Citation
Littleton Performing Arts Center

Material Information

Title:
Littleton Performing Arts Center
Creator:
Kruse, Stanley R.
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRARY
r ttleton performing arts
A72 taster’s thesis
K7S5 f Stanley r. kruse
diversity of Colorado
^ 1978


t
introduction


GENERAL PROJECT DESCRIPTION:
To provide a facility for the production and presentation of muscial and theatrical events for a maximum audience of 600. The project will be basically a community theater with minor touring companies performing on occasion.
Activities to be housed:
a) Drama—plays and musicals
b) Puppetry
c) Dance recitals
d) Piano recitals
e) Chamber orchestras (35) members
f) Choral groups (40) members
g) Speakers
DATA COLLECTION:
1. Site Information/Analysis
2. Theatre Design
a) Seating and sight lines
b) Theatre acoustics
e) Stages(types)
d) Activity-relationship diagrams
PROGRAMMING:
1. Space relationship diagrams
2. Space/area requirements
3. Activity requirements
4. Acoustical calculations NOTE:
Documentation is based on interviews and on the enclosed excerpts of standard theatre design books as indicated in the bibliography.




LOCATION:
The 7.5 acre site is located in the central district of Littleton, Colorado-population of 90,000. Littleton is a suburb located 5 miles Southwest of Denver, Colorado, a metropolitan area of 1.5 million.
The site is convenient to two main north and south traffic arteries (Broadway and Santa Fe Drive) and a central business district street (Littleton Boulevard). Immediate access to the site is from a secondary arterie (Windermere Street). Being within a metropolitan area, access from outlying areas is accommodated by a network of freeway systems serving the Denver Metro area.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:
The site is composed of 7.5 acres of gently sloping terrain. The topography slopes from the eastern property line down to the western perimeter of the site. Utilities are located within the street on the eastern border of the property.
Two existing buildings with several minor structures are located in the Northwest corner of the site. Several large trees are located along the site on Windermere Street. Scattered clusters of small trees are located on the site; however, the general site has sparse vegetation on undeveloped land.
Paved streets bound two sides of the site, with existing construction on the two remaining sides. This will allow access to the site from to sides.
A park and library are located across the street on the east perimeter of the site. Access is slightly limited by the street becoming a barrier for pedestrian flow.
SOUND:
The main source of noise around the site will originate from street traffic on the east and west, and a church parking lot on the south. The site is located in primarily a residential district; therefore, noise should not present a serious problem.
VIEWS:
A westerly view of the mountains is present from the higher eastern side of the site.


BUILDING AREAS:
With the exception of imposed setbacks, the entire site is suitable for building areas. The existing structures have no usable significance for the proposed project; therefore, their removal is recommended.
ZONING:
The site is located wtihin the city limits of Littleton, and is under the jurisdiction of the Littleton Zoning Ordinances and the Uniform Building Code 1976 edition. The site is currently zoned R-2 and prohibits the construction of a theatre; therefore, a zoning change to a P.U.D. is required in order for the project to proceed.




STAGE TYPES
ADVANTAGES
Proscenium Scenery fly space Can provide elaborate scenic and atmospheric effects Better for scenery changes Better separation for fire/safety control from audience Better lighting control Ease in actors' entrance and exit on stage
Arena Closer involvement of audience Greater emphasis of 3-dimensional qualities More flexibility in staging Better sight lines More seats
Open Stage (thrust,
apron, or forestage)
ft
ft
DISADVANTAGES
Limited sightlines Limits seats
Separates audience from actors (lack of intimacy) Limits staging flexibility Too 2-dimensional
Limits scenery More difficult to light Poor actor entrance/exit conditions
Greater fire safety hazard conditions
Limited special effects
ft
ft


Sight Lines
If the patron is to see satisfactorily, plan and section must conform to a number of limitations which are set forth in the following list. To design an auditorium is to determine a seating area within these limitations and to establish position (not shape) of walls and shape of floors therefrom.
1. The horizontal angle of polychromatic vision (no eye movement) is approximately 40 degrees.
2. The horizontal angle to the center line at which objects onstage, upstage of the curtain line, cease to bear the intended relationship to other objects onstage and to the background is approximately 60 degrees.
3. The horizontal angle to a flat projection sheet at which distortion on the screen becomes substantially intolerable is 60 degrees measured to the far side of the projected image. Curvature introduced into the screen may render the distortion less from the extreme seats on the opposite side of the center line of the house but will increase distortion from the seats on the same side of the center line.
recognise shapes and confirmed by sequential seat selection of unreserved seats, the order of desirability of locations is: A. front center, except when
locations beyond a line approximately 100° to the curtain at the proscenium. The
-i__i_i__________________
the picture screen is close to the front rote; B. middle center; C. middle side; D. front side; E. rear center; F. rear side.
4
The horizontal angle to the center line at which objects onstage, upstage of the curtain line, cease to bear the intended relationship to other objects onstage and to the background is approximately 60°. The horizontal angle to the projection screen at which distortion on the screen becomes substantially intolerable is 60°.




Several methods have been offered heretofore for developing the floor slope. Doubtless others will be offered in the future. The authors present the following method as one which assures unobstructed vision from all seats. It may be noted that this system produces a floor slope considerably steeper than that in many existing theatres. It also produces better seeing conditions.
To determine floor slope, establish eye position of spectator in first row on center line by approximately 30 degree vertical angle above. For live shows, stage floor will be approximately 2 inches below this level. For theatres designed solely for motion pictures, the location of the stage floor is not critical; the position of the bottom of the screen is.
A point 3 feet 8 inches below, and 18 inches in front of the eye position will be the floor level for the front row. (1) Draw a sight line from the eye position to downstage edge of stage, and extend it back of the eye position for the front row, step off horizontal seat spacing (back to back), and draw vertical lines at the points thus established. (2) Establish a point 5 inches above the intersection of the extended sight line and the next vertical line. (3) This is the eye position for the second row and the floor level at the front edge of the second row seat is 3 feet 8 inches below and 18 inches in front of the eye position. Repeat steps (1), (2) and (3) to the back of the house and draw in the floor slope. Where the slope exceeds l1/) inches per foot, platforms are required under the seats, and steps in the aisles. A cross-aisle which divides the orchestra into front and back sections entails the elevation of the first row of seats behind it to make up for horizontal width of the aisle.
The standing spectator’s eye level behind the rear row of seats is assumed to be 5 feet 6 inches above the floor level of the last row. The sight line from this position to the top of the screen or highest probable curtain trim establishes the minimum height for ceiling under balcony.
Raising the stage will make it possible to reduce the floor slope but at the penalty of producing upward sight lines in the first two or three rows which are uncomfortable and unnatural for viewing stage setting and action. If the stage floor is above the elevation of the first row eye position, the upstage portion of the floor will be invisible from the first row. Leaving the upstage floor out of sight by perhaps as much as 6 inches from the first row is generally preferable to having an excessive floor slope, especially if more than one balcony is used.
When planning for motion pictures only, the lower sight line from the first row will come to the bottom of the projected picture, approximately 24 inches above the stage floor, or still higher if a reverse floor
MOVIE SCREEN OR. HIS+IEST
Maximum tolerable upward sight line angle for motion pictures.
Maximum angle determines location of closest seats.
Basic dimensions for plotting floor slope.


