Citation
Denver Artists' Cooperative

Material Information

Title:
Denver Artists' Cooperative
Creator:
Radziner, Ronald N.
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture
Committee Members:
Pellechia, Anthony

Notes

Abstract:
The Denver Artists' Cooperative is a thesis project for the Masters of Architecture degree at The University of Colorado at Denver. The Cooperative is intended to provide artists from a variety of disciplines an environment in which they can work in addition to functions which may be of direct benefit to the community at large as well. The site for the Cnoperative lies on land owned by the Midwest Steel Company at the intersection of Interstate 25 and Colfax Ave. (Interstate 70 Business Loop). The building program includes 60,000 square feet of studios, theatres, commercial space, and residential accommodations.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
•ssessr
A72 1986 R34


Date Due





Denver Artists' Cooperative
An Architectural Thesis Presented to The College of Design and Planning in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture
Ronald M. R^dziner Spring 1 98T6


The Thesis of Ronald M. Radziner is Approved.
Anthony Pellechia Principal Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver Spring 1986


Table of Contents
Page
Project Summary
Thesis Statement 1
Site Analysis 5
Climate 7
Program Summary 11
Program Details 16
Codes and Zoning Thesis Design Conclusion B i b1i ography Appendix 41


Project Summary
The Denver Artists' Cooperative is a thesis project for the Masters of Architecture degree at The University of Colorado at Denver. The Cooperative is intended to provide artists from a variety of disciplines an environment in which they can work in addition to functions which may be of direct benefit to the community at large as well.
The site for the Cooperative lies on land owned by the Midwest Steel Company at the intersection of Interstate 25 and Colfax Ave. (Interstate 70 Business Loop). The building program includes 60,000 square feet of studios, theatres, commercial space, and residential accommodations.


"The city of the future is the ruin of the city of the present."
Arata Isozaki


Thesis Statement


Thesis Statement
"What makes man peculiar on Earth is his ability to increase his ability."
Glen Webster KCFR 10:15 p.m. 21 October 1985
The 18th and 19th centuries gave rise to the illusion of brooding artists alone in dimly lit, freezing garrets persevering over obscure masterworks incomprehensible to the ordinary soul. When the artist creates, he is not alone. I believe the act of producing or causing something to exist is highly personal, an event that is not shared with others in a direct manner. An individual conceives an idea within the confines of the mind, a territory where we are always alone. However, in the absence of steady dialogue with people involved in similar issues (and for that matter, individuals whose concerns differ wildly), the artist will not reach his full potential. Art is a form of communication, and regardless of the periodic need for solitude, we see that more often than not artists have tended to gather in communities for mutual support and exchange of ideas.
This tendency is demonstrated throughout history. The great artists all appear to have been entangled within a tight body of other artists. Whether it be Michelangelo and his contemporaries, the New York group at Max's Kansas City in the late fifties, or the group of Pablo Picasso, Gertrude Stein,
Henri Matisse, etc. drinking at Stein's Rue de Fleurus studio, the meetinas were imDortant


2
to stimulate ideas and further their directions. As Gertrude Stein says of Picasso, "He needed ideas, anybody does not necessarily ideas for painting, but he had to know those who were interested in ideas."
Denver lacks a facility for such a focus. Although the industrial region around Blake, Wazee and Market from 23rd to 30th Street has recently been undergoing a somewhat bohemian gentrification, its character and intent are pointedly commercial and artistically diffuse.
A more concise effort is needed.
On the west side of 1-25 wedged between new and old Colfax, to the north and south respectively, nestled beneath layered mammoth viaducts and bounded by vehicle access ramps is a compound of largely abandoned industrial buildings. The common brick buildings date from the early part of the 20th century and have the characteristic loft-type large floor spaces, with generous windows. The site itself is dotted with mixed sized courtyards once used for various forms of storage and fabrication. It is the proposal of this thesis to use this site, its existing structures, in combination with new facilities, to develop an artists' cooperative. The cooperative will include studio, residential and exhibition space combined with other potential commercial uses which may be of direct benefit to the community at large and the compound itself.
The architecture, accordingly, is compelled to provide artists from a variety of disciplines (including sculpture, painting, photography, film, dance and theatre) an environment which is conducive to initiating and Demetuatina an interchanqe of ideas, but


3
still affords the privacy necessary to create.
The complex, like a machine, can be very efficient and fast, but if everything is resolved, there is no room for the individual's actions. The intent is for the artist to be given a building rich in emotion and layers, but not so haughty as to discourage mutations, which can then be cultivated further by the users to reflect their own development.
The emotive and perceptual aspects of the architecture are to be recognized as primary and, therefore, drive toward an intensification of experience. Consequently, the building will rebel from stasis, normalcy, or passivity, ideas which I reason to have very little place in the act of invention. A sequence of particular places and experiences will be produced, where one always has the indication that there is something beyond, something to look at or to (similar to film). Spaces will overlap and figuratively fold in on each other to add depth and richness to this composition.
The building (within the limitations of style) seeks a language which transcends both reductivism and over-literal representation, a course I believe artists are likewise directed toward. It is a tack that looks beyond our recent minimalist past to a more complex, and hence, more accurate interpretation of the present condition of American soc i ety.
Contextural commentary is central to the communication of an architectural message.
The present site condition is a testament to the National Defense Hiahwav System. Society




4
in post World War II prosperity, began relocating in previously underdeveloped regions. This migration, made possible only by the highway network, spawned the suburban environment and accompanying social fabric characteristic of America today. The existing industrial buildings have been caught in space as the highways beat around them. People travel between suburbia and the city through a decidedly modern sculpture which the viewer can actually become part of to experience.
The new forms will attempt to participate in this dynamic environment as well as comment on it.
Freeways, viaducts, a strange collection of buildings, and a river collide with unrestrained enthusiasm upon this site. It is my contention that within these sweeping layers, a new series of habitable structures can be conceived that potentially could work beside these unrelenting neighbors with zeal. The building will accept the unexpected.


5
Site Analysis
"To stay will be suicide. Evacuation is the only way to survive. And the best way to evacuate the millions of people in America's target cities is by motor vehicles--on our highways."
Val Paterson "Traffic Quarterly" January 1956


6
Site Analysis
The site is located within the South Platte Flood Plain District.
As stated in Section 1723 of the Denver Building Code :
Building and additions to buildings of A,B,C,E,F,G and J occupancies may be located below the level of the intermediate regional flood, provided an engineer certifies that the structure and utilities are adequately flood proofed to withstand flood depths, pressures, velocities, impact, and uplift forces and other factors associated with flood waters to a level one foot above the level of the intermediate regional flood.
Noi se-
1-25 noise level is estimated at 60-70 decibels.


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Climate




8
Climate Analysls
Denver, Colorado
Latitude: 39.45N
Longitude: 104 52W
Altitude: 5285 ft.
above sea level
Narrative Climatological Summary
Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration.
Air masses from at least four different sources influence Denver's weather: artic air from Canada and Alaska; warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico; warm dry air from Mexico and the southwest; and Pacific air modified by its passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the west.
The good climate results largely from Denver's location at the foot of the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. During most summer afternoons cumuliform clouds so shade the City that temperatures of 90° or over are reached on an average of only thirty-two days of the year, and in only one year in five does the mercury very briefly reach the 100° mark.


9
In the cold season the high altitude and the location of the mountains to the west combine to moderate temperatures. Invasions of cold air from the north, intensified by the high altitude, can be abrupt and severe. On the other hand, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the plains never reach Denver's altitude and move off over the lower plains to the east. Surges of cold air from the west are usually moderated in their descent down the east face of the mountains, and Chinooks resulting from some of these westerly flows often raise the temperature far above that normally to be expected at this latitude in the cold season. These conditions result in a tempering of winter cold to an average temperature above that of other cities situated at the same latitude.
In spring when outbreaks of polar air are waning, they are often met by moist currents from the Gulf of Mexico. The juxtaposition of these two currents produces the rainy season in Denver, which reaches its peak in May.
Situated a long distance from any moisture source, and separated from the Pacific source by several high mountain barriers, Denver enjoys a low relative humidity, low average precipitation, and considerable sunshine.
Spring is the wettest, cloudiest and windiest season. Much of the 37 percent of the annual total precipitation that occurs in spring falls as snow during the colder, earlier period of that season.


10
Stormy periods are often interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that remove previous snow cover.
Summer precipitation (about 32 percent of the annual total), particularly in July and August, usually falls mainly from scattered local thundershowers during the afternoon and evening. Mornings are usually clear and sunny. Clouds often form during early afternoon and cut off sunshine at what would otherwise be the hottest part of the day. Many afternoons have a cooling shower.
Autumn is the most pleasant season. Local summer thunderstorms are mostly over and invasions of cold air and severe weather are infrequent, so that there is less cloudiness and a greater percent of possible sunshine than at any other time of the year. Periods of unpleasant weather are generally brief. Precipitation amounts to about 20 percent of the annual tota 1 .
Winter has the precipitation accumulation, only about 11 percent of the annual total, and almost all of it snow. Precipitation frequency, however, is higher than in autumn. There is also more cloudiness and the relative humidity averages higher than in the autumn. Weather can be quite severe, but as a general rule the severity doesn't last long.
NOAA/Environmenta1 Data &
Information Service/National
Climatic Center/Ashevi11e, NC


MONTHLY DIURNAL BIOCLIHATIC ANALYSIS Denver, Colorado HornlnR Data (10 AM)
Month Wind (Mean fpm) Hean Rel. Humidity Average Temp F Possible Z Sun Solar Radiation BTU/sq.ft. Avg. Sky Cover Avg. Monthly Precip.
Jan. 906.4 501 34.6 68Z 116.8 5.1Z 0.75 In.
Feb. 968 47.3X 37.8 75Z 138.6 5.7Z 1.0 in.
Mar. 862.4 43. i: 47.0 85Z 205.1 5.8Z 1.2 In.
April 932.8 41.6Z 53.7 78Z 224.1 5.7Z 2.1 In.
May 862.4 50.3X 62.5 65Z 245.4 5.8Z 3.0 in*.
June 976.8 44Z 70.9 68Z 262.5 4.5Z 1.75 In.
July 827.2 34.9Z 80.3 72Z 263.4 4.6Z 1.9 In.
Aug. 668.8 47.4 77.3 72Z 240.3 4.6Z 1.75 in.
Sept. 695.2 41.6X 67.8 85Z 213.9 4 .IX 1.0 in.
Oct. 774.4 45X 55.8 75Z 165.6 4.2Z 1.0 In.
Nov. 739.2 61.5X 42.3 58Z 117.3 5.8X 0.75 In.
Dec. B53.6 51.3Z 35.5 72Z 100.7 5.3Z 0.60 in.


