore should be centralized as much as possible. Unlike the aquariums discussed earlier, the WHYDAH Pirate Museum's water exhibitry will not be the major portion of the exhibition, although it plays a significant role. Within the research facility, water requirements will be necessary throughout the laboratory and conservation areas. The same reasoning applies to these areas, although the consideration of aesthetics is not as crucial here as in the museum exhibition areas, for what is behind-the-scenes in the exhibitior gallery may be in the forefront in the laboratory. S CHEMATIC SALT WATER S YSTEMS

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30 Site Orientation The pier at Onset Bay, the site chosen for the proposed museum complex, has been in its location for many years, and shows up in the 1878 plan of Onset, although in a different configuration than the present-day one. The district of Onset Bay has always focused its attention around its pier, and originally flanked it with parks, creating an entire recreation area which included beach as well. Today the downtown has crept closer and only a portion of the parklands remain, yet Onset Bay' s pier remains the heart of the downtown district. Architect Charles Moore has explored many places by the water, looking for reasons why people are so drawn to them. About piers he writes: "One last category of headlands or points is the man-made version, the pier which sticks out into the sea from beaches and headlands across the world. Something about the actual, physical invasion of the sea' s territory seems to bring out an exhilaration, a sense of celebration, which causes piers everywhere to be places people go for relaxation and enjoyment. Sometimes these things have to do with fishing or the things one actually does on the sea, sometimes they just have to do with the excitment of the ocean crashing below and the thrill of being so perched2gut, almost dangerously, above the waves." The siting of any museum is basic to its design concept. Siting the WHYDAH Pirate Museum on a pier presents some unique design problems, as there will be water on three sides of it. While this affords a multitude of exciting design opportunities not usually present, the distinction between the land side and water sides become important in terms of climatic considerations, views, circulation both in and around the complex, and most especially, accessibility in and out of the building for the different components of the complex. The siting of the museum building on a pier, creating in effect, a marina, also addresses the issue of how the land (pier) and water will meet in the design of the building. The articulation of outdoor areas, many which can draw from local forms such as porches or widow's walks, will be generated from the buildings orientation, and must be designed to maximize the observation potential of each of the sides facing the water, as well as the side facing land and the downtown district. Twc water sides, eastern and southern exposures, offer an opportunit to design for outdoor/indoor spaces, suggesting that commercial ventures such as cafes and eateries will want to make use of out

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31 door spaces, will be well suited to these sides. The western exposure, which faces the popular Onset Beach, presently carries the harbor' s tie-up dock in the summer, and would do well to maintain boat access for the research laboratories needs, as well as for the fishing pier which will remain a part of the pier life once the museum is built. The Harbor Master, presently located at the piers end in a small pavillion, necessarily needs clear viewing of the entire harbor. Subsequently, though the pavillion will be relocated on the pier, it will remain specially placed to be a prominent and easily identifiable feature for those entering the harbor. Respect for the current pier activity in Onset Bay is integral to the projects feasibility. While the museum complex is a promising addition to the community, it is important to provide a continuim which will maintain the pier as being central to the downtown district. Local involvement in traditional activities off the pier will insure a continued attachment to the pier as a place around which the townspeople circulate.

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3 . 1 EXHIBITIONS The exhibitions within the WHYDAH Pirate Museum will be centered around the actual collection of treasure now being excavated by Maritime Explorations, Inc. Eight "stories" supporting that collection will be told, and designed for the initial exhibition design. While these stories are important to understanding the significance of the WHYDAH' s collection, they are not permenant exhibitions, and will change w ith other i mportant s tories from time to time. Additionally, a traveling exhibitions space for special exhibitions pertinent to both the WHYDAH' s history and the field of underwater archaeology will be designed. Brief descriptions of the contents of the exhibitions are set forth here. 1. THE WHYDAH TREASURE COLL ECTION * Simulated Excavation Pit Tank * Personal Belongings * Seaman's Gear * Gold and Silver Coins, Jewelry, Bars and Tokens * Ordnance * Storage Containers and Foodstuffs * Miscellaneous Ship's Parts Miscellaneous Items * Mounted and Hanging Artifacts * Model Replica of Ship 32

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2 . HISTORY OF THE WHYDAH * How Captai n "Black" Bellamy Became a Pirate * The Lives of the WHYDAH' 'SPirates: Life Aboard the Ship * Black Bellamy' s Tryst with Maria Hallett * The Night the WHYDAH Wrecked * The Trial At Boston * The WHYDAH Legen d : Fact and Fiction 3 . BARRY CLIFFORD ' S SEARCH FOR THE WHYDAH * Learning the Legend * The Legend Unfolding; Putting the Pieces Togethe r * The Search by Boat: The Vast Explorer II * Aboard the Vast Explorer II: A Mobile Laboratory * Finding the Dream: The First Artifact WHY I WANT A PIRATE MUSEtJ FOR 267 YEARS. CAPE Codders ha ve been !Chemin& up way s to find the p i'*treasureofSamBellamy . M y uncle. B ill Carr . was one of tbe.e people . Uncle Bill . a ma.q er storyteller , lint told me of the Wh ido h one n ig ht when I was obou t 8 . 1b: s tory nrver f oded . I otaned exploring the ocean bol lom when I was very youna. J' d driftd i ve for miles with the CWTelll orr c.pe Cod. I prdended I was 1 timetnvelerwandering in liquid spK>e. l..d li"' m y mind wander back throuah hillory , I would dream of the shi!>" wn:clts I'd discover . 1b: shi fting sands of Cape Cod COV or lrancftds of vesaels-buried time c:apuJes thai hold preciou s teeret1 of .,.. heritqe . As I 101 older, my inter ell ill Ibex 11\ipwnds p-ew . I 10011 foaed myself apending a IIIIlCh time in the on:hives readinc aboullbem u I cJid lookina for them unde relrie\'e lbe w,..,.,;... , treasure. CepWII Soadlect llrived II the WNdall wn:clt silt four deye etltt the cn-. for more dwt two W...U, be welchcd belplesdy • the -pol8led her 10 pieCes. 1'be WAidall .... llnllded lesa !han llliJe !'rUn! A m.prnekerby prof' ... Soutbact .... • precile mea. Ia ooe bh Joacn 10 ao-.or SIIUIIe dluiled bodl the .... llCt ailt of the WAoidM anti 1111 dram 10 .... .,.. the wn:clt . One... however , left me confuoed . Sdutbact wniile thai "tbere have beeo 200 men from 20 miles distance pJWiderina the wrect. • Th i s did DOt make -10 me . Tbe WIIJ4dh-OOwD lri a Donbeaolor, and k Is inlpo&liblc 10 .....n iD the llllf'after a1111jor storm , eopeclally In April, when the Wlller it IIIII freuina. B y chance, 13y Bany Clifford yean....,., while IIIOiber vesoel, lllllmbled upon Soutbact'sq. • knrw my life was about to cbanae wbea I re8d thai "there had been 200 men from 20 miles distance plllll letl him a pintle Moly . He knew I'd ,_.. her. !tit eyea tpat\Jed like • cbi ld ' l in endc l pelion . llecle Bill dW '-daM aipt.l'maurebedreernedof"-'re. 33

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34 4. SEARCHING FOR BURIED TREASURE * The World of Underwater Archaeology * Locating and Detecting the Treasure Site * Underwater Mapping * The Air-Lift Operation * Unearthing the Past: Archaeological Techniques of Excavation * The Laboratory -From Sea to Land 5 . THE GOLDEN AGE OF PIRACY: 1714-1724 * Where Did the Pirates Come From? * The Lost City of Port Royal * Pirating in the Carribean * The Ships: Predators, Prey, and Protectors * The Pirates: The Lawless Seamen * Famous Pirates

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35 4 . SEARCHING FOR BURIED TREASURE * The World of Underwater Archaeology * Locating and Detecting the Treasure Site * Underwater Mapping * The Air-Lift Operation * Unearthing the Past: Archaeological Techniques of Excavation * The Laboratory -From Sea to Land 5. THE GOLDEN AGE OF PIRACY: 1714-1724 * Where Did the Pirates Corne From? * The Lost City of Port Royal * Pirating in the Carribean * The Ships: Predators, Prey, and Protectors * The Pirates: The Lawless Seamen * Famous Pirates Q 0 Q 0 • 0 a' • • • 0 .. .. 0

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36 6. LIFE ON CAPE COD * The Indians and the First Settlers * Cape Cod Trade: Privateering vs. Pirateering * Village Life in the Early 1700's 7. SHIPWRECKS * The "Graveyard" * Coastal Geologic Formations * The Beachcomber• s Delight: The Erosion of Cape Cod * Identifying Shipwreck Remains CAPE COD AND THE ISLANDS

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8 . THE END OF A GOLDEN AGE * The Demise of Blackbeard * Capturing the Last Mutineers * The Conviction and Death of Eight Pirates * The Return of the Merchants, the Restoration of Trade 9. RESTORATION OF THE WHIDAH' S TREASURES * Live Exhibition Showing Portions of the Conservation and Restoration of the Treasure. 37

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3.2 UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATIONAL FACILITY The Underwater Research and Educational Facility's primary purposes are outlined below: ,., ,;, l •tJI'Irir 101dr r'N tJir r 1il n * t o continue to faciliate research on the WHYDAH wreck excavation * to facilitate new research on new Maritime Exploration projects as well as other projects that will be sanctioned by Maritime Explorations, Inc. * to facilitate work required and desired by the museum staff * to serve as an exhibition for the public to understand to process of conservation and restoration of artifacts * to accomodate educational programs sponsored by the research and museum components VlltG 1NI1rr-T'E.XAS 0 C C A f'l A T L A -, T 1 , t .... .. 1 • 38

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3.3 THE MUSEUM SCHOOL The Museum School is an educational program offering classes and seminars to both interested community members and to museum members. A component comprised of four courses is offered to graduate students as a field or interim term from their home programs. Several of the classes are taught in separate sessions for children and adults. Diving classes, due to climatic constraints, are offered in the summer only . A portion of the classes offered are listed below: * New England History and Folklore (Children/Adult) * Cape Cod Folklore (Children) * New England Coastal Ecology (Adult) * Cape Cod Wildlife (Children/Adult) * Introduction to Underwater Excavation (Adult) 38 * Diving for Archaeological Excavation and Salvage (Adults with diving certification) * Underwater Archaeological Techniques for Excavation and Dating (Graduate) * The Mobile Laboratory (Graduate) * Conservation and Restoration Techniques (Graduate) * Shipwrecks from 1600 Present along the Eastern Seaboard (Gradua Onc.e l.h.i.piJII.eck ll.eMU/16 have been toCJU:e.d bene.a.til the • .the .i..6 an .ideal d<.gg.ing .too(. 6olt 11.emoval o6 too6e 1.and and rrud 61tom .the llll.e/1. AIR LIFT MIXTURE OF MUD, AIR AT 80 LBS. t::===d PRESSURE FORCEC _./DOWNWARDS WATER. AND AIR---.!*-'..._. UPWARD StffiGE OF WATER CREATES SUCTION DRAWING THE MATERIAL UP THROUGH PIPE

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39 The Museum School, while a small component, is designed to accomodate the needs and desires of the research and museum' s staffs, Maritime Explorations Inc. and community interest groups. Therefore the School facility is a shared resource among those groups, and is coordinated independently from each administration, although it is ultimately responsible to the Museum ' s Board of Trustees. The Museum School, while carrying out its own programs, is responsible for developing the community out-reach program, and is responsible for setting up activities with outside community interest groups. Directi o n of m ovement of glaci e r

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40 3.4 THE COMMERCIAL COMPLEX The commercial component of the museum complex is designed to house a variety of retail ventures that will support the activities of the museum. The complex will be comprised of retail merchants who maintain a pre-determined financial obligation to the museum, therefore all commercial ventures will be sanctioned ultimately by Maritime Explorations, Inc. Their purpose is two-fold: * * to create an active market-place atmosphere surrounding the museum to bring a strong economic base to the Museum's collections, thus avoiding any danger of having to sell any part of the museum collection to maintain the Museum's operations This retail complex will undoubtedly shift and change and will be designed with this in mind. However, the complex seeks the following types of ventures: * 2 cafes * l restaurant * 3 food booths * jewelry shop * fine gift shop * children's toy store * open air market * specialty clothing shop While each store will be tenant designed as to the interior space, general guidelines will be given as to any modifications or signage for the shop facades by the Museum.

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MUSEUM PROGRAM I Spatial Needs Assessment

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4 . 0 BUILDING PROGRAM The spatial requirements of the WHYDAH Museum Complex are as follows: Museum Museum School Research/Administration Retail Total sq. ft. 1,.1V:JI0 I F:::eJ/ D (NSF) 41

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4.1. BUILDIN G PROGRAM Museum Entry and Lobby Sales Main Exhibition Hall Secondary Exhibition Areas Changing Exhibition Gallery Auditorium I Theatre Exhibit Support Area Storage Vault Total s q . ft. ? 0 0 ?;/0 0 0 '2-800 42

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COHPONENT: ROOM: OBJ E CTIVE S : ADJACENCIES: O TE S : 43 Museum Entry/Lobby J The entry is a circulation area which allows arrival and orientation for visitors and visiting groups. Within the lobby there should be a controlled counter information and for the charging of admission. Public phones, rest rooms, drinking fountains, coat storage and lockers should be within close proximity of the controlled counter. The entry space should introduce the excitement of the Pirate Ship's story and riches.

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44 Museum : Entry/Lobby SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS : B UILDING USE : FURNITURE: Dimen: FLOOR t o CEILING HEIGHT : LIGHTING ---Controlled Dayliqht Artificial Light ! Combination of Artificial I & Daylight ---1 '--------1 SYSTE!-15

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COHPO. ENT: ROO!'l : OBJECTIVES: ADJACENCIES: NOTES : 45 Museum Publications/Sales Area ---'C:S;_oo ___ sq. This area will sell publications, prints, maps, cards as well as a small collection of items related to the WHIDAH treasure collection.

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46 Musewn : Sales SPATIAL CONSIDERATION S : BUILDIN G USE: FURNITURE : FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT : LIGHTING SYSTEMS

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COHPONENT: ROOM: OBJECTIVES: ADJACENCIES : NOTES: 47 Museum Main Exhibition Hall __ sq. The Main Exhibition Hall will house the primary exhibit of the WHIDAH' s Treasure Collection and needs to be a vital and exciting space. 1. ' Provide visual access for staff, preferably with a single control point. 2 . Allow flexibility of ceiling heights. 3 . Room needs to have very good sound absorptive capabilities. 4 . This room will probably require special water/tank systems. 5 . There should b e two small rest areas in this area.

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Museum : Main Exhibition SrATIAL CONS IDERATION S : FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT: LIGHTING SYSTEMS oor 1-----:--:-----------------------t--1 Entry Vestibule -Width Do o r 1----------------------------r-----1 48 BUILDIN G USE: _ _:-Sun ---_-___________ _ _ _ _ Fri 8-4 Tue -Fri 8 5 M o n Fri --------------------8 6 Tue ________ ____ _ _ i Open cn a s required FURNITURE: Descr1.pt1.on # D1.men: Adjustable Shelving Storage Bins Flat Files Stainless Steel Counter. Standard Counter i i Storage Stalls Conference Table I Storage Shelves I I r-----------c-Display Case Desk j Side Table I O pen Shelving ' I Chairs Terminal ' ---1---Drawing Board Storage Cabinet i Work Table I Other: I ' r-------I ----------------r--------------------

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C0r-1PONENT: ROOM: OBJECTI\lES : ADJACENCIES : NOTES: Museum Secondary Exhibition Areas These spaces will be used for the portrayal of stories related to the WHYDAH'sstory. They will, in most cases, change from time to time, so they will need a good degree of flexibiity built in. 1. \ ---.. .. 1'Visual Access by centrally located security personnell is desirable. 2 . Small seating areas should be designed to fit in/among these exhibition areas. 3 . Special plumbing and drains will be required in parts of this space for wet exhibits. 4 . Flexible lighting system is desirable. 5 . Sound absorptivity is important through all areas. 6 . All electrical outlets should b e inaccessible to children. 7. Each module should have it' s own storage area 49

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Museum: Secondary Exhibitions SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT : LIGHTIN G SYSTEMS Entry Vestibule Double -Width Door -------------+----; so BUILDIN G USE: Ft( u _:--==-= 8 5 ______________________ _ 8 6 Tu e -Sun Open at all times I Open as FURNITURE: Description # Adjustable Shelving Storage Bins Flat Files Stainless Steel Counter. Standard Counter Storage Stalls I Conference Table I Display Case I ' Desk ! Tabl e ' Shelving --t----t----Wallspace Chairs Computer Terminal Drawing Board Storage Cabinet Ta ble I -+ ' i ! Other: I I = ==---=---+--+--!--=--=

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COMPONENT: R 00!-1: OBJECTIVES: ADJACE NCIES : Museum Auditorium/Theatre This space should be suitable for use to show a documentary film on Maritime Explorations, Inc. search for the WHYDAH on a continuing basis; to be used as a lecture hall and theatre for museum-related activities; and to be used b y community members for special events, films and lectures. I N OTES: fV\1:-lU 1. Should be easily accessible for handicapped patrons. 2. Projection room should be able to accomodate storage for films and tapes that are shown on a regular basis. 3 . Stage should be able to accomodate theatre productions as well as films. 4 . Entry to auditorium/theatre should be accessible to lobby and to outside plaza area so that it may be used at times when the museum is not open. 5 . A rear service access for this space is desirable. 6 . This space should be designed to accomodate musical recitals. 51

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Museum : Auditorium I Theatre SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS : FLOOR t o CEILING HEIGHT : LIGHTING SYSTEMS 52 BUILDIN G USE: r----------1 Q-6 TL?e _:: Sun FURNITURE : Dimen. E-------------------------'---....L... -

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53 COMPONENT: Museum ROOJil: Exhibit Support Area sq. ft. O B J ECT I VES : This area will be used to design, prepare, and repair exhibits for the museum exhibitions. This area also includes the loading ADJACE N O TES: NCIES: and unloading of changing exhibitions, and the storage and preparation of these exhibitions. This area also includes a darkroom of 300 sq. ft. and a framing and mounting area of 400 sq. ft. Vt>OL7 1. Loading area could be close to research facility loading area to share service entrance. 2 . Loading dock should be of such height to accomodate a tractor-trailer. 3 . Construction workshop should be designed to diminish noise. 4 . Construction workshop needs a sink/wet wall area. 5. Changing storage stalls should be partitioned stall areas to allo w separation between exhibitions. 6 . Preparation areas need to be fully controlled as to humidity and need to be separated from areas of this space not requiring such stringent controls.

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Museum: Exhibit Support Area SPATIAL CONSIDERAT I O S : FLO O R to CEILING HEIGHT : LIGHTING SYSTEMS 54 BUILDING USE : r --------1 0-6 Tue -Sun r----------------.. -------1 10-6 Tue -Fri : s 4 1 8-5 MOl)_ Fr:_ L ___ ---1 1 8 6 Tue --=S:....:u::..:n.:.... ____ _ Open at all times Open as required ---FURNITURE: Notes: Normal operational procedures follow this pattern: 1) unloading material at dock 2) receiving and unpacking 3) recording, examination and photography 4) temporary storage 5 ) exhibition, then back through the same process. This will hold true primarily for the changing exhibition

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COHPONENT: ROOM: OBJECTIVE s : ADJACENCIES: NOTES: 55 Museum Storage Vault ___ sq. f This area is to be used to store the museum's permenant collection, exhibitions that are displayed in either the Main Exhibition Hall, or the secondary exhibition areas. It is to be secured at all times, and is to be monitored by the Registrar, or his assistant. It will also house exhibitions on loan to the museum while not on display. The wet area and dry area are to be separated. l. • I • All storage furniture must be movable to allow changing collections.

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Museum: Storage Vault SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS : -Private Public Controlled Public Open t o Outside Open to Service i-FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT : LIGHTING SYSTEMS -56 BUILDING USE : -:: _:::-_:_:== 8 4 Tue -Fri 8 5 Mon_ -=._X.!:.i __ ----------8 6 Tue -Sun Open at all times Open as ____________________ __ FURNITURE: Dimens.

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COHPONENT: ROOM: OBJECTI VES: ADJACENCII:S : NOTES: 57 Museum Changing Exhibition Gallery _ __:sq. f The changing exhibition gallery will be changing with more frequency than any other exhibition in the museum. It may change as much as 10 times in a year. It will house special exhibitions that are related to the general subjects of maritime history, underwater archaeology, and New England history, and will attempt to attract the collections of other treasures uncovered, both buried and sunken, as it' s specialty. This space should be designed for maximum flexibility, and needs one section capable of taking wet systems. As it is also the space to be used by outside groups for receptions, it may want to ally itsel f closely with the theatre area, which the community groups are most likely to use. It should b e able to function independently from the main and secondary exhibition areas if necessary, when it is used at night, for exampl e . : = •

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Museum: Changing Exhibition Area SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS : FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT : LIGHTING SYSTEMS 58 BUILDING USE: --------. . ---------Fri Fr_;i. _____ _ I 8-6 Tue SurJ I Open a t all t1rnes . oven as required FURNITURE : Dim ens

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4 . 2 BUILDING PROGRAM Museum School Reception Classrooms (4) Equipment Room Library Small Screening Room Instructor' s Workroom I Conference Room Graduate Workroom Rest Rooms Total 59 sq. ft. 1'2.8Q 700 4oo 4oo

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60 COHPO NENT: Museum School ROOI>1: Reception 71-0 sq. ft --'------The reception area should be the point of control for all activities within the school. The Museum School Coordinator and a part-time secretary/receptionist will share this space. Registration for classes will take place here. ADJACENCIES : N OTES : l. The Coordinator's office should have some transparent portion to enable the monitoring of the reception area when the secretary/receptionist isn' t present. 2 . There should be a small waiting space • . 3 . Display cases should be designed to explain/promote the school's activities.

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Museum School: Reception SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS : FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT : LIGHTIN G SYSTEMS 61 BUILDING USE: Sun ------------Open at all Open as required fi:>f2 even1re FURNITURE: Dimensi•

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6 2 COMPONENT: Museum School ROOM: Classrooms (4) z.:'-_ "-:?D::__ __ sq. O BJECTIVES : These classrooms are to be used for all activities on-ADJACENCIES : NOTES: going in the Museum School Program, as well as to be shared with the Research Facility's staff for graduate training sessions. Two of these classrooms need to be able to accomodate wet equipment and sinks. 1. ! t I • ' I • ll-4e( ft,#-1. A sliding partition wall between two classrooms is desirable to allow them to become one double-size classroom. 2. A chalkboard and built-in screen are necessary features of each classroom. 3 . Two work counters are to be built in to each room. 4 . There should be a locking storage closet in each room. 5 . The wet space of the two classrooms should be sunken 1' below the floor of the classroom.

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Museum School: Classrooms SrATIAL CONSIDERATION S : FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT: LIGHTING SYS T El'lS 63 B UILDING U SE: -r-=-=------------------------8-4 Tue -F r i 8 5 Mon _ _::_I:_r i ______________ _ 8 6 Tue Sun a t all times Op e n a s required FURNIT URE: Dimens

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64 COMPONENT: Museum School ROOM: Equipment Room sq. OBJECTIVE S : This room is used to store and prepare equipment used in classrooms for classes. It must accomodate scuba diving equipment as well as equipment used for underwater archaeological research. ADJACENCIES: NOTES: l. Ventilation is necessary in this room 2 . Maximum electricap capacity is necessary in this room

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Museum School: Equipment Room SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT: LIGHTING SYSTEt-1S 65 BUILDING USE: [ ---------------------------. ------1 8-4 Tue_ __ ________ _ '! ________ __ . Open at all times Open as required I FURNITURE: Dimensi•

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66 CQ111PONENT: Museum School R00!-1: Library 700 sq. ft _....:...c::......:;: __ _ OBJEC T IVES: The library will be used by students of the Museum School. It will also house the audio-visual equipment for the school. All library materials are to be used in the library. ADJ ACENCIES: NOTES : 1. Museum School Coordinator monitors the use of audio-visual equipment from the library and should be placed next to the library .

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Museum School: Library SPATIAL CONS IDERATIONS: Shared Flexible Expandable FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT: LIGHTIN G SYSTEMS 67 B U ILDING USE: ---. -_-_____ _ l 8-4 Tue -Fri r. J 8-5 Hon -FrL .-------------' 8 6 Tue -Sun t------'-------------------Open at all times O pen as FURNITURE: Dimensi

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68 COl'lPONENT: Musewn School ROOM: Small Screening Room sq. OBJECTIVES: This room will be used for both musewn school students and the research staff. It will be used for viewing films and tapes. It must be able to seat forty people. ADJACENCIES : NOTES: e..tl I ' l. Small screening room must be accessible to handicapped students. 2 . Small screening room should be able to completely contain its ow. sound with its acoustical design so as not to disturb the adjoin. rooms.

PAGE 79

Museum School: Small Screening Room SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: Shared Flexible Expandable FLOOR to C:CILIN G HEIGHT: LIGHTING SYSTEMS Security Human Electronic Humidity Controlled Automatic Sprinkler Wet W all Concrete Floor Tile Floor D ouble Entry Vestibule Double -Width Door 69 BUILDING U S:C: 8 =-: : LB4 Fri 8 5 _ ___ _ 8 6 Tue Sun Open at all times as requir_e_d __ _ FURNITURE: Dim en l----------------.L__.J...._ __ _

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70 COI-1PONENT : Museum School ROOM: Instructor' s Workroom I Conference Room sq. OBJECTIVES: This room should be an all purpose room for instructors; for class preparation, for meetings among the staff, and for conferences between the coordinator and staff. It should include a small kitchen area to enable the instructors to make coffee, warm food, or prepare snacks. ADJACENCIES: NOTES:

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71 Museum School: Instructor's Work/Conference Room SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: BUILDING USE: ---Private Public Controlled Public -Fri Open t o Outside Open to Service FLO O R to CEILING HEIGHT: LIGHTING SYSTEI'1S Security Human Electronic Humidity Controlled Automatic Sprinkler Wet Wall Concrete Floor Tile Floor Double Entry Vestibule Double -Width Door --' Frj ___ _ 8 6 Tue Sun Open at all times Open as reguired FURNITURE: Dimensi<

PAGE 82

72 Museum School ROOM: OBJECTIVES: ADJACENCIES : NOTES: Graduate Workroom _4-'-"ro=---sq. ft This room is to be used by graduate students involved in the Museum School internship program. They will use this space as their only work space in the museum complex. It should have six work stations. l. This room should be well ventilated and have as much daylight as is possible. 2. Giving this room a view would be preferable.

PAGE 83

[ Museum School: Graduate Workroom SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: Private Public Controlled Public Open t o Outside O pen t o Service FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT : LIGHTING SYSTEHS Security Human Electronic Humidity Controlled Automatic Sprinkler Wet Wall Concrete Floor Tile Floor Double Entry Vestibule Double -Width Door 73 BUILDING U SE : __ 1 8 4 Tue -Fri 1 8 5 M o n __ ls6 Tue Sun I apen at all 0 pen as requlred 12DtA1>1t0-\vlU: FURNITURE:

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74 4.3 BUILDING PROGRAM Research Facility sq. ft. Reception and Display Room Administrative Offices: Museum Research 6;J.J Maritime Explorations, Inc. ZICO Retail 0l:X) Conference Rooms (2) (oC:C> Work Room 400 Research Library 4ZO Rest Rooms (4) 600 Kitchen lOO Lab Offices (4) (o00 Receiving 600 Conservation 1'2-00 Storage Vault Research Laboratory 1000 Equipment Testing and Storage 1400 Preparation CXZ:> Total

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75 COW ONENT: Research Facility ROO.f\1: Reception and Display Room 2-f::CJ sq. j -.:.---='----O BJECTIVES: This area will receive clients for the museum staff, research staff, and for Maritime Explorations Inc. This area should be designed to display works-in-progress as well as to serve ADJACENCIES : NOTES: as a control point for the administrative offices. There will be one full-time receptionist, and one full-time secretary. 1 . It is desirable that this area should have a water-view. 2 . T his area should be able to accomodate standing display cases. 3 . This area should also be designed with built-in wall display cases. 4 . As a contro l point, this area should have maximum access to the offices it serves.

