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Continuing Education Center for the University of Colorado at Boulder

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Title:
Continuing Education Center for the University of Colorado at Boulder
Creator:
Ward, Mark
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture

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Source Institution:
Auraria Library
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
CONTINUING EDUCATION CENTER FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT BOULDER by
Mark Ward
B.A., University of Colorado, 1979
Thesis Preparation Report, Fall 1980 University of Colorado at Denver College of Environmental Design
Department of Architecture


CONTENTS
Advisory Board Project Introduction Project Background
1. Climate
2. Transportation
3. Public Service
4. Continuing Education
5. Boulder Campus Environs
6. Architectural Precedents
7. Accessibility for the Physically Handicapped
8. Energy Conservation
9. Site Location
10. Topography
11. Subsurface Soil Conditions
12. Landscape
13. Lighting
14. Entrances
15. Campus Edges
16. Signing of Buildings on Campus
17. Energy Utilities
18. Electricity
19. Sanitary Sewers Site Analysis
Activities Defined/Allocations Matrix - Activity Relationships


G. Functional Relationships - Diagram(s)
H. Code Requirements
I. Thesis Semester Schedule
J. References


A. Advisory Board
Bob Kindig Professor of Architecture, University of Colorado, Denver
G. K. Vetter Professor of Architecture, University of Colorado, Denver
Gary Long Professor of'Architecture, expertise in mechanical and electrical systems, University of Colorado, Denver
Bill Deno Planner/Architect for University of Colorado at Boulder - Office of Facilities Development
H. 0. Brough Assistant to the Dean of Continuing Education, Boulder Campus


B. Project Introduction
The division of Continuing Education is a division within the University of Colorado at the Boulder Campus. Its main purpose is to expose the university facilities to outside, off campus groups. These groups are predominantly made up of professionals who wish to further their education. Also included are groups who wish to satisfy professional licensing and certification requirements of their profession. The Continuing Education Center also reaches out to foreign students who need or wish to upgrade their English language skills and further their intercultural understanding.
The Continuing Education Center is divided into divisions of 1) The Center for Lifelong Learning (CLL), 2) Intensive English Center (IEC), 3) Marketing and Communications (M and C), and 4) The Center for Conferences and Management/Technical Programs (CCMT). All four divisions work with each other to supply the demands of local, state, and regional education constituencies.
As stated, the four divisions work with each other but also operate each within its own entity.
At the time of programming it is apparent the pre-selected site for the proposed Continuing Education Center is inadequate for the Center for Conferences and Management/Technical Programs (CCMT). The director of this division, Ann Wohl, explains the proposed site is too far from the local services that would enhance the use of a conference facility. She proposes the expansion of the present conference facility, The College Inn, to supply the


needs of this division. Accordingly, this division is excluded from the proposed project. A detailed analysis of the site and the other division requirements demonstrates that the proposed site will be adequate for the remainder of divisions.
The proposed site is located adjacent to the Williams Village housing complex. The site proper lies to the south with views in all directions and good exposure from the Boulder-Denver Turnpike. Further site information is given in the project back-
ground and site analysis.


C. Project Background
The following background information was taken from the University of Colorado, at Boulder, Long Range Facilities Master Plan. Information was drawn from the master plan as it pertained directly to this particular project.
1. Climate
Boulder is situated in a region of rapid transition between high plains climate and mountain climate. The climate is affected by the presence of mountains to the west, which increase the annual precipitation and reduce the annual and daily temperature ranges. Winter temperatures are moderated by warm downslope westerly winds. Specific data are given below.
J F M A M J J AS 0 N D________________ ANNUAL
[Temperature jof-Monthly Norm 32.5 34.7 39.3 48.9 56.9 66.8 73.6 71.8 64.1 53.6 41.3 35.1 51.6 ng.
i Precipitation ilnchev Monthly Norm .71 .77 1.79 2.68 3.05 Z01 1.39 1.69 1.27 1.34 .97 .62 18.57
.Snowfall ilnches-Monthlv Norm 10.9 10.3 17.3 14.3 2.8 .1 0 0 1.0 4.3 11.5 8.0 81.0
Days/Month Max. [Temp. Above 90° (avg) 0 0 0 0 1 4 11 6 1 0 0 0 22
jDays/Month Min. (Temp. Below 32° (avg) 25 23 21 8 1 0 0 0 1 4 18 25 127
IQear Days/Month 'Norm IS 12 12 0 11 9 10 13 17 13 15 147
; Partly Cloudy Day*/ iMonth* Norm 14 14 15 17 18 18 21 20 15 12 14 13 191
;Gou 2. Transportation
The primary transportation link between the Denver Metropolitan Area and the Boulder Campus is U.S. 36, better known as the Boulder-Denver Turnpike. This limited access divided highway carries automobiles, trucks and buses from the Denver Interstate Highways almost directly co the Main Campus.