I
MONTHLY DIURNAL BIOCLMATIC ANALYSIS Denver, Colorado Afternoon Data (A PH)
Month Wind (Mean fpa) Mean Rel. Humidity Averagg Temp. F Possible Z Sun Solar Radiation BTU/sq.ft. Avg. Sky Cover Avg. Monthly Precip.
Jan. 906. A 6A.8Z 3A.2 68Z 1 | ; | 36.AA 5.1Z 0.75 la.
Feb. 968 63.3X 39.A 75Z A8.3 5.7Z 1.0 in.
Mar. 862.A 66.2X A6.1 B5Z 113.3 5.8Z 1.2 In.
April 932.8 62.6Z 57.5 78Z 150.27 5.7Z 2.1 In.
May 862.A 7A.8Z 66.A 65Z 169.9 5.8Z 3.0 In.
June 976.8 69.5Z 7A.A 68Z 18A.A A.5Z 1.75 In.
July 827.2 58.9Z 80.5 72Z 182.2 A.6Z 1.9 In.
Aug. 668.8 70.1Z 78.6 72Z 156.9 A.6Z 1.75 in.
Sept. 695.2 60.3Z 75.3 85Z 123.5 A.1Z 1.0 In.
Oct. 71A.A 60.9Z 61.7 75Z 57.7 A.2Z 1.0 In.
Nov. 739.2 76.3Z AA.7 58Z 36.5 5.8Z 0.75 In.
Dec. 853.6 72.8Z 37.2 72Z 22.9 5.3Z 0.60 In.


I
CLWfhc DATA LOCATION: C0lD&k[)0 LONGITUDE: lOjVz'kJ STATION: 5TNT-£="pN. J\|| JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC MEAN TOT

2 % SUNSHINE < 72- 71 70 6-7 71 71 7a 73 75 65 66 70
q DD HEAT ^2} Z5^ 0O 0 0 \w 4o& 7I6?
^ DD COOL o O O O O Wo JM6 0/ 1 0 0 0
m MEAN MAX. 4» 44,2 50.1 61.0 70.) 80, | 07.1 258 777 66,6 »> 64 0
P MEAN 21.1 321 07 o H75 ►/7o 6O.0 75 6 716 62.8 52 o> «6 50 \
fi MEAN MIN. * |U 11/ 1*1 436 51.1 58,6 «4 47.® 57.3 25.0 IA.1 %.*

DAYS PRECIP b (o 6 1 10 1 1 0 A 5 3 3 88
MAX RAIN 1.44 I. tG 2.61 4-17 7}| U] HI 447 467 417 217 2.64
MEAN RAIN •11 .67 1.21 '•13 2*4 i.7a 121 111 l.l> •74 .fa 15.31
^ MIN RAIN < .o\ •ol .ft .03 .06 .10 • 17 .06 T .05- .01 ■05
P TH.STORM ft Max IK 24 Hr 1.02. loi l .46 3.14 3.42 >.43 H4 1.71 U1 I.* I
UJ MAX SNOW Jp MONTHLY |B,'5 20.3 0.6 .3 0 0 zl.) 312. 31.1 yx&
RH MAX t'l 60 <°Y (p& 70 7| 70 H *1 64 C& 68
RH MIN 4? 42 AO 15 36 '56 32 JO '55 41 30


MONTHLY DIURNAL BIOCLIHATIC ANALYSIS Denver, Colorado Evening Data (10 PM)
Month Wind (Mean fpo) Mean Rel. Humidity Average Tenp. F Possible Z Sun
Jan. 950.7 67.6Z 24.1 0
Feb. 765.6 57.8X 25.9 0
Mar. 721.6 62.1Z 32.2 0
April 836 52.9Z 44.8 0
May 704.0 58.2Z 53.8 0
June 959.2 52.2Z 61.0 0
July 739.2 47.8Z 67.8 0
Aug. 660.0 56.2Z 65.3 0
Sept. 633.6 45.8Z 57.9 0
Oct. 668.8 54.2Z 42.8 0
Nov. 642.4 70.7Z 34.9 0
Dec. 616.0 68.7Z 26.6 0
Solar Radiation BTU/aq.ft.
0
0
0
• 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
• 0
Avg. Sky
Cover
Avg. Monthly Preclp.
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BIOCLIMATIC CHART
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DENVER .COLORADO


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Program Summary


12
Program Summary
Organizational Description
The ideas presented here about the possible inferstructure of the artists' cooperative have been defined after interviews with artists in the Denver area as well as research into other existing cooperatives.
The compound is planned to allow up to 80 artists adequate studio space in which to work. Approximately 25% of the members will live on the central Denver site in rooms provided by the Cooperative. It is these twenty artists that will be responsible for the day-to-day operation of the Cooperative. Their housing will be provided for them in exchange for this additional undertaking. The overall intent is for the members to have complete control of the compound. Artistic, organizational, developmental, and financial decisions will be made by the members.


13
Program Summary
Residential Facilities Num NSF Total NSF
Rooms 20 250 5000
Guest Room 1 250 250
Common Space 1 600 600
Lavatory 2 100 200
Showers 4 20 80
Laundry 1 60 60
Kitchen 1 300 300
Dining 1 300 • 300
Pantry 1 50 50
% Bath 1 30 30
Small Commons 1 175 175
Workroom 1 80 80 7TT5
Workshop Facilities
Metal Shop 1 1 5000 1 5000
Wood Shop 1 3500 3500
Clay Studio 1 2500 2500
Painting Studio 1 5000 5000
Darkroom
Darkroom (group) 1 150 150
Darkroom (private) 5 40 200
Additional Space 1 150 150
Film/Vi deo
Editing Rooms 3 70 210
Screening Rooms n / if ^ x t r\ _ 1 A 350 r r\ 350 /â–  r\


Film/Video (cont'd. ) Num NSF Total NSF
Additional Common Space 1 120 120
7TC
Commerc i a 1
Restaurant 6000
Bookstore 1000 7TTDTT
Gal leries i •
Gallery Space 1 5000 5000
Office 1 100 100
Restroom 1 50 50
Storage 1 300 300

Admini stration
Off ices (General) 1 300 300
Recept ion 1 150 150
Conference 1 150 150
7W
Theatre
Seating 1 1600 1600
Stage 1 300 300
Workshop 1 200 200


15
Theatre (cont'd . ) Num NSF Total
Vestibule 1 400 400
Checkroom 1 80 80
Toilets (Public) 2 100 200
Ticket Office 1 30 30
Sound/Light Booth 1 100 100
Laundry 1 100 100
Dress i ng 1 150 150
Bathrooms 2 100 200
Green Room 1 1 50 150
Costume Storage 1 100 100
Prop Storage 1 150 150 rm
Total Net Sq. Ft. 51275
+20% Circulation 10255
Total Gross Sq. Ft. 61530


Program Details


17
Private Rooms
Major Uses: The private space for the live-in users of the Cooperative. Space for sleeping .
Capacity: 1 to 2 persons
Times of Use: At any time during the day or night.
Adjacencies: Primary: Lav, showers, laundry,
commons, guest room. Secondary: kitchen, dining.
Visual Qualities: Rooms should command a view.
Special Acoustics: Sound transmission between adjoining rooms should be kept as minimal as possible.
Lighting: Ambient lighting should be subdued,
with task-lighting as required. Lighting should also be adjustable by the user.
Equipment/Furnishing : Small sink, no furniture will be provided. It will be up to the user to furnish the space as desired.
Comments: The rooms are intended to give the
artist a comfortable sized raw space, possibly with a variation in levels, which the user can then develop to fit his/her needs.


18
Guest Room
Major Uses: A private room for overnight accommodations for guests of the live-in Cooperative users.
Capacity: 1 to 2 persons
Times of Use: At any time during the day or night.
Adjacencies: See Rooms.
Visual Qualities: See Rooms.
Special Acoustics: See Rooms.
Lighting: See Rooms.
Equipment/Furnishings: Small sink, comfortable chairs, a low table, bed, writing desk and chair, bureau.
Comments: The guest room is intended to be very similar to the resident's rooms in terms of hierarchy of size and location.


19
Common Space
Major Uses: Informal gatherings of Cooperative live-in users, listening to music, reading, relaxing.
Capacity: 20-25 people
Times of Use: Throughout the day and evening, especially during the evening hours.
Adjacencies: Private rooms, guest room.
Special Acoustics: The lounge users may generate a great deal of noise at times. The walls in the room should be able to absorb most of the noise, and prevent it from disturbing persons in their rooms.
Lighting: Ambient lighting should be subdued
and adjustable.
Equipment/Furnishing : Comfortable chairs and low tables.
Comments: The commons should be the live-in users' community space.


20
Lavatory
Major Uses: Sinks and toilets for live-in Co-op users.
Capacity: 2 W.C.; 3 sinks
Times of Use: At any time during the day or night.
Adjacencies: Rooms, showers.
Visual Qualities: None
Special Acoustics: None
Special Materials: None
Comments: Two lavatories, mens and womens.
No urinals in men's lav as this should have some characteristics of a home.
Laundry
Adjacencies: Rooms
Visual Qualities: None
Special Acoustics: Sound transmission between adjoining rooms should be kept as minimal as possible.
Equipment/Furnishing : 2 washers, 2 dryers.


21
Showers
Major Uses: Shower for live-in users.
Capacity: 1 to 2 persons
Times of Use: At any time during day or night. Adjacencies: Lav, rooms, guest room.
Visual Qualities: None Special Acoustics: None
Special Material: All surfaces to be tiled.
Lighting: Natural light is desirable.
Comments: Room for a 3' x 3' shower and a
small dry-off area. All surfaces to be tiled.


22
Kitchen
Major Uses: Cooking facilities for live-in Cooperative members.
Capacity: 6 persons
Times of Use: Predominantly early evening.
Adjacencies: Primary: Dining, pantry;
Secondary: Small commons
Lighting: Natural lighting required.
Equipment/Furnishing : Refrigerator, freezer, commercial dishwasher, cooktop range with exhaust hood, double oven, disposal.
Special Materials: Durable and washable surfaces throughout the facilities.
Comments: Dinner will probably be the only
meal regularly eaten together by the live-in members. -Possibly two to three of the users will cook dinner for the rest of them on a nightly alternating basis.