DETERMINING THE MAIN FLOOR
Balcony sight lines similar but start from rear row forward, maintaining uniform terrace heights to front of balcony or cross aisle.
Stagger seats in plan to allow unobstructed view between alternate rows of spectators so that min. */s width of screen or acting area is in view.
SLOPE DIAGRAM SCALE
Floor curve varies only with first row location & focus height. Not affected by row spacing. Several diagrams should be made using different initial assumptions to determine the best combination of overall relationships.
Raise first row of seating behind cross aisle to clear head of people using aisle.
USUALLY *M"a I’-O" HORIZ.. BU ", I '/a" * |*-Om VERTICAL
See local code for maximum aisle slopes permitted: B.O.C.A. & B.B.C. allow 1:7 (1 V^'Vft.).
U.B.C. allows 1:8
N.B.C., N.F.P.A., S.S.B.C. allow 1:10
Slopes greater than above must be in equal aisle risers full aisle width, usually allowed only in galleries & balconies.
COMPROMISE BOUNDARY-OFTEN USED; GAINS SOME POOR SEATS a LOSES MANY GOOD ONES
60* FOR GOOD SEEING a meaning
AQ* MINIMUM FOR BARELY TOlERA3lE SEEING S HEARING
CENTER OF ROW
Cw=»VA-ture
> AP=>ROX.M ATELY
'/»W BEH.ND SCREEN)
SCREEN WIDTHS (W) tA -O*’ FOR SMALL MOVIE-CAN BE USED FOR '6 MM.
S TELEVISION ALSO -6-0" TO 20’-O" OPTIMUM 25-0" =»EASONAB_E MAXIMUM NO ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM)
BOUNDARY OF GOOD SEATING AREA* OPTIMUM SEATS 3W TO 5W FROM SCREEN MAXIMUM 6W FROM SCREEN
ANGLE BISECTOR (LOCATES CENTER OF ROW CURVATURE)
BACK WALL SHOULD NOT FOLLOW SEAT CURVATURE
PLAN


LIGHT SLOT
TOTAL MET VOLUME (EXCLUDING STAGE) =150-200 CU FT PER SEAT


Depth of House
, !
J [ <
/ RADIUS > ~L ' ? J
'WAT ROW, F A V V.
BMKWALU OF SOUSE o f
Location of center of curvature for rotes of seats.
There are many formulas used to determine the depth of the house, or more accurately, to determine the relationship between depth of house, width of house, and width of screen or proscenium. They vary considerably and are all empirically derived on the basis of existing theatres, with too little reference to whether such theatres are good or not. Typical are the following: Optimum depth equals 4 times screen width. Maximum depth equals 6 times screen width. Depth equals 1.25 to 2.35 times house width when house width is 2.5 to 3.5 times screen width. Practically, there are only two significant considerations in planning the depth of the house:
1. Visual acuity. Normal human vision can perceive a minimum dimension or separation equal to 1 minute of visual arc. Translated into space measurement this means that at 10 feet a normal eye can perceive a dimension of .035 inch, at 50 feet, .175 inch, and at 100 feet, .35 inch. Details of actors’ make-up and facial expression are not plainly recognizable at distances of more than 50 feet from the stage.
2. Capacity. The larger the house, the lower can be the price per seat or the greater the gross. If the box office is not to be considered, capacity may be limited by optimum seeing requirements, and the last rows kept within 50 feet of the stage. As various requirements operate to increase capacity, the distance of the rear seats from the stage must be increased and seeing conditions impaired in proportion. The theatre operator may compensate the occupants of these seats by charging less for them. For shows involving live human actors, 75 feet is generally accepted on grounds of visibility as maximum house depth.
In theatrical entertainment which has as its chief visual component human actors (live shows) the degree to which these performers must be seen to satisfy the audience and put the show across varies.
A. Details of facial expression and small gesture are important in legitimate drama, vaudeville and burlesque, intimate revue and cabaret.
B. Broad gesture by single individuals is important in grand opera, presentation, musical comedy, and the dance.
C. Gesture by individuals is unimportant and movement of individuals from place to place is the smallest significant movement in pageant:
It follows then that theatres planned for the types of entertainment listed under A must be limited in depth of auditorium so that visibility from the remotest seat still allows the occupant to perceive facial expressions (not over 75 feet).


BLE 4. Lobby Area Per Seat
era House 2 sq. ft.
nmercial Theatre 1.8 sq. ft.
â– commercial Theatre
ichool 1.2 sq. ft.
College and University 1.4 sq. ft.
Community 1.4 sq. ft.
[mate Motion Picture 1 sq. ft.
nmer Theatre 1 sq. ft.
2 7. Proscenium Widths for Kinds of Theatrical Production in Feet
Reasonable
Minimum Usual Maximum
26 30 to 35 40
die, Revue 30 35 45
Comedy a 30 40 50
ation 40 60 ■ m © 00
PROSCENIUM WIDTH (Wl SIDE AISLES ARE BETTER
PLAN
II


Concerts: changing rooms
Type of performer Number Occupancy of room Remarks
Conductors 2 single
Soloists (instrumental) 4 single There should be a piano in at least one room.
Leader of orchestra 1 single
Musicians 120 shared As the proportion of male to female musicians varies there should be flexibility in the changing room provision, say, 6 holding 20 each.
Soloists (singers) 4 single There should be provision for making-up.
Choristers 250 shared The sexes should be segregated
and a flexible system adopted to allow for varied proportions.
Recitals: changing rooms
Type of performer Number Occupancy of room Remarks
Conductors 2 single
Soloists (instrumental) 2 single There should be a piano in at least one room.
Soloists (singers) 2 single
Musicians 40 shared and For flexibility it should be
segregated possible to sub-divide larger rooms or provide several
Choristers 40 shared smaller ones which can be suitably allocated.


Variety, musicals, spectacles: dressing rooms
Type of performer Number Occupancy of room Remarks
Principals 4 single Should be adaptable for 2 occupants.
Minor principals 30 up to 6 per room Capacities of rooms can be varied to take a maximum of 3, 4, 5 or 6 performers. As many as possible of the principals’ and minor principals’ rooms should be at stage level.
Chorus, etc. 60 shared up to 20 The size of cast will vary with the size of the production but this should be sufficient for the average maximum.
Children variable they may be accommodated in one of the chorus rooms. Regulations for child performers require that they be separately accommodated and properly supervised.
Variety, musicals, spectacles: changing rooms
Type of performer Number Occupancy of room Remarks
Conductor 1 single The room should be large enough to hold auditions.
Musicians 30 shared Divisible for male and female musicians, e.g. 5 rooms to take a maximum of 6 each.
Drama dressing rooms
Type of performer
Number Occupancy of room Remarks
Principals 2-
Minor principals 16-
Supporting cast 20-
6 single or
occasionally two.
20 shared 2, 3, 4, 5
or 6.
40 shared in rooms
holding up to 15.
The principals and as mrfny minor principals as possible should be at stage level. The allocation of dressing rooms will vary continually according to the scale of the production and they will only be fully occupied for large


No. 15:3 Single dressing rooms. Area 14-4 mSingle dressing room with
provision for piano. Area 15 7 m*.
No. 15:4
Communal dressing room. Area 8-3 m1 each bay.