PAGE 86

Research: Reception and Display S PATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: FLOOR t o CEILING HEIGHT: LIGHTING SYSTEMS Security Human Electronic Humidity Controlled Automatic Sprinkler Wet Wall Concrete Floor Tile Floo r Double Entry Vestibule Double -Width Door 76 BUILDING USE: t---------------------------r--19_ _() _ _ -------------1 0 6 Tue -Fri r-=-----------------. ----------8 4 Tue -Fri 8 5 Mon __ F:rj, ____ -------------8 6 Tue Sun O p e n at all times O pen as required ------------FURNITURE: Dimensi

PAGE 87

77 COMPONENT: Research Facility ROOM: Administrative Offices ____ sq. ft OBJECTIVES : Museum Administration Office space will be provided for: total ___;;:__;=...;:::;...__ __ E xecutiv e Director and Assistant Financial Director Marketing Director C ommunity Arts Director Creative Director and 2 Graphic Design/Illustrators Museum Curator and Assistant Program Director Clerical, Mail, Publications, etc. t\00 Research Facility Offices will be provided for: bOD total Research Program Director Senior Archaeologist Staff Archaeologists (2) Maritime Explorations, Inc. Offices will be provided for: total M.E.I President President' s Assistant Financial Director and Assistant Project Manager P roject Archaeologist Project Diver Public Relations Director and Assistant Drafting Room Clerical and Mail Retail Offices will be provided for: Retail Properties Director and Assistant total _ _ _ Total

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78 ADJACENCIES: Museum Research bf"FMaritime Explorations,_Inc. f'IOOJI!CT flllJIL.tc. OIVet-X "!-ftQ:::)H

PAGE 89

Museum: Executive Director and Assistant SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS : Private --Public Controlled Public Open t o Outsid e Open to Service Shared Flexible Expandable FLOOR t o CEILING HEIGHT: LIGHTING SYSTEJYlS Security Human Electronic Humidity Control l e d Automatic Sprinkler Wet Wall Concrete Floor Tile Floor Double Entry Vestibule Double -Width Door 79 BUILDING USE: I = r--::-=------. -1 8 4 Tue -Fri _ = 1 1 ' Open at all times ------Open as required FURNITURE: # Adjustable Shelving Storage Bins I Flat Files Stainless S teel Counter Standard Counter I Storage Stalls I Conference Table Storage Shelves I ( W ) Display Case ! I Desk '2 Desk with Side Table I (A) Open Shelving I (A/ Tackable Wallspace ! I (;..') Chairs : 4 Computer Terminal I I 0.) Dravling Board I I Storage Cabinet 11.. \ Work Table i Other: I f lt.e 2 ! E Note: l . This room should have a view to the water.

PAGE 90

Museum: Financial Director SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS : Private Public Controlled Public Open to Outside 1--Open t o Service Shared Flexible Expandable FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT: LIGHTING SYSTEMS Security Human Electronic Humidity Controlled Automatic Sprinkler Wet Wall Concrete Floor Tile Floor Double Entry Vestibule Do ubi -Width Door -80 BUILDIN G USE: =---------------r----:: -------------------8 4 :J'ue--= Fri 8-5 l'10IJ _ -Fr;L __ 8 6 Tue -Sun all times as required FURNITURE: Dimensic

PAGE 91

Museum: Marketing Director SPATIAL C O NSIDERATIONS: Shared Flexible Expandable F LOOR t o CEILING HEIGHT: LIG HTING SYST EI'1S Security Huma n Electronic Humidity Controlled Automatic Sprinkler Wet Wall Concrete Floor Tile Floor Double Entry Vestibule Double -Width Door B UILDIN G USE: Tu e -Fri Hl 8-5 !-1o n Frt _________________ _ 8 6 Tue Sun Open at all time s O pen as required FURNITURE : Descr1pt1o n Adjustable Shelvin g Storage Bins Flat Files Stainless Steel Counter Standard Counter Storage Stalls Conference Table Storage Shelves ---------, I # D . 1m en I I I Display Case Desk , , I De s k with Side Table r-::--O pen Shelving Tackable Wallspace I Chairs I 'l Computer Terminal t Drawing Board j Storage Cabinet I I Work Table ! Other: I Ct>fl.,jiJ tr 'Z ---r------

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82 Museum: Community Arts Director SPATIAL CONSI DERATIONS: BUILDING USE: r=:lQ__-_ 6 __ ______ _ l Q 6 _ _ ----------' 8 4 Tue __ ____ _ 8-5 Man __ =--...frL ______ _ 8-6 Tue Sun ----at all times Open as required --------------FURNITURE: Dimens FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT: LIGHTING SYSTE!>1S _____ _ _ _ .J.___.L__ __ _ Security Human Electronic Humidity Controlled Automatic Sprinkler Wet Wall Concrete Floor Tile Floor Double Entry Vestibule Double -Width Door

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83 Museum: Creative Director and 2 Graphic Design/Illustrators SPATIAL CONSIDERATION S : -Private Public Controlled Public Open t o Outside Open t o Service FLOOR t o CEILING HEIGHT : LIGHTIN G SYSTEMS Security Huma n Electronic Humidity Controlled Automatic Sprinkler Wet Wall Concrete Floor Tile Floor Double Entry Vestibule Double width Door BUILDING USE: _--Fri ___ _ I 8 5 Mon -Fri ----O pen at all t _ i _ m _ e_s ____ ______ _ O pen as required -FURNITURE: Note: 1 . This room should have a northern orientation, and a view to the water is preferred.

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Museum: Curator and Assistant SPATIAL CO SIDERATIONS : Private Public Co ntrolled Public O pen to Outside Open t o S ervice c-= FLOOR to CEILING HEI G HT: LIGHTING SYSTE M S 84 BUILDIN G USE: --L _B-4 ____ _ _ I -Open at all times O pen as required -FURNITURE : D . t . escrlp-1.on Adjustable Shelving Storage Bins Flat Files # I Stainless Steel Counter Standard Counter Storage Stall s Conference Table I Storage Shelves I Display Case I I ! Desk \ Desk with Side Table I Open Shelving I I Tackable Wallspace I Chairs I 2. Computer T erminal ! I Drav.•ing Board I Storage Cabinet l Z Work Table I Other: I _fit. C/l.elhlel iZ. I I --1--1.menE (W,) C.MC) GA) 0.) 01G/ (A)

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Museum: Clerical, Mail and Publications SPATIAL CONSI DERATI O NS: Private Public Controlled Public Open t o Outside I O pen t o Service FLOOR t o CEILING HEIGHT : LIG HTIN G SYSTEMS Security Human Electronic Humidity Controlled Automatic Sprinkler Wet Wall Concrete Floor Tile Floor Double Entry Ve stibule Doubl e Width Door 85 BUIL DIN G USE: -r---:------------------------1 8 4 Tue F=-=-r-=i ___ _ I 8 5 Mon -Fri 8 G Tue -Sun FURNITURE : Not e : Dimens 1 . This room needs good ventilation. 2. This room needs extra electrical capacity.

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86 Research: Research Program Director SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS : BUILDING USE: R Private -Public C ontrolled Public 8-4 Tue ______ __ Open t o Outside 8 5 l'-1o_l! __ Fri._ ________ _ Open t o Service 8 6 Tue Sun --Open at all times O pen as required Sha r e d Flexible Expandable FURNITURE : Dimens FLOOR t o CEILING HEIGHT: .LIGHTING SYSTE M S

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Research: Senior Archaeologist SPATIAL C O NSIDERATION S : Shared Flexible Expandable FLOOR to C EILING HEIGHT: LIGHTING S YSTEMS 87 BUILDING USE: [i:o-6 Tue = ---------L8-4 Tue -Fri ------------8 5 8 6 Tue Sun O pen at all tim_ e _ s _ ____________ _ Open as required FURNITURE: Dimensi1 r------------------+--r----

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Research: Staff Archaeologists SPATIAL CONSI DERATIONS : FLOOR to CEIL ING HEIGHT: LIGHTIN G SYSTEMS BUILDING USE : t---------------.----_'!'yg_-_?.yp ---,]_9 _:-_ 6 __ : __ E! L . 8-4 Tue -Fri 88 8 5 Man __ ___________ _ 8 6 Tue -Sun Open at all times O pen as required FURNITURE : Dimens

PAGE 99

M . E . I . : M .E.I. President SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS : Private Publi c Controlled Public Open to Outside Open t o Service Shared Flexible Expandable FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT : LIGHTING SYSTEMS 89 BUILDING USE: H 6:t I . Open at all O pen as requ1red -----------------------FURNITURE : Dimens Note: 1. Give this office a view to the water.

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90 M . E . I.: President' s Assistant SFATIAL CO SIDERATIONS : BUILDING USE: 8 &::: =-=--=-== 1 8 4 Tue Fri Private ---Public Controlled Public I I 8 5 l'1on _ -Fri_ ______ _ i 8 6 Tue _ _ S_u_n _____ _ O pen t o Outside O pen t o Ser vice O pen at all times Ope n as required ---Shared Flexible Expandable FURNITURE: Dim ens FLOOR t o CEILING HEIGHT : LIGHTING SYSTEr1S

PAGE 101

M.E.I.: Financia l Director and Assistant SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS : Private -Public Controlled Public Open to Outside Open to Service FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT : LIGHTING SYSTEMS Security Human Electronic Humidity Controlled Automatic Sprinkler Wet Wall Concrete Floor Tile Floor Double Entry Vestibule Double vlidth Door 91 BUILDING USE: _ ---Tue Sun -----------ro;;-1 Open at all Ope!1 as required ------FURNITURE : D t escrl.F 1.0n # 1.rnens Adjustable Shelving Storage Bins Flat Files Stainless Steel Counter. Standard Counter Storage Stalls Conference Table Storage Shelves '2-ldtc.h Display Case ' ! Desk I fO Desk with Side Table l Open Shelving I C.A} Tackable Wailspace I I CA) Chairs I ?_:, t . ft:', I I Computer Terminal ! z Draw1.ng Board i Storage Cabinet 1'2. 1 each.. Work Table I Other: I 2 IFP, t-A -

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M.E.I.: Project Manager SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: Shared Flexible Ex pandable FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT : LIGHTIN G SYSTEl'l S Security Human Electronic Humidity Controlled Automatic Sprinkler Wet Wall Concrete Floor Tile Floor Double Entry Vestibule Double Width Door -92 BUILDING USE: _______ _ I = 8 G Tue Open at all times Open as required -FURNITURE : Dimens

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93 M .E.I.: Project Archaeologist S r ATI A L CONS IDERATIONS: BUILDIN G U SE: i 8 4 ___ _ _ _ _ _ 8-5 M a n _ :_f_!)-______ _ _ _ _ _ _ S-'-u -'n _ ____ -----Open at all time s O pen as required --------Shared Flexibl e Ex pandable F URNITURE: FLOOR t o CEILING HEIGHT: LIGHTIN G SYSTEM S Security Human Electroni c Humidity Controlled Automatic Sprinkler Wet Wall Concrete F loor Tile Floor Double Entry Vestibule Double -Width Door

PAGE 104

M .E.I.: Project Diver SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS : Private Public Controlle d Public O pen t o Outside Ope n to Service Shared Flexible Expandable FLOOR t o CEILING HEIGHT: LIGHTIN G SYSTE!'1S Security Human Electronic Humidity Controlled Automatic Sprinkler Wet Wall Concrete Floor Tile Floor Double Entry Vestibule Doubl e -Width Door 94 BUILDING USE: ____ --8 5 .l'lon FrL ________ ______ ____ _ 8 G Tue Sun Op e n at all time s Open as required FURNITURE : Dimens

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95 M . E .I.: Public Relations Director and Assistant SPATIAL CONSI DERATIONS : Private -Public Controlled Public O p e n t o Outside O pen to Service --FL OOR to CEILING HEIGHT : LIGHTING SYSTE!'1 S Security Human Electronic Humidity Controlled Automatic Sprinkler Wet Wall Concrete Floor Tile Floor Double Entry Vestibule Double Width Doo r BUILDING USE: ------,_J3-4 i -------------------8-5 Mon __ Fr i__ _ _____________ _ 8 6 Tue -Sun O pen at all times Open as required FURNITURE: Descr1.pt1.on # Dl.menE Adjustable Shelving Storage Bins Flat Files Stainless Steel Counter Standard Counter Storage Stalls Conference Table I r Storage Shelves z. 1---:-----Display Case Desk Desk with Side Table l A Open Shelving Tackable Wallspace I A chairs '2t'A Com puter Terminal 2. Drawlng Board i Storage Cabinet z. Work Table ! Other: I z. ____ .i I

PAGE 106

M . E .I.: Drafting Room SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: Private Public Controlled Public O pen to Outside O pen to Service FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT: LIGHTIN G SYSTEMS Security Human Electronic Humidity Co ntrolled Automatic Sprinkler Wet Wall Concrete Floor Tile Floor Double Entry Vestibu l e Double Width Door ---96 BUILDING USE: lQ__ 6 __ . ____________ _ 8 4 Tue -Fri 8 5 Mon_ Fr;!,_ ________________ _ _ 8 G Tue Sun at all time' as required FURNITURE:

PAGE 107

M .E.I.: Clerical and Mail SPATlAL CONSIDERATIONS : FLO O R to CEILING HEIGHT: LIGHTING SYSTEMS Security Human Electronic Humidity Controlled Automatic Sprinkler Wet Wall Concrete Floor Tile Floor Double Entry Vestibule Double Width Door 97 BUILDING USE: t 8 4 Tue -Frl 8 5 Mon ___ -:__Fri ----------------8 6 Tue Sun Open at all times Open as required FURNITURE: DimenE Note: 1 . This room needs ventilation. 2 . This room needs extra electrical capacity.

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98 Retail: Retail Properties Director and Assistant SPATIAL CONS IDERATIONS: BUILDIN G USE. : r:-
PAGE 109

COMPONENT: ROOM: OBJECTIVES: ADJACENCIES: NOTES: 99 Research Conference Rooms (2) ---=(p _cA_O __ sq. f Two conference rooms will be provided at 300 sq. ft. each. These conference rooms are to be used for meetings by all the groups, and should be located so as to be easily accessible by all. 1. Rooms should be designed to keep the sound well-contained. 2. Rooms should offer both daylight and views to the water.

PAGE 110

Research: Conference Rooms SPATIAL CONSI DERATIONS: FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT: LIGHTING SYSTEHS Security Human Electronic Humidity Controlled Automatic SErinkler W e t Wall Concrete Flo o r Tile Floor D ouble Entry Vestibule Double -Width Door 100 BUILDING USE: FURNITURE: Dimens

PAGE 111

COMPONENT: ROOM: OBJECTIVES: ADJACENCIES: NOTES: 101 Research Facility Workroom I Administrative _1...J..oo::=...= __ sq. f The workroom is a space to be used by all staff for coordinating projects, or working on projects. It should have as central a location as possible. l. It II As groups of people may work in this space together, it should have a circulation pattern to accomodate that, and should have good sound absorptive capabilities.

PAGE 112

Research: Administrative Work Area SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: Private Public Controlled Public Open to Outside Open t o Service -FLOOR t o CEILING HEIGHT: LIGHTING SYSTE!1S Security Human Electronic Humidity Controlled Automatic Sprinkler Wet Wall Concrete Floor Tile F loor Double Entry Vestibule Double Width Door 102 BliLDING USE: --------------.--. ----------1 8 F . 1 :J MO_ lf _ -=. -.!:;L _________ _ 8 6 Tue -Su_ n ___ _ tir:'es _ _ _ _ _ required L= . --FURNITURE: Dimens

PAGE 113

COMPONENT: ROOM: OBJECTIVES: ADJACENCIES : NOTES: 103 Research Facility Research I Research Library 4'20 sq. f -----The research library is to be used by all staff in the museum complex. It will have materials relevant to the topics covered in the museum's collections, as well as reference materials useful to each of the groups within the complex. l. This room should have a central a location as possible.

PAGE 114

Research: Research Library SP A TIAL CO. SIDERATIONS: Priva t e Public Controlled Public O pe.n t o O utside Open t o Serv i c e FLOOR t o CEILING HEIGHT : LIGHTIN G SYSTEMS 104 BUILDING USE : -:.: _ : 8 4 _Tue Fri 8 5 MO_D. ______ _ 8 6 Tue -Sun required ---FURNITURE: Dim ens

PAGE 115

COMPONENT: ROOM: OBJECTIVES: ADJACENCIES: NOTES: 105 Research Facility Administrative/Kitchen 100 sq. f --'---'---The kitchen is to serve the needs of the staff in the administrative offices, as well as the needs of their clients for meetings, etc. It should be equipped to be able to serve meals on occasion, but will generally be used .for preparation of coffee, snacks, and lunches. 1. aEJ2.{0>(._ ' _j • t:fn.4t:U This space should be designed to accomodate an eating area that will seat 6-8 people.

PAGE 116

Research: Administrative/Kitchen SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS : Private -Public Controlle d Public O p e n t o Outside Open to Service FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT: LIGHTING SYSTEMS 106 BUILDING USE : 1 8 4 Tue F.:::r..=:i'----rs-=sM;!]_-= F:r:) ______ _ 1 8 6 Tue S u n I O pen at all times tOpen as required FURNITURE : No t e : Dimen!: l. It is preferable for this room t o have a view. 2 . This room needs ventilation.

PAGE 117

COMPONENT: ROOM: OBJECTIVES: ADJACENCIES: NOTES: 107 Research Facility Research I Lab Offices (4) sq. f ------Four offices will be provided for workers engaged in research on underwater archaeological method and technique. These lab technicians and archaeologists will be engaged in both research and the conservation of artifacts. Primary research will go on in the research laboratory, although data review and research will go on within the offices. l. Each office should have ventilation.

PAGE 118

Research: Research Lab Offices SPATIAL CONS IDERATIONS: S hared Flexible Expandable FLOOR t o CEILING HEIGHT: LIGHTING SYS TE!'-lS Security Huma n Electronic Humidity Controlled Automatic SJ.=>rinkler Wet Wall Concrete Floor Tile Floor D ouble Entry Vestibule Double W i dth Door 108 BUILDING USE: t-------------__ _Sun _____ --------------1 0 -_6 : _ :.!":!___ . ----------8 4 8-5 Mon _ _ Fri _____ _ 8 6 Tue -Sun at all times Open as required ----------------------FURNIT U RE: Descr1pt1on 1mens Adjustable Shelving Storag e Bins Flat Files 4 Stainless Steel Counter Standard Counter Storage Stalls Conference Table .l \ Storage Shelves ---iA_ Dis play Case Desk Desk with Side Table I Open S helvin g 4 T ackable Wallspace __1 Chairs ,__1 C omputer Terminal l 2 Drav1ing B oard ! Storage Cabinet 1 4 W ork Tabl e I Other: i _fiLe 4 E --------

PAGE 119

COMPONENT: ROOM: OBJECTIVES: AD JACENCIES: 109 Research Facility Research I Receiving d?Ct? sq. f The receiving area will be used to receive all shipments of supplies and equipment to support the research facility. A registrar' s office, of 64 sq. ft. , will be within the receiving area, to document all in-coming goods. This space will include an area for uncrating and crating of items, and two storage stalls, for temporary strorage. The entry should be through extra-large doors. All artifacts from the mobil laboratory will be received through this receiving room. } \ t 'N OTES: 1. This room should be designed with clear central circulation.

PAGE 120

Research: Receiving SPATIAL CONSIDERATION S : FLOOR t o CEILING HEIGHT : LIGHTIN G SYSTE!,lS BlliL DI USE: rlo6 = -I} --_::Fri r. --1 8 4 Tu e Fri r ------------8 S M o p -:___fri _____ _ 110 TUE -Sun _________ -----! Open at all _________ _ F:e1 as ____________ _ FURl ITURE: Dim ens

PAGE 121

COl'lPONEN'l': ROOI\l: OBJECTIVE S : ADJACENCIES: NOTES: 111 Research Facility Research I Conservation The conservation area is used for all conservation of artifacts for the museum's exhibitions, as well as for the research labor atories purposes. As all new museum artifacts will potentially go through this space, it is to be secured and must have a control point at its single entry. This may be seen by the public as part of the Museum's exhibition. This space is to be shared by people involved in the various aspects of conservation. 1. Areas of the conservation space that will be on view t o the public should be glassed in. 2 . This area needs to be well ventilated. 3 . This area needs to have extra electrical capacity.

PAGE 122

Research: Storage and Vault SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS : FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT: LIGHTING SYSTEMS 112 BUILDIN G USE: --_-1 8-4 Tue -Fri 8 5 Mon -Fr i --------------8-6 Tue Sun Open at all times Open as required FURNITURE: Dimensic ___ _

PAGE 123

Research: Conservation SrATIAL CONSIDERATIONS : FLOOR t o CEILING HEIGHT: LIGHTIN G S Y STEMS B UILDIN G USE: w: 9_:-_f? -=. 10_ _ 6 __ ----' 8-4 Tue -Fri 113 8-5 Mon--=-F.rj. __________________ _ 8-6 Tue Sun Open at all times Open as required FURNITURE: +----------------'---'-----

PAGE 124

COHPONE T: ROOM: OBJECTIVES: ADJACENCIES : NOTES: 114 Research Facility Research I Storage and Vault 'Za::/0 sq. f The storage and vault will be able to accomodate all wet items from the research laboratory , and will have a 600 sq. ft. section that is designated only for dry items. This area must be secured at all times, and houses all items from the research facility work as well as items in the conservation process that may be destined for museum display. • , I 1. Wet and dry storage should be separated. 2 . All storage furniture must be movable.

PAGE 125

C01, 1 PONENT : ROOM: O BJECTIVES: ADJACENCIES: NOTES: llS Research Facility Research Laboratory ___:I {o:::.....:....CJ_O __ f This room is where all research goes on. While research will be conducted on WHYDAH artifacts, the primary purpose of this research facility is to develop new methodology and techniques for all underwater archaeological site problems. Therefore, research going on in this facility may often be independent of the WHYDAH collection all-together. 1. All fixtures except for tanks are to be of stainless steel. 2. Mapping area should have natural light. 3. Wet walls are to be designed to accomodate expanding wet systems in the future. 4. This room is to have maximum electrical capacity. 5. This room m ust have secured entries and exits.

PAGE 126

Private Public Controlled Public Open to Outside O):Jen t o Service Shared Flexible Expandable FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT: Under 12' Over 12' stories r---:-2 storles 1---LIGHTING Daylight Co n trolled Da ylight Artificial Light Combination of Artificial & Daylight '--SYSTEMS Security Human Electronic Humidity Controlled Automatic Sprinkler Wet Wall Concrete Floor Tile Floor Double Entry Vestibule Double \o;idth Door BUILDING USE: t:; -----------------f--l-9..:-:E> . . TY?_-:: --------__ __ 1 8 4 Tue -Fri 116 I Op e n -----------1 Open as requi::=-ed FURNITURE :

PAGE 127

COMPONENT: ROOM: OBJECTIVES : ADJACENCIES : N OTES: 117 Research Facility Equipment Testing and Storage ft This area is devoted to the testing of equipment for both the research laboratory and the mobil laboratory aboard the excavation vessel. Equipment used in the Museum School will be tested here before being used in the Museum School classes. This equipment ranges from basic diving gear to sophisticated remote sensing devices for underwater locating. A storage area of 600 sq. ft. will be included in this space, and will include a registrar' s desk and storage. There will be two primary technicians who will be utilizing this area. 1. Maximum electrical capacity required in this space. 2 . Wet and dry areas need to be segregated. 3 . This area needs to be well ventilated.

PAGE 128

Research: Equipment Testing and Storage SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS : FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT : LIGHTIN G SYSTEMS 118 BUILDING USE: 8 6 Tue -Sun I Open at all times I Open as required FURNITURE:

PAGE 129

COMPONENT: ROOM: OBJE CTIVES : ADJACENCI ES : NOTES: 119 Research Facility Preparation Room 8c:c/ sq. f -""""-=-==-The preparation room is used for all final preparation processes before an artifact is ready for either exhibition or storage. Surface treatments, final stabilization treatments and any final documentation occur here. A 300 sq. ft. photo lab is included in this space, to document all artifacts that have reached this stage. Three people wil l b e sharing this area. •• II II 1. Ventilation is require d in this space. 2. Maximum electrical capacity is required in this space.

PAGE 130

Research: Preparation Room SrATIAL CONSIDERATIONS: vate Public Controlled Public Open t o Outside Open to Service -FLOOR to CEILING HEIGHT: LIGHTING SYSTEMS 120 BUILDING USE : ---------------------------1 8 4 Tue -Fri I 8 5 Mon -Fri I 8 6 Tue -----------Open a t all times Open as required ---FURNITURE:

PAGE 131

121 4.4 BUILDING PROGRAM Retail ?bo.:? sq. f The retail space is seen as a means of enhancing the museum complex. The exact nature of the retail space is not known at this point, although suggested retail functions have been made. Retail space will be designed on a module that can easily adapt to the changing needs of merchants. Therefore, design considerations with regards to flexibility will involve lighting, aesthethic treatments, surface treatments and storage space. Wet walls will be designed to accomodate the suggested retail spaces. Suggested Retail Spaces: Cafe (2) \ 000 sq. f i Restaurant \000 Taffy Stand Jewelry Store (WHYDAH Replications) ?oo Fine Arts and Crafts 600 Marketplace (Food) 1000 Clothing Store ;oo Toy Store i voo Food Booths (3) '76 0 Canal Cruise Information Booth 100 Public Rest Rooms and Phones (000

PAGE 132

4.5 BUILDING PROGRAM Existing Pier Buildings to Remain A single building, the Harbormaster's Station, will remain on the pier. Because of the need for clear visual access, this building will be relocated or replaced, again in a position of prominence from the northern water side of the pier. The Harbormaster is responsible for supervision of all harbor activities, including mooring placement, development of harbor traffic lanes, setting and enforcing speed regulations within the harbor, and is responsible for enforcing all safety and navigational regulations within the harbor. 122

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MUSEUM BUILDING : .......

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123 5 . 0 BUILDING TECHNOLOGY The WHYDAH Pirate Museum will have a variety of systems within it, as suggested earlier. The basis for designing these systems is found in the following sections for lighting, security, structure and water tank details for the wet exhibition tanks. The last two sections deal with zoning requirements and applicable building codes.