23
Dining Room
Major Uses: Service of dinner. Informal gatherings.
Capacity: 25 people
Times of Use: Formally in the early evening, scattered use at all other times.
Adjacencies: Primary: Kitchen, pantry, small
commons; Secondary: Workroom.
Visual Qualities: Room should command a view.
Special Acoustics: None
Lighting: Lighting should be adjustable by
user. Natural light required.
Equipment/Furnishing: One large table approx. 16' x 4'. Benches for flexible seating.
Comments: The room will hopefully be center
for much of the communication that will take place between the artists.


24
Pantry
Major Uses: Storage of personal food for live-in Cooperative members.
Capacity: 2 persons
Times of Use: At any time during the day or night.
Adjacencies: Kitchen, dining, room.
Visual Qualities: None
Special Acoustics: None
Lighting: No natural light desired.
Equipment/Furnishing : 1 freezer, 1 refrigerator,
adequate shelving.
Comments: Since dinner is probably the only
meal as a group, storage of personal foodstuffs is needed.


25
Smal1 Commons
Major Uses: A small sitting room near the entry to the residential portion of the Cooperative.
Capacity: 10 persons
Times of Use: At any time during the day or night.
Adjacencies: Dining.
Visual Qualities: The small commons should be visually accessible from the circulation path to and from the private and cluster rooms.
Lighting: Ambient lighting should be subdued
and adjustable.
Equipment/Furnishing: Comfortable chairs, low table, maybe a piano.
Comments: None


26
Workroom
Major Uses: A room to take care of the
financial paperwork for the residential portion of the Cooperative.
Capacity: 2 persons
Times of Use: Usually evenings.
Adjacencies: Small commons.
Visual Qualities: Privacy from other spaces.
Special Acoustics: None
Lighting: Ambient lighting. Task lighting
as required.
Equipment/Furnishing: Writing desk, two chairs,
shelving.
Comments: None


Metal Shop
Major Uses: Space for metal working, and storage of metal components.
Capacity: 20 persons
Times of Use: Generally during daylight hours.
Adjacencies: Primary: Loading, outdoor space;
Secondary: Wood shop
Visual Qualities: None
Special Acoustics: The shop will generate a great deal of noise. The walls of the room should be able to absorb a great deal of this noise.
Lighting: High quantities of natural light.
Equipment/Furnishing : Foundry, presses, work benches, overhead crane, etc.
Comments: Access to outdoor space is important, shop should probably have an outdoor work space.


Wood Shop
Major Uses: Space for wood working, storage of wood materials.
Capacity: 10 persons
Times of Use: Generally during daylight hours.
Adjacencies: Primary: Loading; Secondary:
Metal shop.
Visual Qualities: None
Special Acoustics: The shop will generate a great deal of noise. The walls of the room should be able to absorb a great deal of this noise.
Lighting: Strong ambient light.
Equipment/Furnishing : All necessary wood working equipment.
Comments: The main function of the wood shop
will be to act as a support shop for the rest of the Cooperative.


29
Painting Studio
Major Uses: Space for Cooperative artists to work on projects.
Capacity: 25 persons
Times of Use: Throughout the day and evening.
Adjacencies: No primary adjacencies.
Special Acoustics: None
Lighting: Strong natural light.
Equipment/Furnishing: All provided by users.
Comments: The space could be one space or a
series of spaces which could be sub-divided by the users as they see fit. Natural light is very important to the space.
\


30
Darkroom
Major Uses: Production of photographs.
Capacity: 8 persons in group darkroom; 1
person in each private room.
Times of Use: Throughout the day and evening.
Adjacencies: Primary: None; Secondary: Painting.
Visual Qualities: None
Special Acoustics: None
Lighting: No natural light. Safe lights should
be provided in the darkroom.
Special Materials: Washable and durable materials should be used on the room and equipment surfaces.
Equipment/Furnishing : Storage cabinet and shelves; darkroom equipment and special plumbing for the darkroom.
Comments: None


31
Editing Room
Major Uses: Editing of film and video productions. Capacity: 2 persons
Times of Use: Anytime throughout day and evening.
Adjacencies: Primary: Additional common space;
Secondary: A/V control room, screening room.
Visual Qualities: None
Special Acoustics: None
Lighting: No natural light.
Equipment/Furnishing: Film and editing equipment.


Screening Room
Major Uses: Viewing of film and videos and lectures.
Capacity: 70 persons
Times of Use: Mostly evenings.
Adjacencies: Primary: A/V control room;
Secondary: Editing rooms, additional space.
Visual Qualities: All people should have a clear, unobstructed view of the stage and screen.
Special Acoustics: The acoustics should allow
speech to be heard without using amplification equ i pment.
Lighting: The lighting should be completely
artificial to allow maximum control of light levels.
Equipment/Furnishing : Seats will be built-in.
See A/V control room program for service needs.
Comments: The screening room should be acces-
sible to the public, although the room will probably be predominantly used by Cooperative users.


A/V Control Room
Major Uses: Projection of visual presentations, producing and recording sound, controlling light levels and direction, storing small amounts of equipment.
Capacity: 1-2 persons
Times of Use: During operation of screening room.
Adjacencies: Primary: Screening room;
Secondary: Editing rooms, additional space.
Visual Qua 1ities: None
Special Acoustics: None
Equipment/Furnishing: Special electrical supply for the projectors, reloading equipment, lights, etc.


Gallery Space
Major Uses: Space for the display of art by the Cooperative members, and occasional outside shows.
Capacity: 150 people
Times of Use: Usually during daylight hours, but also on some evenings.
Adjacencies: Primary: Office, storage;
Secondary: Retail shops.
Special Acoustics: None


35
Theatre - Seating
Major Uses: Fixed seating for theatre.
Capacity:
Times of Use: Usually evenings.
Adjacencies: Stage, lobby.
Equipment/Furnishing : Seats (not less than •
20 in. on center).
Comments: Seat spacing approximately 36 in.
back to back. Because it is a small theater continental seating may be used.


36
Theatre - Stage
Major Uses: For the public showing of plays, dance, musicals, films and lectures.
Capacity: Varies
Times of Use: Usually evenings.
Adjacencies: Theatre seating, workshop.
Equipment/Furnishings: None provided.
Comments: The importance of the human actor requires that stage space and scenery do not dwarf him/her.


37
Workshop
Major Uses: Construction of Scenery.
Capacity: 4 persons
Times of Use: Usually during daylight hours.
Adjacencies: Stage, prop, storage.
Vi sual Qualities: None
Special Acoustics: This room will generate
a great deal of noise. The walls should absorb a large portion of this noise.
Lighting: Strong ambient light. Daylight
desired.
Equipment/Furnishing: Pneumatic power tools.
Comments: Door to theatre at least 15' in
height.


38
Checkroom
Major Uses: Take coats before performances, return after.
Capacity: 2 persons
Times of Use: Usually evening.
Adjacencies: Lobby.
Equipment/Furnishings: Chair, coat racks.
Comments: Should be in low activity area.


Ticket Office
Major Uses: Ticket sales, information. Capacity: 1 person
Times of Use: Usually evenings. Adjacencies: Lobby.
Equipment/Furnishing: Counter, stool.
Comments: Needs security, must be easily
located.


40
Dressing Room
Major Uses: To accommodate musicians, actors, actresses, dancers, etc.
Capacity: 15 persons
Times of Use: Usually evenings.
Adjacencies: Showers, bathrooms, green room.
Visual Qualities: None
Special Acoustics: None
Lighting: Task lighting as necessary.
Equipment/Furnishing : Lockers, clothing racks, mirrors.
Comments: None


Zoning and Codes


Zoning
Zoning Ordinance: City and County of Denver, Colorado
Occupancy Classification: 1-2 Fire Zone: 3
Uses by right in the 1-3 zone include:
1) Ambu1ance Service
2) Amusement Center
3) Animal Hospital
4) Automobile Towing Service
5) Bank
6) Blueprinting
7) Clinic, Dental or Medical
8) Community Center
9) Dump
10) Electric Substation
11) Electric Generator
12) Entertainment and Sports Area
13) Fire Station
14) Incinerator
15) Junk Yard
16) Laboratory
17) Manufacturing
18) Motel
19) Gasoline Filling Station
20) Newspaper Distribution Station
21) Office
22) Parking and/or Commercial Storage of Vehicles
23) Pet Store
24) Quarry
25) Railroad Facilities
26) Reservoir
27) Restaurant
28) Sale at Retail
29) Sale at Wholesale
30) Sand Pits


43
31) School, may include dormitories for
students and instructors.
32) Sewage Disposal Plant
33) Trucking Freight Terminal
Accessory Uses: Incidental only to a use by right, any use which complies with all of the following conditions may be operated as an accessory use:
1) Is clearly incidental and customary to and
commonly associated with the operation-of the use by right;
2) Does not include residential occupancy
except by caretakers or watchman.


Codes and Zoning
The Cooperative's activities are covered by the "Uses by Right" in the 1-2 zone, except the residential occupancy. Therefore, the project will be developed within 1-2 guidelines, but with waivers to allow residential development.


es and Zoning lding Type Group Relevant Code Section
embly B-2 Chapter 7
rding House H-2 Chapter 13
taurant F-1 Chapter 11
ai 1 F-2 Chapter 11
k Studios G-1 Chapter 12
Construction Type Available Area Maximum Stories
Type 111(1 hour) 15500 2
Type II 30000 4
Type 111(1 hour) 1 5500 5
Type II 32000 6
Type 111(1 hour) 18000 4
Type II 24000 6
Type 111(1 hour) 18000 4
Type II 40000 6
Type 111(1 hour) 18000 4
Type II 60000 6
cn


46
Zoning and Codes - Exit Requirements
Occupancy Area
Sq. ft. Per Occupant
Auditori urn Theatre Exhibit Rooms Stages
Hotels and Apartments
7
7
15
15
200
The occupant load permitted in any building shall be determined by dividing the floor area assigned to that use by the square feet per occupant as set forth in Table 33-A. Accessory areas used only by occupants of the main area need not be included in computing the total occupancy. 3301 (d )
In all occupancies, floors above the first story having an occupant load of more than 10 shall have no less than two exits. 3302(a)
Exits from successive floors must carry 50% of the floor plus 25% of the next floor above. 3302(a)
The exit width (in feet) shall not be less than the occupancy divided by 50. 3302(b)
Maximum distance to an exit shall not exceed 150 feet (or 200 feet in a sprinklered building). Distance may be 250 feet if the last 150 feet is within a protected corridor (See section 3304). 3302(d)
Exits must be separated by one half of the maximum diagonal of the floor or area served, measured in a straight line between exits. 3302(c)
Corridors serving an occupant load of 10 or more