Optimum reverberation times for different auditorium uses defined by Knudsen and Harris and generally used to establish acoustical design objectives. The values in the upper figure are for 512 cycles. When calculating reverberation for lower frequencies, it is necessary to apply the ratio R from the lower chart. Example: tf = t512 R.
L,


Materials
Coefficients
125 Hz 250 Hz 500 Hz 1000 Hz 2000 Hz 4000 Hz
Brick, unglazed 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.07
Brick, unglazed, painted 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03
Carpet, heavy, on concrete 0.02 0.06 0.14 0.37 0.60 0.65
Same, on 40 oz hairfelt or foam
rubber 0.08 0.24 0.57 0.69 0.71 0.73
Same, with impermeable latex
backing on 40 oz hairfelt or foam rubber 0.08 0.27 0.39 0.34 0.48 0.63
Concrete Block, coarse 036 0.44 0.31 0.29 0J9 0.25
Concrete Block, painted Fabrics 0.10 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.09 0.08
Light velour, 10 oz per sq yd, hung straight, in contact with wall Medium velour, 14 oz per sq yd, 0.03 0.04 0.11 0.17 034 035
draped to half area Heavy velour, 18 oz per sq yd, 0.07 0.31 0.49 0.75 0.70 0.60
draped to half area 0.14 0.35 0.55 0.72 0.70 0.65
Floors
Concrete or terrazzo Linoleum, asphalt, rubber or cork 0.01 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.02 0.02
tile on concrete 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02
Wood 0.15 0.11 0.10 0.07 0.06 0.07
Wood parquet in asphalt on concrete Glass 0.04 0.04 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.07
Large panes of heavy plate glass 0.18 0.06 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.02
Ordinary window glass Gypsum Board, nailed to 2 x 4’s 0.35 0.25 0.18 0.12 0.07 0.04
16" o.c. 0.29 0.10 0.05 0.04 0.07 0.09
Marble or Glazed Tile Openings 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02
Stage, depending on furnishings 0.25 —0.75
Deep balcony, upholstered seats 0.50—1.00
Grills, ventilating 0.15—0.50
Plaster, gypsum or lime, smooth
finish on tile or brick 0.013 0.015 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
Plaster, gypsum or lime, rough finish
on lath 0.14 0.10 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03
Same, with smooth finish 0.14 0.10 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.03
Plywood Paneling, §" thick 0.28 0.22 0.17 0.09 0.10 0.11
Water Surface, as in a swimming pool 0.008 0.008 0.013 0.015 0.020 0.025
Air, Sabins per 1000 cubic feet @ 50% RH 0.9 23 71
Absorption c )/ Seats and Audience
Values given are in sabins per square foot of seating area or per unit
125 Hz 250 Hz 500 Hz 1000 Hz 2000 Hz 4000 Hz
Audience, seated in upholstered seats, per sq ft of floor area Unoccupied cloth-covered upholstered 0.60 0.74 0.88 0.96 0.93 0.85
seats, per sq ft of floor area Unoccupied leather-covered uphol- 0.49 0.66 0.80 0.88 0.82 0.70
stered seats, per sq ft of floor area Wooden Pews, occupied, per sq ft of 0.44 0.54 0.60 0.62 0.58 0.50
floor area 0.57 0.61 0.75 0.86 0.91 0.86
Chairs, metal or wood seats,


ACOUSTICAL DATA:
Reverberation Time (1.5 sec. maximum recommended
by enclosed chart)
T = K x V
~TK~
T = Time (Seconds)
K = Constant (Q.049)
V = Volume (ft )
A = Coefficient of Absorption (sq. ft)
of materials.
Max. (Orchestra, chorus & chamber music)
Volume = 181,462 cu.ft.
EA =
Stage Opening (35 x 22) x .5 = Ceiling (plaster) = 6041.1 sq. ft. x .06 = 385
362.5
Floor 1. Occupied upholstered seats 622 x 5.8 = 3608
2. Carpet on Concrete 0.14 x 5034.25 705
Walls Front Walls (plaster) Area = 1352 x .06 = 81.12
Side Walls (cone, aggregate) Area - 1088 x.03 = 32.64
Back Walls (heavy carpet on foam pad) Area = 1864 x .39 = 727
EA =
5901.26


T
1.5064 seconds
181,422 x .049
----5WOB""
Minimum Reverb Time (for lectures, intimate drama)
Add heavy draperies to walls
Wall areas (total) =
Front Walls (draped) 1352 x .55 = 743.6
Side Walls (draped) 1864 x .55 = 598.4
Back Walls (draped) 1864 x .55 = 1025.2
Stage, ceiling and floor conditions remain
unchanged = 5060.5
EA = 7428
T
.049 x 181,462
—rm------
= 1.19 Sec.
Note:
See enclosed charts for recommended reverb times for various activities.






Composite audience flow chart,
I
•^leaves theatre—returns after show


SOLID LINES-------PERSONNEL
BROKEN LINES-------MATERIALS
Flow chart for actors in the theatre.


SPACE-ACTIVITIES REQUIREMENTS
I. Public Facilities
A. Lobby/Foyer
General entrance for access and assembly to auditorium to serve as control for public to nonpublic areas
Minimum space requirements:
1.4 sq. ft/seat=
1.4 x 600 - 840 sq. ft.
(see enclosed chart)
1. Coat check room
a. To provide storage carousels for audience coats having close accessibility to entrance and exits but not located to cause congestion or impede major circulation
2. Rest Rooms/Lounge
Based on fixture recommendations from Graphic Standards (see chart)
U.B.C. recommends 1 lav/2 w.c., considered too minimal.
3. Multi-Purpose Room
To house meetings, larger conferences, receptions or other community functions. To be provided with kitchennette for light food preparations (small range, oven regrig, and sink).
4. Ticket Booth
To have close proximity to main entrance and administration


II. ADMINISTRATION
A. Offices
1. Reception Room
a. Secretary
b. Director's Office
c. Assistant Director's office
2. Conference Room
3. Storage Room (office supplies)
III. THEATRICAL ARTS AND MUSICAL ARTS
A. Auditorium
600 seats, maximun capacity with additional spaces for handicapped.
Theatre to provide flexibility in seating and staging
Required area based on 7.0 sq/ ft. per person per seat + 1.3 sq. ft/person for aisles.
(Based on standard theatre design criteria)
B. Stage
1. Combination thrust, apron, and proscenium type to allow for flexibility in staging techniques.
2. Ample back and side stage areas for set/scene storage and performers' circulation on and off stage (wing space). Area to be large enough for stage wagon to bring entire set on to stage.
3. Stage storage
a. Storage for concert grand paino (9 foot length)
b. X riser storage for chorus
c. Portable acoustical shell storage


II. Continued
C. Workshop
1. Large space for set and properties construction, to have large openings for moving assembled sets to paint shop, storage and stage areas
a. Table saw
b. Jig saw
c. Jointer/planer
d. Hand tool storage
e. Lumber storage racks
f. Sink and counter for clean-up
2. PaintShop
Direct access to workshop-having separation from dust particles
a. Paint frame
b. Sink and counter for clean-up
c. Storage for flammable materials
D. Flat Storage
12 foot high minimum space for upright storage with protection from sunlight and moisture.
E. Properties Storage
Large space for storage of bulky items (can be stacked vertically).
F. Costume Repair/Storage
1. Provide for 1 or 2 sewing machines with cabinet.
2. Cutting table.
3. Storage racks for cloth (can be stacked vertically).
4. Costume storage racks (can be stacked vertically).


II. Continued
G. Dressing Rooms
1. Star Dressing Rooms
a. Women-single or double occupancy should be at stage level
b. Men-same as above
c. Group Dressing Room (Men)
Provide adequate counter and mirrors for make-up application under artificial light.
Provide lavatories for make-up removal (1 lavatory for 6 people).
A separate shower and water closet is recommended but can be in a rest room elsewhere.
Provide costume storage or rack nearby make-up counter.
d. Group Dressing Room (Women)
Same as above
e. Green Room
To serve as lounge and rest area for actors and crew, to have coffee pot and vending machines.
To be provided with comfortable furniture (seating)
H. Assembly Area
To have direct access to stage wings and dressing rooms; to provide a noise buffer from on to offstage activities.
I. Rehearsal Hall
1. Comparable size to actual stage area
2. Can double as changing room or assembly space for large groups i.e. orchestra and chorus


J.
Control Booths
1. Lighting Control Booth
a. Unobstructed view to stage
b. Long counter for console and other control equipment
2. Sound Control Booth Same as above
K. Orchestra Pit
Provide space for 20 musicians 10 sq. ft. per musician + 100-200 sq. ft. for total pit size =
20 x 10 + 200 = 400 sq. ft. (see Graphic Standards chart)
L. Instrument Storage
1. Racks for instrument cases
2. Space for percussion instruments with accessory cabinet
M. Rehearsal/Practice Rooms
1. Small Practice Rooms
Individual space for instrument tuning or vocal rehearsal (2 spaces)
2. Medium size Practice Rooms
a. Piano in at least one room
b. Space to hold auditions
c. Ensemble practice space
d. Group warm-up or instrument tuning
space can also double as dressing or changing rooms for large performances


N. Music Library/Storage
Space for scores, tapes, cassettes, records and sheet music A.V. equipment storage.
IV. Miscellaneous
Other supporting spaces required to adequately support facility operation.
a. Janitor's closets
b. Exterior storage for gounds equipment
c. Trash storage and removal
d. Loading/services area
e. Mechanical equipment room
f. Circulation spaces (to include overhead walkways for lighting falleries, fly spaces and other supporting staging activities.