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124 5 . 1 LIGHTIN G Notes: 1) low contrast surroundings create a realxed mood 2) presentation of concentrated light to wall displays: should be at an incident angle of 60 with the horizontal centered at an adult site-line height of 5'6" from the floor 3) nominal level of illumination of 30 footcandles on both horizontal and vertical planes recommended; good for visitor functions of gallery viewing, and studying 4 ) 60 footcandles for short-term or temporary displays, 20 footcandles recommended for fixed or permenant exhibitions 5) viewer should be unaware of wh ere the light is coming from 6) luminance ratios between adjacent luminaries or surfaces should be reduced to 3:1 7) floor reflectance in galleries should be held below 10%

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LIGHT AND ITS EFFECT ON MUSEUM OBJECTS Nathan Stolow At this session I propose to discuss the damaging effects of light upon works of art and museum objects as a separate subject, although within the complex of environmental factors this is an impossible isolation. The deterioration of organic material resulting from the action of light occurs in conjunction with temperature, relative humidity, and indeed oxygen of the atmosphere. Nonetheless, in spite of the ramifications, it is necessary to deal with the subject of light -even if only sketchily -if security is to be understood. For a more detailed study, refer to the Selective Bibliography and especially to Use of Fluorescent Lights in Museums, compiled by ICOM, Commission for Lighting of Museum Ob jects, International Council for Museums, Paris, 1953, and Dr. Robert L. Feller's two recent publications, one a technical supplement to be found in the June 1964 issue of Museum News, and the other published by UNESCO in Museum, Vol. XVII/2, 1%4. Museum people charged with the responsibility for collections must make frequent decisions regarding methods of illumination that will be satisfactory with respect to both attractive displays and proper care. It is difficult enough for the specialist, let alone the to keep abreast of the latest developments. I consider it appropriate to summarize and review the subject of light before we can analyze our problems and answer specific questions, and I intend to be elementary. The terminology ranges from such homely expressions as "foot candle" to seemingly sinister phrases like "black body radiator." Any novice, whether in golf or tennis or the field of lighting, must learn a minimum vocabulary. Without it, communication is not possible. It is not essen tial to know all the theories or the formulae by which physicists have arrived at their conclusions, but it is quite essential that the basic language of light be no enigma if it becomes necessary to deal with lighting engineers and to make good decisions about lighting. Photochemical Activity of Light The heat we feel from sunlight or from a powerful electric lamp suggests that light is a form of energy. A rise in temperature increases the general agitation of atoms and molecules and speeds up the rate of chemical change. But the energy of light gives an added boost which makes these atoms and molecules more reactive and liable to change. Thus excited, dyes may fade, long-chain molecules in fibers of paper ex textiles may become broken, portions of other substances may be con-125

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vened to colored compounds as in the discoloration of paper, varnishes, and drying oils. This ability of light to stimulate chemical change is known as "photochemical activity." The effects of light exposure were known even in antiquity. Long before the development of modem chemistry and our comprehension of photochemical reactions, early craftsmen noted that sunlight faded color ing matters and bleached even oil paint. In the mid-nineteenth century Chevreul reported on his studies of the relation between heat, moisture, and air on observed fading of textiles. But it has been only in the last ten years or so that the effect of light on museum objects has been ex amined in detail. The information collected to date is, however, incomplete; research continues steadily. But what data we have have been g athered by men of science and carefully tabulated from tests such as those carried out in 1956 by Balder in Holland. His observations were made on specimens consisting of thirry oil paints on canvas, thirteen water paints on drawing paper, rwenty pieces of Gobelin restoration yams, twelve pieces of cloth, and five water colors. The eighry colored specimens were exposed to daylight, incandescent lamps, and rwo types of fluorescent lamps for the equivalent of about eighty million lux hours. The observations of change were checked visually and with measure ments made with a Donaldson colorimeter. The knowledge now accumulated in this field is fairly extensive, but requires more research. However, for the present, practical conclusions may be drawn from the studies of Balder and others. The Electromagnetic Spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum is not as strange to us as it was to our grandparents; we live in a world where radio, television, and radar are household terms. Our children prefer FM to AM and build their own stereo receiving sets. The diagram of the electromagnetic spectrum, cosmic rays through to electric waves (Fig. 1), is not altogether foreign I COSMIC RAYS GAMMA RAYS VISIBLE REGION • X -RAYS r::::INFRAR 1 01 0 It I I 4 I 10 1 0 I I 101 Wovefenolh I n M i ll i m i crons HERTZ I AN WAVES I RADIO AND TELEVISION I I I I 101 1 01 0 Fig. 1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum to most of us. Seeing it as a whole, it is amazing what a very small por tion is occupied by visible light. As guardians of art, we focus our 126

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interest on this narrow band of spectra as well as the neighboring ultraviolet, and infra-red radiations. I have also put down the symbols and terms of light measurement in Appendix I . These form thf special lan guage of lighting; without this vocabulary, communication with your lighting engineer will break down. U ltro-violet , th e Damaging Factor Although strictly speaking all wavelengths of light can cause photochemical damage, it is the ultra-violet and bluish portion of light that is photochemically most active. The museum objects m ost likely to be affected b y this damaging force are those which contain fugitive pigments, dyes, or inks; textiles of all types; leather, animal skins, feathers, paintings -especially watercolors; books, manuscripts, drawings, and paper. Certain woods tend to beco me darkened, and wood s tained with dyes can fade. Some pigments in pastels are fugitive. The fading or yellowing o f the vehicle in paints and varnishes can also lead to surface erosion and changes in solubility. Characteristics of L i ght Daylight is not c onstant. It varies considerably depending o n the angle o f the sun, the conditions of the atmosphere, and the degree of scattering from clouds or dust particles. We judge artificial light in terms of the characteristics o f natural light. the different types o f light are compared from the photochemical point o f view -all at the s ame re lative ener gy levels -we find that activity increases from in candescent light, which is less damaging than sunlight, which is less damaging than zenith-blue sky light, which is less damaging than pure ultra-violet. If a light-sensitive object is exposed to illumination for a given period of time, the greatest changes, therefore, will occur under pure ultra-violet and the least changes unde r incandescent light. Color T emperotur e Figure 2 is a table o f factors o f probable rate of damage from listed l ight sources with given color temperatures. Every form of science re quires standards o f measurement and c omparison. The concept of "color temperature" is based on the characteristics of radiant energy from a "black body radiator." Such a "radiator" may be the window of a fur nace. As the temperatur e is gradually raised, the color perceived passes f rom dull red to brighter red, an d fi nally thro ugh yellow to a pale, brilliant blue at the highest temperatures. At each temperature, the "black b ody radiator" emi t s light o f a different waveleng th distribution. It is from this analogy o f color and heat that our tables of light characteristics, e .g., color temperatures, are compiled. 1 27

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Source Zeoicb Sky! tbrout;b wiodow & ••• Overcaac Sky, through window glau Cool-White Oelwte Fluoreacent 'l"acm-'lbice Oeluze Fluoreacent Sun at 300 Altitude, through window glua Oaylighc Fluoreacent O•ercasc Sky throut;h Pleriglaa UF-1 Philipa Fluorescent Lamp H (1955)0 Overcaat Sky throuP. Plerit;laa G911B • lncaodeacent Lamp Pbilipa F luorescent Lamp 32 Raced Color Temperature, ox: 0/fc 11,000 1.58 6 , 400 .682 4,300 .554 2,900 .444 5,300 .427 6,500 .402 .243 .210 .159 2 , 854 .138 .096 •Ll Balder (from R.L. Feller) • • • S. Harri eoo Factors of Probahle Rare of Damage per Footcaoclle (0/fc:') aod Approrimate Color Temperature for Varioua Lit;ht Sources. For instance, tungsten filament-incandescent lamps-give a yellow ish warm light, low in ultra-violet and with a distribution of energy similar to yellow heat at 24000 to 3000 Kelvin. (Kelvin temperature, K, is a term of measurement equal to Centigrade temperature plus 273 degrees.) An overcast sky is said to have a color temperature between 5000 and 7000 K. North light -preferred by artists has a color temperature in the neighborhood of 6000 K, with nearly an equal amount of red and blue energy. After discussion of intensities and color temperatures, specialists advise that museums make an effective compromise of around 45000 K in their lighting. The spectral characteristics of some typical forms of lighting are shown in Figure 3. Fluorescent light During the post-World War II period, fluorescent lamps became popular in commercial, educational, and museum installations. The main reason for this is that for a given power input these lamps are the most efficient in terms of the amount of light produced. Then, in 1952, Genard (France) first brought to the attentioa of the museum profession the appreciable 128

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ultra-violet output of such lamp s . As a result of the publication of his findings, the matter has received increasing study. F luorescem lamps give off visible light as well as some ultraviolet light. The visible light results from th e fluorescence of "phosphors" lining the inside of the tubes. Without this coating the normal illumine tion would be that of a mercury sun lamp -rich in ultra-violet and com paratively low in visible light output. Using different phosphors gives different "color temperatures" but there still is superimposed on the Fig. 3 Relative Energy Output from Varied Light Sources wavelength distribution (Fig. 3) the mercury lines which manage to com e through. Fluorescent lamplight is less potent than daylight. The ultra violet output of fluorescent lamps may also vary according to manufac ture and type. 129

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Tit. Problem In Museum Security The deteriorating effects of light on museum collections depends on: (1) the intensity of the radiation, (2) the time of exposure, (3) the spec tral characteristics of the radiation, (4) the intrinsic capacity of individual materials to absorb and be affected by the radiant energy. Exter nal factors also influence the rate of deterioriation humidity, temper ature, and active gases in the atmosphere. We know we cannot consider light as a single danger -high temperature, high humidity, and the presence of oxygen usually speed up the process of deterioration. Essen tially we must take into consideration the characteristics of the radiation, the materials exposed, and the conditions of their exposure. Until laboratory tests prove to the contrary, any museum curator must assume that the extent of photochemical damage __ will be reduced in direct pro portion to the reduction of the intensity of illumination or the time of exposure -no matter what the light source. He must also remember the important factor of temperature; for a ten degree rise in temperature the rate of chemical change can double. Depriving an object of oxygen (as in the preservation of the Declaration of Independence) can also serve to minimize photochemical change, since oxygen is often necessary to propagate intermediate steps in photochemical reactions. Control of Lighting The control of illumination can be in two directions, either to alter the spectral quality of the light source -eliminating the ultra-violet or near ultra-violet output -or by minimizing the intensity of light striking a surface; or by a judicious combination of both these safeguards. Usually spectral characteristics of light can be controlled by means of special filters. The intensity of daylight may be diminished by manually or electronically operated shades, louvers, and curtains. Diffusing sur faces, materials, and glasses serve to reduce intensity. Reductions can be effected by the use of neutral gray glass such as Pittsburgh Plate Glass "Solargray" or the American Window Glass "Lustragray." Plate glass that reflects radiation because of a thin deposit oi metal is also available: Pittsburgh Plate Glass "LHR Twindow" and "LHR Solar gray Twindow." Where fluorescent lamps are used, acrylic filters designed as UF-1 and UF-3 can effectively cut out the ultra-violet com ponent without appreciably altering the rest of the spectrum. Plexiglas UF-1 is practically colorless; Plexiglas UF-3 is slightly yellow. Choose the filtering method compatible with your display and your budget. (See Selective Bibliography and Other Aids for sources of supply.) 130

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The Aesthetic Problems Aesthetics, taste, and architectural design dictate levels of lighting in museum s . Unfortunately, more and more museums are built with glass walls. We can only hope that architects become more familiar with photo chemical dangers and that at least the glass they employ includes filtering components. In recent years w e have all accustomed ourselves to levels of illumination far above thos e considered normal in the past. For the preservation of our heritage this ma y be unfortunate. There is muc h to be said, aesthetically, for variable illumination, especially that of day light. Some curators deplore viewing masterpieces under constant illumination rather than under the variable conditions of natural lighting. The great windows of Chartres can only be properly appreciated in changing daylight. Although we boast of museums where rheostatic controls maintain a constant level of light, adjusting to outside fluctua tions, I have as yet no knowledge of any institution which offers anifi cially controlled variations of intensity for the enjoyment of their collec tions. This might be illuminating in more ways than one. It is easy to say that works of art and museum objects should be kept at low levels of illumination. In fact, some objects, such as illuminated manuscripts, are often kept in the dark most of the time, as in the British Museum, London. Other varieties of light-sensitive material are curtained Jnreas iry• Luz Foorcaodles Low Wcdium Hi"' Low Wedium Hi&h R..efaeo c e 8'"/'"I'Oft M ag .• 17 (July 1930), p . !I 4 0 ISO 4 18 Mouuio,., 17 (1934), p. 1 93 30 100 10 ibid. , JJ-J( 0936) , p . 1 8 5 60 100 6 10 ibid., JJ-34 (1936), p. 191 110 II M••••"' ' (19)2) , p . 2 8 120 !00 12 !0 L .S. Harrisoo. op . cit., 19'!>.( 180 18 J.J. Bald er, o p. cit., 19)6 80 25 0 8 25 Lichtt
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in display with requests to the viewing public to replace the coverings after a brief inspection. I believe our difficulties in dimming intensity in museums could be overcome if we brought all the areas down to an equally low level. Contrast makes us conscious of the differences inUnique exhibits within an area of general illumination can be featured, but all should be kept at proportionally lower intensity. Un fortunately we have museums where the levels are from 50 to 70 and even 100 fc of illumination. This is unnecessary and damaging. From the point of view of preservation, experts agree that intensities ranging 5 to 30 fc (or 50 to 300 lux) are safest (Fig. 4). Every encouragement should be given to museums to bring illumination down to a level of security. If they do, I doubt that their public will object many visitors may find this in terms of enjoyment. Conclusion This, of course, constitutes only a brief review of the major issues in deterioration from photochemical activity and evaluation of the usual sources of light which produce change in materials. Check the susceptibility of exhibits against available scientific information. Such infor mation can be found in the publications listed in the bibliography. Try to display all material of known lighr-sensicivity at the lowest possible intensity and for limited rather than extended periods of time. Remem ber that in addition to the reduction of the two major factors for control time and intensity -possible harm from illumination may be further diminished by maintaining temperature and relative humidity at suitable levels. Also remember that filtering ultra-violet radiation from daylight and from fluorescent lamplight reduces the hazard of deterioration from this source; it does not, however, prevent it. 132

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C""' •••• , "'" " •• ••• • ttiOttt I fff • /11111 m ll'trlll " '1111/fJII'IFII 1 h nt1' o 11111}:1' o f / onna/1(/1'11, jm 11111\f 'l/111 hr,hllltf.!. MUSEUM LIGHTING SCHEMES The Menil Collection ! ( J FERROCE M f tl1 tOI..rvt ;f_, t l . . . a . .. . .. _.:_,,, SECTION THROUGH TYPICAL GALLERY Designed by R eruo Piano and Richard Fitzgerald & Partners with 0 e Arup & Partners as engineers, the Men if Collection galleri es h ave a glazed roof above large, white, fcrrocement louvers th a t diffuse all but ea rl y morning light. The louvers or ''leaves" hang :rom a duc til e iron space through which run eturn air duc ts. Incandes:ent l amps hang from a track dong the underside of the 1xc d louvers, and panels fit )('tw ee n the louver to close 1ff alln
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e Tate Gallery OOU8U SKI N OlfFUSER VI ftU!'Pl V ANUEJCTAACI FOIILOCA liNC. PARTITIONS GAU.ER Y S U SDMSION AS REQUIRED 'ION THROUGH TYPtCAL BAY most hightech of recent eum day lighting solu7 1 , Llewel y n-Davies ks' Tate Gallery addition, in conjunction with ' h Hopkinson, Newton >on & Partners as lighting ultants , is a machine for : ontrol. Two sets of mov louvers, located above J V -filterin g skylights, -ate with light sensors electronic c o ntrols . The louvers are seasonally sted according to the 1 angle; the lower louvers rol daily changes in day levels . The doubly trun llight well has a central box housing both es cent lamps behind a 1lucent diffuser and in ANISHED F\.DOR Criapin Boylr cated forms directing the ligh t to the artwork without shadows or glare. Neverthe less , it seems to be an overly complex solution for the con trol of d a ylight. The Portland Museum of Art INCAH{)(SCENT LAMP Far simpler and more tradi tional in shape are the lan terns bringing day light into the Portland Museum of Art. De igned by Henry Cobb of I . M. Pei & Partners, with Jules Fisher and Paul Marantz as lighting consult ants, the peak-roofed lan terns have fixe d louvers on the inside of vertical clere story windows. The louve rs are hinged to allow the instal la tion of light-reducing screens for light-sensitiv e exhibits . Light intensities in the summer can get above recommended levels because of the multidirectional clere stories and the fixed louvers ; however, the average lux doses remain within acceotINCANDESCENT LAMP ON SHOAT 134 Strvc R face-mounted track l ight system is so carefully with the building grid, tl lamps placed in the ceilings above the clerest< look as if th ey were an a l thouahr_

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Anchorage Historical and Fine Arts Museum LIGHTS WIThiN T UBE At th e Anchorage Historical and Fine Arts Museum by Mitchell /Giurgol a and Maynard & Partch, arc hit ec ts , with Howard Brandston, lighting designer, two central art galleries have back-to-back li!{ht scoop s w i th deep light welb painted white t o refl ect the low Alask a sun. The dimensions of the ligh t scoops were determined after extensive sun studies and model testing. T h e gallery cei lin gs curve to cast minima l shadows on the walls. Suspended in the center of the galleries are incande cent lights concealed within metal tubes, e liminating what Howard Brandston calls "the clutter of lamps" in man y gal leri es . Concealed fluorescent lamps light the scoops at night. Tarbll' Arts Cente r ' ' .. \ ' ' ' ' ' ' \ \ \ I I I . t PANll J I, ' O R C:ONl H Olt o"vui H I SECTION THROUGH "TYPICAl BAY E. V crner .I oh n . on X: Tarble Arts Center a t Illin o i s Univnsity ha south-facing clerestories. Lighting designer Willi a m Lam th in k s that "south lig h t ;i better color and more v
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fayer Art Center •. '•' 1 RA I ... THROUGH TYPICAL llAV 1 e bar rel -\aulted kylight, , Phillips Exeter Antdemys 1Vn An (;allen have an shading dt'vil e detoped b y
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137 5 . 2 SECURITY Notes: 1) floodlight building exterior 2) avoid exterior circuit boxes and single access lines for electricity Public l) automatic visitor counter 2) check-room for coats and objects restricted from entry 3) place night use away from exhibitions 4) prevent air flows that might hinder detection devices 5) built in detection devices good with central control panel 6) doors to have built in magnetic switches 7) control access from public to non-public spaces 8) all exits to exterior controlled by guards or electrical equipment Non-Public 1) non-public to be divided into two areas: a) engineering, custodial, and mechanical b) collections storage, registration, restoration and conservation, exhibits preparation, research and offices 2) place storage away from exterior walls 3) use small compartmentalized rooms for storage to prevent fire spread 4) load and unload inside behind closed doors 5) monitor secure storage or holding area adjacent to receiving

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138 Fire Protection l) provide lightning protection 2) place mechanical systems in a fire-resistant enclosure separate from museum 3) mechanical shafts to be equipped with smoke alarms and damper controls 4) separate functional areas and dangerous areas with fire doors and walls 5) fire doors to be on automatic close control from ionization detection 6) automatic fire detectors with panel in museum: thermal detectors for rooms with low ceilings smoke detectors in rooms, elevators, shafts and ducts ionization detectors are recommended for ceilings over 15' high 7) use sprinkling systems wherever you can without hurting objects 8) utilize Co 2 extinguishing system 9) use dry chemicals in the kitchen areas 10) portable fire extinguishers should be located in numerous areas Electrical 1) all electrical wiring should be tamper-proof 2) no outside circuit boxes 3) use magnetic contact switches for doors and windows 4) piezoelectric glass-breaking sensors 5) vibration detectors 6) photoelectric eye 7) magnetic inductive system

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8) closed circuit t .v. Central Control Station 1) monitors for all alarm systems 2) direct line to police and fire 3) monitors temperature and humidity levels, mechanical systems, and water systems 4 ) in room of reinforced concrete 5) no windows 6 ) provide sabotage-proof ducts, air outlets and water supplies 139 7) shielded and grounded to avoid any electrical interference 8) strictly controlled entry 9) emergency lighting supply and electrical back-up 10) independent HVAC with higher pressure inside 11) PA system

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SECURITY Below are some of the currently available types of alarms, some of which you can install, and some of which need specialized factory installation. If you do install such equipment, remember that the more people who know about it and about where and how it is installed, the less effective it is. Some Alarm Systems : Audio-detectors-can be used as check-in stations by guards. Also pick up noises in gallery. Closed circuit tele vision-only as effective as the people monitoring it. Somewhat expensive. Door switches-turned on after clo sing hours to monitor which areas are being entered. Often used with speaker system since employees m ay be working after hours. Micro-switches-can be placed unde r object. Will set off alann and/ or a signal at a central panel if object is disturbed. Motion-det ectors-such as radar units and those based on high frequency sound waves. Show up changes in frequency and cause an alarm as someone crosses their path. Photo-electric eyes-can be set up in a number of ways. Some types can be by-passed, especially if their location is obvious. Switch es or circuits-around doors , windows , s kylights. Can be inacti va ted by knowledgeable burgla rs. 140

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5 . 3 PIER STRUCTURE INTRODUCTION ONSET PIER RECONSTRUCTION WAREHAM, MASSACHUSETTS Over the paat several years the Board of Selectmen, Municipal Maintenance Director, and Harbormaster have been of the need for repairs to the Onset Pier. Minor have been done on a piecemeal basis as but no engineering investigation had been 4ona. Realizing the need for a more objective review, the aa.rd-of Selectmen in 1977 authoriJed this firm to make • aurvey and report of existing conditions and recoiiiiD8nd&tiona for improvements. Further investigation was performed in 1980 utilizing a diver and underwater photography. The photographs will be available for review by the Diviaion •t the public hearing. , . . CONSTRUCTION The present pier was built in 1936 under license 11737 approved by the Department of Works December 10, 1935. The construction consisted of two types of vertical walls; 141 the first running from Onset Ave. to the then existing low water line and being a common gravity wall section of concrete with the lower aection faced with wood sheeting. The section from low water line out to the face and across the front face consists of ateel sheet piling driven into the bottom and cut off at elevation plus 3 more or less. On top of the steel sheeting is a vertical concrete wall extending from about mean low water to elevation 10, which is the top of the pier. The steel sheeting is secured by tie rods to a continuous timber anchor system located 50 ft. in back of the wall. The concrete face described immediately above is partially covered with wood sheeting from the bottomof the concrete or slightly below to about elevation 7, probably to protect the concrete from the effects of the sea and to prevent spalling. This is similar to the sheeting described as facing the gravity wall. Outside of the vall is a tendering system consisting of vertical members at 12 ft. spacing and two horizontal members as blocking between them. The two outside corners have additional vertical members to allow warping of boats around corners and provide additional protection. The tendering ayatem is bolted thru the concrete wall with the heads of the bolts to the seaward aide. We assume the nuts are cast into the concrete. The existing members are 12 in. square.

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FIELD SURVEY On June 1, 1977 a field survey was made to determine the condition of the existing pier. The survey consisted of a visual inspection of the complete fendering system and the concrete above the water line and an underwater inspection by a trained diver of the concrete below the water line and the steel sheeting. The inspection and survey indicated that the wood fendering is in a badly deteriorated condition. Over SOt of the sheeting is rotted and much of the remainder has some rot. This is to be unexpected since it has been in place and subject to dry and wet conditions for over 40 years. In 1977 the steel sheeting appeared to be in good condition as did the only two or three places where the concrete or the sheeting worn or rusted. Portions of,tbe 10 in. x 12 in. cap log have bean replaced with The remaining portions should ••placed. The surface of the pier consists of bituminous with a number of cracks indicating the need for resurfacing to prevent the entrance of water and subsequent freezing and thawing which would soon ruin the surface. 142 In 1980 a further underwater survey was conducted• This survey indicated deterioration of the steel sheeting and spalling of the concrete. ', RECOMMENDATION We believe that the steel and concrete have deteriorated in the 50 years since constructed to the point that rehabilitation is no longer feasible. Therefore, it is our recommendation that a new sheet steel bulkhead be placed seaward of the existing wall, that a new anchor system be installed, utilizing as mush of the existing as possible, that the area between the new and the old bulkheads be filled with compacted sand, and the parking area be resurfaced to prevent infiltration of the area by water.

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143 5 . 4 WATER TANK DETAILS

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. \ . GIANT TANK DETAILS TYPICAL CROSS S ECTI O N ALUM INUiol P L ATES A T S lOES SECURE f"RAioiE T O CONCRETE (THESE P LATES AR E IN M ET AL-To-METAL ONE ALUioiiN U M A HOOES ATTACHED TO TOP OR BOT TOW OF EA C H FRANE ( A NOD ES COR RODE-Hf-<1 -WOCIO RA ILING ITAIIIL I:S S CONCRETE 144 W,t.TR Llll! t • OIA . HOI.. IN f"IIAME ,OR lfiJICTI O N OF W IT H NYLON MACHINE S CIIEWS AI'TER INJECTION AHO THEN S E A L ED 'WITH VII[ THANE t E L INJEC TE D I'ITO VOIDS OF nAME TO !"A EVENT CORROSION C A USED I YULT WATER IIIIOWTH OF NoJIOIIC aACTEIIIA , CMAIUtFUt. TO FIS>I) -aOLT END AND NUT COVERED URETHANE lEA LENT A LU M INUM CLI P A NGLES TOP !I IIOTTOiol SECURE f"RA"'E TO CONCflETE PO LVfTHVL[N[ STEEL I!OL T (FOR THE PREVENTION Of" fl.ECTRoCHEM ICAL !! fACTION BETWEEN IIIETAI..S) U R ETHANE PHENOLIC PLATE I NSULATOR (INSULATES THE ANGLE CLIP FROM THE CONCRETE !l THE STCEL INSERT ) aCHEMATt C El..EV. OI"'TYP. WINDOW I'"RAME ANCHOR.OI!: ISOMETRIC DETAIL OF INTERMEDIATE MUNTIN / / / / / / A LL JOINn CONT I N U OUSL Y WELDfll TO FORM-SEALED -CORNERS LOWEST W I N DOWS HO-D BACK A TOTAL F ORC E OF 15 T ONS

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TWO TANK BAY DETAILS Of'Oaa aECTION I •;:: !111\.':' CONTINUOU S .. DUCT IJ4AFT 145 SLA 10"x SUPF 8 0.11R W ITH AND WITH CLOT J01N1 B HANDRAI L FOOl RAI L ING TYP. ELEVATION OF" TWO TANK BAY PLAN VIEW LIGHT F"IXTURE DETAIL AT B EXTENT OF M EMBRANE (_FLASHING B ELO W ---------------4'-10'' ?;t 4'' PARTICLE BOARO POLYESTER COATED 2 " P ERFO RATED METAL S TU D TO ACT AS DUCT SPACE . 0 ' ' N ::, ., FOO T RAILING ILACKL1 Gt1T fLUOR ESCENT FIXTURE AIR DIFFU.SER ......... 5 114" CLEAR ( l / 4" THK. LAW INATED GLASS ON fACE Of TANK HELD P L ACE I Y WATER PRESS URE 1/Z " PARTI CLE BOARD R ET URN COVER WITH LAWIN . PLASTIC 6 ' .' , _)''. . ' .. ;. (o CONTIN UO! B L OCK ING I S COVfR(I LAMINATE! 1 4 SIDES! ., . . VE:RTICAL ElECTION

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146 5.5 ZONING . , . •' C2. Section IIIA of the Wareham Zoning Book outlines regulations as appl y t o the D-2 Zoning category that the proposed site falls into . \ \ )

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1 4 7 11. Marion Road, Southeast: All of the area within a strip of land 500 feet in width on the Southeasterly side of Marion Road, extending from a line on the Southwest, which line is known as the division line of land of Peter LeSage and Briarwood Beach. Northeasterly to a line running Southeasterly and at right angles to the Southeasterly line of Marion Road at Station 27 plus 84.38 of the 1930 Alteration Layout of said Marion Road. Sixty (60) acres of land, more or less situated on the Northwesterly side , Marion Road (Route 6) and the Easterly side of the old road to Lincoln's Hill (Hathaway Road) bounded and described as follows: Southeasterly by said Marion Road, ten hundred thirty (1030) feet more or less; Westerly by the center line of a brook, three hundred (300) feet more or less; Southwesterly by an old road known as Nichols right-of-way, five hundred (500) feet more or'less; Southerly by land now or formerly of Peter LeSage ,sixteen hundred (1600) feet more or less; Westerly by said Hathaway Road, eight hundred (800) feet more or less; Northerly by land now or formerly by Jerimiah Murphy, twenty-six hundred seventy (2670) feet more or less; Easterly by land or owners unknown and by land now or formerly of Gurney, seven hundred fifty (750) feet more or less, and Southeasterly by Gibbs Avenue, two hundred (200) feet more or less. Said premises being known as Kiernan land containing sixteen (16) acres more or less, the Galligan land containing twenty and 17/100 (20.17) acres more or less, the Nichols land containing one (1) acre more or less and t h e Walter E. Nichols lot containing twenty-two (22) acres more or less. D. In Commercial D District, buildings structures, and premises may be used for the following purposes which are in three basic groups. Uses in all three groups may have rules and regulations that apply to a particular use. These rules and regulations are in the note sub-section which follows this list of uses: GROUP I USES -THESE DO NOT REQUIRE A SPECIAL PERMIT FROM EITHER THE BOARD OF APPEALS OR THE BOARD OF SELECTMEN • . (a) Office or bank. (b) Place of amusement or assembly.

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ed 27, 1981'' . -... . -1 \..>'t'". ' . 148 (c) Wholesale or retail business ••••••••••••••• See note 1 (c) (d) Outdoor advertising •••••••••••••••••••••••• See note 1 (d) (e) Signs ...................................... See note 1 (e) (f) Motel ...................................•.. See note 1 (f) r (g) M b 1 h k s 1 (g) ; o 1 e orne par ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ee note •., -i;,l ,,_,. : (h) Any use permitted in a residenti.al district.See note 1 (h) ,'"!;" GROUP 2 USES REQUIRE SPECIAL PERMIT FROM BOARD OF APPEALS Aanded April 27, 19$1 . . . .. . . • . ;.: \: . ! .: ... . ," ,.),.,. :.: (a) Multiple family dwellings ••••••••••••••••• See note 2 (a) (b) Apartments or condominiums ••••.•••••••••••• See note 2 (b) (c) Seasonal Camp for girls or boys (d) Campgrounds (e) Temporary ••••••••••••••••••••••• See note 2 (e) (f) Aviation Field (g) Piggeries, fur farms, or junkyards ••• , ••••• See note 2 (g) (h) Industries or manufacturing •••.•••••••••••• See note 2 (h) GROUP 3 REQUIRE A SPECIAL PERt-liT FROM THE BOARD OF SELECTMEN (a) Filling Stations for gasoline, diesal fuel and bottled fgas (liquid propane) ••••••••••• See note 3 (a) (b) Garages or auto repair shops ............... See note 3 (a) (c) Sales rooms for motor vehicles •••••••••••••• See note 3 (a) (d) Motor vehicle wrecking yards ••••••••••••••• See note 3 (a) -Special rules or regulations applying to the above Commercial D District uses. Note 1 (c) -A RETAIL OR WHOLESALE BUSINESS that may be listed in Group 2 or 3 requires a Special Permit. 1 (d) OUTDOOR ADVERTISING is regulated by the Outdoor Advertising Authority of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

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(a) A major element of the roof (eaves, parapet, gravel stop) should reach down to within twenty feet of grade at the front of the building. 149 (b) Visible portions of gable or hip roofs should have at least a 10 on 12 pitch. (c) Wall siding materials other than transparent glass should be nonreflective, avoiding the appearance of structural glass, porcelain enamel, polished stone or terrazzo, or exposed metal. (d) Basic siding colors should be white, gray, brown, russet, yellow, red brick, or weathered wood, with bright accent colors used on selected elements. (e) Storefront door and glazing trim, if metallic, should be painted or else anodized to a dark color. (f) Size and detailing of architectural elements should reflect domestic, rather than monumental, scale. (g) Building detailing should provide small-scale elements of interest at pedestrian viewing distance. (h) The appearance of wood-frame construction is especially appropriate in smaller villages, such as Onset and Point Independence. (i) Deep elements are characteristic of some villages, such as Onset and Point Independence. (j) Reflection of Carpenter Gothic Characteristics without stylistic imitation is especially appropriate where that style still persists, as in Onset and Point Independence. (k) Any plantings should use species characteristic of the region, rather than imported exotics. Description of Resort Commercial D-2 Land in the vicinity of Onset Avenue, Wareham Avenue, and the East River comprising the following parcels on Assessor's Map 1 revised December 31, 1969: 50, SlA, SlB, 52, 56A, 56B, 57, 58B, 72, 73, 77, 78, 86, 87, 88, 91, 92, 93, 117A, 117B, 118 through 124, 125A, 125B, 126 through 131, 132A, 132B, 132C, 136 through 141, 213 through 219, 230, 231, 485 through 490, 503 through 508, 510, 512, 514, 515A, 515B, 516A, 516B, 517, 518, 532, 533, 534A, 534B, 536, 540, 541B, 542B, 543B, 560, 590, 591, 1000 through 1014, 1017, 1032, 1033, 1048 from the Town Pier to South Boulevard extended to Onset Bay, 1052A, 1052B, 1053, and 1054 plus intervening public lands. 1. Resort Commercial District D-2 Objectives The Resort Commercial District D-2 objectives are the following: (a) Facilitate new business enterprises.