47
shall not be less in width than 44 inches.
3304(a)
Door swings shall not obstruct required width by more than half. 3304(d)
Walls and ceilings serving an occupant load of 30 or more shall not be less than 1 hour fire-resistive construction (not required if the building is sprink1ered). 3304(g) and
1807(M)2
Opening requirements for corridor walls. 3304(h)
Stair width: 44 inches if serving over 50 36 inches for 10 to 50 30 inches for less than 10 3305(a)
Stair landing: Length equal to width of stair (need not exceed 4 feet). 5 feet landing length when door opens over landing. 3305(g)
3305(h)
Stair enclosures are not required when serving the levels only, or within individual dwellings. 3308(a)
Ramps required by Table 33-A shall not exceed a slope of one and twelve. Other ramps shall not exceed a slope of one and eight. 3306(c)
Maximum stair rise is 7'k inches, minimum stair tread is 10 inches. 3305(c)


Codes and Zoning Sanitary Facilities
48
No. of People Served Maximum No. of Water Closets*
1-15 1
16-35 2
36-55 3
56-80 4
81-110 5 *
111-150 6
over 150 6 plus 1 additional
per 40 peop1e
*Urinals may be installed instead of water closets
in toilet rooms to be used by men provided that the number of water closets is not less than two-thirds of the minimum number required.
Number of People Served Minimum No. of Lavatories
1
2
3
4
5
5 plus 1 additional per 45 people
1-15 16-35 36-60 61-90 91-125 over 125


Bibliography


Bibliography
Burnette, Charles, Jon Long, et. al. Designing for Human Behavior. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc. : Stroudsberg, Pennsylvania,
1 974.
International Conference of Building Officials. Uniform Building Code. USA, 1982.
Callendar, Hancock, John, Joseph De Chidro.
Time Savers Standards for Building Types. McGraw-Hill :—USA, Y57T.
Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City. The
M.I.T. Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1960.
Ungers, O.M. Architecture as Theme. Rizzoli International Publications, Tnc.: New York City, 1982.
Smiley, Jerome C. History of Denver, with
outlines of the earlier history of the Rocky Mountain country. Old American Publishing Co., Denver. A Reproduction by Unigraphic, Inc., Inc.: Evansville, Indiana.
Krier, Rob. Urban Space. Rizzoli: New York,
1 979.
Hapgood, Karen. Planning and the Arts. American Society of PIann i ng Off i cals, No. 31 3, 1 975 .
United States Weather Bureau, Standard Statistical Climatic Summary for Denver, Colorado, 1979.
Stein, Gertrude. Gertrude Stein on Picasso.
Edited by Edward Burns. Liveright: New York, 1970.


Stein, Gertrude. The Autobiography of Alice
B. Tok1 as . Random House: New York, T955 .
Steintz, Kate. Kurt Schmitters: A Portrait
from Life. University of California Press Berk 1ey, 1 968.
Burns, Carol J. Perspecta 21: The Yale
Architectural JournaH The MIT Press: Cambridge and London.
Venturi, Robert. Learning from Las Vegas.
The MIT Press’: Cambridge and London,
1 972.
Banham, Reyner. Los Angeles: The Architecture of Four Ecologies. Harper and Row: New York, 1971.
California Counterpoint: New West Coast
Archi tecturel Catalogue/Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies. Rizzoli: New York, 1982.


Append i x


The Denver Poet/Sundav, September 29,1985
Denver’s too big for its bridges; changes coming
6
By Judith Brimberg
D«ov«t KmI 8t»e Writer
Slowly but surely, Denver Is replacing Its downtown viaducts, the vital but crumbling bridges that Jink the city’s west side to the central business district.
Completion of the new West Cojfax Avenue Viaduct a year ago eased commuting headaches for rriiny drivers.
Now, engineers have embark ej on construction of the Walnut Street Viaduct, which will ease traffic problems further for people trying to get downtown from the west side or Interstate 25.
When completed In late 1987, the six-lane, two-way span feeding into the Colfax Viaduct is expected to:
v* Speed east-west traffic.
v Make it easier for drivers beading west out of downtown to get onto southbound 1-25.
if Imorove access to Mile High „ Stadium and McNichols Sports Arena.
✓ Allow the Auraria Higher Education Center to unify its campus, because the new viaduct will tpean demolition of the Larimer ^ and Lawrence street viaducts and take through traffic off those streets.
v* Provide an alternate east-west commuting route when the Speer Bauievard viaducts across I-M Hmt the South Platte Elver
The three westbound lanes should be open for traffic by November 1986, with the full viaduct completed about a year later.
are replaced — which will have to be soon, engineers say.
Work on the $17 million first phase of the Walnut Street Viaduct project began in June under supervision of the Colorado Department of Highways. The state and federal governments are paying for the project.
The three westbound lanes should be open for traffic by November 1986, with the full viaduct completed about a year later. More than 60,000 cars a day are expected to travel across the .7-mile viaduct when all six lanes have been completed.
That is slightly less than the traffic volume on the Larimer-Lawrence pair, project manager Jennifer Finch acknowledged. But she said improvements in the whole complex — the two interchanges and the new 1-25 nunps — can handle the overall traffic
flow easily.
The Larimer Street Viaduct will be razed In the winter of 1986, and the Lawrence Street Viaduct will be removed the following year, making the Walnut and Colfax viaducts the principal links between downtown and the west.
Last year, demolition workers removed anothei Denver viaduct which had been billed as one of the 10 most dangerous bridges in the nation.
The razing of the old West Eighth Avenue Viaduct was a prelude to Its replacement with a new $5.5 million bridge designed to serve the needs of businesses and residents in the near west side and Bamum Park areas The new bridge will be open to traffic in December.
The state Public Utilities Commission has ord?red three railroads to pick up $2.4 million of its $5.5 million cost. However, the Santa Fe Railroad has sued to fight payment of its $572,000 share. The Denver and Rio
Grande Western Railroad has refused to pay Its $1.2 million share and is a party to the suit.
The bridge is expected to carry 10,000 to 12,000 cars a day, according to Dennis Royer, acting director of Denver's traffic engineering division.
Royer said the bridge will take some of the pressure off the nearby West Sixth Avenue expressway, but its principal purpose is to serve local traffic in the business and industrial areas at either end of the new bridge.
The old viaduct, constructed in 1936, began to develop serious problems in the 1970s, and weight restrictions were imposed several years before it was closed
The future of downtown's other viaducts is unclear. Replacement or removal of the 15th, 16th, 19th and 20th street viaducts will depend on what sort of development occurs in the Central Platte Valley. There are no immediate plans for changes in the 23rd Street and Broadway viaducts.


I
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Conclusion
An open letter to the Architecture faculty on the matter of Ron Radziner Thesis project.
I would like to take this opportunity to express my thoughts on the matter of thesis projects in general and on the conceptual validity and conclusions drawn by Ron Radziner in his thesis project.
A thesis across academia is generally considered to be an argument.
The validity of a thesis Is judged on the relevance of the topic to
the subject of interest. The success of a thesis is how well the
argument is researched, documented, counter arguments considered and how the accepted systematic method of a particular discipline is used to reach conclusions. Conclusions need not be proved beyond a doubt; but should leave avenues open for further investigation, usually carried on at the doctorate level.
The criteria for thesis subject matter in architecture is not uniform by any stretch of the imagination. Nor is overall criteria clearly stated in this school. Thesis subjects range widely at the College of Design and Planning with respect to program scope, complexity and philosophic purpose. This is quite justifiable as our reputation is that of a popularist school with a broadbase curriculum centered on well rounded professional practice skills; not weighted toward theory or technology. There is a great deal to be said for the character of this curriculum. I simply wish that if one thesis criterion was to end up with ai. plausible building it should be so stated in capital letters as to eliminate any subject matter confusion.
I reviewed Ron Radziner's thesis proposal after its acceptance and discussed with him my feeling that his work was going to be more theory oriented (poetic and speculative) than the declaration his statement allowed. I urged him to clarify his position and to pursue the purity of his intent not attempting to justify his thinking with programmatics. His response was that he believed in the nature of his program and it was, in fact, an allegorical armature for a higher order intent. I concurred, and the rest is history.


It is my contention that an architectural thesis program need not result in a feasible building at all; but can be used to illustrate expose and clarify aspects of architecture which are not readily visible when clothed in the more accomodating aspect’s of function. Moreover, it is those higher level less substantial elements which give architecture its reflective cognitive purpose and raise it to its status as (.he most comprehensive of all arts. Needless to say these issues must be engaged with utmost care and thoroughness.
A theoretical thesis is not for die average student to entertain. I Over the course of recent history it has been the work of theorists which has pushed the limits of accomodative architecture into the domain of form class systems and conditional/ situational exploration as symbolic meaning ( or the lack of it) illuminating the higher order purpose of architecture and clarifying the spirit of its being within and because of those extreme positions. Speculative thought requires risks which, at the academic level, must be presented by the student with absolute clarity, and given the most intense consideration by a faculty.
It is easy to nod one's head at work which glibly titillates the known; to reward heroics which demonstrate more sweat than spirit. There is no risk in rewarding facile graphics which may otherwise be devoid of content; but to reward projects which make us uneasy and do not fall into available solutions requires considerable courage and places demand on a faculty to be aware of current thinking which may be at odds with their personal value systems. This is the challenge the young and adventurous give to us. The future of architecture does not lie in the known or the readily accessible.
Ron Radziner's thesis took the risk of addressing wildly disparate conditions on their own terms. His solution is an architectural interposition mitigating a situation on its own terms without alteration or moral qualifiers. He accepted powerfully dichotomous elements and interposed modifiers which adjusted their disparateness. He resisted every solution which would have dissolved those rampant antagonisms.
The lack of completion was intentional, and necessary, to retain the character of the existing fabric. His approach is definitely couched in the vocabulary of ghery, Himmelblau and others; but in Ron's essay we have an issue more directly engaged. There is no attempt to insert a flowery maypole in the middle of Dachow as some of the new wave romanticists are doing. We have before us a essay in anti-formalist principles through spatial dissonance with elements of the found creating an architecture of ruin which is collectively a phenomenological reading; not historicist, eclectic nor dialectical. It is the architectural interposition which sees and yet remains apart. It does not unite nor resolve but mitigates and clarifies simultaneous identities thorugh tenuous placements. In its terms conclusion is impossible
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Ron Radziner's thesis is one of the two out of the entire graduating class which represents a cohesive philosophic and aesthetic viewpoint. His was the only project, in my opinion, which realized the full intent of its argument. (Although he was unable to adequately argue his case verbally.) It is not an easy project to come to terms with. It was not intended to be so.
With respect to the criticism regarding his overall growth I can say he has been intensly aware of his personal direction since I have known him. He has, in truth, demonstrated considerable growth over the past three years, but that growth has been one of refinement at the expense of latitude. Ron has had a great influence on the student body in that he has brought exacting content to his graphics rather than glib flash. Where he will wind up is a matter of speculation but if intention and dedication arc factors in "success" I suspect' we will be hearing a great deal more from Mr. Radziner.