SPACE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE LITTLETON PERFORMING ARTS CENTER:
A. PUBLIC FACILTIES SQ. FT.
1. Lobby/Foyer 2. Coat Check Room 3. Men's Rest Room 4. Women's Rest Room 5. Green Room 6. Multi-Purpose Room w/ Kitchenette 7. Tickets-Information ADMINISTRATIVE FACILITIES 2.500 250 400 500 300 400 150 4.500
1. Administrative Office/s 450
2. Staff Lounge 250
3. Rest Rooms (Optional) 200
4. Conference Room 150
1,200
THEATRICAL AND MUSICAL ARTS
1. Audience 5,000
2. Stage 4,000
3. Stage Storage 400
4. Workshop 600
5. Flat Storage 150
6. Properties Storage 2500
7. Costume Storage/Repair 400
8. Star Dressing Room (Men) 200
9. Star Dressing Room (Women) 250


10. Group Dressing Room (Men) 400
11. Group Dressing Room (Women) 450
12. Rehearsal 2,000
13. Assembly Area 450
14. Control Booth 250
15. Orchestra Pit 400
16. Instrument Storage 400
17. Rehearsal Rooms (Small)
2 150 sf 300
18. Rehearsal Rooms (Medium)
2 @ 250 sf 500
19. Music Library/Storage 500
19,150
D. MISCELLANEOUS
To include Mechanical, Electrical,
Services and Circulation (Based on
15% of Net Area) 3,725
28,600
TOTAL GROSS SQUARE FOOTAGE

















iUu
main level floor plan i-vis-


mechanical
lower level floor plan YVIB'




west: elevation
south elevation




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MAX. EYE ROTATION 30°
STANDARD SITE LINE






main level floor plan t-.-is-
mechanical plan


a. Theatres and Auditoriums by Harold Burris—Meyer and Edward Cole, p. 64.
b. Theater Design by George C. Izenour, p. 3.
c. Theatres and Auditoriums by Harold Burris—Meyer and Edward c!. Cole, p. 89.
d. Architectural Graphic Standards by Charles G. Ramsey and Harold R. Sleeper, p. 32.
e. Op.Cit., p. 33
f. Theatres and Auditoriums by Harold Burris—Meyer and Edward C. Cole, p. 67
g. i. Op.Cit., p. 51. g. ii. Op.Cit., p. 71.
g. iii. Architectural Graphic Standards by Charles G.
Ramsey and Harold R. Sleeper, p. 33.
h. Theatre Planning edited by Roderick Ham, p. 179-
tw:-------------
i. Op.Cit., p. 178.
j. Op.Cit., p. 183.
k. Theatres and Auditoriums by Harold Burris—Meyer and Edward C. Cole, p. 83.
l. Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings by William J. McGuinness, p. 977.
m. Theatres and Auditoriums by Harold Burris—Meyer and Edward C. Cole, p. 52.
n. Op.Cit., p. 156.


Full Text
section a-a



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1190 A72 197:::: K785 ENVIRONMENTAL DESrGN AURARIA LIBRARY -tieton perforrning arts center aaster•s thesis 7 stanley r. kruse 1iversity of colorado 1978

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Date Due c: a u ::1 1l a L .1-) c -

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• GENERAL PROJECT DESCRIPTION: To provide a facility for the production and presentation of muscial and theatrical events for a maximum audience of 600. The project will be basically a community theater with minor touring companies performing on occasion. Activities to be housed: a) Drama-plays and musicals b) Puppetry c) Dance recitals d) Piano recitals e) Chamber orchestras (35) members f) Choral groups (40) members g) Speakers DATA COLLECTION: 1. Site Information/ Analysis 2. Theatre Design a) Seating and sight lines b) Theatre acoustics c) Stages (types) d) Activity-relationship diagrams PROGRAMMING: 1. Space relationship diagrams 2. Space/area requirements 3. Activity requirements 4. Acoustical calculations NOTE: Documentation is based on interviews and on the enclosed excerpts of standard theatre design books as indicated in the bibliography.

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LOCATION: The 7.5 acre site is located in the central district of Littleton, Colorado population of 90,000. Littleton is a suburb located 5 miles Southwest of Denver, Colorado, a metropolitan area of 1.5 million. The site is convenient to two main north and south traffic arteries (Broadway and Santa Fe Drive) and a central business district street (Littleton Boulevard). Immediate access to the site is from a secondary arterie (Windermere Street). Being within a metropolitan area, access from outlying areas is accommodated by a network of freeway systems serving the Denver Metro area. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: The site is composed of 7.5 acres of gently sloping terrain. The topography slopes from the eastern property line down to the western perimeter of the site. Utilities are located within the street on the eastern border of the property. Two existing buildings with several minor structures are located in the Northwest corner of the site. Several large trees are located along the site on Windermere Street. Scattered clusters of small trees are located on the site; however, the general site has sparse vegetation on undeveloped land. Paved streets bound two sides of the site, with existing construction on the two remaining sides. This will allow access to the site from to sides. A park and library are located across the street on the east perimeter of the site. Access is slightly limited by the street becoming a barrier for pedestrian flow. SOUND: The main source of noise around the site will originate from street traffic on the east and west, and a church parking lot on the south. The site is located in primarily a residential district; therefore, noise should not present a serious problem. VIEWS: A westerly view of the mountains is present from the higher eastern side of the site.

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BUILDING AREAS: With the exception of imposed setbacks, the entire site is suitable for building areas. The existing structures have no usable significance for the proposed project; therefore, their removal is recommended. ZONING: The site is located wtihin the city limits of Littleton, and is under the jurisdiction of the Littleton Zoning Ordinances and the Uniform Building Code 1976 edition. The site is currently zoned R-2 and pro hibits the construction of a theatre; therefore, a zoning change to a P. U.D. is required in order for the project to proceed.