3. Public Service
Public service extends campus resources to citizens throughout Colorado and beyond. It is the vehicle whereby the Boulder Campus mission to lead in the advancement and dissemination of knowledge is broadened to include thousands (and probably millions) of persons outside the University. Public service activities are provided through the Division of Continuing Education and by faculty, staff, schools, colleges and other campus units.
4. Continuing Education
The Division of Continuing Education offers credit and noncredit courses, seminars, workshops, conferences, and related services to over 30,000 persons each year. Boulder faculty frequently are the primary providers of instruction, particularly in the professional fields of law, business, engineering, and pharmacy. Programs are administered by the Dean of Continuing Education who reports to the Vice Chancelor for Academic Affairs.
Continuing Education also offers programs through the Center for Conferences and Management/Technical Programs. Short, intensive courses, seminars, workshops, and conferences are offered which do not lead to credit for a degree but may carry continuing education (CEU) credit. The programs focus on improving the professional and management skills of personnel from a variety of fields, including business, sales, manufacturing, corrections, personnel, education, engineering, and public relations.


The Center for Conferences and Management/Technical Programs operates as an auxiliary enterprise at UCB and is self-supporting through tuition and fees. The programs serve about 20,000 persons each year. Activities are expected to increase during the planning period because of growing interest in professional development by both employers and employees and the fact that the Boulder Campus is the only higher education institution in Colorado offering many of the programs.
The College Inn Conference Center, a residential conference center in Boulder acquired by the University in 1974, provides a year-round facility, at present, for activities of the Center for Conferences and Management/Technical Programs. The facility includes 140 rooms, dining and classroom facilities, and is the only such year-round residential facility in Colorado.
5. Boulder Campus Environs
The University of Colorado at Boulder is situated in a magnificent physical setting. The Flatirons and the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains are visible from nearly everywhere on campus, and the snow caps of the Rocky Mountains are visible from many locations. The view of the Great Plains to the east is also impressive for its immense sky, small lakes, and undulating horizon.
At an altitude of over 5,000 feet the semi-arid climate is temperate with pleasant days and cool evenings. More than 300 days of sunshine a year encourage outdoor activities year-round. However, Boulder is well known for extremely high winds, especially in the winter and spring.


The relationship between the City of Boulder and the University has been close since the time when scores of Boulder citizens raised funds to match a legislative appropriation for the construction of Old Main. Today University students, faculty and staff constitute one-third of the population of the City. The University not only enriches the cultural life of the city, but its presence has also been instrumental in the growth of the technology businesses that have developed in Boulder in the last decades. The presence of the University can, however, have unpopular effects on parking in neighborhoods near the campus and the housing situation in the entire community.
6. Architectural Precedents
The architectural style of Boulder Campus buildings should reflect the site location. What is appropriate on one campus and site may not be appropriate elsewhere.
The architectural style at the Williams Village Campus has been established by the design of the existing student housing complex. Any future development should respect this already established pattern.
7. Accessibility for the Physically Handicapped
The University of Colorado at Boulder is obligated to make all programs physically available and accessible to the entire campus community.
All new facilities on the Boulder Campus are designed to provide accessibility to the physically handicapped. Major facility


renovations will include provisions for accessibility. Some facilities cannot be made accessible without great expense, but program accessibility can be achieved through other approved methods such as moving programs and/or services.
8. Energy Conservation
The University is particularly aware that energy resources are finite and all planning must be done with this in mind. Buildings will be designed to meet or exceed ASHRAE standard 90-75, as developed by the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers. Architects will be encouraged to exceed this standard whenever economically feasible or appropriate to improved performance. These guidelines specifically advocate the use of passive solar energy, encouraging good architectural design and compatible, energy-efficient design of mechanical systems rather than the more experimental active solar systems. Energy conservation is and will continue to be practiced in all existing buildings to reduce consumption.
9. Site Location
Three quarters of a mile to the southeast of the Main Campus is the 64.5-acre Williams Village Campus bounded by the Denver-Boulder Turnpike on the southwest, 30th Street on the west, Baseline Road on the north, and a single-family residential neighborhood on the
east.