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Full Text

PAGE 1

' <: .. f LD " ES\GN 1190 ENV\RONME A72 ARY 1986 AURAR\A l R34 --

PAGE 2

D ate Due Denver Artists1 Cooperative An Architectural Thesis Presented to The College of Design and Planning in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture Ronald M. R dziner Spring 19

PAGE 3

The Thesis of Ronald M. Radziner is Approved. Anthony Pellechia Principal Advisor University of Colorado at Denver S p r i n _ g 1 9 8 6

PAGE 4

Table of Contents Project Summary Thesis Statement Site Analysis Climate Program Summary Program Details Codes and Zoning Thesis Design Conclusion Bibliography Appendix Page 5 7 11 16 41

PAGE 5

Project Summary The Denver Artists' Cooperative is a thesis project for the Masters of Architecture degree at The University of Colorado at Denver. The Cooperative is intended to provide artists from a variety of disciplines an environment in which they can work in addition to functions which may be of direct benefit to the community at large as well. The site for the Cnoperative lies on land owned by the Midwest Steel Company at the intersection of Interstate 25 and Colfax Ave. (Interstate 70 Business Loop). The building program includes 60,000 square feet of studios, theatres, commercial space, and residential accommodations.

PAGE 6

"The city of the future is the ruin of the city of the present." Arata Isozaki

PAGE 7

Thesis Statement

PAGE 8

Thesis Statement 11What makes man peculiar on Earth is his ability to increase his ability.11 Glen Webster KCFR 10:15 p.m. 21 October 1985 The 18th and 19th centuries gave rise to the illusion of brooding artists alone in dimly lit, freezing garrets persevering over obscure masterworks incomprehensible to the ordinary soul. When the artist creates, he is not alone. I believe the act of producing or causing something to exist is highly personal, an event that is not shared with others in a direct manner. An individual conceives an idea within the confines of the mind, a territory where we are always alone. However, in the absence of steady dialogue with people involved in similar issues (and for that matter, individuals whose concerns differ wildly), the artist will not reach his full potential. Art is a form of communication, and regardless of the periodic need for solitude, we see that more often than not artists have tended to gather in communities for mutual support and exchange of ideas. This tendency is demonstrated throughout history. The great artists all appear to have been entangled within a tight body of other artists. Whether it be Michelangelo and his contemporaries, the York group at Max1s Kansas City in the late fifties, or the group of Pablo Picasso, Gertrude Stein, Henri Matisse, etc. drinking at Stein1s Rue de Fleurus studio. the meetinos were im ortant

PAGE 9

2 to stimulate ideas and further their directions. As Gertrude Stein says of Picasso, 11He needed ideas, anybody does not necessarily ideas for painting, but he had to know those who were interested in ideas.11 Denver lacks a facility for such a focus. Although the industrial region around Blake, Wazee and Market from 23rd to 30th Street has recently been undergoing a somewhat bohemian gentrification, its character and intent are pointedly commercial and artistically diffuse. A more concise effort is needed. On the west side of I-25 wedged between new and old Colfax, to the north and south respectively, nestled beneath layered mammoth viaducts and bounded by vehicle access ramps is a compound of largely abandoned industrial buildings. The common brick buildings date from the early part of the 20th century and have the characteristic loft-type large floor spaces, with generous windows. The site itself is dotted with mixed sized courtyards once used for various forms of storage and fabrication. It is the proposal of this thesis to use this site, its existing structures, in combination with new facilities, to develop an artists1 cooperative. The cooperative will include studio, residential and exhibition space combined with other potential commercial uses which may be of direct benefit to the community at large and the compound itself. The architecture, accordingly, is compelled to provide artists from a variety of disciplines (including sculpture, painting, photography, film, dance and theatre) an environment which is conducive to initiating and oeroetuatina an interchanoe of ideas, but

PAGE 10

3 still affords the privacy necessary to create. The complex, like a machine, can be very efficient and fast, but if everything is resolved, there is no room for the individual 1S actions. The intent is for the artist to be given a building rich in emotion and layers, but not so haughty as to discourage mutations, which can then be cultivated further by the users to reflect their own development. The emotive and perceptual aspects of the architecture are to be recognized as primary and, therefore, drive toward an intensification of experience. Consequently, the building will rebel from stasis, normalcy, or passivity, ideas which I reason to have very little place in the act of invention. A sequence of particular places and experiences will be produced, where one always has the indication that there is something beyond, something to look at or to (similar to film). Spaces will overlap and figuratively fold in on each other to add depth and richness to this composition. The building (within the limitations of style) seeks a language which transcends both reductivism and over-literal representation, a course I believe artists are likewise directed toward. It is a tack that looks beyond our recent minimalist past to a more complex, and hence, more accurate interpretation of the present condition of American society. Contextural commentary is central to the communication of an architectural message. The present site condition is a testament to NAtional Defense Hiahwav System. Societ

PAGE 11

I I i i l , I l l L L

PAGE 12

4 in post World War II prosperity, began relocating in previously underdeveloped regions. This migration, made possible only by the highway network, spawned the suburban environment and accompanying social fabric characteristic of America today. The existing industrial buildings have been caught in space as the highways beat around them. People travel between suburbia and the city through a decidedly modern sculpture which the viewer can actually become part of to experience. The new forms will attempt to participate in this dynamic environment as well as comment on it. Freeways, viaducts, a strange collection of buildings, and a river collide with unrestrained enthusiasm upon this site. It is my contention that within these sweeping layers, a new series of habitable structures can be conceived that potentially could work beside these unrelenting neighbors with zeal. The building will accept the unexpected.

PAGE 13

Site Analysis 11TO stay will be suicide. Evacuation is the only way to survive. And the best way to evacuate the millions of people in America's target cities is by motor vehicles--on our highways.11 Val Paterson 11Traffic Quarterly11 January 1956 5

PAGE 14

Site Analysis The site is located within the South Platte Flood Plain District. As stated in Section 1723 of the Denver Building Code: Building and additions to buildings of A,B,C,E,F,G and J occupancies may be 6 located below the level of the intermediate regional flood, provided an engineer certifies that the structure and utilities are adequately flood proofed to withstand flood depths, pressures, velocities, impact, and uplift forces and other factors associated with flood waters to a level one foot above the level of the intermediate regional flood. Noise-I-25 noise level is estimated at 60-70 decibels.

PAGE 15

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PAGE 18

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PAGE 19

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PAGE 20

7 Climate

PAGE 21

Climate Analysis Denver, Colorado Latitude: Longitude: Altitude: 39.45N 104 52W 5285 ft. 8 above sea level Narrative Climatological Summary Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration. Air masses from at least four different sources influence Denver1s weather: artie air from Canada and Alaska; warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico; warm dry air from Mexico and the southwest; and Pacific air modified by its passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the west. The good climate results largely from Denver1s location at the foot of the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. During most summer afternoons cumuliform clouds so shade the City that temperatures of 90 or over are reached on an average of only thirty-two days of the year, and in only one year in five does the mercury very briefly reach the 100 mark.

PAGE 22

9 In the cold season the high altitude and the location of the mountains to the west combine to moderate temperatures. Invasions of cold air from the north, intensified by the high altitude, can be abrupt and severe. On the other hand, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the plains never reach Denver•s altitude and move off over the lower plains to the east. Surges of cold air from the west are usually moderated in their descent down the east face of the mountains, and chinooks resulting from some of these westerly flows often raise the temperature far above that normally to be expected at this latitude in the cold season. These conditions result in a tempering of winter cold to an average temperature above that of other cities situated at the same latitude. In spring when outbreaks of polar air are waning, they are often met by moist currents from the Gulf of Mexico. The juxtaposition of these two currents produces the rainy season in Denver, which reaches its peak in May. Situated a long distance from any moisture source, and separated from the Pacific source by several high mountain barriers, Denver enjoys a low relative humidity, low average precipitation, and considerable sunshine. Spring is the wettest, cloudiest and windiest season. Much of the 37 percent of the annual total precipitation that occurs in spring falls as snow during the colder, earlier eriod of that season.

PAGE 23

1 0 Stormy periods are often interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that remove previous snow cover. Summer precipitation (about 32 percent of the annual total), particularly in July and August, usually falls mainly from scattered local thundershowers during the afternoon and evening. Mornings are usually clear and sunny. Clouds often form during early afternoon and cut off sunshine at what would otherwise be the hottest part of the day . Many afternoons have a cooling shower. Autumn is the most pleasant season. Local summer thunderstorms are mostly over and invasions of cold air and severe weather are infrequent, so that there is less cloudiness and a greater percent of possible sunshine than at any other time of the year. Periods of unpleasant weather are generally brief. Precipitation amounts to about 20 percent of the annual total. Winter has the precipitation accumulation, only about 11 percent of the annual total, and almost all of it snow. Precipitation frequency, however, is higher than in autumn. There is also more cloudiness and the relative humidity averages higher than in the autumn. Weather can be quite severe, but as a general rule the severity doesn1t last long. NOAA/Environmental Data & Information Service/National Climatic Center/Asheville, NC

PAGE 24

..J ... ... ... ..... MONTHLY DIURNAL BIOCLOOTIC ANALYSIS Denver1 Colorado Horning Data AH} Wind Hean Rel. Averase Possible Solar 'Radiation Avg. Sky Avg. Monthly Honth (Mean fpm2 Humid it I Tem2 F % Sun BTUlsg.ft, Cover Preci2. Jan. 906.4 50% 34.6 68% 116.8 5.1% 0.75 in. Feb. 968 47.3.% 37.8 75% 138.6 5.7% 1.0 in. Kar. 862.4 43.1% 47.0 85% 205.1 5.8% 1.2 in. April 932.8 41.6% 53,1 78% 224.1 5.7% 2.1 in. Kay 862.4 50.3% 62.5 65% 245.4 5.8% 3.0 in. June 976.8 44% 70.9 68% 262.5 4.5% 1. 75 in. July 827.2 34.9% 80.3 72% 263.4 4.6% 1.9 in. Aug. 668.8 47.4 17.3 72% 240.3 4.6% 1. 75 in. Sept. 695.2 41.6% 67.8 85% 213.9 4.1% 1.0 in. Oct. 774.4 45%. 55.8 15% 165.-6 . 4.2% 1.0 io. Nov. 739.2 61.5% 42.3 58% 117.3 5.8%. 0.15 in. Dec. 853.6 51.3% 35.5 72% 100.7 5.3% 0.60 in.