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' . -

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STAGE TYPES Proscenium Arena Open Stage (thrust, apron, or forestage) ADVANTAGES Scenery fly space Can provide elaborate scenic and atmospheric effects Better for scenery changes Better separation for fire/safety control from audience Better lighting control Ease in actors' entrance and exit on stage Closer involvement of audience Greater emphasis of 3-dimensional qualities More flexibility in staging Better sight lines More seats II II DISADVANTAGES Limited sightlines Limits seats Separates audience from actors (lack of intimacy) Limits staging flexibility Too 2-dimensional Limits scenery More difficult to light Poor actor entrance/exit conditions Greater fire safety hazard conditions Limited special effects II II

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Sight Lines If the patron is to see satisfactorily, plan and section must conform to a number of limitations which are set forth in the following list. To design an auditorium is to determine a seating area within these limita tions and to establish position (not shape) of walls and shape of floors therefrom. 1. The horizontal angle of polychromatic vision {no eye movement) is approximately 40 degrees. 2. The horizontal angle to the center line at which objects onstage, upstage of the curtain line, cease to hear the intended relationship to other objects onstage and to the background is approximately 60 degrees. 3. The horizontal angle to a flat projection sheet at which distorti,on on the screen becomes substantially intolerable is 60 degrees measured to the far side of the projected image. Curvature introduced into the screen may render the distortion less from the extreme on the op posite side of the center line of the house hut will increase distortion from the seats on the same side of the center line. • Audiences will not choose locatiom beyond a line ap proximately 100 to the cur tain at the proscenium. Th,e .J\M.IWIIU c AUDIENCE. I • Bcued on the ability to recognize shapes and con firmed by sequential seat selectWn of unresertJed seats, the order of desira bility of locatWns is: A. front center, except when the picture screen close to the front rotc; B. middle center; C. middle side; D . front side; E. rear center; F. rear side • The horizontal angle to the center line at which ob jects omtage, upstage of the curtain line, cease to bear the intended relatiomhip to other objects omtage and to the background is approxi mately 60. The horizontal angle_ to the projection screen at which clistortion on the screen becomes substantially intolerable is 60,

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so• MAXIMUM HEAD ROTATION 45• EASY HEAD MOVEMENT THEATER SEAT WIDTHS: MAXIMUM 22'' 55 . 9 m AVERAGE 20"-50.8cm MINIMUM 18" 45.7 em STANDARD SIGHT LINE ' s\G'r\"t \..\'tolE . -.... o EASY HEAD MOVEMENT iO• I s--12.7cm DIMENSION __ EYE TO TOP OF HEAD I ,IJ 44--111.1cm EYE HEIGHT FROM FLOOR 3486.4cm AVERAGE DIMENSION '*"'-+----FLOOR TO THEATER CHAIR TOP OF BACK 23--58.4cm DIMENSION FLOOR TO TOP OF THEATER CHAIR ARM REST 16"-40.6cm I I I AVERAGE DIMENSION < FLOOR TO TOP OF THEATER CHAIR SEAT •

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Several methods have been offered heretofore for developing the floor slope. Doubtless others will be offered in the future. The authors present the following method as one which assures unobstructed vision from all seats. It may be noted that this system produces a floor slope consider ably steeper than that in many existing theatres. It also produces better seeing conditions. . To determine floor slope, establish eye position of spectator in first row on center line by approximately 30 degree vertical angle above. For live shows, stage floor will he approximately 2 inches below this level. For theatres designed solely for motion pictures, the location of the stage floor is not critical; the position of the bottom of the screen is. A point 3 feet 8 inches below, and 18 inches in front of the eye posi tion will be the floor level for the front row. (1) Draw a sight line from the eye position to downstage edge of stage, and extend it back of the eye position for the front row, step off horizontal seat spacing (back to hack), and draw vertical lines at the points thus established. ( 2) Estab lish a point 5 inches above the intersection of . the sight line and the next vertical line. ( 3) This is the eye position for the second row and the floor level at the front edge of the second row seat is 3 feet 8 inches below and 18 inches in front of the eye position. Repeat steps {1), {2) and (3) to the back of the house and draw in the floor slope. Where the slope exceeds 1lf2 inches per foot, platforms are required under the seats, and steps in the aisles. A cross-aisle which divides the orchestra into front and back sections entails the elevation of the first row of seats behind it to make up for horizontal width of the aisle. The standing spectator's eye level behind the rear row of seats is as sumed to he 5 feet 6 inches above the floor level of the last row. The sight line from this position to the top of the screen or highest probable curtain trim establishes the minimum height for ceiling under balcony. Raising the stage wi!l make it possible to reduce the floor slope but at the penalty of producing upward sight lines in the first two or three rows which are uncomfortable and unnatural for viewing stage setting and action. If the stage floor is above the elevation of the first row eye posi tion, the upstage portion of the floor will he invisible from the first row. Leaving the upstage floor out of sight by perhaps as much as 6 inches from the first row is generally preferable to having an excessive floor slope, especially if more than one balcony is used. When planning for motion pictures only, the lower sight line from the first row will come to the bottom of the projected picture, approxi e floor MOVIE "SC.R.EEN OQ. HIW+4E'S.T" .JW.CT" Ma%imum tolerable upward sight line angle for motion picturea. Ma%imum angle deter mines location of closest seats. Basic dimemiom plouing floor •lo pe. for ....... -r--r---3'-.. I I l

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SCREEN OR CURTAIN REPEAT DATUM OR CHAIR U N E LIVE SHOWS --------.....J SEE SECTION FOR LOCATING FIRST ___ _,Li'1 1 TYPtCALL-V 5'-4'' 70 60.,.-TC'A OF SCREEN '6'-0' OR MORE F'L..OOI=l S LOPE J 2 " STAGE HEIGHT FOOl L..IVE SHOWS ----MAY e:: MOVING FOCUS ST.:.OITING ABOUT 1 5• ABOVE SC"EEN aOTiOM AN O MOVE DOWN r • PER ROW --o ACHIEVE REVERSE FLOOR SLOPE 5 " HEAD CLEARANCE AT ALTERNATE ROWS FOCUS POINT FLOOR LINE AT FIRST ROW ; . ..... ... . . . : :::: ' ::.::.r.::::: , . J w > w J w > w lo DETERMINING THE MAIN FLOOR SLOPE: DIAGRAM SCALE USUALLY 114" • 1 '-0" HORIZ., 1/4" . !/ 2 " c 1 '-0" VERTICAL Bal cony sight lines sim1lar but start from rear row forward , ma i ntain in g uniform terrace heights to front of balcony or cross aisle. Stagger in plan to allow unobstructed view between al ternate roM of spectators so that min . 'h w idth of screen or act in g area is in vie w . Floor curve varies only with first row location & focus height . Not affected by row spacing. Several diagrams should be made using different initial assumptions to deter mine the best combination of overall relationships. Raise first row of seating behind . cross aisle to clear head of people using aisle . COMPROMISE BOUNDARY-------1' 60" FOR GOOD SEEING a "'"'EAqiNG .c.o-M INIMUM F"OR & HEARING CE-.;TER OF ROW 11aW. SCREE.N l WIDTHS (Wl 14 "-0'" FC" SMAL L VOVIEC:..-.; BE: USED F"O"' 1 6 MM. & ALSO • 6 -o TO 20' -o OP7:V1UM 23-0" MAXIMUM "'-a50LUTE MAX:MUM) PLAN OFTEN USED; GAINS SOME POOR SEATS 6 LOSES MANY GOOD ONES '....__SCREEN ANGLE B ISECTOR (LOCATES CENTER OF ROW CURVATURE) See local code for max i mum aisle slopes permitted : B . O . C .A. & B .B.C. allow 1 : 7 (1 '14'/ft. ) . U.B. C . allows 1 : 8 N.B. C ., N . F.P.A., S . S . B . C . allow 1 :10 Slopes greater than above must be in equal aisle risers full aisle width, usually allowed only in galleries & balcon ies. BOUNDARY OF GOOD SEATING AREA• OPTIMUM SEATS 3W TO SW FROM SCREEN MAXIMUM 6W FROM SCREEN . BACK WALL SHOULD NOT FOLLOW SEAT CURVATURE