10. Topography
The Williams Village property slopes gently about 25 feet from a high point on the southwest corner to a low point on the northeast. The Bear Creek storm drainage channel flows northeasterly through the eastern half of the property.
11. Subsurface Soil Conditions
The soil investigation for Williams Village dormitories indicates 7 to 21 feet of sandy clay over weathered shale to hard blue shale at 27 feet, suggesting a high bearing capacity for multi-story buildings in that area.
12. Landscape
The mainstay of the planned landscape on the Boulder Campus is living plants and trees. The landscape identifies the University as a University, marking boundaries and entrances. Special places such as Varsity Lake are memorable to visitors, students, and those who stay at the University for longer periods. The continuity and age of the Boulder Campus results in a landscape whose value far exceeds the original cost of planting saplings or setting of lawns. Similarly, efforts to improve the landscape now will continue to have significant, long-term rewards in the future. Landscape planning must both recognize the special qualities of individual sites and encourage a consistency of materials and treatment that will identify the campus as a whole.


13. Lighting
Properly planned lighting reduces the chances for crimes against persons and property, increases pedestrian and vehicular safety and improves the aesthetic appearance of the campus. Nighttime movement to activities, centers, and classes is far safer, more convenient, and certainly more pleasant on adequately lighted paths and streets than it is on unlighted streets. The high cost of lighting (including fixtures and electricity) is an impetus to careful design.
14. Entrances
Campus entrances should be clearly marked out and distinguished from one another. They should invite and guide visitors who must orient themselves quickly without knowing the campus well.
15. Campus Edges
The edges of the campus are among its most visible aspects and may be the only impression many people who pass will have of the University. The simplicity and cleanliness of the landscaping on the edges of the campus, whether cultivated or uncultivated, indicate that the University is a good neighbor, and perfects the image which the University wishes to project. Edges designed to present a natural appearance must receive trash pickup and other maintenance but little or no irrigation.
16. Signing of Buildings and Campus
Visitors and newcomers to the campus require guidance in finding desired building and other facilities. In addition,


information about various ongoing activities or events is useful and regulations concerning traffic movement are mandatory. Signs create an image of the University which is either positive or negative depending upon execution. For example, too many signs and/ or poorly designed signs can create clutter and confusion. A series of exterior signs now identify various University facilities. These range from highway directional signs all the way to doorway identification numbers and include directional signs, locator maps, a visitor information center, building identification signs and doorway identification signs. The existing system works well when us ed.
17. Energy Utilities
Heating System
Natural gas supplied by the Public Service Company is the primary fuel used to heat campus buildings. Interruptable natural gas represents 70-80 percent of the gas used on the Main Campus and Williams Village under the E-2 rate (Industrial Service). It is burned at the Heating Plant to produce steam for heating and cooling campus buildings. When the Public Service Company interrupts the natural gas supply, No. 6 fuel oil is burned at the heating plant as a back-up. Fuel oil use is erratic, depending on the Public Service Company's supply of gas, demand from its customers and the weather. Number 2 fuel oil is burned at the Williams Village Heating Plant on the same basis as No. 6 fuel oil at the Heating Plant. The Williams Village Heating Plant currently has sufficient capacity and is able to sustain a 50 percent increase in peak demand with


the system still maintaining one boiler in reserve. When natural gas becomes unavailable for use in heating University buildings, coal may be used as a fuel. If this is to be done at the University, an entirely new heating plant would have to be constructed and an on-campus location would be difficult. However, an attractive alternative to this has been studied and shown to be technically feasible. Steam from the Public Service Company's Valmont Steam Electric Station could be brought to the East Campus, Williams Village, and Main Campuses and used to heat buildings. The steam would be produced at the Valmont station and transported to the campuses via a large underground steam pipe system. This system would insure adequate energy supplies for the University for heating and cooling for many years.
18. Electricity
Williams Village has a single feeder (13.8 KV). However, this feeder is not dedicated to the University by Public Service Company of Colorado and has other users on the line. Thus increased use of electricity by non-University customers might limit the power available to the University.
All interior lighting at the University is controlled by manual switches. Outdoor lighting is controlled automatically. Building HVAC systems are controlled in most buildings by time clocks which limit the hours the equipment will run. These are adjusted each semester according to the building schedule.