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(b) Conserve arterial street capacity. (c) Protect against business/residence conflicts. (d) Heighten area distinctiveness. (e) Promote easy identification of individual businesses. 2. Resort Commercial District D-2 Use Regulations 150 In Resort Commercial D-2, buildings, structures, and premises may be used for: (a) Any use permitted in residential district. (b) Multiple family or apartment dwellings on Special Permit from the Board of Appeals, subject to the following: (1) Multiple family dwellings shall contain a minimum of 650 square feet of liveable floor area per unit exclusive of closets and bathrooms. (2) Plans showing location of the multiple family dwellings, roads, parking areas, water mains, sewer mains or leaching beds if no sewage disposal is available, all conforming to Sections IV and V of the Planning Board Rules and Regulations, shall be submitted to the Planning Board for approval prior to the issuance of a building permit. (3). The development shall be served by an adequate public sewerage system.rf such is accessible as provided in Title V of the State Environmental Code. If the public sewerage system not accessible as aforesaid, then the development may be served by an individual on-lot septic system which meets the minimum requirements of Title V of the State Environmental Code and the Rules and Regulations of the Board of Health. (4) In addition to the specific requirements of this sub-section, the proposed multiple family development shall meet all other applicable provisions of this by-law. (c) Place of amusement or assembly, if granted a Special Permit by the Board of Appeals upon their determination that the use is compatible with existing uses on nearby parcels, and with the District objectives. (d) Office or bank. (e) Filling station, sales room for motor vehicles, if licensed by the Selectmen. (f) Any wholesale or retail business except junk yards; any service or public utility not involving manufacture on the premises except for products the major portion of which are sold on the premises by the producer to the consumer. (g) Motel or other commercial accomodation; nursing home.

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151 3. Resort Commercial District D-2 Dimensional Regulations (a) Minimum lot area if serviced by public sewage: 10,000 square feet, but not less than 4,000 square feet per dwelling unit or 2,000 square feet per guest unit in commercial accomodations, nursing homes, or similar facilities. (b) Minimum lot area if NOT serviced by public sewage: 30,000 square feet, but not less than 12,000 square feet per dwelling unit or 6,000 square feet per guest unit in commercial accomodations, nursing homes, or similar facilities. (c) At least 80 percent of the area satisfying the lot area requirements for multiple family or apartment dwellings, commercial accomodations, or similar facilities shall be land above mean high water, and other than any marsh, swamp, or flat, bordering on inland or coastal waters. (d) Minimum lot frontage: SO feet. (e) Minimum front yard: 10 feet. (f) Minimum sideyards and backyards: 10 feet except 5 feet for accessory structures. (g) Maximum building height 35 feet. (h) Corner clearance: Between the lines on intersecting streets and a on such lines fifteen (15) feet distance from their points of intersection or, in the case of a rounded corner, the point of intersection of their tangents, no buildings, structures, or plantings may be maintained above a height three (3) feet above the plane through their curb grades. 4. Resort Commercial District D-2 Design Requirements (a) Parking Requirements: (1) Adequate off-street parking must be provided to service all parking demand created by new structures, additions to existing structures, or changes of use; except that on residentially used lots of under 5,000 square feet off-street parking is not required. (2) Minimum off-street parking requirements are: one and one-half parking spaces per dwelling unit, plus one parking space per motel or guest house unit, plus one parking space per employee, plus one parking space per 150 square feet of gross retail floor area, or equivalent adequacy for other uses, as determined by the Building Inspector. (3) These requirements may be reduced on Special Permit by the Board of Appeals if they find that fewer spaces meet all parking needs. Such cases might include:

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152 (I) Use of common parking lot for separate uses having peak demands occurring at different times. (II) Age or other characteristics of occupants which reduce their auto usage. (III) Peculiarities of the use which make usual measures of demand invalid. (b) Parking Area Design and Location. For off-street parking areas of 5 or more cars, the following standards must be met: (1) No off-street parking area shall be located within a required front yard. (2) Drainage shall be provided for without causing dust, erosion, hazard, or unsightly conditions. (3) Design shall not require autos to back onto public ways. (4) There shall be not more than two driveway openings onto any street from such parking areas unless each opening is separated from all others on or off the parcel by more than 200 feet. (5) Driveway openings shall be designed consistant with DPW Traffic Regulations, Section 10A-9 or subsequent revisions, and shall not exceed 20 feet in width at the property line. Street frontage not used for entrances shall be landscaped and curbed. (6) Parking lots for 20 or more cars shall contain or be bordered within 5 feet by at least one tree per 8 parking spaces, trees to be 2" caliper or larger, with not less than 40 square feet of unpaved soil area per tree. Trees and soil plots shall be so located as to provide visual relief and sun and wind interruption within the parking area, and to assure safe patterns of internal c irculation. (c) Screening. The following shall be screened from any adjacent premises from which they would otherwise be visible: (1) Outdoor commercial recreation; (2) Outdoor sales displays; (3) Contractor's yard; (4) Open storage; (5) Loading and service areas; (6) Drive-in theater; (7) Outdoor parking for five or more cars. 'Screening' in this context shall mean an area at least four feet wide densely planted with evergreen trees or shrubs three feet or more in height when planted, or a wall, fence, or earth berm 42'' or more in height, or equivalent visual screening by natural vegetation or difference in elevation between potential viewers and the screened areas.

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153 (d) Lighting. Illuminated signs, parking lot lighting, building floodlighting, or other exterior lighting shall be so designed an arranged that their collective result does not create so much lig over-spill onto adjacent premises that it casts observable shadow , and so that it does not create glare from unshielded light source: If all the following are met, it will be presumed that the above performance requirements are satisfied: (1) Internally illuminated signs on the premises collectively tot not more than 200 watts. (2) Externally illuminated signs employ only shielded lights fixe within three feet of the surface they illuminate. (3) Exterior lighting fixtures are mounted not more than 15 feet high. (4) Building floodlighting totals not more than 2000 watts. The Board of Appeals may grant a Special Permit for lighting which does not comply with these specifications if it determines that the performance standards of the first paragraph will still be met. (e) Disturbances. No activity shall be permitted unless the following are met: (1) Pisturbances. No sound, noise, vibration, odor, or flashing (except for devices, temporary construction or maintenance work, parades, agricultural activities, or other special circumstances) shall be observable without instruments in a Commercial District more than 200 feet from tne boundaries of the originating premises, or in a Residential District more than 40 fee from the boundaries of the originating premises. However, the Boar of Appeals may grant a Special Permit to allow activities not meeti these standards, in cases where the Board determines that no objectionable conditions will thereby be created for the use of oth, properties. (2) Evidence of Conformity. If requested by the the Building Inspector, evidence shall be provided that any use of radioactive materials will be in conformance with applicable regulations of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; any use of flammable or explosi' materials will be in conformance with applicable regulations of the Massachusetts Board of Fire Prevention Regulations; discharges into the air will be in conformance with applicable regulations of the Southeastern Massachusetts Air Pollution Control District; and any electromagnetic radiation will be in conformance with the regulatior of the Federal Communications Commission.

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154 (3) Performance Compliance. For a facility whose future compliance with performance standards in this By-law is questionable, the Building Inspector may require that the applicant furnish evidence oJ probable compliance, whether by example of similar facilities or by engineering analysis. Issuance of a permit on the basis of that evidence shall certify the Town's acceptance of the conformity of the basic structure and equipment, but future equipment changes and operating procedures must be such as to comply also with these standards. 5. Resort Commercial District D-2 Design Suggestions The following Design Suggestions are further means of serving District objectives, but are not requirements: (a) Visible portions of gable or hip roofs should have at least a 10 on 12 pitch. {b) Basic siding colors should be white, gray, brown, russet, yellow, red brick, or weathered wood, with bright accent colors used on selected elements. (c) The appearance of wood-frame construction is especially appropriate. (d) Reflection of Carpenter Gothic characteristics without stylistic imitation is especially appropriate. (e) Any plantings should use species characteristic of the region, rather than 'imported exotics' •

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SECTION III-A SIGN REGULATIONS A. Applicability: The following sign regulations shall apply in these districts: Village Commercial District D-1 Resort Commercial District D-2 Village Development District D-3 Conference Recreation Commercial District D-4 Center Residential Commercial D-5 Center Commercial District D-6 B. Allowed Signs: 155 Any premises may have one or two signs totalling not more than 18 square ft either attached to a building or free-standing so long as the sign content exclusively refers to the establishment, services, activities, or the type product on the premises (but not brand names), the sign does not overhang< public _sidewalk, and the sign is not internally illuminated. C. Special Permit Signs: The Board of Appeals for any premises grant a Special Permit for as mar four signs totalling as much as sixty square feet, which signs may public sidewalk, be internally illuminated and otherwise depart from parag1 above, provided that the Board of Appeals finds that the signs will be consistent with the District objectives and with the following guidelines: (1) The sign principally identifies the specific local activity not standard product brand names. (2) The sign uses placement, form and colors compatible with building design and with District objectives. (3) The sign uses minimum wording to improve legibility. (4) The size and number of signs is necessitated for clear communicati will not create undue clutter, and is consistent with nearby premi in relation to building size and use. (5) Any sign overhanging a public sidewalk will not intrude into any water view from a pedestrian's perspective. (6) Lighting is steady, stationary, shielded and directed solely at, o internal to, the sign, with brightness not inconsistent with other signs in the vicinity.

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156 5 . 6 Codes Onset follows the Uniform Building Code. Special requirements will be necessary for any kind of pier construction, and is determined b y the Building Department of Onset on a case-by-case basis. For the purposes of this project, the following codes are to be observed: General: 1) Occupancy Classification is Group A, Division 3. 2) No more than 300 seats in the theatre/assembly room. 3) Two hour fire resistance required for the exterior walls. 4) Type one construction 5) Unlimited floor area can be sprinklered. Construction, Height and Allowable Area: 1) unlimited height 2) slope of floor cannot exceed 1 vertical: 5 horizontal 3) basement levels and those over the main floor can't be less than 1 hour construction 4) access to public street must be at least 20' width and unobstructed Light and Ventilation Requirements 1) all enclosed spaces used by people provided with exterior glazed openings 1 /10 of floor area is a minimum. Natural ventilation with operable windows 1 /20 of floor area minimum or a mechanical ventilation system with 5 cu. ft./ min. of outside area. Total air circulation 15 cu. ft. I m in. under continuous opera tion when occupied. 2) Exit lighting must be on a separate circui t Exit Requirements, Stairs and Occupant Loads 1) 2 Exits are required. 2) 7 sq. ft. / occupant required. 3) handicap access is necessary by ramps or elevators 4) occupant load determined by dividing total square footage by 7 s q . ft./ occupant

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EXIT DOORS S) floors above first story with occupancy of more than 10 needs 2 exits 1S7 6) mezzanines-if more than 2,000 sq. ft., or more than 60' in any direction they need two stairways to adjacent floor 7) stories with occupant loads of SOl 1,000 need 3 exits minimum, if more than 1,000 four exits minimum 8) the exit width the occupant load divided by SO and then divided among all exits 9) maximum travel distance to exit or exit passageway without sprinklers is lSO', with sprinklers it is 200'; this may increase lOO' if the last lSO' is within corridor with restrictions 1) doors swing in the direction of exit travel 2) operable from interior without keys 3) panic hardware is required from 30" to 44" from floor 4) 3' x 6 '-8." minimum door size S) 90 opening of doors required 6) 32" clear width of exitway when door is opened 7) revolving doors do not constitute a required exit CORRIDORS AND EXIT BALCONIES 1) exit corridors must be continuous to exit -no obstructions or intervening spaces except in foyers, lobbies or reception areas 2) corridors must have a 44" minimum width 3) they must have a 7' clear height 4) there must be a maximum of 20' span between any point in a corridor and a exitway S) no projections or obstructions can be in corridors 6) when corridors are accessible to elevators, only --...... ----___ •• .: --..:l ---'--.&..-.:. --

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STAIRWAYS RAMPS 7) 1 hour fire resistant construction is required in all walls, ceilings and floors of any corridor 8) fire doors with fire/draft assembly required in corridors with 20 minute fire protection rating 9) doors must all be automatic -self-closing 1) 44' minimum width required 2) handrails are to have a maximum projection of 3) all stair risers are to be between 4 " and 4) all runs are to be less than 10" 158 5) there is to be a maximum distance of 12' vertically betwee1 landings 6) stairs greater than 88" width must have an intermediate handrail 7) stairs must have a handrail on either side 8) if 4 or more stories, there must be a stairway to the roof 9) there must be a minimum headroom of 6'6" 1) ramp widths must be a minimum of 44" 2) there must be no more than a 1:12 slope 3) landings -top and bottom-1' intermediate for each 5' vertically 4) 5' length of landings minimum at top, 6' at bottom 5) doors cannot; reduce landing less.:than 42" 6) handrails required are the same as for stairs, but no intermediate rails are required 7) surface of non-slip material is required

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159 EXIT LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS l) required at every exit 2) wherever they are needed to indicate direction of egress SKYLIGHTS 3) they must be illuminated not less than one footcandle at floor level l) 4" curb required when angled less than 45 2) 25" between supports in wired glass skylight 3) 5' betweeen supports corrugated wired glass 4) wired or tempered glass 7/32" minimum thickness PENTHOUSES AND ROOF STRUCTURES l) must be less than 28' tall when enclosing tanks or elevators 2) must be less than or equal to 12' in all other cases 3) 33 l/3% of supporting roof is a maximum 4) l hour fire resistant construction BOILER AND FURNACE ROOM l) 2 means of egress when it is 500 sq. ft. or more and boiler or furnace exceeds 400,000 BTU/hour input 2 ) one means of egress may be a fixed ladder REQUIREMENTS BASED ON CONSTRUCTION TYPES l) usable spaces under floor must be enclosed with l hour construction 2) doors must be self-closing non-combustible or solid wood, 1 3/4" minimum thickness

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FIRE RESISTANT REQUIREMENTS 1 ) assuming a type one construction, see page 102, table 17A 2) exterior bearing walls need a four hour rating 3) interior bearing walls need a three hour rating 4 ) exterior non-bearing need a f our hour rating 5) structural frame walls need a three hour rating 6) permenant partitions require a one hour rating 7) shaft enclosures require a two hour rating 8) fllors require a two hour rating 9 ) roofs require a two hour rating 160 10) fixed partitions can be constructed of: non-combustible materials, fire-retardant treated wood, 1 hour fire resistant construction, wood panels up to 3/4 room height, plastic partitions, see sect. 5210 11) movable partitions don't need fire resistant ratings if they don' t block exits or establish an exit corridor, if they are located by permenant tracks, or if materials have flame spread classification as in Table 42B SHAFT ENCLOSURES 1) openings must be vertical through floors enclosed with fire resistant construction 2) shafts are not required to close if opening only 2 floors 3) elevator shafts through 2 or more stories must vent to outside 3 sq. ft. / elevator TOILET REQUIREMENTS 1 ) floors must be of smooth hard, and non-absorbent surfaces 2) toilets in stalls must have a 30" minimum width 3) they must have a 24" minimum in front of fixtures

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4) 1 handicapped fixture required, minimum, with a 30" doorway clearance 5) 60" diameter circle in toilet room 6) doors may encroach only 12" into circle 7) handicapped toilet to have a 42" x 48" space in front of toilet 8) grab bars required, and are 32" 34" from floor, diameter 9) a 26" width x 27" height x 12" depth under at least one lavatory 10) mirror must be within 40" of floor 11) one towel dispenser and disposal within 40" of floor WATER FOUNTAINS 1) 1 drinking fountain is required per floor 2) 1 within 33" of floor with spout up front, hand operated controls 3) when in an alcove, it must be 32" width minimum TELEPHONES 1) must be within 54" of floor FIRE EXTINGUISHIN G SYSTEMS l) provide sprinklers when floors greater than 1500 sq. ft. 2) at tops of chutes of any kind 3) in combustible areas 161 4) in occupancy over 12,000 sq. ft. used for exhibition or display 5) if more than 100 sprinklers, must have alarms 6) standpipes at every floor level landing of required stairway and at each side of wall adjacent to exit opening

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SITE

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l I I I I I \ ,/'. ,... -.1 . . J {------------_/ I L --u . r"l \ L. . t l ""New I \. ... Bedford . . RHODE 1 • CONNECTICUT I ISLAND (. I ( ) clftfantic Ocean Massachusetts

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!Buzzaufi. 'Ba!J Provincetown Cape. Cod !Ba!J Cape. Cod Cana{ A::=="' E lizabeth Islands -Martha's ; 163 Cape Cod

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6.0 SITE The Region -Buzzards Bay Onset falls into an area known to Massachusetts residents as Buzzards Bay. Boston is 70 minutes to the north, while Providence, Rhode Island is less than an hour to the west. The Cape Cod Canal spills out into the Bay, with many small communities flanking either end of its shore. Although not as well developed for summer vacationers as Cape Cod, Buzzards Bay does serve a large summer population. It is anticipated that Cape Cod overflow will reach Buzzards Bay in the near future. All of the communities along the Bay have developed harbors, Onset being the harbor area for the town of Wareham. Although most of these communities are primarily recreation-oriented, most accornodate a few commercial fishing vessels. New Bedford, some twenty miles to the west, remains the primary area for commercial fishing. While each community faces its own individual problems, conflicts in recreational use plague all of these communities. Relatively strict controls are enforced to facilitate boating, fishing, and swimming all in the same area. Eastern Buzzards Bay communities, of which Onset is one, are subject to lowland coastal flooding during storms, especially when the storm occurs during high tide, or when the winds are corning from the south. New zoning laws to deal with this problem are under discussion at the present time. Barrier beaches in this area are subject to damage and erosion, as are most of the beach areas across Cape Cod. Stringent regulations are 164

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in effect thoughout the region to minimize adverse effects on the habitat. Because of the diminishing availability of coastal lands for public use, Buzzards Bay communities are involved in constant evaluation of their natural coastal resources. 165

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H W • ' , , Jt I I I I ' " I " " n u • ' I ' 166 -xifl " "

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6 . 1 The Town -Wareham Wareham is within P lymouth County. It is located in South-eastern Massachusetts, bordered on the west by Rochester, on the south by Marion and Buzzards Bay, on the northwest by Middleborough, on the north by Carver and Plymouth, on the east by Plymouth, and separated from Bourne on the east by Buzzards Bay. There are six rivers in the town and Wareham is made up of eight villages, of which Onset is one. Historic Overview The early 19th century saw the addition of the cut nail industry to Wareham' s economic base. Wareham Center and Narrows and Tremont were the industrial and residential centers of the town. The industrial emphasis continued through the mid-19th century. While there had been some resort settlement along the shore in the 1860' s , the impetus for major resort development was provided by the establishment of the Onset Bay Grove Association in 1877. The association which was dedicated to the "principles of spiritualism and humanism" created a campground on Onset and sold building lots for summer residences. In 1883-84 many summer cottages were built. Onset, and to some extent Point Independence, are the most densely settled villages in the t own of Wareham. While the summer resort development provided another addition to Wareham' s economic base 167

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in the late 19th century, it was not the only new economic activity. The bog land to the north provided for the introduction of cranberry production. The early -mid 20th century economic base remained diversified and healthy. Other than Onset and Point Independence, there were no other new settlements in town. There was, however, continued development at existing villages primarily in the residential areas. Wareham is the only coastal town in Plymouth County that has maintained a relatively stable economic base through the 19th and 20th centuries. Topography Wareham is on the Coastal Lowlands, on Buzzards Bay. Elevations range from sea level to approximately 100', with some hills, but none of very large proportions. Settlement is spread fairly evenly over the town with the principal concentrations along the shore. Soils are sandy to gravelly. Drainage is provided by the Weweantic, Wareham, and Agawam Rivers. There are extensive low lying areas suitable for bogs. There are many man-made ponds in the area. The town has a tidal shore line of 57. 3 miles. 168

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iul Vic' " of Onset.. !3dy 169

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Climate General climatic characteristics of the Cape area include: changeableness in the weather, large ranges of temperature, both daily and annual, great differences between the same seasons in different years, equable distribution of precipitation, and considerable diversity from place to place. The Cape lies in the "prevailing westerlies" the belt of generally eastward air movement which encircles the globe 170 in the middle latitudes. This circulation houses extensive masses of air originating in higher or lower latitudes and interacting to produce storm systems. On a yearly basis, the prevailing wind comes from a westerly direction. It is more northwesterly in the winter and more southwesterly in the summer. Along the sea coast in the spring and summer the sea breeze is an important modifying factor. These onshore winds blowing from the cool ocean may come inland as far as for ten miles. Coastal storms or northeasters are one of the most serious weather hazard encountered in this area. They often produce very strong winds and heavy rain or snow. They can, as well, generate abnormally high tides that can cause heavy damage to coastal installations, particularily those in extremely exposed areas. These storms produce the heaviest snowfalls in the winter . Summer or fall will occasionally see a storm of tropical origins. These will often be similar to the northeasters described, but those that retain full hurricane force can cause widespread damage. About once every two years these storms will cause serious damage to coastal lands. The average annual temperature ranges from about 46 F to 50F in the coastal areas. The highest recorded temperature is 106 F while the lowest is -34 F . Long-period averages for July range from 67• F to 7o• F . The Cape area sees only a few days each summer, on the average where a reading of 9Q•F is taken. The daily range both on the Cape and on offshore islands is generally 10•-1s• F . Winter sees a greater temperature variation than summer. A 30• difference is not uncommon. Days with subzero temperatures have been recorded, but are rare, and average only a few per year. The precipitation of this area is quite evenly distributed through the year. Storm systems are the principal moisture producers. This storm activity ebbs in the summer though, and bands or patches of thunderstorms or showers tend to make up the difference. Though brief and often of small extent, the thunderstorms produce the heaviest local rainfall, and sometimes cause minor washouts of roads and soil erosion. Total precipitation averages from 40 50 inches per year, and much of that winter precipitation is in the form of rain or wet snow.

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171 Snowfall over the Cape averages 25 30 inches per year, but years in which 70 inches have fallen are on record. 8 -1 5 days per year see more than an inch of s now fall on the average, and most winters will have at least one snowstorm of 5 inches or more. The snow cover in the coastal areas tends to last a relatively short amount of time, and the melting is usually gradual enough t o avoid causing any serious flooding. Mos t of the area sees a 50 60 percent of possible sunshine. The average annual number of clear days is between 90 and 120, although the Cape is known for periods of heavy and persistent fog. The number of days with fog v a ries greatly, from 15 days to 100. The Gulf Stream produces warm water at the Wareham area, as at all the southern exposed lands. Lands with northern exposure see water temperatures up t o 5-10 cooler in summer months, and account for a longer bathing season for south lands than for north lands by as much as two weeks. CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY I'LYMOUTH, MA 1151. lt7l 41' 117' N 70' 40' w IOPI T04P U . A TUR( ("f) PRE CII'ITATION TOTALS CINCHES) •tANS lXTIItU'.5 114[AN N UMUR SNOW. S LEET M E AN NUMI(R O f y OF DAYS MAX . MIN t; i MO>ITH " I 1;;>-t;; w-' s .. I I ,.:r c . .. x ,.:: =)( ""' " " z, % .Si " " % a " " a 0 ,. c -c " '"' ,. " " > 0 " ,. JAH )1.2 z o.t ltol .. uu I' 1 0 lJ 0 • 21 I J,n ' '' ,. Jolt U ' ... u.o To u.o ., lo T J I fU ,. .. 11.4 lOti 11 ,, lt " I) 0 • l4 I 4.20 • . ,z .. uu 10.7 ll.t u zz.o 1 1 • ' ) I ..... .,., , ... )1',1 , uu ., " 1 9 0 I 21 0 4.16 . .... ttl 4olJ •• " '' 1\oJ . , J o.u •• • T J I ... ''' .... ... , tO nu u •• I 0 0 • 0 4.11 . . . , ,. ) .1) l)ll 1.0 ... .. u.o ' " I ' J I >I H I • 1 .... 1 ll'l'll •••1 " 1 ' I

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atic Conditions !e important climat i c i nfluences are re ble for the main features of Bosto n ' s c l i mate . 1 e latitude (42' N ) places the city in the zone vailing west to east atmospheric flow in are encompassed the northward and south 1ovements of large bodies of a ir from tropical 1lar regions. Thi s results in variety and chang of the weather elements . Secondly . Boston ated on or near several tracks frequently by systems of low a i r pressure . The con nt fluctuations from fair to cloudy or stormy ions reinforce the influence of the first factor, also assuring a rather dependab l e prec ipsupply . The third factor, Boston ' s east location, is a moderating factor affecting rature extremes of winter and summer . :summer afternoons are frequently rel i eved locally celebrated " sea-breeze," as a ir flows from the cool water surface to d i sp l ace the westerly current. This refreshing east wind e commonly experi enced along the shore i n the interior of the city or the western bs. In w inter, under appropr i ate condit i ons , everity of cold waves is reduced by the ess of the then relatively warm water . The date of the last occurrence of freezing !rature in spring is April 8; the latest i s May average date of the first occurrence of ng temperature in autumn is November 7; arliest on record is October 5 . In suburban , especially away from the coast , these dates ter in spring and earlier in autumn by up to 1onth in the more susceptible localities . ston has no dry season . For most years the st run of days with no measurable prec i pi does not extend more than two weeks . This occur at any time of year. Most growing >ns have severa l shorter dry spells during 1 irrigation for high-value crops may be useful. tch of the rainfall from June to September s from showers and thunderstorms . During :!St of the year , l ow pressure systems pass or less regularly and produce preci p i tation on • erage of roughly one day in three . Coastal 1s, or " northeasters," are prolific producers of md snow. The main snow season extends December through March. The average >er of days with four inches or more of snowfall 1r per season, and days with seven inches or come about twice per season . Per i ods when 1round is bare or nearly bare of snow may r at any time in the w inter. Boston Heating
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------SIGNIFICANT RESOURCE AREAS SALT MARSH* ESTUARY* SANDY BEACH* SALT POND* SAND DUNE* EMBAYMENT* 0. ... 1 . ., . . . . CONTAMINATED SHELLFISH * DESIGNATED PORT* PBl [3j CLEAN SHELLFISH* 1 ANADROMOUS FISH RUN* 2 100 YEAR FLOODPLAIN + 100 FEET * 3 • G . A . P . C.s lor th e p u rposes of the CZM Ac t o f 1972 . 1 . loca l regulations fo r the harvesti n g of shellfis h mu
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/ / I I J / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / ! / 5 ... / / / • / / / / / / / 0 8 ' . / / / / /

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View of Onset Pier from Overlooking Hill 6 . 2 The Site Onset Pier Onset Pier is centrally located in the downtown district of Onset, one of the six villages that make up the town of Wareham. Very little of Onset' s history has been recorded. Fortunately, several of the townspeople have vivid recollections of Onset in the early 1900' s . Raymond Rider, known to all as the town historian, has pieced together Onset' s story. As Rider tells it: "Onset was a favorite place where the indians gathered before and after the Pilgrims landed in Plymouth. They called the place 'NepinnalKebit-Summer Home'. Once Agawam lands were purchased from the indians in 1666, it became a part of the town of Plymouth. These lands were leased for a time (history doesn' t tell us to whom) • Then Plymouth gave plots of land to pay its soldiers who fought in Plymouth' s wars. In 1668, Plymouth sold the lands to a group of proprietors but retained control of the criminal laws governing the lands. John Fearing was one of the original proprietors who retained his interest to pass on t o his heirs. Israel Fearing, his grandson, eventually inherited interest, and came to live on these lands about 1720. Through Israel' s desire to form a separate precinct from Plymouth and other local residents in a part called East Rochester, the town of Wareham was formed. Six villages were formed eventually.