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SOUNDBOAAO F"OA CONCERT HALL. PLATFORM IN ROOM INSTEAD OF" STAGE BEHIND PROSCENIUM. :::I::E:E::: (PROSCENIUM USUALLY HIGHER) 15' TO 20' F"OA DRAMA 20' TO 30' F"OA MUSICAL a OPERA / / : SECTION •. .. . ( I I I I / / / TRAPS :r 30 MAX. LIVE SHOWS lOAA ... A, ... USICAL, OPERA, BALLET) TOTAL NET VOLUME (EXCLUDING STAGE) • ISO-200 CU FT. PER SEAT / / LIGHT / / / / 7 / / :r . . . .. : . . : =: :" :: . . . :_: . ..... OAC1'4ESTAA PIT' 10 SQ. FT PEA ""USICIAN PLUS 100 TO 200 SQ. FT. WHERE PIT USED, F"IAST ROW WILL BE SUF"FICIENT D ISTANCE FROM STAGE

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Depth of House Location of center of curvature for rou:s of seau. There are many formulas used to determine the depth of the house, or more accurately, to determine the relationship between depth of house, width of house, and width of screen or proscenium. They vary consider ably and are all empirically derived on the basis of existing theatres, with too little reference to whether such theatres are good or not. Typical are the following: Optimum depth equals 4 times screen width. Maxi mum depth equals 6 times screen width. Depth equals 1.25 to 2.35 times house width when house width is 2.5 to 3.5 times screen width. Practi cally, there are only two significant considerations in planning the depth of the house: 1. Visual acuity. Normal human vision can perceive a minimum dimension or separation equal to 1 minute of visual arc. Translated into space measurement this means that at 10 feet a normal eye can perceive a dimension of .035 inch, at 50 feet, .175 inch, and at 100 feet, .35 inch. Details of actors' make-up and facial expression are not plainly recognizable at distances of more than 50 feet from the. stage. 2. Capacity. The larger the house, the lower can be the price per seat or the greater the gross. If the box office is not to be considered, capacity may be limited by optimum seeing requirements, and the last rows kept within 50 feet of the stage. As various requirements operate to increase capacity, the distance of the rear seats from the stage must be increased and seeing conditions impaired in proportion. The theatre operator may compensate the occupants of these seats by charging less for them. For shows involving live human actors, 75 feet is generally accepted on grounds of visibility as maximum house depth. In theatrical entertainment which has as its chief visual component human actors (live shows) the degree to which these performers must be seen to satisfy the audience and put the show across varies. A. Details of facial expression and small gesture are important in legitimate drama, vaudeville and burlesque, intimate revue and cabaret. B. Broad gesture by single individuals is important in grand opera, presentation, musical comedy, and the dance. C. Gesture by individuals is unimportant and movement of individ uals from place to place is the smallest significant movement in pageant It follows then that theatres planned for the types of entertainment listed under A must be limited in depth of auditorium so that visibility from the remotest seat still allows the occupant to perceive facial expres sions (not over 75 feet).

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.BLE 4. Lobby Area Per Seat House nmercial Theatre tcommercial Theatre >chool ::Ollege and University ::Ommunity lmate !\lotion Picture nmer Theatre 2 sq . ft. 1.8 sq. ft. 1.2 sq. ft. 1.4 sq. fL 1.4 sq. ft. 1 sq. ft. 1 sq. ft. g 7. Proscenium Widths for Kinds of Theatrical Production in Feet Rea&onable Minimum Uaual Maximum 26 30 to 35 40 ille, Revue 30 35 45 Comedy 30 40 so a ation 40 • 60 80 I PROSCENIUM WIDTH • (WI 30' TO 40' F"OR DRAMA • 40' TO 50' F"OR MUSICAL. 60' TO 80' F"OR OPERA W 26' SOMETIMES USED F"OR INTI>:AATE THEATER ... _.. .. : . .": :': . . . . . ON BACK l..INE OF" ACTING AREA \ACTING AREA• 0'-0'' USUAL. IN. RADIUS ----I I I I I I I I I I --l ...... __ J g 1W MAX. DRAMA : .-. : 2,l,s W MAX. MUSICAL. a OPERA DEPTH OF" STAGE• W TO 11/:oW PLAN S IDE AISL.ES ARE BETTER THAN SIDE .• :_.:.: . :..-: . APRON• 2'0 " MIN. TO 15 '-0" MAX. (NY.C. CODE) GOOD SEEING a HEARING AREA INTERMEDIATE A ISL.ES a CROSSOVERS NOT SHOWN \ S.<.Cr< WALL. S"'OIJ..O F"O' .... LOW NOT • • I I

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Concerts: changing rooms Type of performer Number Conductors 2 Soloists (instrumental) 4 Leader of orchestra 1 Musicians 120 Soloists (singers) 4 Choristers 250 Recitals: changing rooms Type of performer Number Conductors 2 Soloists (instrumental) 2 Soloists (singers) 2 Musicians 40 Choristers 40 Occupancy of room single single single shared single shared Occupancy of room single single single shared and segregated shared Remarks There should be a piano in at least one room . As the proportion of male to female musicians varies there should be flexibility in the changing room provision, say, 6 holding 20 each. There should be provision for making-up. The sexes should be segregated and a flexible system adopted to allow for varied proportions. Remarks There should be a piano in at least one room. For flexibility it should be possible to sub-divide larger rooms or provide several smaller ones which can be suitably allocated. h

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Variety, musicals, spectacles: dressing rooms Type of performer Principals Minor principals Chorus, etc. Children Number Occupancy of room 4 single 30 up to 6 per room 60 shared up to 20 variable they may be accommodated in one of the chorus rooms. Remarks Should be adaptable for 2 occupants. Capacities of rooms can be varied to take a maximum of 3, 4, 5 or 6 performers. As many as possible of the principals' and minor principals' rooms should be at stage level. The size of cast will vary with the size of the production but this should be sufficient for the average maximum. Regulations for child performers require that they be separately accommodated and properly supervised. Variety, musicals, spectacles: changing rooms Type of performer Conductor Musicians Number Occupancy of room Remarks 1 single The room should be large enough to hold auditions. 30 shared Divisible for male and female musicians, e.g. 5 rooms to take a maximum of 6 each. Drama dressing rooms Type of performer Principals Minor principals Supporting cast Numbe r 2-6 16-20 20-40 Occupancy of room single or occasionally two. shared 2, 3, 4 , 5 or6. shared in rooms holding up to 15. Remarks The principals and as mtl"ny minor principals as possible should be at stage level. The allocation of dressing rooms will vary continually according to the scale of the production and they will only be fully occupied for large • -

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banging space long mirror makeup D No. 15:3 1500 3600 No .15:4 4000 0 2300 hangin g space make-up ,_ \j 18 8 I l Ipiano I D I bed I II 3500 ' 1\ ' Single dressing rooms. Area 14 m1 • Single dressing room with provision for piano. Area 15 7 m1 • Q]GJ long mirror r-0 II b 0 II D 0 II D 0 II D I--II II 0 D 0 D 0 II D 0 II D .._ II 2300 'II 2300 ' 1\ .. " I Communal dressing room. Area 8 3 m • each bay . ... :,.