Future plans reveal another 13.8 KV loop system to Williams Village which will alleviate possible lack of power due to growth of non-University users presently on the existing line.
19. Sanitary Sewers
The existing Williams Village system is in very good condition. The system can be further loaded as expansion occurs in the area. Alternatively, the system serving the new development could discharge into the same 12-inch city main running along the south
side of Baseline Road.


D. Site Analysis Base Map Existing Use Views
Pedestrian Access Auto Access Sun Wind
Flood Plain
Site Context/Surroundings


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E.. Activities Defined
The Center for Lifelong Learning (CLL)
The Center for Lifelong Learning offers University-level credit and non-credit classes, certificate programs, and telecommunications courses for students, professionals, and the general adult population interested in off-campus and outreach programs. Credit courses are offered in a wide variety of traditional university disciplines. Self-enrichment and vocational interests are served through the non-credit courses. To satisfy professional licensing and certification requirements, courses are also offered in pharmacy, business, law, real estate, engineering, resort management and education. Special programs have been developed to serve the needs of the adult population.
Intensive English Center (IEC)
The Intensive English Center''s overall mission is to teach the English language to all international clientele of potential higher-education students, to provide a "laboratory" site for observation and practice teaching in ESL, to act as a general source of professional TEFL/TESL expertise, to contribute, both locally and farther afield, to intercultural understanding.
Marketing and Communications
In order to further foster delivery of academic programs of both credit and non-credit nature to the various segments of society so that individuals, government units, and corporate entities would be fully informed of the many educational services available to them, the Division of Continuing Education established in 1979


a Marketing and Communications unit reporting to the Office of the Dean. This unit is focusing directly on direct mail marketing, telephone interviews, and person-to-person contacts for the purpose of identifying and recommending educational programs to the various clientele publics of the Division.


Allocations
Division of Continuing Education Space Needs Dean offices and related activities
Administrative-single occupancy offices
Dean office P. John Lymberopoulos 180 S.F.
Associate Dean Robert de Kieffer 120 S.F.
Assistant Dean H. 0. Brough 120 S.F.
Assistant Dean William Grelle 120 S.F.
Division Accountant Tom Sheehy 120 S.F.
Secretarial and clerical
Dean's Secretary Eve Dubus 80 S.F.
Multiple Occupancy
PBX Secretary Judy Kern 65 S.F.
Adm. Clerk Typist Kim Skoczelas 65 S.F.
S teno-Trans crib er Vacant 65 S.F.
Conference Room Space
Conference Room 225 S.F.
Service Space
Storage 400 S.F.
1,560 S.F.


Center for Lifelong Learning Space Needs
Administrative
Director Clay Berg 120 S.F.
Professional
University Program Specialist Melissa de Kieffer 120 S.F.
It It It Carol Lipsey 120 S.F.
If If II Peter Seward 120 S.F.
It II II Eloise Pearson 120 S.F.
II II If Jim Keyes 120 S.F.
II II II Will Fischer 120 S.F.
II II II Eric Green 120 S.F.
II ft II Heather Weiffenbach 120 S.F.
If II If Myrna Radi 120 S.F.
II If It Chris Stroman 120 S.F.
Multiple Occupancy - Specialized Equipment
Word Processing Nancy Grandinetti 85 S.F.
If If Millie MacGregor 85 S.F.
C.R.T. Alice Morie 170 S.F.
If (2) Vacant 170 S.F.
Microfishe Vacant 170 S.F.
Accounting Technician Nina Paulson 85 S.F.
II II Mary Deault 85 S.F.
II II Linda Mallinoff 85 S.F.
ea.


Multiple Occupancy
Administrative Clerk Typist Esther Openshaw 65 S.F.
II If If Diana Davis 65 S.F.
If II II Dana Klein 65 S.F.
II If II Jean Furslow 65 S.F.
II If II Gerri Walters 65 S.F.
Secretary Toni Ensley 65 S.F.
II Ursula Hotz 65 S.F.
Typist Donna Davis 65 S.F.
Service Space
Program Assistants (6) 225 S.F.
Storage 400 S.F.
4 Classrooms - 50 people each 50x15x4 = 3000 S.F.
Conference Room Space
Conference room 225 S.F.
6,795 S.F.