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I .,t . ,.. . l-''• ... ., ( ...... i '. . , \ 1.,..!; , . ' ' .. . ; I . 176 Original Map of Onset as Set Out by the Onset Bay Grove Association in 1878 . / , I . •r -. t .

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Far Vie w of Pier from Shell Point onset Village (one of the six) was just a large chunk of land called Agawam . In the late 1800' s a group of spiritualists were looking for a place to build a campground and finally settled on Onset and became incorporated as the Onset Bay Grove Association. They laid out roads, parks and house lots. Once the railroad and electric cars carne into Onset, the area exploded into a humming village with stores for retail goods such as groceries, millinery, boots and shoes, etc. Hotels and rooming houses flourished, movie houses and casinos proliferated. Many other businesses sprung up to cater to the huge crowds of people corning to the now famous Onset Bathing Beach. The corning of the automobile altered the pace of business at Onset as motels were erected along a new highway laid out by the State of Massachusetts going to Provincetown called 'Route 6•. Several times Onset tried to seceed from Wareham, but failed each time particularly in 1903 and 1945. Onset today has its natural beauty but is gradually recovering from 30 years of recession due to their resistance to modernize." Onset has been known, as Rider indicates, for its natural beauty, and became a resort spot well known to from New York and Boston. A description of Onset in the 1930's shows itts strong resort orientation: 177

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Headquarter s Building, 0. B . G . Association. Onset one o f natme ' s must fai"C>red and beautiful spot s . Here we ha, e a most picturc,que bay. d o tt e d ""ith clnrming surrounded \\"ith grace fully cunin;.: wn o d e d s h o re s. :\o oth.:r sea,hnr e resort can compare with it in size. in.:d t o make it delight the senses of a ll. T h e elegant summer , illa s, be1utiful park:-, and frag;;w t g:udens add. n o t a linle t o th enj::Jy1nent of all , isi tors. The ..,Jwn.:s descend so gradually t o the \\"ater;. of the bay that fa c ilitie s for b oating . bathing. and are n o t exce l le d i n :\c\\" England. 1'\ature in (lne of h e r mnst h opeful 111oods \\"hln s h e created the s hores of < >n ... et Bay a n d bade th e deep g u :ml it f o r the b e nefit and pleasme o f man. \\" i th ''" baud , h e 111arked off this goodly p o rtion o f l\la,sal'llll'>ell.., southeastern ,nil and ... ed it \\"ith th.: fragrance o f pine trees and th e exhilarating breeze" of th e sea. C H a y. fifty miles from Bosto n. ha-. become th e "!' decca" for health and re creation seekers from far 178

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and near. Its f a m e a s a s umm e r h o m e h a spread afar. Indee d , i t i s an i d ea l s p o t wh e r e nature presents sparkl ing wat e r s, wooded s h o r es. b e autiful parks, e l ega nt summe r v illa s and fragrant garde n s t o d elig ht th e senses o f the v isi t or. The c harming isla nd s, the verd ant fr es hness o f the gracefully curving s h o r e illum e d b y the soft moonli ght, m a k e O n se t Bay a thing of living beaut y . H e r e all n ature i s sy m bol i c o f p e ace and tran quilit y with only man t o dist urb, wh ile jus t beyo n d the is lands l ies Bu zza rds B ay, where g r a nder if n o t m ore beauti f ul sce n e ry a w a it s th e i n p ectio n o f m a n . A cros the r iver f ro m Onset i Point Indep e nd e n ce, enjoying many of t h e b ea uti es whi c h h a \ e m a d e O n se t fam o u s. 179

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PRIMARY TRANSPORT ROUTES 180 0 0 u <{ u

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(.J
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Looking from Onset Across to Point Independence Onset today remains a picturesque spot, though somewhat delapidated inland from a struggling economic situation. Functioning a utonomously from Wareham, as it always has, yet still under Wareham' s township, Onset has its own internal problems that have k ept its economic base from improving. While townspeople and many town officials have supported bringing new commerce into Onset, merchants have consistently fought this idea. Several areas of Onset' s downtown are ripe for development, some with condemned buildings, some with vacant lots. These "holes" in the existing downtown fabric are bound to be filled soon, as pressure is mounting both from Onset's townspeople, and from the town of Wareham, to boost its reputation and economy with new development of both its properties and recreational resources. Not oddly then, a proposal has been before the town since 1977 to rebuild Onset' s pier, the focus of its downtown. By January of 1985 this proposal was gaining much needed support, due to the extremely poor condition of the pier. The townspeople have put forth in a petition their support for this reconstruction, pledging from the municipality half of the full cost of the pier's reconstruction and dredging. It is anticipated that Onset' s downtown merchants will begin to respond to the need for revitalization once the pier reconstruction has been completed. The pier in Onset has been in its present day location since Onset Bay Grove Association first mapped out the area, and shows up in their 1878 map of Onset. The present pier was constructed in 1936. While the pier has been deteriorating slowly in the past decade, Onset, due to financial constraints, has only repaired it on a piece-meal basis. Its current state of decay is great enough to warrant full reconstruction at this point. At the present time it is used for municipal parking, 182

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Looking from Overlooking Hill to Onset Beach and houses the Harbor Master's station, as well as a small hut that sells tickets to the popular Canal Cruises, by the cruise vessel, the VIKING. The pier's nightime activities consist mainly of fishing and social gathering, as the pier is flanked on both sides by food stands, a hamburger joint and the ever popular salt water taffy stand, a candy that Cape Cod is famous for. Onset Beach stretches out to one side of the pier, and enjoys consistent use through the summer months, although not to .the::.: degree it once did. Onset, located some two miles from the main road to Cape Cod, Route 2$, and just off the bay side of the Cape Cod Canal, is easily accessible by both car and boat. New train routes anticipated for a Boston to Cape Cod run may allow easy transport by rail before too long. To the distress of Cape Cod travelers, a bottleneck occurs on the Route 28 road between the end of Highway 495 and the Bourne Bridge. This bottleneck occurs two miles of the Onset road, and can be exploited to draw new interest in the Onset Bay area, offering a place for relief from the relentless and entirely predictable Cape Cod traffic problems. While Cape Cod vacationers have many fine beach areas on the lower portion of the Cape to go to, most under the jurisdiction of the National Seashore, Onset remains a pretty village with much of its resort character intact. The committment on the part of its townspeople to "put Onset back on the map" appears strong and gaining local and regional support daily. Plans for increasing the harbor's recreational activities are anticipated for the 1985 summer season, and should have a marked effect on the recreational value of the area. 183

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A gift, a road and a bid for independence By RAYMOND RIDER ONSETJust before Christ m a s , on Dec. 20, 1884, the Town of Wareham gave Onset the big g est Christmas present ever, and it opened Pandora's box to the greedy . It is doubtful that the town would have made such a gift if it had known the consequences . At the December Town Meeting, it was "voted to accept of the road leading from East Wareham Railroad Station to Onset Grove as laid out by the Selectmen." The proposed road led over some private land and through a wooded section. On the proposed . right of way lay a barn. The town gave the owner a few days to remove the barn and several more days to remove the trees be wanted for private use. After that , the barn would be torn down and the trees sawed down in order to build the road. The road was built according to the standards of the times. Once built , it seemed that the whole world wanted to get into Onset. Building homes, hotels , rooming houses and the necessary bus iness properties to serve the population began at a frantic pace and did not let up . for a generation . Tax money began to roll into the tax collector's office as it did when the iron mills-were going . Some greedy men wanted the money taken in taxes from Onset to be spent in Onset. . This agitation came to a head in 1903 when an active group of citizens petitioned for a separa tion and went to the Legislature to secure their ends . This was such a well -organized and forceful group that finally the town became alarmed. After a long and bitter dispute in town meeting, a vote . was taken to appoint a committee to represent all the districts i n town. This committee was to seek a solution, "if one could be found," and back at the next town meeting." The petition no doubt was taken to the Legislature (the General Court) but never came to a vote. The petition was press ed by the local agitators who failed to see what was around the corner "down the road a piece . " There was not enough support for this first attempt, but it smoldered on. The town meeting ap propriated "two hundred dollars for use of the committee to op pose petition in town interest." Whether the weight of the town committee and its numbers of prominent citizens overwhelmed the Onset At that time, the Rev . Noble W. Everett (son of the pastor of the same name who had been the third pastor of the Congrega tional Church in Wareham) was a member of the General Court. This put Wareham in a strong position vs . Onset, for Onset had no representative there . agitators or the Onset delega tion's arguments proved to be weaker we do not know, but the issue fell on deaf ears. Onset continued to be a part of Wareham, and still is. One of the most disturbing times of this era was 1903 when a committee was appointed to deal with this secession . Com mittee members were Charles S . Hathaway from West Wateham , Seth L . Martin (a mill manager) from South I Wareham, Noble W . Everett (a minister) from Wareham Center Village, Frank A. Besse (a banker) from Wareham Nar rows Village, Frank E. Peck from Eas t W a r e h a m , J ohn M . Young from Onset, John J. Ryder from Long Neck and Ed ward F. Manamon from Indian Neck . "In case of vacancy , com mittee can choose another. " The agitators in Onset were reading signs of prosperity that would lead them to where there was "no tomorrow." The loud and demanding tones from a few vocal citizens led the town to believe that all of Onset wanted to secede . Many Onset people listened without making up their minds; others listened to their own good judgment. Meetings were held and great oppor tunities were held out to the local citizens. Onset had grown, they said, with a large year round population, and the wealth of new properties pro mised to lower individual taxes and they would spend their taxes on local projects and on and on. This was the first time the ef fort was made, but it was not the last. The town meeting of 1903 was much shaken by the effort of Onset citizens to secede and form a town of their own shades of 1739, when a part of Rochester and a part of Plymouth separated to join tog e ther as Wareham. . After several more attempts were made to separate Onset from Wareham , Benjamin A . Merrihew became a selectman from Onset in 1964 . . Things settl ed d own somewh a t , for now Onset had representation on the board of selectmen for three years, at least. The uneasiness in Onset still persists; but with the change in financial circumstances over the years, caused by many un foreseen changes not the least of which are the automobile and motels less is heard about secession . The whole town listens more carefully to the re quests of Onset at town meeting . The population has changed, but the beach is as beautiful as it was back in 1925. The scallop boats once seen in large numbers scraping the bottom of Onset Bay are missing . Onset Wharf has been remodeled several times and a new bath house built after the hurricane has more accomodations . All of the streets and roads of Onset are now hard topped. The Onset Casino and Holmes ' Casino have never been replac ed . The old Association Building is now a thriving restaurant, and Jim Whitehead ' s drug store i s now another restaurant. Only one grocery store is left in Onset : Onset Cash Market whic h occupies the place that exploded a generation ago . Yes , Onset has changed. Let us join hands for the future \ ------------------------------------------------

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House Along Onset Avenue 6 . 3 Local Architecture The oldest house in Wareham, the Burgess House, dates back to 1709. It is a center-chimney, two-story structure, and appears to have been constructed as an end chimney half-house. The town' s other surviving Colonial houses date from the 1730's and are two-story houses of full five-bay-by-one or two-bay configurations. Very few of the cottage houses have survived, however, it is thought that the cottage form would have been common during that period. Several of the surviving Colonial houses incorporated simple Georgian detailing; either a straight or pedimented entablature, and occasionally a pedimented porch. For the most part though, most of these houses are simple vernacular structures. Between 1775 and 1830 most of the houses constructed were in the Federal style; brick end-wall, hip roofed two-story houses with five-bay center entrance plans. During this time a large amount of center and paired interior end chimney cottages were built, some of them double cottages of six-bays width. For the most part these cottages are associated with the nail factories founded during this time in the Wareham area, and were constructed for the factory workers to live in. After 1830 several well detailed Greek Revival double houses were built for mill works. One octagon house in South Wareham suggests that this period was one of factory-based prosperity, as does the appearance

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The Harbor Lights Restaurant Across from Onset Pier of several Italianate houses by 1870. Houses--built=aroutid the 1870's often retain a one-and-a-half story appearance but incorporate an additional half-story attic below the gable peak. After 1870, the most significant residential construction took place at Onset Bay. In the area around the Onset Bay Grove Association's meeting site, several story-and-a-half central entry Gothic Revival, Stick Style, and Queen Anne cottages stand on Onset Avenue overlooking the beach. Cottage construction was consistent in Onset and on Point Independence through the 1880's. Several end-chimney Federal houses at Onset' s center were updated during this time with bracketed mansard roofs and polygonal bays. After the turn of the century, more large and imposing Colonial and Mission Revival summer houses were built along the shore at Onset and up and down the coastline. 186

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Houses Along Union Avenue 6 . 4 Context Onset' s small downtown area consists primarily of two-story commercial frame buildings, with several three, four and fivestory buildings. The downtown architectural style reflects the eclectic nature of Onset' s residential architecture, and even in its massing, is quite inconsistent. While fivestory buildings, generally their old hotels, can be found in Onset, most of the commercial buildings are one or two stories. The higher buildings are found on the front blocks close to the pier site, giving the downtown area a slightly more builtu p appearance than it actually warrants. Residential areas consist primarily of cottage houses, with many porch elements, although these die out as you get farther inland. 187

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L o uking B ack to the Union Villa P ort-O -Call f r o m Pier Area Pavillion Atop Bayview Park, Overlooking Pier and Across from Prospect Park. 188

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189 J. uuhi lllJ l\,1c k ll]> 1\vc.:!luc from Pier Area L ooking Down at Pier from Onset Avenue, Downtown District

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View Across Onset Bay from Onset Beach 6 . 5 Views The pier has clear views on all sides. Surrounded by the parklands and beach, all municipally owned, this situation is not likely to change. The pier takes advantage of clear views to the southeast of Wickets Island, to the east of Point Independence, and to the west to Shell Point. W ATER VIEw, ONSET, SHowiNG WICKETT's IsLAND. /•land prtstntly ovntd by Horold Pilon. 190

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View of Pier' s Parking Area from Overlooking Hill 6 . 6 Orientation The pier is oriented straight on a north-south axis, with the water frontage receiving direct southern sun. Surrounded by water or beach, the pier does not shade any existing buildings. 191

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6 . 7 Utilities Current utilities run along Onset Avenue, with both water and electricity going out onto the pier itself. Water pipes are completely exposed under the pier, and need to be redone. Electric utilities go to the Harbor Master' s station, the Canal Cruise shack, and light the existing parking area. Currently no gas lines penetrate the pier site, but a main line is set up to accomodate gas service to the pier. 192

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ELECTRICAL UTILITIES \l,. h VJ 0 sz ! i c 1 ------. . Ok/ I h a ' \D ('( ...... S-<"( ' J 0 / 1 193

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, _ _ \"" \--' -GAS UTILITIES 8.-..yv,aw P4r. "?'o-w@ I04b ,f! I J " ,-.,y f' 10(-1 194 \ • I f' _......--""\ .... . : •-\ 1 nl 1 , _ , _I" • \ '1.. \ .P' ' ..;. .,_.:: _ ..... '/_ , . q • ... 0 . .,s <' / / / • ># , . P•o.t,.tc?' & T elt • \ \ I . . ' II 0•:., I ; . ' ' ,,;' !"" ' _..J . I "..!' t / _ .. , c' ft ' .. , I -.,.. .... , . ,, .... _ .... ........ o\ •• ... .... ..... ... ........ ..... -..... ........ ,.. ...... .. -... .. ..

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WATER LINES 195 '\. 1 0 \Li;j t c ., }:< IQC

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' '"""" ''"""' 3 reccm rrended 8 . 2 Cross -section through paved footway showing arrangement of public utility services and minimum depths and spacings between services recommended in MPaw R & D bulletin 8 . 3 Cross -s ection through common trench for public utility services re commended i n MPBW bulletin . The trench would be back-filled in three stages as indicated. Depths of cover for sewers will vary and the local authority will need to be consulted. For land drains cover will vary between 0 700 m to 1 200 m depending on soil type PJblic utli1he s' > elected badftll rood

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6 . 8 Traffic Current traffic patterns have two-way traffic along the main avenue, Onset Avenue, and most main streets are two-way streets. Smaller arteries in the downtown district and in nearby residential districts are one-way in places, but do not affect the overall traffic flow. The main thoroughfare from Rte. 6, Onset Avenue, is two-way and suits the purposes of the proposed site, although if there is any car access developed into the site, it should be one-way. 197

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6 . 9 Parking Parking for the proposed museum will be located in one of two lots behind the parklands. These lots are both underused at the present time. The relocation of parking for general municipal use would create a three-block walk from p arking to the pier site. 198

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6 .10 Project Implications CHARTING WAR.HAM' I GROWTH "12 . ., ... . ... autldlng ,..,.,... I I 1111 ' 12 ' IIJ ... 'IS ........ Ph_ioloooocl TheM W •..rwm eonnucuon flg\lf' .. _ ,..,e 8 5 ftW"''beor• .. to. .Jar'ultV N v dOn ' t .,u , • count tl'le of summ.r hc'o"1e l t c Y'N' -found The proposed WHYDAH Pirate Museum project comes at a time in Onset' s growth when revitalization is not only necessary, but inevitable. The development of a major tourist attraction on the pier gives the downtown district focus, and provides a solid start for Onset, whose prior attempts at revitalization have been on a piecemeal basis, without long term planning or full support from their own community, or from the town of Wareham. While any large influx of people is bound to alter the flavor o f an essentially quiet village, Onset is a village whose resources have been underused in the past few decades, and has the capacity to absorb those changes more gracefully and beneficially than other Cape Cod towns whose resources are currently being maximally taxed. 199

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THESIS CONCLUSION

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Final Notes: On November 2, 1985, the Boston Globe published an article concerning the recovery of a bell which verified the WHYDAH' s identity. Joseph Sinnott, director of the Massachusetts State Board of Under water Archaeological Resources stated in the article that, " ••• this is the type of identification that we have been waiting for ••• ". In finding the bell, the inscription on it, "THE WHYDAH GALLEY 1716" also verified the spelling of the ship as WHYDAH and not WHIDAH, as had been previously thought. Around the same time, Maritime Explorations, Inc. announced their intentions to put a small museum for the WHYDAH' s treasures in at Boston' s Faneuil Hall. It has not, as y e t , been determined whether the original plan, to one day build a museum specifically for the treasures, one closer to the site of the wreck, will be followed. 200

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7 . 0 THESIS CONCLUSION The design of the WHYDAH Pirate Museum encompasses a wide range of issues: its identity as a place in the community; the integration of the museum into that community; the interelationship of the programmatic components; the idea of education both in exhibitry concepts and in its attitude toward the community of Onset; and the spirit of the museum--how it creates its "sense of place". Central to the design of the museum, as well, was its unusual site. Perched out on a pier, the museum was able to become a place where land and water meet, and where the leaning over and the danger of high places (aboard the ship) can be found. Ties with the community are strengthened by the plaza spaces which make a welcoming gesture towards the downtown district as well as create a new connection to the previously underused Prospect Park, and renew the already strong link with Bayview Park. And while the lighthouse, horne to the Harbor Master' s station, did not, in its height, achieve a prominent enough position, its place on the site allowed it a land-mark quality that gave it a high degree of visibility from all points. The building, a long shed enveloped by a large roof which breaks down to let in light as it moves from sky down to the ground, appears to be comfortable in form and scale in its surrounds, establishing itself as a "horne" on the pier, while still putting forward the institutional nature of its contents" The nature of the entry sequence, important to both the museum and to the museum's attitude about its place in the town, incorporated the underused parklands as well as the notion of the gang-plank, bridging across from the park to the museum's main level , Level 2 . A variety of options and experiences, all valuable to the museum-goer from the start of the bridge onward ••• the exterior ones gesturing towards the downtown and towards the ocean view, the interior ones offering options as to the various exhibits and media events that portray the WHYDAH' s story. The dynamic interaction leading to the museum itself was achieved in emphasizing the o ptions of outdoor viewing before actually entering the museum. 201

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Once inside, the organization is apparent. A central atrium space encompassing the hull bones of the lost ship lures people in and u p ; up into a space that holds the treasure and reaches towards the sky. Light pours in for the first time, and further stories are told on a lower level, guided by a large coffer-dam which simulates the treasure site, and by views into the research areas which support the collection as a continuim; a process of recovering the artifacts which will take some ten years. Leaving the museum, then, one is faced with the most difficult link t o establish: the retail component, the piece of the museum that mixes the tourists and the townspeople, the piece that promotes the museum's vitality. The retail spaces follow Eastern tradition in their sense of discovery, the smaller scale, the finding of places in alleyways, the sense of having to seek. The second level, by contrast, takes you up and out over the crowd, and affords the panoramic view of the bay. Hardest to capture and hardest to evaluate is the ellusive "sense of place". A promenade along the western edge, along the water, along the beach, carries you to the end of the pier, to the single land-mark: the light-house. At night, a slender lighted bridge dissappears into the museum/house, giving a clue to the treasures inside. It was my intent, at the start, to build a house for Barry Clifford' s dream. I have thought for some time about whether, as an adult, this place would find the child in me . In the dark of my mind, where I can envision things still unbuilt, I imagine muself at the south porch, leaning over the rail, the tide below lapping at the weathered piles that hold the pier, that support this house. The light from the lighthouse beams over the bay and the sound from the people around me, above me, below me, carries over the water; and in that dark place in my mind I can see the WHYDAH --anchored just outside the harbor, hiding in the forgiving night, just close enough to see the place where the land and the water meet. Both of us, the child and I, delight at the thought. this could be the place Clifford dreamed of. Perhap s 202

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203 WEST ELEVATION NORTHEAST ELEVATION

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204 SOUTHEAST ELEVATION NORTH ELEVATION

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LOCATION MAP dJ .... . ... REGIONAL ANALYSIS 4 ... .. ... . ..... ... . . .. .. I :.: ' ,' • ' , '' ,' SITE ANALYSIS t : so E:B

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I I I I I I I I 1 I I PIER LEVEL

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CH.A.NJINO • xHt antON 1.1n CAP I: CXlD IIIJIIPWIWCIUI THR RND or A OOLD&N ADa FLOOR TWO /.,,---... / ,0, VI&W TO ft&SitAACII oaLOW . " : " THI C>Ql.DKN , , ...,. " I • PIRACY " • , , •' tl B&A ftC H ""' ,, .URII:D '• TUABUKI: It n ,, , , HISTORY OP ........

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t II o . .. ' ' .. FLOOR 3 Y2 FOUR lJ 2 CIRCULATION ,--------1 I I r _ _______ J I ! I L--, I I I I I I I L_ _ _ l ' I ' I L ___ _ l I I I I I r----I I I I I \ \ ...... -, I • FLOOR THREE EJ '' 3 ---------, • .. . . tt;i

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ll r1 1 I I I I I I I II I I I I l J 111 nn nn 0 _J_ n n I OFFICES h i 0 1 \ WAIN EXHIBITION HALL REST I KITCHEN T:i I-/ Hlr1 HOI !cor"""' DI\W • LOWJIR EXHIBITION HALL i[J PORCH 1( LOBBT -------::,_....,... .I / J WBCH . I 4 .IUISII:ARCM -m r, n SCHOOL 1 ,....--BUILDING SECTION o A e -r

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DDbJ D!Jbl NORTH ELEVATION

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-""------. SOUTH ELEVATION c • ... -

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------------------PERSPECTIVE

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I FOOTNOTES . -. --ll .

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8 . 0 Footnotes 1 . White, David Fairbanks. " A $400 Million Dollar Pirate Treasure" Parade Magazine. January 27 , 1985. Page 6: Barry Clifford. 2 . Conversation with Barry Clifford. 3 April 1985. Tape Transcription: page 3 . 205 3 . Kittredge, Henry C . Cape Cod: It's People and Their History. 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA. 1958. Page 308231. Conversation wit h Michael Roberts. Transcription: page 11. 1 April 1985. Tape Smith, C . Ray . "The Great Museum Debate". Architecture. December 1969. page 80. Hudson, Kenneth. Museums for the 1980' s . ----Meier Publ i shers, N . Y . 1979. page 1 . Progressive Holmes and Birmingham, Frederick A . " I . M . May -June 1981. Vol. 2 , No. 2 . Pei". Museum Magazine page 63 . Ibid. page 65: I . M . Pei. 9 . Hudson,Kenneth. Museums for the 1980' s . Holmes and Meier Publishers, N . Y . 1979. Page 15: Hughes de VarineBohan 1 0 . Conversation with Barry Clifford. Transcription: page 6 . 3 April 1985. Tape 11. Jensen, Nina, e d . "Children, Teenagers and Adults in Museums " Museum News . May-June 1982. page 26 . 12. Ibid. 13. Keating, Thomas. "Wonderland for the Children's Hour: 1 4 . 1 5 . 16. Indianapolis Children' s Museum . Museum Magazine. MayJune 1981. page 72 . Danilov, . Victor. Museum Magazine. Kaenpffert. "Your Science C enter has the Answ ers. " November -December 1980. page 74 : WaldemaJ Conversation with Barry Clifford. Transcription. page 1 . 3 April 1985. Tape Keating, Thomas . The Indianapolis May -June 1981. "Wonderland for the Children' s Hour: Children' s Museum". Museum Magazine. page 72 .

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17. Ibid. 18. Conversation with Michael Roberts. Tape Transcription: page 6 . 1 April 1985. 19. Ibid. page 7 . 20. Moore, Charles. "Places by the Shore". Unpublished. page 4 . 21. Conversation with Barry Clifford. 3 April 1985. Tape Transcription: page 1 . 22. Conversation with Michael Roberts. 1 April 1985. Tape Transcription: page 3 23. 24. Cambridge Seven Associates. "Boston' s vironrnent." Progressive Architecture. page 100: Peter Chermeyaff Underwater EnDecember 1969. Hudson, Kenneth. Meier, N . Y . 1979. Museums for the 1980' s . Holmes and ---page 67: Manfred Lehmbruck. 25. Moore, Charles. "Places by the Shore" Unpublished. page 7 . 206

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APPENDIX .• ..;..