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A 1-1 '.,-rj r;l 'I IIV 1-8 14:. .-."" 7111111 7, r;; '/I I 1/Li. I --77 7 7 7 .fl7"7 I I I 'Ill rL.i. W1 "!"; r7 II !1///i!.i. 7TLL.,t.,t-, 'rrr7 1// r ; ; IL 1/ .. iT//; I II Vj 1//l IlL 'llri 771 'I. 'I /1 '/ 'I . -v_ L 'I. !IIV :.r, l"j 17' 'I '/' _t.. ,.,. lj v_ CS.C'-\001-C\V• •. l!tS'R \J\u '::, W\_c:s\\ON 1=>\C.T'-llC.i:. /,1. '771/Jl '/L ra ,.., ...... C++ ...... '16 0 .10 .aa <40 10 taO aoo 4oo 'JOL\lME. \N OF CU6\C FEeT 14 fiiO o.a 0 -a.. \-: 0.1. IX. 1/l II/!'>.. 'I IIIII 1111111 'Ill f?-,., 100 .t.oo '500 100 500 600 800 ' 2.i 100 Jf"''-,000 10,00 0 Optimum reverberation times for different auditorium uses defined by Knudsen and Harris an.tJ. generally used to establish acoustical de sign objectives. The values in the upper figure are for 512 cycles. When calculating reverberation for lower frequencies, it is necessary to apply the ratio R from the lower clwrt. Exnmple: t1 = t1m R. L

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Coefficienu 125Hz 250Hz 500Hz 1000Hz 2000Hz 4000Hz Brick, unglazed O.D3 0 .03 0 .03 0 . 04 0.05 0 . 07 Brick, unglazed , painted 0 .01 0.01 0 . 02 0 . 02 0 . 02 0 . 03 Carpet , heavy, on concrete 0 . 02 0 . 06 0.14 0.37 0 .60 0 . 65 Same, on 40 oz hairfelt or foam rubber 0 . 08 0 . 24 0.57 0 . 69 0.71 0 .73 Same, with impermeable latex baclcing on 40 oz hairfelt or foam rubber 0.08 0 . 27 0 . 39 0.34 0.48 0 .63 Concrete Block, coarse 0.36 0 . 44 0.31 0.29 0.39 0 . 25 Concrete Block, painted 0.10 0 .05 0.06 0 .07 0 . 09 0 . 08 Fabrics Light velour, 10 oz per sq yd, hung straight, in contact with wall O.D3 0 . 04 0.11 0 .17 0.24 0.35 Medium velour, 14 oz per sq yd, draped to half area O.D7 0 .31 0 . 49 0.75 0.70 0.60 Heavy velour, 18 oz per sq yd, draped to half area 0.14 0 . 35 0.55 0.72 0.70 0 . 65 Floors Concrete or terrazzo 0.01 0.01 O.DI5 0.02 0.02 0.02 Linoleum, asphalt, rubber or tork tile on concrete 0 . 02 0.03 0.03 0 .03 0 . 03 0.02 Wood 0.15 0 .11 0.10 0 .07 0 . 06 O.D7 Wood parquet in asphalt on concrete 0 . 04 0 . 04 O.D7 0 . 06 0.06 0.07 Glass Large panes of heavy plate glass 0 .18 0 . 06 0.04 0 . 03 0 . 02 0.02 Ordinary window glass 0.35 0.25 0.18 0.12 0 . 07 0 .04 Gypsum Board, i" nailed to 2 x 4's 16" o .c. 0 . 29 0 .10 0 .05 0 . 04 0 . 07 0 . 09 Marble or Glazed Tile O.DI 0 .01 0.01 0 .01 0.02 0 .02 Openings Stage, depending on furnishings 0 .25-0.75 Deep balcony, upholstered seats 0.50-1.00 Grills, ventilating 0.15-0. 50 Plaster, gypsum or lime, smooth finish on tile or brick 0 . 013 O.DI5 0 . 02 O.D3 0 . 04 0 . 05 Plaster , gypsum or lime, rough finish on lath 0.14 0.10 0.06 0 .05 0 . 04 0.03 Same, with smooth finish 0.14 0 .10 0 . 06 0.04 0 .04 0.03 Plywood Paneling, i" thick 0 . 28 0.22 0.17 0 . 09 0.10 0.11 Water Surface, as in a swimming pool 0.008 0.008 0 . 013 O.Dl5 0.020 0.025 Air, Sabins per 1000 cubic feet @ 50% RH 0 . 9 2.3 1.2 Absorption of Seats and Audience Values giuen are in sabins per square fool of seating area or per unit 125Hz 250Hz 500Hz 1000Hz 2000Hz 4000Hz Audience, seated in upholstered seats, per sq ft of floor area 0.60 0 . 74 0.88 0 . 96 0.93 0 . 85 Unoccupied cloth-covered upholstered seats, per sq ft of floor area 0.49 0.66 0 . 80 0 . 88 0.82 0 .70 Unoccupied leather-covered upholstered seats, per sq ft of floor area 0.44 0.54 0 . 60 0.62 0.58 0 . 50 Wooden Pews, occupied, per sq ft of floor area 0.57 0 .61 0 .75 0.86 0 .91 0.86 Chairs, metal or wood seats,

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ACOUSTICAL DATA: Reverberation Time (1.5 sec. maximum recommended by enclosed chart) T = KxV -rA T = K = v = A = Time (Seconds) Constant Volume (ft ) Coefficient of Absorption (sq. ft) of materials. Max. (Orchestra, chorus & chamber music) Volume = 181,462 cu.ft. EA = (35 x 22) x .5 = cemng (plaster)= 6041.1 sq. ft. X .06 = ?'I'Fl .... ---,__ Occupied upholstered seats 622 X 5.8 = 2. Carpet on Concrete 0.14 X 5034.25 Walls Walls (plaster) 385 362.5 3608 705 Area = 1352 x .06 = 81.12 Side Walls (cone. aggregate) Area1088 x .03 = 32.64 Back Walls (heavy carpet on foam pad) Area = 1864 x .39 = 727 EA = 5901.26

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T = 181,422 X .049 5901.26 = 1.5064 seconds Minimum Reverb Time (for lectures, intimate drama) Add heavy draperies to walls Wall areas (total) = Front Walls (draped) 1352 x .55 = Side Walls (draped) 1864 x .55 = Back Walls (draped) 1864 x .55 = Stage, ceiling and floor conditions remain unchanged = T = .049 X 181,462 7428 EA = = 1.19 Sec. Note: See enclosed charts for recommended reverb times for various activities. 743.6 598.4 1025.2 5060.5 7428

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II) E • l1 -.:J l -J: I • • • •

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Compo1itc mulicncc floto chart. I ! I I -STREET OR FOYER & HOUSE--( unsheltered) (sheltered) 1 emergency exits pedestrian I I g: I toilet rooms bar, concessions I ATRE ' chonge window I I l exhibitions ... aisles I I I turnstile admission Li "' lounge 11 check box office ..... room "! i 1 I ,. patsages BALCONY LOBBY I it system I ., I admission I tickets obtained I I in advance 1 control I, I I I ..... n vehicle I I , ORCHESTRA LOBBY I I i reservations I check r f! -,. passages driven or taxicab,I I I • I I room lounge wait for friends, I I I I ..._ aisles celebrities, I toilet rooms I I I I I early arrivals bar, concessions I I f----+-J;_ I I I I exhjbitions I I I " I I CURB ENTRANCE LOBBY HOUSE entergency exits I eats TRANSIT TO THE public trans owner drive chauffered seats I auto storage theatre-returns after

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(COSTUMES) TELEPHONE BOOTH WARDROBE ROOMS I .-------..1.------J l I TRAP ROOM ---WAITING SPACE ON STAGE I ACTING AREA DOORMAN'S BOOTH SHOWERS TOILETS 'r------, """' MAKEUP ROOM ---ACCESS TO BOTH SIDES OF S.T AGE -t I (COSTUMES) I SOLID LINES PERSONNEL BROKEN LINES---MATERIALS Flow chart for actors in the theatre.