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I ... I MONTHLY DIURNAL BIOCLIMATIC ANALYSIS Denver1 Colorado Afternoon Data Wind Mean Rel. Averagg Pouib1e Solar Radiation . Avg. Sky Avg. M onthly Hon rh (Hean fpq) Humidity Temp. F ; Sun BTU/sg.ft. Cover Precip. I . I i I Jan : 906.4 64.8% 34.21 68% )6.44 5.1% 0.75 in. Feb. 968 63.3% 39.4 75% 48.3 5. 7% 1.0 in. Mar. 862 . 4 66.2% 46.1 85% 113.3 5.8% 1.2 in. April 932.8 62.6% 57.5 78% 150.27 5.7% 2 . 1 in. Kay 862.4 74.8% 66.4 65: 169.9 5.8% 3.0 in. June 976.8 69.5% 74.4 68% 184.4 4.5% 1. 75 in. July 827.2 58.9% 80.5 72% 182.2 4.6% 1.9 in. Aug. 668.8 70.1% 78.6 72% 156.9 4.6% 1. 75 in. Sept. 695.2 60.3% 75.) 85% 123.5 4.1% 1.0 in. Oct. 714.4 60.9% 61.7 75% 51. 1 4.2% 1.0 in. Nov. 739.2 76.3% 44.7 58% 36.5 5.8% 0.75 in. Dec. 853.6 72.8% 37.2 72% 22.9 5.3% 0.60 in.

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..... I I I ... _ DATA LOCATION: LONGITUDE: !ai 0 7.2.1 STATION: ?T"ft_E;TJN. LATITUDE: o ELEVATION: JAN FEll MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC MEAN TOT e k S UNSHINE 72.. 71 70 1.?7 "' 71 7 1 72 TI 7'? {,5 (,8 ?o S DD HEA T 7(:,i COOL 'jOl. U& .,.z., 1.5} eo 0 0 11.0 -{O!'J 0 0 0 0 0 IIO ,.., 4 0 0 0 HEAN MAX. !)O. I 61.0 70. , &o,j . 8'7. , $5. 8 777 '-6 . 6 !n, HD ?7.o -175 l77,D 75,b 71.{, '1..8 52.D J'll'l _50. I MIN. j{1--11A J.}. O )3. , 51.1 58,& .f1 . o )'!.') llj ?b.').. fE DAYS PRECIP b " f) 1 IO i 1 e; ..j :::5 "5 3 88 MAX RAIN I . H 4 -17 b --11 1-11 H7 -4-17 2 .17 2 .ll1 MAN RAIN . I .ZI &:..81 , _,, l.n l.a1 ll1 1 .1/ H . fl. 15:51 RAIN .01 . o l .0) .011 .10 .17 .O(, T . 0 5 .01' .0} < TH.STORM l.oZ--IOI '5.14 1.71 l .lj l ::q 0 MAx II{ SNOW l-J.1 I B : 5 "?-1.1. ).tX7 , , ,(.. 0 0 ) 1 . 1 '3a5 MONnJL)( RH MAX (,j b B 6'( (&,t} 70 71 '/() b1 61 C:.1 b D 68 RH M I N 's J/, ' !>' '3,) :a "'S 11 ,0

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I • -..... ..... MONTHLY DIURNAL BIOCLIHATIC ANALYSIS Denver1 Colorado Evening Data PH} l Wind Hean Rel. Averagg Possible Solar Radiation Avg. Sky Avg. Monthly Month (Mean Humid ill Tea2. F x : sun BTU/ag. ft. Cover Preci2. Jan. 950.7 67.6% 24.1 0 0 Feb. 765.6 57. _8% 25.9 0 0 Har. 721.6 62.1% 32.2 0 0 April 836 52.9% 44.8 0 0 Hay 704.0 58.2% 53.8 0 0 June 959.2 52.2% 61.0 0 0 July 739.2 47.8% 67.8 0 0 Aug. 660.0 56.2% 65.3 0 0 Sept. 633.6 45.8% 57.9 0 0 Oct. 668.8 54.2% 42.8 0 0 Nov. 642.4 70.7% 34.9 0 . 0 Dec. 516.0 68.7% 26.6 0 0

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I BIOCLIMATIC CHART ... ... -DENVER .COLORADO

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I ... I I I I ....... NO ON _ . --40. NL --w 0 :I ... ... ..J

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11 Program Summary

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I I J Program Summary Organizational Description The ideas presented here about the possible inferstructure of the artists' cooperative have been defined after interviews with artists in the Denver area as well as research into other existing cooperatives. The compound is planned to allow up to 1 2 80 artists adequate studio space in which to work. Approximately 25% of the members will live on the central Denver site in rooms provided by the Cooperative. It is these twenty artists that will be responsible for the day-to-day operation of the Cooperative. Their housing will be provided for them in exchange for this additional undertaking. The overall intent is for the members to have complete control of the compound. Artistic, organizational, developmental, and financial decisions will be made by the members.

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13 Program Summary Residential Facilities Num NSF Total NSF Rooms 20 250 5000 Guest Room 1 250 250 Common Space 1 600 600 Lavatory 2 100 200 Showers 4 20 80 Laundry 1 60 60 Kitchen 300 300 Dining 300 300 Pantry 50 50 % Bath 30 30 Small Commons 175 175 Workroom 80 80 TIT5 Workshop Facilities Metal Shop 15000 15000 Wood Shop 3500 3500 Clay Studio 2500 2500 Painting Studio 5000 5000 26000 Darkroom Darkroom (group) 1 150 150 Darkroom (private) 5 40 200 Additional Space 1 150 150 "500 Film/Video Editing Rooms 3 70 210 Screening Rooms 1 350 350 " I " ,.. -..&.. -, " -,.,...

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14 Film/Video (cont'd.) Num NSF Total NSF Additional Common Space 120 120 740" Commercial Restaurant 6000 Bookstore 1000 701)0 Galleries Gallery Space 5000 5000 Office 100 100 Restroom 50 50 Storage 300 300 5450 Administration Offices (General) 300 300 Reception 150 150 Conference 150 150 Tmr Theatre Seating 1600 1600 Stag e 300 300 Workshop 200 200

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15 Theatre (cont'd.) Num NSF Total NSF Vestibule 1 400 400 Checkroom 1 80 80 Toilets (Public) 2 100 200 Ticket Office 1 30 30 Sound/Light Booth 1 100 100 Laundry 1 100 100 Dressing 1 150 150 Bathrooms 2 100 200 Green Room 1 150 150 Costume Storage 1 100 108 Prop Storage 1 150 150 1700 Total Net Sq. Ft. 51275 +20% Circulation 10255 Total Gross Sq. Ft. 61530

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16 Program Details

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1 7 Private Rooms Major Uses: The private space for the live-in users of the Cooperative. Space for sleeping. Capacity: to 2 persons Times of Use: At any time during the day or night. Adjacencies: Primary: Lav, showers, laundry, commons, guest room. Secondary: kitchen, dining. Visual Qualities: Rooms should command a view. Special Acoustics: Sound transmission between adjoining rooms should be kept as minimal as possible. Lighting: Ambient lighting should be subdued, with task-lighting as required. Lighting should also be adjustable by the user. Equipment/Furnishing: Small sink, no furniture will be provided. It will be up to the user to furnish the space as desired. Comments: The rooms are intended to give the artist a comfortable sized raw space, possibly with a variation in levels, which the user can then develop to fit his/her needs.

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18 Guest Room Major Uses: A private room for overnight accommodations for guests of the live-in Cooperative users. Capacity: 1 to 2 persons Times of Use: At any time during the day or night. Adjacencies: See Rooms. Visual Qualities: See Rooms. Special Acoustics: See Rooms. Lighting: See Rooms. Equipment/Furnishings: Small sink, comfortable chairs, a low table, bed, writing desk and chair, bureau. Comments: The guest room is intended to be very similar to the resident's rooms in terms of hierarchy of size and location.

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1 9 Common Space Major Uses: Informal gatherings of Cooperative live-in users, listening to music, reading, relaxing. Capacity: 20-25 people Times of Use: Throughout the day and evening, especially during the evening hours. Adjacencies: Private rooms, guest room. Special Acoustics: The lounge users may generate a great deal of noise at times. The walls in the room should be able to absorb most of the noise, and prevent it from disturbing persons in their rooms. Lighting: Ambient lighting should be subdued and adjustable. Equipment/Furnishing: Comfortable chairs and low tables. Comments: The commons should be the live-in users' community space.

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Lavatory Major Uses: Sinks and toilets for live-in Co-op users. Capacity: 2 W.C.; 3 sinks 20 Times of Use: At any time during the day or night. Adjacencies: Rooms, showers. Visual Qualities: None Special Acoustics: None Special Materials: None Comments: Two lavatories, mens and womens. No urinals in men's lavas this should have some characteristics of a home. Laundry Adjacencies: Rooms Visual Qualities: None Special Acoustics: Sound transmission between adjoining rooms should be kept as minimal as possible. Equipment/Furnishing: 2 washers, 2 dryers.

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21 Showers Major Uses: Shower for live-in users. Capacity: to 2 persons Times of Use: At any time during day or night. Adjacencies: Lav, rooms, guest room. Visual Qualities: None Special Acoustics: None Special Material: All surfaces to be tiled. Lighting: Natural light is desirable. Comments: Room for a 31 x 31 shower and a small dry-off area. All surfaces to be tiled.

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Kitchen Major Uses: Cooking facilities for live-in Cooperative members. Capacity: 6 persons Times of Use: Predominantly early evening. Adjacencies: Primary: Dining, pantry; Secondary: Small commons 22 Lighting: Natural lighting required. Equipment/Furnishing: Refrigerator, freezer, commercial dishwasher, cooktop range with exhaust hood, double oven, disposal. Special Materials: Durable and washable surfaces throughout the facilities. Comments: Dinner will probably be the only meal regularly eaten together by the livein members. Possibly two to three of the users will cook dinner for the rest of them on a nightly alternating basis.

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Dining Room Major Uses: Service of dinner. Informal gatherings. Capacity: 25 people 23 Times of Use: Formally in the early evening, scattered use at all other times. Adjacencies: Primary: Kitchen, pantry, small commons; Secondary: Workroom. Visual Qualities: Room should command a view. Special Acoustics: None Lighting: Lighting should be adjustable by user. Natural light required. Equipment/Furnishing: One large table approx. 16' x 4'. Benches for flexible seating. Comments: The room will hop efully be center for much of the communication that will take place between the artists.