Intensive English Center Space Needs
Administrative
Director Jean Engler 120 S.F.
Professional
Admissions Advisor Katrina Novak 120 S.F.
Services Advisor Audrey Putney 120 S.F.
Academic Coordinator Michael Masyn 120 S.F.
Ac countant/Reg is trar Grace Gonzales 120 S.F.
Multiple Occupancy
Advanced Level Coord. Inst. 85 S.F.
Beginning Level Coord. Inst. 85 S.F.
(2) Intermediate Level Coord. Inst. 85 S.F.
Administrative Clerk Typist Michael Mitchell 65 S.F.
(2) Administrative Clerk Vacant 65 S.F.
Service Space
Instructors (16) 400 S.F.
Storage 400 S.F.
14 Classrooms - seating for 20 each 4200 S.F.
Language Lab - accommodate 20 carrols 20x30 = 600 S.F.
Conference Room Space 325 S.F.
ea
ea
7,060 S.F.


Marketing and Communications Space Needs
Administrative
Director Kipp Hayes 120 S.F.
Professional
University Program Specialists (3) Vacant 120 S.F.
If II II John Birchman 120 S.F.
Publications Specialist Pat Jensen 120 S.F.
II II Linda Whitmarsh 120 S.F.
Secretarial and Clerical
Directors Secretary Joan Byers 80 S.F.
Multiple Occupancy, Specialized Equipment
Word Processing Vacant 85 S.F.
Multiple Occupancy
Administrative Clerk Typist Trina Benton 65 S.F.
II II II Christina Schay 65 S.F.
II II II Diana La Due 65 S.F.
II If II Vacant 65 S.F.
Service Space
Storage 400 S.F.
Duplicating Machine 80 S.F.
Conference Room Space
Conference room 225 S.F.
ea.
2,330 S.F.


Other, Unassigned Area, Space Needs
Service Space
Registration Area Mail Room Xerox Reproduction Storage - Xerox
400 S.F. 200 S.F. 300 S.F. 400 S.F. 1,100 S.F.
Other Space Required Lounge/Snack Toilet Rooms
1200 S.F.
Water closets 1/40 males 7 (4)
1/30 females 9
Urinals 1/25 males 11 (14)
Lavatories 1/40 persons 7
Drinking fountains 1/50 persons 6
Approx, total 2,400 S.F.
Note: 1) approximately 280 of each sex - basis for fixture requirements
2) 2/3 reduction in water closets allowed
for provision of urinals
3) drinking fountains not to be in toilet rooms
Total Assigned Square Feet = 21,245 S.F.
air handling - 3% area served = 637 S.F.
electrical/telephone = 2% area served = 425 S.F.
general circulation = 15% area served = 3,186 S.F.
total gross
= 25,493 S.F.


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A thorough investigation of form, scale and massing reveals that the shape and size of the Continuing Education Center must be cohesive with the established pattern of Williams Village. Williams Village consists of 13-15 floor dormitory towers and one three level commons building which provides food and other services to students. The proposed site is adjacent to the existing commons building which is a dominant form determinant.
The Continuing Education Center:
The design parameters for massing and form are determined primarily by the existing commons building located to the west of the site.
The commons building, being of a pyramid form, is simple and very much a dominant shape which must be considered for future development at this scale on the Williams Village site. Therefore many architectural features from the commons building are incorporated into the Continuing Education Center. The roof pitch and roof materials are repeated as well as the use of tan brick with brick columns set on a grid which carries through the theme of Williams Village.
Another major consideration in the design is making use of the tremendous panorama from the site. Where this is not possible, spaces (mainly offices) are orientated to a central atrium which is at the center of the pyramid form. This gives visual relief to interior offices and classrooms within the building which I feel is important for "day workers" on a typical eight hour shift.
Vehicular access to the building is from Apache Drive and an expanded bus route that presently runs to the Williams Village dormitories from the University of Colorado campus.


The parking scheme is a continuation of the existing pattern from the commons building with a vista framed with trees directed towards the main entry to the Continuing Education Center.
The landscaping at Williams Village is another element which helps to coordinate the Williams Village complex and this takes advantage of and further enhances the Continuing Education Center making it even more appropriate to Williams Village. "Earth sculpture" is continued from the commons building and "wrapped" around the proposed building on twTo sides. Furthermore, deciduous trees follow this "earth sculpture" to enforce this concept.
The parameters of form, massing, building materials, landscaping and building placement (relative to existing parking and existing structures) I have attacked so as to draw the Continuing Education Center cohesively and aesthetically together with the Williams Village complex.
Structure s
The Continuing Education Center has a steel frame with brick curtain wall which bears on the steel frame. A steel frame is chosen with present day construction procedures, costs, and erection coordination parameters as major considerations. Using this method and vtith the scale of this building, steel frame can be erected without interference and interruption of other trades. Next, construction proceeds by masons. From this point typical interior construction continues to a point of occupancy. This method of construction enables "trade" labor ro complete a task appropriate to the craft and evacuation of the site for further "trades." This procedure,with times of climbing interest rates, is vital to construction time and eventual
occupancy