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SPACE-ACTIVITIES REQUIREMENTS I. Public Facilities A. Lobby /Foyer General entrance for access and assembly to auditorium to serve as control for public to nonpublic areas Minimum space requirements: 1.4 sq. ft/seat= 1.4 x 600 840 sq. ft. (see enclosed chart) 1. Coat check room a. To provide storage carousels for audience coats having close accessibility to entrance and exits but not located to cause congestion or impede major circulation 2. Rest Rooms/Lounge Based on fixture recommendations from Graphic Standards (see chart) U.B.C. recommends llav/2 w.c., considered too minimal. 3. Multi-Purpose Room To house meetings, larger conferences, receptions or other community functions. To be provided with kitchennette for light food preparations (small range, oven regrig. and sink). 4. Ticket Booth To have close proximity to main entrance and administration

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II. ADMINISTRATION A. Offices 1. Reception Room a. Secretary b. Director's Office c. Assistant Director's office 2. Conference Room 3. Storage Room (office supplies) ill. THEATRICAL ARTS AND MUSICAL ARTS A. Auditorium 600 seats, maximun capacity with additional spaces for handicapped. Theatre to provide flexibility in seating and staging Required area based on 7.0 sq/ ft. per person per seat + 1.3 sq. ft/person for aisles. (Based on standard theatre design criteria) B. Stage 1. Combination thrust, apron, and proscenium type to allow for flexibility in staging techniques. 2. Ample back and side stage areas for set/scene storage and performers' circulation on and off stage (wing space). Area to be large enough for stage wagon to bring entire set on to stage. 3. Stage storage a. Storage for concert grand paino (9 foot length) b. X riser storage for chorus c. Portable acoustical shell storage

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II. Continued C. Workshop 1. Large space for set and properties construction, to have large openings for moving assembled sets to paint shop, storage and stage areas a. Table saw b. Jig saw c. Jointer/planer d. Hand tool storage e. Lumber storage racks f. Sink and counter for clean-up 2. Paintshop Direct access to workshop-having separation from dust particles a. Paint frame b. Sink and counter for clean-up c. Storage for flammable materials D. Flat Storage 12 foot high minimum space for upright storage with protection from sunlight and moisture. E. Properties Storage Large space for storage of bulky items (can be stacked vertically). F. Costume Repair/Storage 1. Provide for 1 or 2 sewing machines with cabinet. 2. Cutting table. 3. Storage racks for cloth (can be stacked vertically). 4. Costume storage racks (can be stacked vertically).

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II. Continued G. Dressing Rooms 1. Star Dressing Rooms a. Women-single or double occupancy should be at stage level b. Men-same as above c. Group Dressing Room (Men) Provide adequate counter and mirrors for make-up application under artificial light. Provide lavatories for make-up removal (1 lavatory for 6 people). A separate shower and water closet is recommended but can be in a rest room elsewhere. Provide costume storage or rack nearby make-up counter. d. Group Dressing Room (Women) Same as above e. Green Room To serve as lounge and rest area for actors and crew, to have coffee pot and vending machines. To be provided with comfortable furniture (seating) H. Assembly Area To have direct access to stage wings and dressing rooms; to provide a noise buffer from on to offstage activities. I. Rehearsal Hall 1. Comparable size to actual stage area 2. Can double as changing room or assembly space for large groups i.e. orchestra and chorus

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J. Control Booths 1. Lighting Control Booth a. Unobstructed view to stage b. Long counter for console and other control equipment 2. Sound Control Booth Same as above K. Orchestra Pit Provide space for 20 musicians @ 10 sq. ft. per musician + 100200 sq. ft. for total pit size = 20 x 10 + 200 = 400 sq. ft. (see Graphic Standards chart) L. Instrument Storage 1. Racks for instrument cases 2. Space for percussion instruments with accessory cabinet M. Rehearsal/Practice Rooms 1. Small Practice Rooms Individual space for instrument tuning or vocal rehearsal (2 spaces) 2. Medium size Practice Rooms a. Piano in at least one room b. Space to hold auditions c. Ensemble practice space d. Group warm-up or instrument tuning space can also double as dressing or changing rooms for large performances

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N. Music Library/Storage Space for scores, tapes, cassettes, records and sheet music A.V. equipment storage. IV. Miscellaneous Other supporting spaces required to adequately support facility operation. a. Janitor's closets b. Exterior storage for gounds equipment c. Trash storage and removal d. Loading/services area e. Mechanical equipment room f. Circulation spaces (to include overhead walkways for lighting falleries, fly spaces and other supporting staging activities.

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SPACE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE LITTLETON PERFORMING ARTS CENTER: A. PUBLIC FACILTIES SQ. FT. 1. Lobby/Foyer 2,500 2. Coat Check Room 250 3. Men's Rest Room 400 4. Women's Rest Room 500 5. Green Room 300 6. Multi-Purpose Room w I Kitchenette 400 7. Tickets-lnf ormation 150 4,500 B. ADMINISTRATIVE FACILITIES 1. Administrative Office/s 450 2. Staff Lounge 250 3. Rest Rooms (Optional) 200 4. Conference Room 150 1,200 c. THEATRICAL AND MUSICAL ARTS 1. Audience 5,000 2. Stage 4,000 3. Stage Storage 400 4. Workshop 600 5. Flat Storage 150 6. Properties Storage 2500 7. Costume Storage/Repair 400 8. Star Dressing Room (Men) 200 9. Star Dressing Room (Women) 250

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10. Group Dressing Room (Men) 400 11. Group Dressing Room (Women) 450 12. Rehearsal 2,000 13. Assembly Area 450 14. Control Booth 250 15. Orchestra Pit 400 16. Instrument Storage 400 17. Rehearsal Rooms (Small) 2 @ 150 sf 300 18. Rehearsal Rooms (Medium) 2 @ 250 sf 500 19. Music Library /Storage 500 19,150 D. MISCELLANEOUS To include Mechanical, Electrical, Services and Circulation (Based on 15% of Net Area) 3,725 TOTAL GROSS SQUARE FOOTAGE 28,600

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S. WINDERMERE S. DATURA ST. niAn

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foyer main floor plan 1 .. =1s

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----,----,----1 \ I I I I mechanical lo\Ner level floor plan ""="a

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east ' ' •'"f • ' . . . ... . elevation 111=1s'TvP,. . . : , : . . ' • • ":'!,";-. • . . . -... . . ...... ... . . .. . ----.... : ... north elevation . . ..... . ::Q:::;n:: . . --.. ... . . ...... .. ..... , .... .. ---............. ,,.!. ,. ...... .u: • . ........ . ... ... .... . ... -. . : . ...... :: . . ..

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.1:: . . . , , . . . . \Nest elevation . .,._ .. .. ..-.P.>-• : ... . :. : : :"";: .. .... -: :'. south elevation . . ,,. .. ... ..... r-:.: .... . . -. . . . -. J: ; : . ... ........ '"'.. .......

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section a-a

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rn 355 MOVABLE SEATS 623 TOTAL SEATS

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MAX. EVE ROTATION 30!' STANDARD SITE

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floor framing plan 111:eo•

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roof framing plan

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foyer main level floor plan mechanical plan

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section a-a ,r------, I \ I \ I I mechanical lo\Ner level .finn .. ..... _ ... _.

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a. Theatres and Auditoriums by Harold Burris-Meyer and Edward Cole, p. 64. b. Theater Design by George C. Izenour, p. 3. c. Theatres and Auditoriums by Harold Burris-Meyer and Edward C. Cole, p. 69. d. Architectural Graphic Standards by Charles G. Ramsey and Harold R. Sleeper, p. 32. e. Op.Cit., p. 33 f. Theatres and Auditoriums by Harold Burris-Meyer and Edward C. Cole, p. 67 g. i. Op.Cit., p. 51. g. ii. Op.Cit., p. 71. g. iii. Architectural Graphic Standards by Charles G. Ramsey and Harold R. Sleeper, p. 33. h. Theatre Planning edited by Roderick Ham, p. 179180. i. Op.Cit., p. 178. j. Op.Cit., p. 183. k. Theatres and Auditoriums by Harold Burris-Meyer and Edward C. Cole, p. 83. 1. Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings by William J. McGuinness, p. 977. m. Theatres and Auditoriums by Harold Burris-Meyer and Edward c. Cole, p. 52. n. Op.Cit., p. 156.