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24 Pantry Major Uses: Storage of personal food for livein Cooperative members. Capacity: 2 persons Times of Use: At any time during the day or night. Adjacencies: Kitchen, dining, room. Visual Qualities: None Special Acoustics: None Lighting: No natural light desired. Equipment/Furnishing: 1 freezer, 1 refrigerator, adequate shelving. Comments: Since dinner is probably the only meal as a group, storage of personal foodstuffs is needed.

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Small Commons Major Uses: A small sitting room near the entry to the residential portion of the Cooperative. Capacity: 10 persons 25 Times of Use: At any time during the day or night. Adjacencies: Dining. Visual Qualities: The small commons should be visually accessible from the circulation path to and from the private and cluster rooms. Lighting: Ambient lighting should be subdued and adjustable. Equipment/Furnishing: Comfortable chairs, low table, maybe a piano. Comments: None

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Workroom Major Uses: A room to take care of the financial paperwork for the residential portion of the Cooperative. Capacity: 2 persons Times of Use: Usually evenings. Adjacencies: Small commons. 26 Visual Qualities: Privacy from other spaces. Special Acoustics: None Lighting: Ambient lighting. Task lighting as required. Equipment/Furnishing: Writing desk, two chairs, shelving. Comments: None

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Metal Shop Major Uses: Space for metal working, and storage of metal components. Capacity: 20 persons 27 Times of Use: Generally during daylight hours. Adjacencies: Primary: Loading, outdoor space; Secondary: Wood shop Visual Qualities: None Special Acoustics: The shop will generate a great deal of noise. The walls of the room should be able to absorb a great deal of this noise. Lighting: High quantities of natural light. Equipment/Furnishing: Foundry, presses, work benches, overhead crane, etc. Comments: Access to outdoor space is important, shop should probably have an outdoor work space.

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28 Wood Shop Major Uses: Space for wood working, storage of wood materials. Capacity: 10 persons Times of Use: Generally during daylight hours. Adjacencies: Primary: Loading; Secondary: Metal shop. Visual Qualities: None Special Acoustics: The shop will generate a great deal of noise. The walls of the room should be able to absorb a great deal of this noise. Lighting: Strong ambient light. Equipment/Furnishing: All necessary wood working equipment. Comments: The main function of the wood shop will be to act as a support shop for the rest of the Cooperative.

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29 Painting Studio Major Uses: Space for Cooperative artists to work on projects. Capacity: 25 persons Times of Use: Throughout the day and evening. Adjacencies: No primary adjacencies. Special Acoustics: None Lighting: Strong natural light. Equipment/Furnishing: All provided by users. Comments: The space could be one space or a series of spaces which could be sub-divided by the users as they see fit. Natural light is very important to the space.

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Darkroom Major Uses: Production of photographs. Capacity: 8 persons in group darkroom; person in each private room. 30 Times of Use: Throughout the day and evening. Adjacencies: Primary: None; Secondary: Painting. Visual Qualities: None Special Acoustics: None Lighting: No natural light. Safe lights should be provided in the darkroom. Special Materials: Washable and durable materials should be used on the room and equipment surfaces. Equipment/Furnishing: Storage cabinet and shelves; darkroom equipment and special plumbing for the darkroom. Comments: None

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31 Editing Room Major Uses: Editing of film and video productions. Capacity: 2 persons Times of Use: Anytime throughout day and evening. Adjacencies: Primary: Additional common space; Secondary: A/V control room, screening room. Visual Qualities: None Special Acoustics: None Lighting: No natural light. Equipment/Furnishing: Film and editing equipment.

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32 Screening Room Major Uses: Viewing of film and videos and lectures. Capacity: 70 persons Times of Use: Mostly evenings. Adjacencies: Primary: A/V control room; Secondary: Editing rooms, additional space. Visual Qualities: All people should have a clear, unobstructed view of the stage and screen. Special Acoustics: The acoustics should allow speech to be heard without using amplification equipment. Lighting: The lighting should be completely artificial to allow maximum control of light levels. Equipment/Furnishing: Seats will be built-in. See A/V control room program for service needs. Comments: The screening room should be accessible to the public, although the room will probably be predominantly used by Cooperative users.

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33 A/V Control Room Major Uses: Projection of visual presentations, producing and recording sound , controlling light levels and direction, storing small amounts of equipment. Capacity: 1-2 persons Times of Use: During operation of screening room. Adjacencies: Primary: Screening room; Secondary: Editing rooms, additional space. Visual Qualities: None Special Acoustics: None Equipment/Furnishing: Special electrical supply for the projectors, reloading equipment, lights, etc.

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34 Gallery Space Major Uses: Space for the display of art by the Cooperative members, and occasional outside shows. Capacity: 150 people Times of Use: Usually during daylight hours, but also on some evenings. Adjacencies: Primary: Office, storage; Secondary: Retail shops. Special Acoustics: None

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Theatre -Seating Major Uses: Fixed seating for theatre. Capacity: Times of Use: Usually evenings. 35 Adjacencies: Stage, lobby. Equipment/Furnishing: Seats (not less than 20 in. on center). Comments: Seat spacing approximately 36 in. back to back. Because it is a small theater continental seating may be used.

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36 Theatre Stage Major Uses: For the public showing of plays, dance, musicals, films and lectures. Capacity: Varies Times of Use: Usually evenings. Adjacencies: Theatre seating, workshop. Equipment/Furnishings: None provided. Comments: The importance of the human actor requires that stage space and scenery do not dwarf him/her.

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Workshop Major Uses: Construction of Scenery. Capacity: 4 persons 37 Times of Use: Usually during daylight hours. Adjacencies: Stage, prop. storage. Visual Qualities: None Special Acoustics: This room will generate a great deal of noise. The walls should absorb a large portion of this noise. Lighting: Strong ambient light. Daylight desired. Equipment/Furnishing: Pneumatic power tools. Comments: Door to theatre at least 151 in height.

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38 Checkroom Major Uses: Take coats before performances, return after. Capacity: 2 persons Times of Use: Usually evening. Adjacencies: Lobby. Equipment/Furnishings: Chair, coat racks. Comments: Should be in low activity area.

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Ticket Office Major Uses: Ticket sales, information. Capacity: person Times of Use: Usually evenings. Adjacencies: Lobby. Equipment/Furnishing: Counter, stool. Comments: Needs security, must be easily located. 39

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40 Dressing Room Major Uses : To accommodate musicians, actors, actresses, dancers, etc. Capacity: 15 persons Times of Use: Usually evenings. Adjacencies: Showers, bathrooms, green roo m . Visual Qualities: None Special Acoustics: None Lighting: Task lighting as necessary. Equipment/Furnishing: Lockers, clothing racks, mirrors. Comments: None

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I I I -, 41 Zoning and Codes

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42 Zoning Zoning Ordinance: City and County of Denver, Colorado Occupancy Classification: I-2 Fire Zone: 3 Uses by right in the I-3 zone include: 1) Ambulance Service 2) Amusement Center 3) Animal Hospital 4) Automobile Towing Service 5) Bank 6) Blueprinting 7) Clinic, Dental or Medical 8) Community Center 9) Dump 10) Electric Substation 11) Electric Generator 12) Entertainment and Sports Area 13) Fire Station 14) Incinerator 15) Junk Yard 16) Laboratory 17) Manufacturing 18) Motel 19) Gasoline Filling Station 20) Newspaper Distribution Station 21) Office 22) Parking and/or Commercial Storage of Vehicles 23) Pet Store 24) Quarry 25) Railroad Facilities 26) Reservoir 27) Restaurant 28) Sale at Retail 29) Sale at Wholesale 30) Sand Pits

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43 31) School, may include dormitories for students and instructors. 32) Sewage Disposal Plant 33) Trucking Freight Terminal Accessory Uses: Incidental only to a use by right, any use which complies with all of the following conditions may be operated as an accessory use: 1) Is clearly incidental and customary to and commonly associated with the operation of the use by right; 2) Does not include residential occupancy except by caretakers or watchman.

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44 Codes and Zoning The Cooperative•s activities are covered by the 11Uses by Right11 in the I-2 zone, except the residential occupancy. Therefore, the project will be developed within I-2 guidelines, but with waivers to allow residential development.

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46 Zoning and Codes -Exit Requirements Occupancy Area Sq. ft. Per Occupant Auditorium Theatre Exhibit Rooms Stages Hotels and Apartments 7 7 1 5 1 5 200 The occupant load permitted in any building shall be determined by dividing the floor area assigned to that use by the square feet per occupant as set forth in Table 33-A. Accessory areas used only by occupants of the main area need not be included in computing the total occupancy. 3301(d) In all occupancies, floors above the first story having an occupant load of more than 10 shall have no less than two exits. 3302(a) Exits from successive floors must carry 50% of the floor plus 25% of the next floor above. 3302(a) The exit width (in feet) shall not be less than the occupancy divided by 50. 3302(b) Maximum distance to an exit shall not exceed 150 feet (or 200 feet in a sprinklered building). Distance may be 250 feet if the last 150 feet is within a protected corridor (See section 3304). 3302(d) Exits must be separated by one half of the maximum diagonal of the floor or area served, measured in a straight line between exits. 3302(c) Corridors servin an occu ant load of 10 or more

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shall not be less in width than 44 inches. 3304(a) 47 Door swings shall not obstruct required width by more than half. 3304{d) Walls and ceilings serving an occupant load of 30 or more shall not be less than 1 hour fire-resistive construction (not required if the building is sprinklered). 3304(g) and 1807(M)2 Opening requirements for corridor walls. 3304(h) Stair width: 44 inches if serving over 50 36 inches for 10 to 50 30 inches for less than 10 3305(a) Stair landing: Length equal to width of stair (need not exceed 4 feet). 5 feet landing length when door opens over landing. 3305(g) 3305(h) Stair enclosures are not required when serving the levels only, or within individual dwellings. 3308(a) Ramps required by Table 33-A shall not exceed a slope of one and twelve. Other ramps shall not exceed a slope of one and eight. 3306(c) Maximum stair rise is inches, minimum stair tread is 10 inches. 3305(c)

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Codes and Zoning Sanitary Facilities No. of People Served 1 -1 5 16-35 36-55 56-80 81-110 111-150 over 150 48 Maximum No. of Water Closets* 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 plus 1 additional per 40 people *Urinals may be installed instead of water closets in toilet rooms to be used by men provided that the number of water closets is not less than two-thirds of the minimum number required. Number of People Served 1 -1 5 16-35 36-60 61-90 91-125 over 125 Minimum No. of Lavatories 1 2 3 4 5 5 plus 1 additional per 45 people

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Bibliography

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Bibliography Burnette, Charles, Jon Long, et. al. Designing for Human Behavior. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross,. Inc.: Stroudsberg, Pennsylvania, 1974. International Conference of Building Officials. Uniform Building Code. USA, 1982. Callendar, Hancock, John, Joseph De Chidro. Time Savers Standards for Building Types. McGraw-Hill: USA, 1973. Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City. The M.I.T. Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1960. Ungers, O.M. Architecture as Theme. Rizzoli International Publications, Inc.: New York City, 1982. Smiley, Jerome C. History of Denver, with outlines of the earlier history of the Rocky Mountain country. Old American Publishing Co., Denver. A Reproduction by Unigraphic, Inc., Inc.: Evansville, Indiana. Krier, Rob. Urban Space. Rizzoli; New York, 1 979. Hapgood, Karen. Planning and the Arts. American Society of Planning Officals, No. 313, 1975. United States Weather Bureau, Standard Statistical Climatic Summary for Denver, Colorado, 1979. Stein, Gertrude. Gertrude Stein on Picasso. Edited by Edward Burns. Liveright; New York, 1970.