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207 SUPPORTING MATERIALS

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WATERSIDE TYPOLOGY U. Leuenberger & I.F. Schneider The typology here is presented in the context of West Berlin redevelopmenu. The investigation, however, is timely and should be of relevance where reclamation 111d/or re-uae of river and canal side areas is actively discussed. MIISSing diagram 1 Access to r i ver, 2Dominantelement, 3 4 Wall, 5 Roof, 6 Corner, 7 Path, 8 9 Promenadtl, 10 &ating, 11 Terrace, 12 Slope, 13 Ouay , 14 Bridge, 15 River, 16 Piers, boars. 2 Sketch of the shap i ng of the barbicans on the Charlottenburger Schlossbrucke, where the closure of the block ends leads to the form11 t i on of definitive enclosed space . Source : Bauvvelt, 9 May 1980

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209 THE STORY OF THE WHIDAH

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THE PIRATE SHIP WHIDAH 0 NE of the out s tandin g marine calamities in New England during th e eighteenth century was the wreck of the pirate ship Whidah at Cape Cod in April 1717. Thi s di s as te r terminated the career of the infamous Captain Samu e l B e ll a my, as notorious a pirate a s ever sailed the Spanish main. A rich treasure was lost whe n the ship crashed off the shores of the Cape, and the white sands of the b each still conceal the pirate's booty from Bel1amy's wre c ked flagship. Captain Bellamy, who hailed from the west of Eng land, journeyed in 1716 to the West Inqies to raise a sunken vessel. As the venture proved a failure, he hoisted the Jolly Roger and sailed away in search of ships to plunder and t reasures to steal. After cruising and looting for sev eral months, the pirate captured the Saint Michael, out of Bristol, and brought her into the harbor at Blanco. Four men from the seized vessel were forced by Bellamy to sign papers with the pirate band. One of them, Thoma s Davis, figured prominently in the shipwreck which occurred the following year.1 I n February 1717 th e London galley Whidah was sailing throu g h the Windward Passage between Porto Rico and Cuba. Having just fini s h e d a succes sful slaving voy age, t he Whidah carried a rich cargo, which included gold, ivory, and silver . Capt a in Lawrence Prince commanded the crew of fifty men, and hi s subseq uent behavior indicated that he was an extremely timid man. Cruising through the same waters, pirate Bellamy sighted the heavily laden Whidah far ahead of him and gave chase. Three long days and n ights he followed the ship, and at the end of the third day sailed close enough to fire a shot at the galley. To the amazement of Bellamy this single shot ended the chase, for the Whidah hauled down her flag in surrender. Somewhat taken back by the speed of Captain Prince's capitulation, Captain B ellamy reward e d the Englishman for giving up so easily by pre senting him with the Sultana of the Bellamy fleet. Captain Lawr ence Prince was then allowed to sail for England with ten members of his original crew. It is possible that some of. Bellamy's good nature was caused by the discovery ahoard the Whidah of ,000 jn gold and silver treasure. Captain Bellamy was s till in good spirits a few weeks later when he ran in with a sloop in charge of Captain Beer of Newport. After capturing the sloop and removing the cargo, Bellamy wished to let Beer sail away with his ship, but th e other pirates objected so strenuo usly that Bellamy finally gave in. Part of the conversation between the two men has been preserved by John son in his History of the Pirates.2 "I am sorry they won't l e t you have your sloop again," said Bellamy. "Damn the sloop, we must sink her, and she might be of use to you. Though damn you, you are a sneaking puppy." B e llamy then suggested that Captain Beer would be a wel c ome addition to the pirate band, but the Newport man de c lin e d the doubtful compliment. "You are a devili s h conscience rascal, damn ye," answered Bel1amy. "I am a free prince, and I have as much authority to make war on the whole world as he who has a hundred sail of ships ..• This my conscience tells I'V ........ 0

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THE PIRATE SHIP JT' HIJJAH me." But at the end of hi s speech, Bellamy agreed to set Captain Beer a s hor e at Blo ck I sland, and before the end of the month Beer reach e d hi s home in Newport. A few days after the above incident the Whidah fell in with the pinky3 Mary Anne, loaded with wine. Captain Andrew Crumpstey, master of th e pinky, wa s placed aboard the Whidah, with a pirate crew taking charge of the Mary Anne. Four vessels now made up the Bellamy fleet, and orders were hoisted to set sail on a northwest by north cour se . On the afternoon of April 26, 1717, a heavy fog s hut in, followed by a severe thunderstorm about ten that even mg. By this time most of the pirates aboard the wine pinky Mary Anne had drunk to excess, and as a resu)t their navi gation suffered. The fleet was off Cape Cod, although the sailor s aboard the Mary Anne probably did not realize it. It wa s not until the vessel wa s wallowing in the trough of the sea ju st outside the breakers on the beach that the pirate s r ea lized their position. B e fore they could claw off, the Mary Anne grounded amidst the breakers off what is now Orleans, Massachusetts. The masts were quickly cut down and the pinky drove high on the beach. Wh e n morn ing came, the pirates found themselves near Slutts-Bush at the back of Stage Harbor. In the distance, safely an chored beyond the surf, were two other ve sse l s of the fleet. but the W hidah wa s nowh e r e in sight. Ten miles to the northward, Captain Bellamy was hav ing hi s own troubles. Lo sing sight of the remainder of his fleet, h e continued to shape his course to the northward, but findin g breakers ahead, he anchored. The anchors fail ed to hold , and the Whidah crashed against a sand bar off the shore with terrific force, capsizing almost at once. NEW /\ ' GLAND STORMS AND SHIPWRECKS Soon the 146 persons were struggling in the raging surf. One by one they gave up the fight and sank to tbeir d ea th. Of the pirate crew, only two were to sse d by the ocean's waves above the edge of the receding tide, Thom as Davis and John 1 ulian, a Cape Cod Indian. This tragedy, which co st the lives of 144 men, was Cape Cod's first gr ea t shipwreck! Although the Bo ston News-Letter of April 29, 1717, gives Captain Crump s tey credit for purposely steering the Whidah aground when the pirates were intoxicated, there is no testimony to substantiate the newspaper report. Davi s , the only white survivor of the Whidah, makes no mention of this theory in his sworn testirrlony, so that the reader is left to form his own conclusions. The two survivors walked to the re s idence of Samuel Harding, two miles away, where they asked the Cape Cod man to go over to the vessel with them. By noon more than a score of persons were removing supplies from the wreck. Meanwhile, Jus tice Doane, the local magistrate, arrived and arrested the two survivors of the pirate ship. Seven others from the Mary Anne had already been appre hended at the Eastham Tavern, and the nine men were taken to the Bosto n jail, where they languished in irons until the following October. When Governor Samuel Shute heard of the treasure ship at C ape Cod, he decided to take definite a ctio n in the matter. I ssu ing a proclamation takin g po ssession of everything of value from the wreck, the governor sen t hi s mo s t tru s ted marin e r, Captain Cyprian South ack , to the scene of the di saste r. Captain Southack seems to have been a most colorful individual. Before 1700 h_e had already made a map of

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THE PIRATE SHIP WHIDAH the Bos ton shoreline, and by 1734 his chart of Massachu setts Bay was complet e d. His sketch of Bo s ton Light of . that period is still preserved. Master of the Province Gall ey for at lea s t twenty years , Southack without que s tion knew more about our treacherous coastline than any other mariner of his generation. In spite of his many int erests, it is safe to say that he never forgot his experi en ces at the scene of the pirate shipwreck on Cape Cod. Leaving Boston May 1 on the sloop Nathaniel, he sailed into what is now Provincetown Harbor the follow ing afternoon. At this time a narrow though shallow channel called Jeremy's Dream by some, and Jeremiah's Gutter by others cut Cape Cod in two between Orleans and Eastham, and Captain Southack came through this natural canal in his whaleboat. , The people were not willing to give up their spoils from the wreck of the Whidah. Caleb Hopkins of Freetown and Samuel Harding, to whose house Davis went the morn ing of his escape, were especially eager to keep their goods. Arriving nt Eastham, Southack posted notices to the effect that the governor had authorized him to go into any house or cellar and open any chests or trunks to look for plunder belonging to the pirate ship. Captain Southack now decided to salvage the treasure from the Whidah. He could see the anchor of the vessel at low water out on the bar, but the sea was too rough for a trip in the whale boat. Southack waited for a week before the sea quieted enough for a visit to the scene of the wreck. Rowing out to the remains of the vessel the master of the Province Galley was unable to find any treasure. Dis couraged by his failure, Southack loaded what goods he could find aboard a sloop sailing for Bo s ton. This sloop NEW ENGLAI\ D STORMS AND SHIPWRECKS in turn was captur e d by pirates. The following O ctober the pirate s from the Bellamy fleet were tried iu Bos ton, and seven condemned to death. Thomas South, and Thomas Davis were freed, while evi dently the Cape Cod Indian, Julian, had died in jail. The other six pirates were sentenced to be executed at Charles town Ferry, November 15, 1717. A large and fas cina ted crowd witnessed the hanging of the six buccaneers, whose bodies were later cut down and thrown into open boats to be taken out to one of the harbor islands.1 What had happen e d to the treasure? There have been many confl:cting stories told of the wreck and subse quent events. Henry David Thoreau was informed by John Newcomb, the Wellfleet oystermap, that he had seen iron caboose of the Whidah during an extremely low run of tides. Around 1863, according to Perley, the wreck was exposed again, but the treasure still eluded the searchers. Thoreau and his companion, William De Costa, found some of the coins on the bar near the wreck during the middle of the last century. The usual legend is told of the pirate who returned to the scene of the di sas ter. Year after year he hovered nearby, ref u s ing companionship and operating alone at night on the beach. His las t days were spent near the wreck, and when he died a belt with considerable gold was found on hi s body. Th ere are those who say that thi s re turned pirate had located the treasure, but the writer is among those who think the tale should he doubted.

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213 TRIAL TRANSCRIPTS OF THE PIRATES OF THE WHIDAH

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PRIVATEERING AND PIRACY IN THE COLONIAL PERIOD ILLUSTRATIVE DOCUMENTS EDITED BY J. FRANKLIN JAMESON AuousTus M. KELLEY • PuBLISHERs NEW rORK I9'/0

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Privateering and Piracy Twenty Eigh t of Henry the Eight for Pirates or any the like Commissioners in any of the British Plantations in America can or may lawfully doe, perform and Execute, And we do hereby Require and Command all our Officers and all other Persons whatsoever in anywise concerned to take notice of this our Grant and give all due Obedience to your said Commissioners in the Execution of the several powers herein Granted you, as they will Answer the Con trary att their Perils. Witness our Deputy Governor and our Deputies at CharlesTown in South Carolina And Given under the Publick Seal of the said Province of South Caro lina This First day of November In the Third year of the Reign of our Lord George, by the Grace of God of Great Britain France and Ireland King, Defender of the faith etc. And in the year of our Lord One Thousand Seven hundred and Sixteen. RoBERT DANIEL.11 GEORGE LOGAN. FRA. YoNcE. SAM: EvELEIGH. THE PIRATES OF THE WHIDAH. 107. Cyprian Southack to Govtrnor Samuel Shute. May [srJ, 1717.1 CAPE Coo HARBOUR 2 May [5 ?] 1717 M aye itt PleaH Your Excellency Sir, may 2 at I After noon I Came to Anchor here, find ing Serveral Vessells, Visseted them and on board one of 'Govtrnor Edward Craven, sailing for England in April preceding, had left Col. Robert Daniel deputy governor in h is stead. The other signen were dcpu!ics of individual proprietors. 'Mass. Archives, vol. sr, pp. :z87, :z87a. Cyprian Southack wu a notable sea-captain and pilot . For a number of years he commanded the naval vessel of Massachusetts, so that it was the natural course for the governor to send him in punuit of piratea who suddenly appeared on the Massa' Southack had come across from Boston into the inner aide of the Cape. The Pirates of the Whidah them found a Yung man boling 3 to the Ship the Pirritt' Took 26 April in South Channell, Saileing from Nantaskett the Day before at 3 After noon. April 26 Pirritt Ship Took a Sloop in South Channell, Lading with West India Goods, Sloop or Master I no not as Yett.11 at 7 After noon the Pirrett Ship with her Tender, being a Snow a bout Ninty Tuns they Took in Latitude 26 , 15 Days agoe,8 maned with 15 of Pirritts men, wine Ship and Sloop all to Gather Standing to the Northward. at 12 Night the Pirritt Ship and wine Ship Run a Shore, the Snow and Sloop Gott Off Shore, being Sen the Next morning in the Offen.7 Sir, 29 April Came to Anchor sum Distance from the Pirritt Rack 8 Ship, a Very Great Sloop. After Sending his chusetts cout. In 1711 he had commanded a vessel in the unfortunate expedition against Quebec under Sir Hovenden Walker, and the admiral had stayed at his house during his long detention in Boston . He was also the most notr.d map-mahr of his time in New England; in 1694 King Wil liam had admitted him to kiss his hands and had given him a gold chain of so for his map of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and the St. Lawrence region (Acts. P . C. Col., II. 264) . The g overnor whom he addresses wn Samuel Shute, governor 1716-1727 . The ending of the War of the Spanish Succession (1713) had as usu al caused a large revival of piracy, many privateers turning to that trade. The career of the Whidah and of Capt. Samuel Bellamy can be made out from the depositions which follow. On April 26, in a heavy gale, she had come ashore on the sands of Cape Cod, in what it now WeiiAeet, and all on board but two. men (see doc. no . 114) were drowned. More than a hundred of the pirates thus pcrithed. Of those who escaped wreck, in the smaller vessels, tcveral, who had consti tuted the prize crew of the Mary llnnt (doc. no . 109), were captured, tried, and executed (doc. no. rt:z). The story is told in Tht Trials of Per sons Indited for Pirac1, etc. (Boston, 1718), and by Mr. John H. Edmonda in the Boston Sunday Globt for Oct . z:z, 1916. 'Belonging. Spelling wu not one of the captain's many accomplish ments. For facsimiles of his handwriting, sec Mtmorial Histor1 of Boston, II. liv, 98. • Pirate. The South Channel lies in the southern portion of Nantucket Sound, south of the great shoal known as the Hone-shoe. The 1hip here alluded to was the pink Mary II nnt; 1ec doc. no . 109. • The Fishtr; sec doc . no . 111. • See the last part of doc . no. roB. A snow was a small vessel like a bri' except for having a third, or trysaiT, mast. Seen; offing. The local legend, as recounted by the minister of WcllAect in 1793, was that the captain of the snow, ordered by Bellamy to precede the W hidah with a light at his stern, under promise of receiving the snow as a present if he should pilot him safely into Cape Cod Harbor, purposely "approached so ncar the land, that the pirate's large 1hip which followed him struck on the outer bar: the snow being less [in draft] •truck much nearer the shore". Rev. Levi Whitman, in Mass. Hi1t. Soc., Co//., Ill. 120 . But the evidence in doc. no . 111 is to the contrary. 'Wreck.

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Privateermg and Piracy boat to the Pirrit Rack Thay Came to Saile and Chassed serveral of Our fishing Vessells, then stod in to Sea which I belive to be his Cunsatte.9 May 2 at 2 After noon I sent Mr. Little and Mr. Cuttler to the Rack. they Got their that Night and Capt 10 watch till I Came the Next morning. at my Coming their I found the Rack all to Pices, North and South, Distance from one a Nother 4 Miles. Sir, whear shee Strock first I se one Anchor at Low water, sea being so Great Ever sence I have ben here, Can not Come to se what maye be their for Riches, nor aney of her Guns. she is a ship a bout Three hundred tuns. she was very fine ship. all that I Can find saved Out of her, is her Cables and som of her sailes, Cut all to Pices by the Inhabitances here. their has ben at this Rack Two hundreu men at Least Plundring of her.U sum saye they Gott Riches Out of the sand but I Can not find them as yett. Sir, what I shall Gett to Gather will be to the Value of Two hundred Pounds. If Your Excellency Pie ass to send the sloop to Billingsgatt 12 for itt, is Carteu Over Land to that Place. Sir, here has been 54 whit men and 4 Negros Come a shore Ded from the Rack. If their be aney News by the Pirritts at boston 13 whear the money is, I humbley Desier Your Excelleny menets 14 of what Place in the ship itt was in, for I am in Great hops. whare the Anchors are the money is I fancy, and weather Per mett I have Got a whale boat to fish for itt and Things for that 'Consort. • Kepl u ''\Vrecking'' was still an important industry in the world. Indeed, u late as t85], in thie very neighborhood (Nauset Light), Emerson records in his Journal, VIII. 399, "Collins, the keeper, told us he found obstinate re sistance on Cape Cod to the project of building a lighthouse on this coast, as it would injure the wrecking business". "Wellfleet IJay. ,. Tlwse alreAdy in prison. "Minutes. "Rev. Mr. Whitman eays (1793). "At times to this day, there are King Willia m and Queen Mary's coppers picked up, and pieces of silver, called cob m o ney [see doc . no . 62, note 1 sJ. The violence of the sens moves the sands upon the outer bar so that at times the iron caboose of the ship, at low ebbs has been seen." Ubi sup. In 1863 she was quite visible. An other tells us that "For many years after shipwreck, a man tf a very singular and frightful aspect used every sprtng and autumn to be seen travelling on the Cape, who was supposed to have been one of Bellamy'• crew. The pruumption is that he went to some place where money I The Pirates of the Whidah 193 Sir, here is One Caleb Hopkines, Senr., of freetown, which has Dun a Great Dell of Damage to Your Excellency Officers in Doeing their lluty. 1 Pray Your Excellency would send a Order for his Coming .to boston in Order to Answare what I shall Aledge aganst him . Sir, Y r Excellency Most Obed. serv'tt CYPRIAN SouTHACK. 108. Examination of John Brown. May 61 1717.1 The Substance of the Examinations of John Brown, etc. Taken by order of His Excellency the Governour on Mun day the 6th of May I7 17. J o . hn Brown being interrogated saith, that he was born in the Island of Jamaica, is 2 5 years old and unmarried. About a year agoe he belonged to a Ship commanded by Captain Kingston, which in her voyage with Logwood to Holland was taken to the Leeward of the Havana by two Piratical Sloops, one commanded by Hornygold 2 and the other by a Frenchman called Leboose,3 each having 70 men on board. The pirats kept the Ship about 8 or 10 daies, and then hav ing taken out off her what they thought proper delivered her back to some of the men, who belonged to her. Le boose kept the Examinate on board. his Sloop about 4 months, the English Sloop under Hornigolds command had been secreted by the pirates, to such a supply as his rxigrncies re quired . he died, many pieces of gold were found in a girdle which he constantly Thoreau, Capt Cod, ed . 1914, p. 192. On one of Southack's maps, a narrow waterway across Cod is marked with the legend, "The Place where I came through with a Boat, being or dered by the Governm't to look after the Pirate Ship Wftido, Bellame Com mand'r, cast away 26 of April, t717, where I buried Hundrrd and Two Men Drowned". This map, with this. lrgend, is reproduced at the back of Miss Mary R. Bangs's Old Capt Cod (Boston, 1920) . western initial portion of this waterway still exists , in the town of Orleans, and is known as "J Gutter". See A. P . Brigham, Capt Cod arrd tlu Old Colony, pp. &o-82. 'Suffolk Court Files, no. 11945, paper s; a fragment. 'Benjamin Hornigold was a pirate captain of some fame; he soon after this surrendered to of Brrmuda, and "came in" under king's proclamation of 5 '7'1 which offered pardon to those piratn who should surrender within a given time. Charles Johnson, Grrrua/ History of tht Pyratn (second ed . , London, 1724), I. 35, 70, 71; II. 274-276. 'ld. , I. 35, 184 .

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Privateeri11g and Piracy keeping company with them all that time. Off Cape Co rante 4 they took two Spanish Briganteens without re sistance, laJen with cocoa from Ma[l]aca. The Spamards, not coming up to the pirats Jemand about the ransom, were put ashoar and their 13riganteens burn'd. They sailled next to the Isle of Pines, where meeting with three or four Eng lish Sloops empty, they maJe use of them in cleaning their own, and gave them back. From thence they sailled in the latter end of May to Hispaniola, where they tarried about 3 months. The Examinate then left Leboose and went on boarJ the Sloop commanJeJ formerly by Hornygold, but at that time by one Bellamy, who upon a difference arising amongst the English Pirats because Hornygold refused to take and plunder English Vessels, was chosen by a great majority their Captain, and Hornygold departed with 26 hands in a Prize Sloop, Bellamy having then on board about 90 men, most of them English. Bellamy and Lebo?se sailled to the Virgin Islands and took several small fishmg boats, and off St. Croix a French Ship laden with flower and fish from Canada, and having taken out some of the flower gave back the Ship . Plying to the Windward the morning they made they spy\1 two Ships, which they and came up with, the one was commanded by Captatn Richards,8 the other by Capt. Tosor, both bound to the bay. Having plunder'd the Ships and taken out some young men, they dismist the rest and Tosors Ship and made a man of 'War of Richards's, which they put under the command of Bellamy, and appointed Paull Williams Captain of the Sloop. Next day they took a Bristol Ship 7 commanded by James Williams from Ireland laden with provisions, and having taken out what provisions they wanted and two or three of the Crew let her goe. Then they parted with their french consort at the Island of Blanco 8 and stood away • Cape Corrientts, near the sou thweste, rn point of Cuba. . • A small Dutch island, east of St. Crotx, and between St . Marttn and St. F.ustatius. • The Sultana, James Richards. "The bay'' means the Bay of Honduras. 'The St. MichaL/, • An islet among the Virgin hlands, east of S t . John, and not fa.r. from the Dead Man's Chest . The Windward Passage lies between Ha111 and Cuba. J esuil!' bark is cinch ona , from which quinine is made. .. ' ...... .. ; ' ,. . . , ' :, : ' ... r . j • . . The Pirates of the Tf7hidah with their Ship and Sloop to the windward passage, where in the latter end of February last they met with Captain Laurence Prince in a ship of JOO Ton called the Whi4o, with 18 guns mounted, and fifty men, bound from J amatca to London laden with Sugar, Indica, Jesuits bark and some silver and and having given chase thre daies took him without any other resistance than his firing two chase guns at the Sloop, and came to an anchor at Long Island.9 Bel lamy's crew and Williams's consisted then of 120 men . They gave the Ship taken from Captain Richards to Cap tain Prince and loaded her with as much of the best and finest as she could carry, and gave Prince above twenty pounds in Silver and gold to bear hts charges. They took 8 or 10 men belonging to Captain P.rince; the Boatswain and two more were forced, the rest betng volun teers. off Petteguavis 10 they took an English Ship hired by the French, laden with Sugar and Indica, and having out what they had occasion for, and some of the men, d!s mist her. Then they stood away for the Capes of Vtr ginia, being 130 men in Company, and having lost of the Sloop the day before they made the land, they crutsed ten daies, according to agreement between and Wiiliams, in which time they seized three shtps and one Snow Two of them from Scotland, one from Bristol, and the a Scotch Ship, last from Barbadoes, with a little Rum and Sugar on board, so leaky that the men refused to proceed further. The Pirats sunk her. Having lost the Sloop they kept the Snow, which was taken from one _Mont gomery, being about 100 Ton, and manned her wtth I 8 hands which with her own Crew made up the number of 28 the other two Ships were discharged being first plundered. They made 11 'One of the Bahamas. • • •• Petit Goave, a port in the southern part of Ha1U. 0 Here the fragment ends.

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Privateering and Piracy The Pirates of the Whidah ' . . :/•.;t•;(,;,, ... : . . . . . -::. '.0:'1' ...... , . . h h I Sh' h f in the afternoon, and tent e arge tp w ereo 109. Deposition of Thomas FitzGerald and Alexander .,2 ..• Capt. Samuel was C?mmander, and the snow and M ackonochie. May 6, 1717.1 : pink lay too,2 it betng very thtck foggy weather, A .nd about : J' ' half an hour after four a Clock a sloop came up w1th Capt. The Deposition of Thomas Fitz Gerald, .Marriner, aged ,,, Bellames Ship and he hoisted out his boat and several about nineteen years, and late Mate of the P1nk Mary on board the Sloop and soon afterwards, V1zt. about belonging to Dublin (whereof Andrew Crumsty was .. 6ve a Clock the Comm ander of the snow bore away, and and Alexande r Mackconothy late Cook of .. :. 'came under 'the stern of Capt. Bell ames Ship and told him the satd P1nk, aged fifty .five years. . r.. : ...•.. that they saw the Land; And Capt. Bellame OrThese Depon ' ts. Test1fy and say on the twenty :L:.t:. ,.;,. the Pyrates on board the . Pmk to steer away North, fourth day of Apnl last past, they sat led from N : .t >, ,--which they did, a nd as soon 1t began to be dark the sd harbour for Yo_rk, on the tw.enty SIXth : .. : .( :. :• : . • . Capt. Bellames Ship put .out a ltght and also the snow of the sa1d month, fnday, tn the n:orntng about i \ . <{ • and the sloop and the ptnk had ltghts. and abou t of .the clock, they d1scovered a large Shtp, , and her :;;;:. L.'(; ;ten a Clock the weather grew thtck an_d tt l1ghtned and whtch was a Snow, astern, and the Shtp came up With \' rained hard and was so dark, that the p1nks Comp. Could the said Pink /ltf ary A 1111, and ten, ordered . ,_,..;:, . : : 'not see the shore till they were among the Breakers, '"':hen us to st rike our Colours, wi11Ch acco r dtngly we ?td, and then :;=::7,,: : :" the Depon't Fitz Gerald was at helm, and .had lost stght they shot ahe ad of us, and braced too, a nd h.o1sted .out ?'\: o( the Great Ship, s.now and Sloop; and betng among the boat sent seven Men on boa_rd, Armed wtth Mu .. ,l' : • ,_•;. breakers we thought 1t most and necessary .to -w:eere 8 quets, ptstols and Cutlashes ( whtch 1':1en are now In Boston ',.:. . ;, .. the Pink, and before we could tnm the head satls we run Goal) and they commanded the sat . d .. Crumpsty t.o .: : .. : aahoar oppos ite to Sluts bush at the back of Stage harbo ur take his Papers, go the sa1d Sh1p five of \ :! to the southward of Cape Codd • between ten and hands and accord1ngly the . satd Crumpsty w1th five of h11 ji•;:: < 1 Clock at night, And the seven Pyrates together wtth the Men rowed aboard the Pyrates Shtp, and the seven ;. .. Depon't and a young named James Donovan tarryed Men tarryed aboard the P1nk, .soon .after the Pyratea •'\: . :
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Privateering and Piracy rycd till about ten a Clock, when two Men came ove ' r in a Canna, Namely John Cole 7 and William Smith, who Carrye<..l the seven pyrates over to the Main land, and then Cole came again to the Depon't and Inquired who they (meaning the pyrates) were, and the Dcpon't Mackconothy Answered they were pyrates and had taken the said pink, and soon after the said John Cole Informed Mr. Justice Done of Barnstable 8 thereof, by virtue of whose Warrant the said seven Pyrates were Apprehended, and the Depon'ts Journeyed with them to Boston, where they are now in Custody of the Keeper of His M aj'ties Goal as is aforesaid. And further the Depon'ts say not; but that the said Pink IS Dilge<..l on shoare, so that it is impossible to get her off. Tnos. FITz GERALD s1gnum ALEXANDER X MACKCONOTHY BosTON May 6th 1717 Jurat May 8th, 1717 James Donovan, within named, made oath to the truth of the within written Deposition, and further saieth that being upon deck on Friday in the afternoon, on which day the Pink was taken, Alexand'r Mackonothy being at the Helmn steering to windward of her Course, this Declar't heard John Brown, one of the Pirates now in Goal, say that for a small matter he would shute Mackonothy thro tht' head as soon as he would a Dog and he should never tell his story. JAMES Do Nov AN Jurat Cor. May 8th 1717 Coram 11 PENN TowNSEND JoHN CLARK OLIVER NOYES Attest. Jos MARION D. Secr'y.10 his tes t imony in doc . no . ll:t. } Justices of the Peace • John Doane, E sq . , or his cousin Jos eph . Both were justices of the peace for Barnstable County, but lived in Barnstable town; they were the leading residents of E a stham. • In the presence of. '"Deputy secretary of the province. Josiah Willard was secretary. '• ., ' ;. •' ' The Pirates of the Whidah 299 1 110. Cyprian Southack to Governor Samuel Shute. May 8, 1717.1 EAST II AM May the 8, 17 I7 M aye itt P!eass Your Excelle11cy Sir, Captt. Gorham, Mr. Little, Mr. Cuttler and Mr. Russell, Gentt'men that I have Deputed, have Rid at Least Thirty miles a moung the Inhabtances, whome I have had Information of ther being at the Pirate Rack, and have Gott Concernable Riches out of her. the first men that want Doun to the Rack with the English man that was Saved out of the Rack, I shall Mention their Names to Your Excel lency in Order for a Warrant to me for bringing them for boston before Your Excellency, or as You Pleass, Sir, for all thes Pepol are very stife and will not one 2 Nothing of what they Gott, on the Rack. Sir, Fryday 26 April, at 12 night, Pirate Ship Came a shoare. Saturday 27 Instant, at 5 morning, Came the English man that was Saved out of Pirate Ship,8 Came to the house of Samuell harding, Two miles from the Rack. After a smalle time the saide harding took the English man on his Horse and Carred him to the Rack. thes Two made Serverall Turnes from the Rack to harding house, so they most Gett much Riches. by 10 Clock the same morning their Gott to the Rack a bout 10 men more, and Gott a Great Dell of Riches. Sunday morning, Joseph • Doane, Esqr., gott to the Rack but all was Gon of Vallue. Sir, he Comanded the lnhabtances to save what they Could for the King, which was them Things I Rett 11 'Mass. Archives, vol. 51, pp . 289, :t89 a. 'Own. 1 Thomas Davis; see his memorial, d o c . no . 114 . • See doc . no . 109 , note 8 . 'Writ. The money on board the Whidalz was claimed by the crown because of its being the pr o duct of pi racy, not of the f o r if man or or d o g al iv e fro m any shipwrecked vessel, iu contents were technically not o f the sea", belonging u such to the crown, but were reserved for the owners, with reasonable salvage to the pre servers. A rec ent act, u Anne, 11., ch . 18, provided that any who secreted g o ods saved from a wreck sh ould be punished with a fine of treble value; but this act did not run in Massachusetts.

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JOO Privateering attd Piracy to Your Excellency before of. Sir, the Curner 11 and his Jurey Putt a stop to serverall Things beloning to the Rack in Part for buering • Sixty Two men Came a shoare Dead from the Pirate Rack, the Curner and his Jurey says their Due is Eight Three Pounds. Sir, I am of the mind that the Curner and Jurey should have nothing for buering aney of thes men After they New them to he Pirats, and they had hured but Thirteen before they new them to be Pirats. as ) our Excellency Pleass, I humbley Desier Your Excellency Orders to this Afare. the Curner name is Samuell freeman, for his stoping aney of the Rack Goods for Faye is very hard. Sir, the weather has ben very bad, and Great Sea, so we Can Due Nothing as yctt on the Rack with my Whale boat and men, but se the Anchor Every Low Watter. Sir, If some Gentt'men ware Commissined here to Give Serv crall of them their Oath Concerning the Rack, itt will be of Great Service. Sir, Coli. Ottis 8 and Joseph Doane, Esqr., are Very Good men. Sir, 72 Dead men are Come a shoare out Pirate ship to this Time. The men that were Down first at the rack Samuell Harding Joseph Senr. Abiel Harding Samuell Horton Jonathan Cole Edward Knowles Thomas Wood Samuell Airy Sir, Y r Excellency Most Obd. Servant CYPRIAN SouTHACK. • C o r oner. Investij1;ation in cases of wreck and treasure-trove was part of the dut ies of his office. 'Burying. ' ol. J o hn Otis, the ch ief mag n a te of Barnstable County, colonel of its m i litia , j u d g e , member of the g ovunnr's c o uncil, and grandfather of James O t i s the revolutionary orato r . The Pirates of the Whidah JOI III. Deposition of Ralph Merry and Samuel Roberts. May 111 16, 1717.1 We, Ralph Merry and Samuel Roberts, mariners, both of full age, J oyntly and Severally testify and make Oath That on the twenty sixth day of April last we belonged to a certain Sloope Called the Fisher (whereof Robert Ingols was Commander), bound to Boston from Virginia, being laden with Tobacco, hides and other things. That Assoon as we arived within a few leagues off Cape Codd we met with a Ship of. twenty eight guns called the W edaw, which assoon as they came near, haled us and Demanded from whence we came. We told 'em That we came from Vir ginia and were bound for Boston. Then they asked us whether the Master was Acquainted here, meaning (as we suppose} with the Coast. Our Master Answered he knew it very well, Whereupon they Commanded our Master and Company to hoist out our boat, which we did, and then our Master and Mate went on board the said Ship. they, keep ing our Master and Mate on board thereof, Sent four men Armed from thence on board of our Sloop, whereupon the said Ship stood away to the Northward and gave Orders to our Sloope to follow their Light, And being in the Night we lost Sight of said Ship And followed a Snowe light which was before in Company with her (which said Snow was a Prize the said Ship had taken off from the Capes of Virgin ia, as we were informed) until! the Snow was almost ashoar. then the said Snow came to an Anchor And Called to us to doe the same, which we Accordingly did, and lay there till about ten of the Clock the next day, being the twenty Seventh day of said month; then, the wind blowing off Shoar, they Cutt their Cable and bid us make the best of our way after them to the Eastward, and About three leagues off the Cape they, taking out of our Sloope what they pleased, Commanded us to goe on board the said Snow. then they, Cutting our Mast off by the board, the hatches of our Sloope being open, left her afloat in the Sea, then • Suffolk Court Files, no. 11945, paper 3 N N 0

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J02 Privateering and Piracy makeing the best of their way to Menhagen 2 at" the East ward, where we arrived the twenty ninth of said April, where they stayed and waited for the aforesaid Ship W edaw Some time, but she came not, whereupon, thinking the Ship was lost, they fitted their Long boat and sent her down to Mentinacus,3 where they tooke a Sloop e belonging to Colo nel Minot,4 one Shallop belonging to Capt. and three Scooners. They brought the Sloop and Shallop and (as we are Informed) the Sailes and Compasses of the three Scooners to Menhagen, whereupon they manned the last mentioned Sloope with ten hands and soc went after Capt. Cars Sloope, lying at Peniquid,a which they alsoe took a little distance from said PeniquiJ, but finding the Mast and Bowspreat not Serviceable they left her there, and brought the Master thereof o n board the Snow then at l\t1 enh agen aforesaid. In these ten mens absence Came into Menhagen two Shallops from Marblehead, which the Snow tooke and Caused 'em to come to an Anchor there, and sent the men therein togeather With us the Depon'ts to prison upon Menhagen Island, where we lay till they had fitted the Sloop of Collonel Minots aforesaid with what they thought fit from the Snow, and soe departed and left the Snow and all the rest behind,7 and leaving us to our Libertyes ordered the Skipper of the Shallope to carry us to Marblehead which they acco rd i ngly did, where we arrived yesterday, being the tenth day of May Instant. ' RALPH MERRY SAM'LL RoBERTs Attest: J os. MARION, D. Secr'y. BosTON, May 16, 1717 Sworne before the Hon'bl Lieu tenant Governour and Council. • Monhegan, a small island on the coast of Maine, off Pemaquid Point. 'Matinicus, a amall i!land farther east, southward from Rockland. • Stephen Minot of Roston. '<:npt. Jolin Lane of Malden, son of a noted Indian-lighter. • Pemaquid. 'A letter from Capt. John Lane, dated at \Vinter Harbor May 19, shows the continuance of operations: "This moment Came A young man from Spurwinke which wnss Taken by A pirot sloop of Aboute ninty men with Eight guns which is now ntt nn nnker In Cape Elesebth Ronde ... they hnve Taken one sloop and one shallop which they keep with them". Maine lliat. Soc., Coli., aecond aer., IX. 357 "' The Pirates of tTze Whidah JOJ 112. Trial of Simon van Porst and Others. [October], 1717.1 That one of the Prisoners asked the Depont. what he thought they were, to which Baker who stood by, said that the King had Given them a Commission to make their For tune, and they were sworn to do it. After the pink was cast on shoar they said they were in as bad a Condition then as before. Alexander M ackonachy, late Cook of the Pink Mary Anne of Dublin,2 Saith, That on the 26th day of April last past, in the course of their Voyage from Nantasket to New York, they were taken by a pyrate Ship Called the Tf/hido, Com a nded by Capt. Samuel Bellamy, That all the Prisoners at the Barr came on board the sd Pink Armed, Except Thomas South and John Shuan, and made themselves Mas ters of the Pink; And that Simon Van Vorst ordered the Captain to go on board the Ship IVhido with his Papers and five of his Company. The Depont. further Saith That the Pink was Cast away opposite to an Island Called Slutts Bush; and after the prisoners were Carryed to the Main Land they looked very sorrowfull and m a de all Imaginable speed in order to Escape from the Hands of Justice. That Thomas South behaved himself Civilly. That Thomas Baker Cutt down the Foremast and Mizen Mast of the Pink when she run on shoar. John Brett, Marriner, Testifyeth and Saith, That in the Month of June 1716 he was t ak en by two Pyrate Sloops, one Commanded by Capt. Samuel Bellamy and the other by Capt. Labous. They Damn'd the Depont. and bid him bring his Liquor on board. They Carryed him to the Island • Suffolk Court Files, no. 10923 ; a fragment. The persons on trial were Simon van Vorst, born in New York, John Brown, born in Jamaica, Hendrick Quintor and Thomas Baker, both born in Holland, Peter Cor nelius Hoof, born in Sweden (but the name i a Dutch), John Shuan, • Frenchman, born in Nantes, and Thomas South, born in Boston, England. The trial began Oct. 18 , 1717; all but South were condemned Oct. 22, and executed Nov. 1 s, "within Aux and reflux of tbe aea." • See doc. no. 109. I\) I\) .....

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304 Privateering and Piracy of Pynes, and he was detained a Prisoner by them there Eighteen days, During which time John Brown was as Active on board the Pyrate Sloop as the rest of the Com pany, he told a Prisoner then on board that he would hide him in the hold, and hinder him from Complaining against him, or telling his Story. Thomas Checkley, Marriner, Saith, That he knows John Shuan the Prisoner at the Barr, That he belonged to the Ta11t1er Frigot, One John Stover Master, and sometime in March last the said Ship or Frigot was taken in the prose cution of her Voyage from Pettyguavus to old France by Capt. Samuel Bellamy and Monsieur Lebous. they pre ten d ed to be Robbin Hoods Men. That Shuan Declared himself to be now a Pyrate, and went up and unrigged the Maintopmast by order of the pyrates, who at that time forced no Body to go with them, and said they would take no Body against their Wills. Moses Norman says that he knows Thomas Brown, and s a w him in Company with the Pyrates belonging to Capt. Bellamy and Monsr. Leb ous when the Depont. was taken with Capt. Brett in the Month of June 1716. That he was Carryed to the Isle of Pynes , and kept Prisoner Seventeen or E i ghteen days, During all which time the sd Thomas Brown was very Active on board of Capt. Labous. John Cole Saith That on the twenty seventh day of April last he saw the Prisoners now at the Barr, in Eastham, soon after they were Cast on shore, that they tarryed a short time at his house, and lookt very much Dejected and Cast down. they Enquired the way to Rhode Island, and made great hast from his house tho he asked them to tarry and refresh themselves. John Done, Esq. , Saith th a t hearing there were some Pyrates Journeying towa r d s Rhode Island, he pursued them with a Deputy Sheriff and other assistants, and seized the Prisoners, now at the B arr, at Eastham Tavern about the 27th of April last; When they Confessed that they belonged to Capt. Bell a my Comander of the Ship Jhido, and had taken the Pink Mary A n11e1 in which they run on shoar. After the aforenamed Witnesses were Examined, the The Pirates of the Whidah 305 Court in favour of the Prisoners by giving them time to make their Defence Adjou,nd till three a Clock post merediem. The Court met about that time and the Prisoners were sent for and brought again to the Barr, when the President 8 Observed to them, that this Court had Given them time, till now, to make their own Defence, Then demanded what they had to say for themselves. Simon Van Vorst Alledged that he was forced by Capt. Bellamys Company to Do what he did, and would have mad known his Intentions to make his Escape from the Pyrates unto the Mate of the sd Pink, but that he understood by the Mates Discourse that he Inclined to be a Pyrate himself, and therefore he did not Jiscover his mind to the Mate. Thomas Brown pretended himself also to be a forced Man, but produced no Evidence to make it Appear to the Court. Thomas South Alledged that he belon g ed to a Bristoll Ship 4 whereof one James Willia ms was Master, That he was taken by Capt. Bellamy and forced to tarry with him, otherwise was threatened to be put upon a Desolate Island where there was nothing to Support him. Thomas Baker Saith that he and Simon Van Vorst were both taken out of one Vessell, That he Attempted to make his Escape at Spanish and the Governour of that place seemed to favour his Design, till Capt. Bellamy and his Company sent the Governour word that they would burn and destroy the Town, if that the sd Baker and those that Concealed themselves with him were not delivered up, And afterwards he would have made his Escape at Crabb Island 0 but was hindred by four of Capt. Bellamy Compa. 1 G overnor Shute. The court con sisted of the governor, William DummH, lie utenant-governor, nine memben of the council, John Menziet, viceadmiralty judge, the c aptain of H. M . S . S quirrtl, then on the New Eng land station, and the collector of the plantation duties at Boston. See doc . no . 201, note 1 . • The St. Michatl. 'The old Spanis h c a p ital of Jamaica, founded in IS2S by Diego Columbus under the name of Santiago de Ia Vega. 1 See d o c. no. 7 2 , n ote S

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306 Privateering and Piracy Hendrick Quintor saith That he was taken by Capt. Bel lamy and Monsr. Labous; and they had Agreed to let him go to the Coast of Crocus 1 in the French Vessel which they took him in, But the Command e r thereof soon after dyed anti so Captn. Bellamy would not permit him to proceed the sd. Voyage and he was unavoidably forced to Continue among the Pyrates. Peter Cornelius Hoof Declares and Saith That he was taken by Capt. Bellamy in a Vessel whereof John Cor nelius was Master, That the sc..l. Bellamys Company swore they would kill him unless he would Joyn with them in their unlawfull Designs. John Shuan, by his Interpreter, Saith That he was sick at the time when Capt. Bellamy took him, and went on board the Pyrate Vessel at the Instance of Capt. Bellamy's Doctor, who advised him to stay with him till his Cure. And that when he went on board the Pink Mary Anne he did not Carry any Arms with him; and that he hoped by going on boaru the Pink he sho uld the sooner make his Escape from the Pyrates, for that he had a better way of gett i ng his Living than by Pyrating. The Evidence for the King being fully heard, and also the Pleas and Allegat i ons made by the Prisoners at the Barr, His Majesty's Attorney General8 in a very handsome and learned speech summed up the • vidence and made his RemarCJues upon the whole, and the Court was cleared, and the Evic..lence and pleadings thereupon against the Prison ers, with their Defences, having been duly considered, and the Question put,9 'Cadcas? 'Paul Dudley, acting as king'• advocate !Jefore the special commns•on appointed under the act of 11 and ll \Viii. Ill. ch. 1 See doc. no . 104, note t . 'Here this fragmentary record of the trial ends. On Oct. 2.2 Van Vorst, Brown, Quinto r, Hoof, Shuan, and Baker were condemned and sentenced to death. Cotton Mather records in his Diary, I l. 483, that on Nov. 2 he had obtained a reprieve, perhaps a pardon, f o r one who wu more penitent and leu guilt y than the others (South or Davis? but both hnd been acquillecl). On Nov. 15 he records, II. 488, "Six pirates exrcuted. I took a long and sad Walk w i rh them, from the Prison to the Place of Execution", instructed them, and prayed with them. Before the end of the yenr he lnJir 11rtions to tltt Living, from tht Condition of tht DtaJ, II Bruf Rdatiun of Rtmarkablu in tlu Shipwrult of Ont I .. ,• , , . ) ' 'I The Pirates of the Whidah I I J. Trial of Thomas Davis. October 28, I7 17.1 Then the Kings Evidences were called into Court and, no Objection agt them being made by the Prisoner, Owen Morris, Marriner, was first Examined upon Oath, Who solemnly Testifyed and Declared that he knew the Prisoner at the Barr, That he belonged to the Ship St. fttficlznel, whereof James Williams was Master, and in the Month of September 17 I 6 They left Bristol bound to Jamaica and in December following the said Ship was taken by two Pyrat Sloops, one comanded by Capt. Samuel Bel lamy, and the other by Louis Le B oose, about Twenty Leagues off Sabia,2 That they Gave the said Williams his Ship and Detained the Prisoner, because he was a Carpen ter and a Singleman, together with Three others of the Ships Company. And further the Dep't Saith that the Prisoner was very Unwilling to goe with Bellamy and pre vailed with him by reason of his Intreatys to promise that he should be Discharged the next Vessell that was taken, and afterwards the Dep't was again taken in the Ship lVIzido, Commanded by Capt . Prince, by the said Captain Bellamy, who was then Commander of the Ship Sultana, taken from Capt. Richards as the Dep't understood, and then he saw the Pris'r aboard the said Ship. At which time the Pris'r remin ded the said Bellamy of his promise. When he asked him if he was willing to goe he answered, yes, and then the said Capt. Bellamy replyed if the Company would Consent he should go. And thereupon he asked his Comp'y if they were willing to lett Davis the Carpenter go, Who Expressed themselves in a Violent manner saying no, Dam llundrtd Piratn, Who qutrt Cast away in tht Slrip WhiJo, on tht Coast of New-England, llpril 26, 1717, lind in tht Dtath of Six, who afttr a Fair Trial at B o st o n, Wtrt Convicttd and Condtmntd, Octob. 22, llrJd Exteuttd. Novtmb. 1 5, 1717, With somt II rcoun t of tltt Discourst had with tl"m on tltt way t o tluir Exuution, lind a Strmon prtachtd on lhtir Occasion (Boston, 1717). In the pamphlet Tht Trials of Eight Ptrsons we see Van Vorst and Baker, properly repentant, singing a Dutch psalm on their way to execution. • Suffolk Court Files, fragment 99 Davis was tried separately, on Oct. 2.8, and acquitted on Oct. 30. 1 Saba; eec doc. no. 108, note S

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308 Privateeri11g and Piracy him, they would first shoot him or Whip him to Death at the Mast. Thomas South, Marriner, lately taken by Capt. Samuel Bellamy in the Pyrate Ship Jf? lzido, Cast away upon this Coa s t , and Discharged up o n his Tryal, was admitted an E v i dence , and being Accordingly Sworn Saith; That the said Bellamy while he was in Command of the said Ship TFhido took a Scotch Vessel off the Capes of Virginia last Spring, Cutt down her Masts and Sunk her. That he heard the said Thomas Davis went on Board her: but I did not see him. That this Depo't Thought it not prudent to be too familiar with the Prisoner 3 because it might tend to Create a Jealousy in the Pyrates, that the Depo't and the Pris'r {whom they Suspe c ted, because he was a forced man) would runn away t ogether, and The Depo't Saith further that Capt. James W i lliams, Commander of the Ship St. Michael (whose Carpenter the Pris'r was) Intreated the said Capt. Bellamy when he took him to lett the Pris'r go. But the Ships Comp'y would by no means Consent thereto by reason he was a Carpenter, And swore that they w o uld shoot him before they would lett him 1go from them. Capt. John Brett, Marriner, Sworn, Saith that he was taken by Capt. Samuel Bellamy before the Ship Sultania was taken from Capt. Richards, and then it was the Cus tome among the Pyrates to force no Prisoners, but those that remained with them were Voluntiers. Capt. Thomas Fox, sworn, saith that he was taken by the Pyrates in July last and Robb'd, and they Questioned him whether any t hing was done to the Pyrates in Boston Goa l!. The Depo' t Answered he knew nothing about them, and in particular a Dutchman belonging to the Pyrate asked him about his Consort, a Dutch Man, in Boston Prison, and said that if the Prisoners Suffered they would Kill every B o dy they took belonging to N e w Eng land. Seth Smith, Prison keeper in Boston, sworn, Saith that when the Prisoner at the Barr was first brought to Goal his Illness hindered their talking together, But sometime after as they were discoursing the Depo't observed to the • He had been a ehipmate of Davis on the St. Miclratl. l . I . '.. . '' . . . , • The Pirates of the Whidah Prisoner that if he would be Ingenious and make a Confes sion he might save his Life and be a good Evidance the other Pyrates in Prison, To which the Prisoner made answer that he was abused by Several of the Pyrates that were Drowned and was Glad he had got from them, but knew nothing against the Rest of the Pyrates in Prison. Then the Kings Council moved the Court t.hat Thomas Glyn, a Prisoner for Debt upon Execution, m1ght be brought into Court to give Evidence on Majestys be half in this Tryal, Whereupon the Court d1rected Sher iffs who have the keeping of his Majestys Goal to bnng the sa id Glyn into Court. Capt. Isaac Morris, Sworn, Saith That on the 14th of September 17 I 6 he was by the but knows nothing of Capt. Bellamy or h1s accomplices. Capt. Thomas Glyn, being brought Court by the Sheriffs and Interrogated upon Oath, Sa1th that he never knew the Prisoner. r 14. Memorial of Thomas Davis. 1717.1 Province of the Massachusetts Bay. To His Excellency Samuel Shute, Esquire, Governour, and the Honourable His Majesties Council for the said Province. . The Memorial and humble RepresentatiOn of Thomas Davis of Bristol in Great Britain, Shipwright, Sheweth That in the month of September last past he sailed out Bristol as Carpenter of the Ship St. Michael, whereof James Williams was the Commander, bound for Jamaica, and on or about the sixteenth day of December following We met two Pyrate Sloops, One Commanded by Capt Samuel Bellame, and the other by Monsr. Louis Le • Suffolk Court Files fragment 2.6283 , paper 2.. With this memorial we may connect a in the pa m phlet Trials: "Mr. Valentine [coun ael for Davis] moved, That an Affidavit under the . firm seal of a Notary Publick in Great Britain, and in favour o . f the pruoner, should be read in open Court", but the request was demed, , as contrary. to act of Parliament requiring all evidence respecting p1rate.s to be g1ven 'IIOCt. Davis ia recorded as a shipwright, aged 2.2, born an Carmarthenahare, who "had uaed the aea these five yean". i I I '

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310 Privateering a,d Piracy ..• J3ou[s], who took the said ship about twenty Leagues off of Sabia and Carried us to the Island of Blanco, w[h]ere we were kept till th;! ninth day of January when your Memo. (with about fourteen more Prisoners taken by the said Pyrate Sloope) was forced on board the ship Sultan Gaily, taken from Capt. John then under the said Bel lames Command, And afterwards the said Bellame took another ship called the TVhiddo, and your Memo., with the rest of the said Ships Compa., Came in her upon this Coast, where she was Cast away, as is very well known, and your Memo. (with one Jno. Julian 2 ) only Escaped. And since his lrnprisonm't he is Informed That some have Reported That your Memo. was several times on board the said ship after she was Cast away and knew where a considerable part of her Treasure was, and that he had Concealed some of it ;3 and many other have been given out Con your Memo. very falsely, to the great prejudice of your Memo., \Vho is altogether Ignorant of what is Al him, And hath already Discharged his Con science by making a true and full Discovery of all he knows referring to the premises. But your Memo. being a stranger was not Credited and therefore he had no better Fare than the Pyrates, being in Chains as well as they; vVhereas he declares from his heart that he was forced along with them, very Contrary to his will and to his great grief and sorrow, and was no ways Active among them any further than he was Compelled. And forasmuch as your Memo. understands that the Pyrates in Prison suspect that he will make such discoverys as will not be pleasing to them, he is fearfull least they should hurt him, if not deprive him of life, to prevent his Testimony against them. Your Memo. therefore and for the Considerations before mentioned Humbly prays your Excellency and Honours w ill so far Indulge him as to free ' So the manmcript reads, but it is doubtless an error for "Jno. Indian", which in th e handwriting o f that day woul d look much the same; we know that one Englishman and one Indian alone escaped, and in the printed T ria ls it was t estified that the p irat es had "one Lambeth and one Indian born at Cape Cod for l'i lou. " ' Se e doc . no. 110. The Pirates of the Whidah 311 him from his Chains and Imprisonm't with the pyrates, and that he may have some Apartm't seperate from them, and that such other Relief may be Given to your poor pet'r (who is Innocent of what is laid to his Charge) as the matter will bear, and as to your Excellency and Honours in your great Moderation and Compassion shall seem meet. And your Memo. (as in Duty bound) shall ever pray, etc. THOMAS DAVIS. 115. Petition of William Davis. 1717.1 To His Excellency the Governour and Council The humble Petition of William Davis of Bristol Car penter and Father of the said Thomas Davis, Sheweth, That the said Thomas Davis from his youth up hath been a Dutiful and Obedient son, and his life and De portm't has been always Regular and becoming as well as Peaceable, and your poor Pet'r prays your Excellency and Honours will Compassionate him and extend your Favour and Indulgence to his son as far as shall stand with your Wisdom and Clemency. And your Pet'r shall pray, etc. WILLIAM DAVIS. Capt. John Gilbert, Marriner, belonging to Bristol, Testi fyeth and saith That he well knew Thomas Davis of the abovenamed William Davis) for these seven or etght years last past, and that he ?as had a. good Educa.tion in a Religious and Orderly Famtly, and hts ConversatiOn, Car riage and behavour all that while was very ?ecent and be coming, and this Depon't has no reas?n to thtnk but that he always lived a well ordered life, havtng never heard to the Contrary. And further Saith not. ]NO. GILBERT. • Suffolk Court Files, fragment 262&3, paper 2 . There were several oral witnenea to Thomas Davis's good cha racter.

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226 BARRY CLIFFORD ' S SEARCH FOR THE WHIDAH

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' ' ' relephone (617) 426-3000 *** 25 Cents _I( January 5, 198! old, silver pulled from Cape pirate shil .... A clPE COD treasure hunter has pulled $10 million in gold and silver loot off the ocean floor after discovering what may be the richest wreck ever -the pirate ship Whi dah. Barry Clifford. a swashbuck ling, 40-yearold thrill-seeker has stuffed a Ch atham bank safe full of gold and silver coins, gold bars and m-1ggct s , and 18th cen tury artifacts he found under water a quarter-mile off Well fleet. State officials, who got a look at the find just before Christ mas, say they are convinced Clifford's discovery will be the L By GAYLE FEE "The stuff he brought up i s p h c n o m c n a I and s o n I y s c r atche d the surfa c e uf wha t' s down there. : •. Cahill's colleague board chairman Joseph Sinnott agreed. . "This wreck is gqing to be the biggest ever in value," h e said. "The wrecks in Florida arc going to SJCem rather small COm pared s . " The idah, a thrcd-maslcd galleon talned by the notor-ious pir c .Samucl "Black" Bel lamy, sank In a raging April in 171"7 "",.,._.,,..,._ ttn h ... ...... -..& • . ... • ' • • f'V f'V --..1

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' t , I)RtAihEl' -'IGOLD & FOUND IT By GAYLE FEE AS A SMALL child up o n Cape C od. Barry Cliffo r d would t o s leep t u tales o r the ship wrecke d Whidah and its fabulous treasure. and the n dream o f pirate Yesterday, il was re v cu lcd tha t ClifCurd now a h:tndsomc. 1 0 year-old , full -Umc trea sure hun t e r has so f.tr unearthed sumt $10 m II !tu n w orth o f .tn d salver fro m thl' le wreck and < s t 1 matcs s ; ty the t otal h • .lUl could go as high as HOO millio n . " I far s t he ard alJuut the Wh i d a h when I o kid ," Clifford said in a 1 \l!!J inte rview . " M y un cle, Bill Carr, who was kind o f a soldier of f o r tunc himself, told me about the ship, the pirutcs and the treasure. "I think I knew even tlo('ll that some day I'd h .. ve to try to find it." That day cam<' in of l!HSJ, V. '" 'II Cllltt•rd and a cn: w o f ll; v c r s In clutlan Jvhn 1-'. Kennedy Jr., tlw son .,r the l.al c IJI'(• si -• \ ' .. , .. ,,: L •. .,,. i ' ,,. -. ball11 and ship's hard ware he brought up. But 11keptles kept dis -'--.t.L1 J BARRY CLIFFORD reads up on pirate ioreln hla home. He of the Widah and its gOld. says that as a boy growing up on Cape Cod he heard tales million worth so far. ' i • nuggets and Jewelry he of the s l ate board of un seeker who was a col real cstato, found underwater a dcrwalcr archeology. lege football star, a Sta" pholo by T eel A be IIUCCCllSfuiJ WOI be out there," he

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• PAGE6 SUNDAY CAPE COD TIMES, JANUARY 6, 1985 • Clifford sells Whidah salvage story to Parade FROM STAFF AND WIRE REPORTS BOSTON -Barry Clifford's sto ry on the reported discovery of the sunken priate ship the Whidah will be published in Parade magazine later this month . Under a publisher ' s agreement wtth the weekly newspaper-insert magazine, Clifford is keeping se cret most of the details of his sal vage w ork on the lost 18th century pirate vessel believed sunk In the Atlanti c Ocean off Wellfleet 267 y ears ajl(o. The 40-year old treasure hunter from Vineyard Haven has brought up hundreds of gold and silver coms , gold dust and pieces of gold, bars and jewelry from its watery grave since he began excavating the shipwreck this summer. The loot , valued conservatively by a state expert at more than $1 million , is deposited in a Chatham b ank. Alii c an sa y is we haven't even started." Clifford , reached in Colo-1 r ado y esterday , said of the trea sure he has already found . But while Clifford Is keeping mum on the sut.Jject, the state's eight -member Board of Under water Archaeological Resources has been getting a first-hand look at the treasure slnce Clifford be gan bringing it up. In a November interview with the Cape Cod Times, board mem ber and undersea expert Robert Cahill estimated the value of the sunken ship ' s cargo at $400 million. "If it's not the Wldhah, I don't know what is , " Cahill said . "What other ships would have thousands of coins on it?" "I can't put a value on what was found thus far, but, with at leasl 600 silver and gold coins and the gold dust , what he's found is worth well over $1 million already," Ca hill said during a recent interview with the Associated Press. . However , a member of the sal vage team, who asked not to be identified, has estimated the find to date at $10 million . The Whidah , a ship captained by Samuel Black" Bellamy , was carrying booty from 22 vessels .It pirated in the Caribbean when It sank in an April 1717 storm 700. miles off Wellfleet. Courtroom accounts of two . sur: vivors of the Whidah, as well as seven pirates aboard another ves sel that crashed nearby In the same storm, told of great trea sures aboard . Cahill said the booty was esti mated at the time the ship sank at $4 million and is probably worth $400 million today . Clifford said he expects It will take him six to 10 . more years to retrieve the rest of the treasure. Salv!ige laws require the state archeological board to take a look at the Whldah's booty and to make sure what's brought up is pre served and charted. "We also do It to make sure peo ple don't start pocketing things and walking away," Cahlll said . Clifford's salvage operation, Maritime Underwater Surveys, has granted temporary cus tody of the loot, attorney Alan H . Tufankjlan said yesterday. But the state has gone to court to claim 25 percent of what Is sal vaged from the wreck, while Clif ford claims he should have It all . An appeal to a federal court Is likely . Howeyer , Tufankjlan said , "We're waltlna to aee what happens . " Using h&_rlcal records and a powerful l;tal-detector-ILke de vice to search 20 feet under the ocean floor, Clifford ' s salvagers found 15 to 20 likely spots for the treasure. "At about the fourth or fifth hole, they made this fantastic discov ery , " Cahill said, enumerating the items he has seen so far: • A chest full of Spanish and French coins In mint condltlon,t ing before 1717. • Pieces of gold bars d jewelry carefully cut, probably by pirates who were dlvldlng up their share . a . • Tiny of gold dust. • More than 20 Spanish cannis, as well as cannon balls and ca n and musket shot. . . • A swivel gun , a pirate's broadsword and a flintlock pistol. • A mortar jar with the letter "W" scratched on Its base . The salvagers, who . last summer included John F . Kennedy Jr. , son of the late president, still hope to find more jewelry . ' • .. . •