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Stein, Gertrude. The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. Random House: New York, 1955. Steintz, Kate. Kurt Schmitters: A Portrait from Life. University of California Press: Berkley, 1968. Burns, Carol J. Perspecta 21: The Yale Architectural Journal. The MIT Press: Cambridge and London. Venturi, Robert. Learning from Las Vegas. The MIT Press: Cambridge and London, 1972. Banham, Reyner. Los Angeles: The Architecture of Four Ecologies. Harper and Row: New York, 1971. California Counterpoint: New West Coast Architecture. Catalogue/Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies. Rizzoli: New York, 1982.

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Appendix

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• • • • • r • r P:enver's.too big for its bridges; changes coming fit JUdith Brlmberg Oerwe< loo.t 1111111but surely, Denver Is repiac!tlg Its downtown viaducts, !.he l(llal but crumbling bridges that J,ii1k the city ' s west side to Uill business dlstrlct . Completion of the new West Avenue V iaduct a year ago @'llsed comm u ting headaches for many drive!'!!. Now, engineers have embarked on construction of the Street Viaduct, which will ease t:rafrtc pro b lems further for peopl4 trying to get downtown f rom the west side o r Interstate 25. . completed In late 1987, the six Jane, two-way span feed ing into the Colfax Viaduct Is expectea to : v Speed east-west traffic . ,.... 'Make It for drivers beadWg west out or d owntown to get onto southbound 1. ,.... Improve access to Mile High .. Stadi um and McNichols Sports Arena . ,.... ..Allo w the Auraria Higher Education Center to unify its campus , because the new viaduct will rpean dem o lition or the Lar imer jmd Lawrence street via ducts .and take through l.raffic orr !treets. Th e thr ee w es tbou n d lan es sh ould be ope n for traffi c b y N ovember 1986 , with th e ful l via du c t completed about a y e a r l ate r . are replaced which will have to be soon , engineers say . Work on the $17 million frrst phase or the Walnut Street Via duct project began in June und e r supervi sion of the Colorado De partment of Highways . The stale and federal governments are paying for the project . The three westbound lanes should be open for traffic by No vember 1986, with the fuil viaduct completed about a year later. More than 60,000 cars a day are expected to travel across the .7-mile viadu c t when all six lanes have been completed . That Is slightly less than the traffic volume on the Larimer Lawrence pair, project manager Jennifer Finch acknowledged . ,.... Provide a n alternate eastBut she sald improvements In the West mmmuting route when the whole comp l ex -the two Inter . villdui:ta . across changes and the new I-%5 ramps Rtver .. ... overall tr:aUic _ The Denver Poet/Sunday, September 29. now easily . The Larimer Street Viaduct will be razed In the winter or I 986, and the Lawrence Street Viaduct will be removed the following year, making the Walnut and Col fax viaducts thl' principal links between downtown and the west . Last year, demolition workers removed anothe r Denver viaduct whic h had been blUed as one of the I 0 most dangerous bridges in the nation . The razing or the old West Eighth Avenue Viaduct was a prelude to Its repiacement with a new $5. 5 million bridge designed to serve the ne!'ds or buslnes..'!l's and residents in t he near west side and Barnum Park areas. The new bridge will be open to traffic in December . The stat e Public Utilities Com mission has on! ?red three rail roads to pick up . 4 million or Its $S. 5 million cost . However, the Santa Fe Railro a d has sued to fight . payment or Its $57%,000 llbare . Tbe Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad has to pay 11.5 Sl.% million share and Is a party to the suit. The bridge Is expected to 10,000 to 12.,000 cars a da y , ac cording to Dennis Royer, acting director of Denver ' s traffic eng> neering div ision . Royer said the bridge will lake some or the pressure orr the near by West Sixth Avenue exprl'S!' way, but Its principal puTlJOse Is to serve local traffic in the bUSI ness and industrial areas at ei ther end or the new bridge . The old viaduct, constructed In 1936, began to develop serious problems in the 1970s, and weigh t restrictions were imposed sever al years before It was dosed. . The future of downtown ' s other viaducts is unclear . Replacement or removal or the 15th, 16th, 19th and 20th street viaducts will de pend on what sort of development occurs in the Central PlaliA! Val ley. There are no plans for changes In the 23n1 Street and Broadwav viaducts .

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I I

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I I ..... -

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Conclusion An open letter to the Architecture faculty o n the matter of Ron Radziner's Thesis project. I would like to take this opportunity to express my thoughts on the matter of thesis projects in general and on the conceptunl validity and conclusions drawn by Ron Radzincr in his thesis project. A thesis across academia is generally considered t o be a n argument. The validity of a thesis j s judged o n the relevance of LhC' topic to the subject of interest. The success of a thesis is how well the argument is researched , documented, counter argumenls considered nne! how the accepted systematic method of a particular discipline is used to reach conclusio n s . Conclusions ne e d not be proved ! 1eyond a do ubt; but should leave avenues open for further investigation, usually carried on at the doctorate level. The criteria for thesis subject matter in architecture is not uniform by any stretch of the imagination. Nor is overall criteria clearly stated in this school. Thesis subjects range widely at thl College of Design and Planning Kith respect to program scope, complex ity and philosophic purpose. This is quite justifiable as our reputation is that of a popularist school with a broadbase c urriculum centered on well rounded professional practice skills; not weighted toward theory or technology. There is a great deal t o be said for the character of this curriculum. I simply wish that if one thesis criterion was t o end up \vith a#. plausible building it should b e s o stated in capital letters as to eliminate any subject matter confusion. I revieKed Ron Radziner' s thesis proposal after its acceptance and discussed with him my feeling that his K Ork was going to b e more theory oriented (poetic an d speculative) than the declaration his statement allowed. I urged him t o clarify his p osition and to pursue the purity of his intent not attemptin g to j ustify his thinking with programmatics. His response that h e believ ed in the nature of his program and it in fact, an allegorical armature for a higher order intent. I concurred, and Lhe rest is history.

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It is mv contention that an architectural thesis program need not result in a feasible building at all; but can be used to illustrate expose and clarify aspects of architecture which are not readily visible when clothed in the more accomodating of function. loreover, it is those high e r level less substantial elements which give architecture its reflective cognitive purpose anc l raise it t o its status as the most comprchensi\ ' e o f all arts. t\eed Jess to soy these issues must be er1gage d \vi th utmost care and tho r o u g lllless, . A theorjtic<11 is nul f o r Lire average student to entcrtain. Over the course of recent histo r y it has been the \Wrk of theorist s \vhich has pushed the limits of accom o d a tive architecture into the d omai n of form class system s and conditional/ situational exploration as symbolic meaning ( o r the lack o f it) illumin a ting the higher order purpose of architecture nn d the spirit of its being \dthin < lll d l>ccnuse of those extreme position s . Specul:-JtivC' thought requires r isks \\hich. <1t the academic Jevel, mus t be pr-esented by the student \,'i lll absolute c l < rr ity, and given the most intense consideration by a L1culty. It is easy to nod on e's head at work which glibly titillates the known; to reward heroics which demonstrate more sweat tha n spirit. There is n o risk in rewarding facile graphics which m ay otherwise be devoid of content; but to reward projects which make us uneasy and d o not fall into available solutions requires considerable courage and places demand on a faculty to be aware of current thinking which may be at odds with their personal value systems. This is the challenge the young and adventurous give to u s . The future of architecture c loes not lie in the known or the readily accessible. Ron Radziner's t hesis took the ris k of addressing wildly disparate conditions on their own terms . His solution is an architectural interposition mitigating a situation on its own terms without alteration or mor a l qualifiers. He accepted powerfully dichotomous elements and interposed modifiers which adjusted their disparateness. H e resisted every solution which would have dissolved those rampant antagonisms. The lack of completion was intentional, and necessary, to retain the character of the existing fabric. His approach is definitely couched in the vocabulary of hery, Himmelblau and others; but in R on's essay we have an issue more directly engaged. There is no attempt to insert a flowery maypole in the middle of Dachow as some of the new wave romanticists are doing. We have before us a essay in anti-formalist principles through spatial dissonance with elements of the found creating an architecture of r uin which is collectively a phenomenological reading; not historicist, eclectic nor d ialectical. It is the architectural interposition which sees and yet remains apart. It does not unite nor resolve but mitigates and clarifies simultaneo u s identities thorugh tenuous placements. In its terms conclusion is impossible n rr f;1 n

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Ron Radziner's thesis is one of the two out of the entire graduating class which represents a cohesive philosophic and aesthetic viewpoint. His was the only project, in my opinion, which realized the full intent of its argument. (Although he \,•as unable to adequately argue his case verbally.) It is not an easy project to come to terms with. It was not intended to be so. With respect to the criticism regardin g his overall growth I can say he has bee n intensly awa r e of his personal direction since I have kno\m him . lie has, in truth, demonstrated considerable grO\-'th O\'er the past three years. but tlwt grO\,th hus been one of refinement at the expense of Jatitudc. R o n has had a great :inf1uence on the student body in that he has brought exacting content to his graphics rather than glib f1nsh. h ' h cre he \\ill \ , :ind up is a motter of speculation; I but if intention and dedication nrc factors :in "success" J suspect ' \ve \,•ill be hearing a great deo.l more from Radziner. Sincer)"3. JJn R. ShuttJC\Wrth {_;Z6 1 986

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