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Official says treasure hunter has found ship Wreck to be verified as pirate VeiSel By Gary Ghlolo Globe Correspondent ORLEANS "You know In ev ery story or bll of folklore there's a . germ of truth. Well. here's the truth," said a quiet Barry Clifford as he swung open the sled vault door for a Globe reporter In a Chatham bank three weeks ago . Inside the lit vault. slacked up in clear view were open boxes of coins clearly dis playing the mark of a Spanish lion. coins looking almo:>t as fresh as when thev were believed to ltave been minted from South .'\rnerlcan sliver 300 years ago. , nlns from a l"OIIectlon that Cllf'"rd Is worth $10 million . bits of gleaming gold bars were displayed In rt"d felt and 111 one of the bags. still kept In :.all water to prevent deteri o r a tion . a delicate gold and Jewel encrusted ••t'<'klace lay . Stacks of gold coins. Illost In excellent cond l : Jon. were sealed In plastic. but 1l1ey still managed to shine the wrapper. Clifford . a treasure hunter and . 111derwater salvager had an.. uunced last July that he had tuund the Whidah. a legendary IHth century pirate ship which :.ank In a gale off Wellneet In 1717 showing a reporter wh a t he said had been found at the site of the wreck . He was showing tht' coins and Jewels with the understand Ing that nothing would be said. But , this weekend. the chair man and a former member of the state Hoard of Underwater Ar chaeological Resource s also said Clifford has found the Whidah and they too have seen the vault contents. "I have no doubt It's the Whl d a h . First. there Is no other ship out there with the kind of stuff they ' ve found. All the coins he found out there are dated pre 1717 ... the coins are remarkably pre served and most arc Spanish," said Robert Cahill of Salem. re < :ently retired from the stale underwater board. "I think Barry has it." agreed Joseph Sinnott. chairman of the state underwater board yesterday. Sinnott said four state archaeolo gists have examined artifacts and treasure and the board wlll verify the wreck as a pirate ship later this month. Sinnott said the slate board had also agreed to walt un til Cllfford's story concerning the ship Is published In Parade maga zlne Jan. 27. Yesterday. calling from a Vall. I I I • I I' . . Wreck to he verified as pirate shi] • GOLD .... Continued frorrl Page '38 . "The only thfng . J can say Is that we haven't started yet. I'm sure we ' ve got. the wreck. We've done one test pit and I tell you It was damn scary .. the whole bottom of the sea was covered In gold and s 1lver ." Clifford had told The . Globe two weeks ago at his Orleans head quarters that he had uncovered 2000 silver and gold coins. jewelry and artifac ts. from the wreck worth perh a ps $10 mtlllon . "Then. I s going to be quite ct market In crow futures down here," said Clifford. adding. "A lot of people are gotng to have crow to cat for months . " Clifford's l ong ques t for the Whldah has drawn criticism from other salvagers and the media from time to lime . While articles In People magazine glorified Clif ford and his crew of treasure hunters. a Hoston magazine arti cle last year portrayed Clifford as a boaster and a publicity hound. Until the find of cannona and l:irlllsll traders ln , a sea batt C lllford . a 40yea r old f Dennis lifeguard and Tlsbu vag e r . s t a rted hi s search f WhlrA spen pollee chit> counts by maritime historians.. M cCh,ng. began actively CX( the Whldah sank off We) I fleet In a the sea boll om In 1982. • fierce storm on April 26. 1717, "What l:iarry h a s done 1 with a crew estimated at between pJ.y lnae dlble,"S
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90 yt-ars o f t • aring rur the .mno un t :t>mt'nl Fri .e tn abo ut a month P h ome, ongtnally an p uo r . but m ore estdtntlal renter r o r d tslurbed b o ys . will e o f dtchni ng enrollaung de h cats . 1 O \ I'A' there. rctnging tn 1 S wtll be s H o m e tn F all Rher. K 'e much differen t for ne. tdford ' s population >Idl y 1n lhe late 191h • loc a l pastors sa w the le a h ome f o r orphaned R ev Matthew Harkins , i ocose (lh• Fall River nlil 1904), steps were pastor o f St. Lawrenc e ; , Neves . pastor of Sl Rev. James F . Clark, stabli sh an orphanage Street ballpark f r o m ors engaged architect e . Plans called for the !Tally R omanesque in created in the front lessed Virgin Mary . in 1med. cornerstone laying o n at SL Lawrence . on site . •d lhac 1 0.000 people ? . . . .:.; • • • , t ,•. : 1 .._.J • p rev t ous .. nd .. .. w curbtng lon&-range nuclear mi!!iles . Those talks bro ke d own in the Swi M c ll y an lac• Also o n the Sovie t team Will be Yuli A . Kvit.s i nsk y , the c httf Sovt et nego t iator for medtum-range mas Prices are real issue in auction dispute B y Na ncy Druckl!l" ST NCIMO-T\MES ST/ISF Wlm'9: NEW B E DFORD A fisherman say.s i f he doesn' t start catching more fish by March. he ' ll kiss the sea good bye a nd g o lo wo r k in a fac tory. Two processor11 say illey 'v• had a hard time sellin r thousand s of poun ds of fish In rocenl week! and have put t heir leftovers up for on the a uction board. The stories doo ' l seem co jibe . lr there' s so little fish . why isn ' t lh• market begging for all !hal' s avail. able'! 231 \.""'"'"' ol ..... 1\\.l l.li tJIVII1 1411LI on the li. S d elegatiOn tn the mtermedtale-range m1sstle Ialka. Reagan w1th th e three men tan to the l1 S . po!ture r o r the upcommg In a n tlllerview w1tb radio .;ha r tly a l te r the a nn o un cements'" .. od M osco w . (Piuse lura to PIJt !) sho uld be begging for all !heir hsh. accuse processon of tryinc to dr i ve prices d own. blame the weather, high prices and fore ign competiti on f o r c reating a temporary glu t of fish . This month . the da1ly auction has become t he battleground . Several i n the industry agree tb.i! isn ' t the first time a processor bas tried to resell fish at a uction. In fact, t he structure of the fish auc ti o n necessitates that de.1len resell fish. Bu yers bid on a b
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Scientist proves Cape wreck i s Whidah (Continued from Pa1e I) use from a bout t68 0 t o 1800 . But two trigge r guards, sideplates from shoulder w e apons and the o ne sword hilt uncovered w ould ha ve been cur r en t only before 1720. " What r eally lies it down are the coins, " Reiss said . " I'm not allowed to say how many coins were br o ught up , but over 800 had dates on them and th e last two (dates) are 1 7 t5 and 17t6 . " O ther lllan some wood fragments , i n the two test pits du11ast fall , the d ivers have f o und no " organ lc a , " he said, meanin1 bull remalnt or leather or cloth olton (ound on wrecu long burled in tile anaerobic atmosphere beneath wll$er and sediment " PeDOnal and nautical artllacta were all made of metal," he aald . "We rcnt.d one 'ceramic .Unl and absolutrly no 11aa. . . . Wt believe that because of the naturt of the w rec k a 1 e and llle that 1 lot o f the IIebl malerlalo •uhed toward sbore and apread oulle a fan patte m " After Cli U ord ' s announce ment o r hi s find, aom e experts had suggested the si t e might be sa lted with arti facts found elsewhere , but R eiss said that Is not posstble . The distribution of the finds i n the sedi me nt and the s pread pattern would be Impossible to l a ke , he said . Work ing the site I s extremely dif ficult , he .. ld. " The .. Dd ls partic ularly mobile ," he added. "It' s k ind of like working In hot honey ... . When we fin is hed up the lirll test p it , we came back two days later and the whole area waa abaolutely flat, e ven though. w e ' d 1on e down 10 lett and due a 20-l oo t diameter on the aurlace. " Rei n d i d not •peculate on the market value of the lind , rumored to be worth UOO million to f400 mil lion, but the maritime l natl tute'a contract with ME! specifies that the c ollection wtll be kept Intact until three to live years alter the excava tion Ia completed . The excavation Ia expected to take live years. MEl reportedly lo conolderln1 ettabillhlna a muaeum to house the .... J ., ......... . collection Inta ct. "As far as we know , " R eiss said , " this would be th e only p irate c oll ec tion that one could go t o and see the whole pirate culture and the trea sure all put together . ... The impo r tance of the s He seems clear . There ' s n o t much known about the culture of p ira te s of the lime . , . " Financing the longterm exc ava lion and s tu dy ma y be a p r o blem . but support may c o me fr o m mvn t ors wh o b u y stock in the venture . Hopefully , investors would get some profit out of stock and the notoriety of bemg able to hand down an interest i n pirates ' trea s ure t o your k ids . " t\J w t\J

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• • ,_ . . . . . -. .... . . ... .... ... -a . ., . . ,_ . . . : . . ' ' . ...-"-.--:> Technology, advetiture spur . a Cape Cod salvaging nJSh By G ary Ghtoto Globe Corresponder.t ORLEANS As long as men go down to the sea I n ships. there will beother men seeking those-ships for booty and the ad\enture sal vaging wrecks can bring. . -Salvagers h ere are a growing waterfront fraternity that In clu des such hot-shot adventurers as Barry Clifford. the !\lartha s VIney ard salvager who sa y s he has found the treasure-laden pi rate ship Whldah, to hometown men such as Matt Costa . raised on the shipwreck myths and wanting a piece of the action. Salvors always have worked in Cape waters. but new underwater r adar and computer tcchnlogy and Cliffords reported find of rhe Whidah hav e sparked d r ene1 1 ed interest In salvaging. Clifford has been joined off the Wellfleet coast b y two other salvage companies looking for the and other wrecks : Otj1er salvagers pre parrng from the Cape to Marrha s V ineyardall in search o f wrecks bearing historical a r ti fac ts and pos si ble riches . John Fish; director of the His tor ica l Maritime Group of New England. a Cataumet firm that researches shipwrecks. said salvors .:1re being lured in i n creasing num bers hy the discoveries of hundrt"(ls of wrecks lying In shallow waters of f the Cape. "'It i'l a growing effort. The tccllr.ul n!t_v f o r o...earch and survey 1S n u w -;o c o mplex more wrecks :1re be1t 11o( fnund . Fish said. Using S , \LVr\GJ'JG . Pag e 102 233 . .... . . • •

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: .. • ' .... Provincetown salvager Matt Costa displays some of his salv"aged goods. GLOBE STAFF PHOTO i3Y R ICK 'i' J ' 3ERT Technology, adventure attract salvors to Cape • SALVAGING Continued from P:1;,;e 8 5 sonar and sensitive mapping de vices and diving expeditions. Fish' s outfit has identified more than 70 wrecks off the Cape. They range from the AJ\ a . W illiam Vanderbilt's private yacht. which sank In 1891. to the historically Important Sagamore. a freight carrying. four -masted schooner that sank off the Vlneva r d I n 1907 . . Fish sai d the ch:.1n c e o f com up r ic h ;;lim ... t he tllousands o f wreck<> .1round C .1p e Cod . 1t's ironic. hllt •mlv n \.,.r v few are econom1C.!IIy k : h il>lc to sah:1ge . These r11Jt'Lt t :1111::. ''" n b e \' Cryexpt>r..,.-.t>. 1 tll1 1 t -.,. tlt"' f rhk II:\ ,•-.,[ llil'l: I, .. :. • . 1 , !I The , . .td.;. r io;'<.\' mn s t 111ent . tnLI p < h,IIJk d<•cd stop .\l.I) y. . H niJ Provinccrown n.tl 1\' r and owne r , r fi.;h p 1rl,; ' . ,!Jt , l11h ttl
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,....,,.'U '..._. ... _, • •• D \,..IIOliiUIII LIQIII\• nf !In !he \Villi<' Squ.11l wa s t;ur ne11hcr nor the carr)' "'t• e k Costa Wrllkrd t hrnugll a l o t behind home l dlt'd w11h t:Je "''rL'('kJg e •Jf old boats. with whale bone-s and Lhret" barking dogs. and talked about the salvage business. " I don"t know If I'll make any real money. But it ' s challenging. re warding and exciting: If you make money. fine." he said. Trackinl 150 t on• of tin stair have \'erlfled the find. \ "er. lflratlon o f the wreck :lnd ! 1"-lreasure 1s e pec: ed to c olncld.e with publllatl o n of stories In Pa rade and Life magazines next month. For now. Cllfford .says he won ' t discuss the Whldah bttause of contract obligations wllh the .plagazlnes. Clifford said the bust ness has Its physical and legal r is ks. Dur1ng his h e says. has lost of tne With partner William Daniels hear1ng In one ear. and six sal-of Chatham. Costa savs. he has vage jobs resulted In legal disputes spent $50.000 diving on the While over payment. " You can make a Squall. a BrUish merchant \'e-sse! fa i rly decent Jiving . but sometimes that sank off In 1867 \ o u spend most of your money In With a Cargo O f lin from COUrt," he Said . Costa's group expects to spend Cape Cod sal\'ors. with their much more to hau.J up about 150 close-mouthed nature and burn tons of the cargo. He hopes to sell lng sense of purpose. are unique the tin for $10 a pound, but so far characters on the waterfront, said the state Board of Underwater Ar-Kaufman. "They're risk-takers chaeologlcal Resources, the regu-and adventurers. There's a real Ia tory agency that protects his-sense of competition. both person torl cal shipwrecks. has blocked ally and professionally. There Is h is attempts to sell any of the car-a I so some a nlmosl ty between go. them," he said. "The only problems with salVerbal spats salvors vaglng today the start-up are we11-known. .the Intense costs and the .regulatory people." . .competition over the ap Costa complained. "Not only_ do . parentl}' sparked a . ffght you h:tve to spend $1000 a day for Clifford and Costa In October men ; ,11d equipment. you have to while Clifford was unloading a sal hire an archaeologist. Then when cannon onto the Provlnce vo u find a wreck. he tells \ ou to town dock. ('Jifford. claiming that stop or you 'll damage any artl C\ 1sta threatened him with a facts aboard . .. handgun. riled charges of assault Rob McClung. a former Aspen. wilh a dangerous weapon. Costa Colo .. police chief who di\'es for later charged Clifford with assault Clifford . says the growing number and battery. and last week both of sahagers are i n fec ted with gold men appeared in Orleans District fever . "E,erybody wants to be an Court for a pre-trial hearing. A Indiana Jones ... he said. and they feb. 5 tri:ll date was set. ; g:nore rhe inq.:.or l ;lhling among them ranee • > f ! he " : 1 1\•Jrs h.1 \ e been at odds .J:w K.t11fman. " !r.t>:nbrr ;)f thr .\ 1t h state offic1als . Last year. Cllf Ooard . n l Underwater :\rrhaeologi-furrl I he -;ta te after the board c:Ji R•'sources and m a r ine science a wdrded Costa a permit near his ccluu:ttor. d isagrees. The state en o;;i!c. Sal\ors are also grumbling SU:"C!-. that archaeologists are 011 :1bou t the formula for dividing the s1:1ff of outfits performing any spoils that the state Is expected to n f historical importanc e . ann ounce soon. K;:wfrnrln !'ays. Costa. who wears a patch Cape sal\"agers. inrludlng Clif -acrnss his r ight eye. acknowledges ford. talk abo u t the thrill of diving r sal\ors are a scrretlve bunch in rhe ope n f)('f'an as wt>ll as lhf' and w :tn of clrlim Jumplng. But prnspe c t o f the r iches sah aging IJc sa, s t . he y r t'spec t one another. m a y bring. ""Y o u become a ddi c ted ""It"s a d;lngerous business, and t o iti t"s like heroin . Onr e you\c ' . \ l u n ..;11 rneborly finrls c;omethtng. '"it't'n lrr.tStlre nr a , , reck . lhrrr"s \\,. fN'I happy f l' r •lll m." he c;airl. n n ... c;.airl C !.rr .. rd . . r lt!Tnrd . who lakes a lot of rlak "I•• .>llllOilllrf' d lf l 1:'; ril.ll I ,, . ,,.11 !.w.ll o.;al n ;r s l><..'t 1use of l:is h tel f ound lilt• \\ i11d :1, , .,(f li t e 111,'11i:t n.posure and who in turn , . , , .. s t .. f S..Htlh \\'dJfl,,r II• , . ..,It 1 1 hid.., .;:4 PI) r::lii1011 UI);!Pirl ,1c; " hac krrc;."" ":ti d most .• ; d _ ,,_ . , .. •It". , . .t. r r,IJ"'-" . t nxle 0 f Stash of 2000 gold coins? . ,,,: , ' ""If , n u s<-e sonlt'nne Is In .nl\ t-d In ,, • .vret k \'Ott k.l\ ' e them Cliffo rd ..;ay the \\ rt"t k 111 . tlnn,... " he 'ialrf 1\u t baslr:1lly . ch:t-d the \\/ ll1d.Jil . . tnd he rrpnrrt J tt o.; l f rtdPrs kN"pt-r s out there." 23S .; . .

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Official says treasure l1unter l1as fom1d ship " ' rt-cl \ t o h(' 'erifiec:l ve'i'-'Cl Hy G a r y Ghiot o Gl lo!Jc Cvrresp, mdent ORLEAI'\S "You know ln evstory o r bit of foil lo re there ' s a germ of truth. Well . hen' s the truth. " said i-t quie t Barry Citfford a s h e swung ope n the steel vault d oor for a Globe reporter in a ; Chatham b ank .three weeks ago . Insid e the 1!1 vault. stacked up In clear , Jew w ere ope n b oxes ef coin s cle arlv di s p i aying the mark of a Spanish l ion. coin s looking almost as fresh as when they were bel!eved to h a , e been minted from S outh Amf'rica n silver 300 yt'ars a{!:1. cuins from a collection that clif ford says i s worth $10 m!llion . Large bits of gleaming gold bars were displayed in red felt and in on" of the bag's. still kept In saltwater t o prevent deterioration. a delicate gold and jewe l encrusted nt' < klace lay. Stacks of gold coins. most appearing in excellent condi t ol"iL w e r e seale d in plastic. but l l !-.?)' s till manage d to shine t hroug h the wrapper. , Clifford . a treasure hunter and underwate r salvager had announced last Julv that h e had found thf' Whldah. a l egenda r y 18th c entury pirate ship whic h sank ln a gal e off W ellfleet ln 1717 with a fortune In treasure aboard. The r e have bttn some reports i he total fortune on the vessel ran as h igh as S400 miiHon. Now. l a t e i n Def'e mber. h e was showing a reporter what h e said l rad bttn f ound at the site of the wre c k. HI:' was showing the -coins and jewrl s with tlJe understandIng that nothing would be said. Uut . this weekend. the chair m a n and a former member ,of the state Board of ;A.r c haeol og i cRl Reso urces also said C Hfford has found the Whi dah and they t oo have seen the vau lt contents. , . "I hav e no doubt It's the Whl dah. F i rst. there Is n o other ship out there with t ht: kiild of .stuff t lrey've found. All the coi n s ht: f ound out thert: are dated pre1717 . . . ilre coms are remarkably p re. sen ed and most are Spanish," said Robert Cah ill o f Salem re cently retire d f rom the state' und erwate r bo ard. "l think Barry has it." agreed Joseph Sinnott. chairman of the state underwater board yesterday. S innott said four state archaeolo gis t s have examined artifacts and treasure and the board verify the wrec k a s a pirate ship later this nionth. Sinnott said the state b oa rd had also a g reed t o wait un til Cliffo rd's story concernlng the ship i s published in Parade maga-zine Jan. 27. Yesterday. call_ing from ' a vall. Colorado ski vacation. Cli f ford. offt.-red a brief comment .and then a,(!ain dt-C'lin ed g o into further de tai l. G OLD. Page 4 3 LJU

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Berchen, William and Monica Dickens. Viking Press. New York. 1972. Birmingham, Frederick A . "I. M . Pei". Museum Magazine. May-June 1981. pg. 62-67. Borowski, et al. "Museums Since 1400". Unpublished Paper from Harvard University. Critic: Michael Dennis. Botting, Douglas. The Pirates. T i me -Life Books. Alexandria, Virginia. 1978. Brownl ow , Arthur, Ed. Cape Cod Environmental Atlas. Dept. of Geo logy. Boston University, Boston. Burgess, Robert F . They Found Treasure. Dodd, Mead and Co . New York. 1977. Burgess, Robert F . Heritage Press. Sinking, Salvaging and Shipwrecks. American New York. 1970. page 8 -31 Burlingame, Roger. " War Makes Theives, Peace Hangs Them". American Heritage. February 1957. page 10-21, 60-64. Burton, Hal. The Real Book About Treasure Hunting. Garden City Books. New York. 1953. Cambridge Seven. "Boston' s Underwater Environment" December 1969. Progressive Architecture. Cooper, Kenneth S. "Toys and Technology" . page 2627 . Jan -Feb. 1982. Cook, Fred, J . Feb. 1957. "The Slave Ship Rebellion" pg. 6164 . Copeland, Peter. "Between TWO National Geographic Special Museum Magazine American Heritage. of the Sea". 1976. page 104-120. Coffman, F . L . 1001 Lost, Buti d n Treasures. Nelson and New York. l 9 S l • age 220-223. Thomas Danilov, Victor. "Your Sciene C n Magazine. Nov . -Dec. 199 • li the Answers" 7 "-79 . Museum 238

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239 Bibliography -page 2 Dethlefsen, Edwin. WHIDAH: Cape Cod ' s Mystery Treasure Ship. Seafarer' s Heritage Library. Woodstock, Vermont. 1984. Doane, Doris. !::._Book of Ca p e Cod Houses . Chatham Press. Greenwich, Connetticut. 1970. Dow, George F rancis. The Pirates of the New England Coast 1630-1730. Marine Research Society. Salem, MA. 1923. page 353-358, 362. Eastman, Ralph M. Street Trust Co . Some Famous Privateers of New England. Boston. 1928. page l-5, 78-86. State Esherick, Homsey, Dodge and Davis, Arch. " A New Aquarium for Cannery Row". Architectural Record. Feb. 1985. page 114-123. Fritz, Jean . Back t o Early Cape Cod. Eastern Acorn Press. 1981. Fuller, R. Buckminster. Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth. Pocket Books. New York. 1970. Gallager, Robert S . October 1969. "South Street Seaport". page 36-40, 76-77. Green, Jeremy. "Catalogues and Registers" of Nautical Archaeology. Vol. 10, No. 3. American Heritage. International Journal 1981. page 255-260. Guillermo, Ricardo. Aquatecture: Underwater Dwellings and Sea Born Structures as Paradigms of Design. Masters Thesis, submitted to M . I. T. 198 2 . Hahn, Emily . "Trove". page 33-48. American Heritage. October-Nov. 1980. Hamilton, D.L. "Preliminary Report on the Archaeological Investigations of the Submerged Remains of Port Royal, Jamaica 1981-1982" International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. 1984. Vol. 13, No. l. page ll-25. Jenkins, L awrence W aters and W alter Muir Whitehill. The Restoration 2% East India Marine Hall. Peabody Museum, Salem, Mass. 1948. Jensen, Nina, ed. Museum News . "Children, Teenagers and Adults in Museums" May -June 1 9 8 2 . page 25-30.

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Bibliography -page 3 Katz, Jonathan, G . "America's First Museum". Museum Magazine. May-June 1982 . page 74-78. Keating, Thomas. "Wonderland for the Children's Hour". Museum Magazine. May-June 1981. page 72-74. Keck, Caroline K . A Primer on Museum Security. Historical Association. Cooperstown, New York. N.Y. State 1966. Kittredge, Henry C . Cape Cod: Its People and Their History Houghton Mifflin Company. Boston. 1930. Knill, Harry, ed. The New, Comprehensive and Impartial History of Pirates from Very Early Period of Authentic Information. Bellerophon Books. Santa Barbara, California. 1984. page 35. Leighton, Clare. Where Land Meets Sea: The Enduring Cape Cod. 240 Chatham Press. Riverside, Connetticut. 1954. pages 67, 73, & 127. MacLeod, Ian D . and Neil A. North. "Conservation of a Composite Cannon Batavia (1629)". International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. Vol ll, No. 3, 1982. page 213-219. Marx, Robert F . 1975. The Underwater Dig. Henry E. Waick, Inc. New York. McCarthy, Mike. "A Wreck Inspection Programme as an Aid to the Co -ordinated Management of a Large Number of Wreck Sites." International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. Vol. ll, No. l . 1982. page Melia, John. "He'll Go for Gold". New York News . 1984. Miller, Perry. The New England Mind from Colony to Province. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1962. Mitchell, David C. Pirates: An Illustrated History. Dial Press. New York. 1976. Moore, Charles C. Places the Shore. Unpublished Paper. Moore, Charles et al. Place of Houses. Holt, Rinehart and ---Winston. New York. 1974. page 242-247. Muckelroy, Kenneth. Maritime Archaeology. Cambridge University Press. London. 1978.

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Bibliography -page 4 National Seashore. Early Maps and Explorers of the Cape Cod Area Historic Resource Study. Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Feb. 1979. pages 1-3 and 38. National Seashore. Assessment of Alternatives: The Eastham Area Cape Cod, Massachusetts. July 1978. New York Times. "Coins from the Sea Might Solve a Pirate Mystery" New York Times. Jan. 8 , 1985. page A -10. Nickerson, W . Sears. The Bay As .!_ See It. Pleasant Bay. Cape Cod , Massachusetts. 1981. Northeast Marine Advisory Council. Sportsdiver' s Handbook for Historic Shipwrecks: Tools and Techniques. Northeast Marine Advisory Council. Durham, New Hampshire. 1982. Oldale, Robert N . Geologic History of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. U . S . Department of the Interior -Geologic Survey. Openheimer, Frank. " Museums for the Love of Learning -A Personal Perspective." Museum Studies Journal. Spring 1983. page 16-18. Rankin, Hugh, F . Golden Age of Piracy. Colonial Williamsburg. Williamsburg, Virginia. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. New York. 1969. Reynard, Elizabeth. The Narrow Land. Chatham Historical Society. Chatham, Massachusetts. 1978. 241 Robinson, Wendy S . Wrecks and Metals of Archaeology. " Observations on the Preservation of Archaeological in Marine Environments". The International Journal Vol. 10, No. 1 . 1981. page 3 -14. Schuler, Stanley. The Cape Cod House. Schiffer Publishing Ltd. Exton, Pennsylvania. 1982. Sleeman, Gail s . "Relics are Probably from the WHIDAH". Soundings Section II April 1985. page 42. Sleeman, Gail S . Standard-Times . . "Scientist Proves Cape Wreck is the WHIDAH" New Bedfor
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Bibliography -page 5 Smith, C . Ray. "The Great Museum Debate". Progressive Architecture. Dec. 1969. Smith, Philip Chadwick Foster. East India Marine Hall: 1824-1974. ------Peabody Museum of Salem. Salem, Massachusetts. 1974. Snow, Edward Rowe . and Co. 1963. True Tales of Terrible Shipwrecks. page 190-194. Dodd, Mead 242 Strand, Paul. Time in New England. Aperture. 1977. page 75-76, 68-69. Tryckare, Tre. The Lore of Ships. Crescent Books. New York. 1973. Wampler, Jan. All Their Own: People and the Places They Build. Schenkrnan Publishing Company . New York. 1977. Watkins, T. H . "Peter, Paul and the Museum Business". American Heritage. Aug -Sept. 1979. page 24-25. Weisberger, Bernard A . "William Phipps and the Big Jackpot". American Heritage. April 1956. page 62-64. Wheelright, Thea, ed. Thoreau' s Cape Cod. Barre Publishers. Barre, Massachusetts. 1971. Whipple, A . B . C . Famous Pirates. Random House. New York. 1958. White, David Fairbank. "How the Sea Gave up a $400 Million Pirate Treasur Parade Magazine. Jan. 27, 1985. page 6 9 . Wiseman, Carter. "Waterfront Wonderland". 4-11 1983. page 36-39. New York Magazine. Wood , Donald. Cape Cod: A Guide. Little, Brown and Company. Boston. 1973. July Zg olinski, Al. page 52-54. "Cracking the Codes". Museum News . Jan-Feb. 1979.