Mechanical:
As stated in the Williams Village background, the entire complex is supplied with a four pipe system, generated from a central plant.
The plant has a 50$ increase capacity in which only a small portion would be vitaliaed for the Continuing Education Center. The four pipe system is directed to four fan rooms throughout the center which are appropriately sized for the office space, classrooms, a semi-conditioned atrium, and passing corridors. The atrium is equipped with a mechanical vent at the top for warm air that needs to be expelled. During cold periods, heat loss will be minimal to the atrium. Triple glazing is provided for all atrium penetration primarily with consideration of heat loss. Also a smoked exterior glass lamination is provided to prohibit excess heat gain during warm and sunny periods.
Due to the building's use, massing and dynamics of the site, deep overhangs are employed. This not only decreases direct solar penetration to office spaces but also decreases the cooling load for the Continuing Education Center. This feature decreases direct solar penetration to most spaces, yet it still provides ample diffused lighting. This is achieved by means of maximum fenestration to all spaces with a maximum area possible determined by the window pattern resolved by the program reauirements of office and classroom size.
The proposed Continuing Education Center's primary parameter is to incorporate already existing forms and site planning. This Continuing Education Center is cohesive with the Williams Village vernacular and it incorporates massing, scale, program requirements, planned use/ identity, form and landscaping (earth sculpture and planting). The transportation link is an expansion of the existing parking and bussing system from the main campus to Williams Village.


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H. Code Requirements
This section contains portions of the Uniform Building Code, 1979 edition, as they pertain to this project occupancy. It includes possible occupancies of Group A2, A2.1, A3, R-l and B2 which are all potential users on the proposed site whether they are present proposed or future proposed. Note also, no zoning requirements are stated. The University has no specific zoning plans or requirements but rather a process equivalent to a special review which is compatible with the University of Colorado Master Plan. The University conducts its own site inspections to guarantee safety requirements which are stated in the Uniform Building code.
Fire Ratings for Occupancy Separations. Occupancy separations shall be provided between the various groups and divisions of occupancies as set forth in Table No. 5-B.
5. The following occupancies need not be separated from the uses to which they are accessory: assembly rooms having a floor area of not over 750 square feet; administrative and clerical offices and similar rooms which in the aggregate do not exceed 25 percent of the floor area of the major use when not related to Group H, Division 1 and Group H, Division 2 Occupancies.
Chapter 6
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP A OCCUPANCIES Group A Occupancies Defined
Sec. 601. Group A Occupancies shall be:
Division 2. Any building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of less than 1000 and a stage.


U1
03
TABLE NO. 5-B—REQUIRED SEPARATION IN BUILDINGS OF MIXED OCCUPANCY
(In Hours)
Note: For detailed requirements and exceptions, see Section 503.

'The three-hour separation may be reduced to two hours where the Group B. Division 1 Occupancy is limited to the storage of passenger motor vehicles I having a capacity of not more than nine persons. This shall not apply where provisions of Section 702 (a) apply.
Tor agricultural buildings, sec also Appendix Chapter 11.
I
TABLE NO. 5-C—BASIC ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA FOR BUILDINGS ONE STORY IN HEIGHT
(In Square Feet)
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
1 II III IV V
OCCUPANCY F.R. F.R. ONE-HOUR N ONE-HOUR N H.T. ONE-HOUR N
A-l Unlimited 29,900 Not Permitted
A) 2-2.1 Unlimited 29,900 13,500 Not Permitted 13,500 Not Permitted 13,500 10,500 Not Permitted
A) 3-4 Unlimited 29,900 13,500 9,100 13.500 9,100 13,500 10,500 6.000
B) 1-2-3' Unlimited 39,900 18,000 12.000 18,000 12,000 18,000 14,000 8.000
B-4 Unlimited 59,900 27.000 18.000 27,000 18,000 27,000 21,000 12.000
E Unlimited 45,200 20,200 13,500 20,200 13,500 20,200 15,700 9,100
H) 1-21 15,000 12.400 5.600 3,700 5.600 3,700 5.600 4,400 2,500
H)3-4-5 Unlimited 24,800 11,200 7,500 11,200 7,500 11.200 8,800 5,100
1)1-2 Unlimited 15,100 6,800 Not Permitted 6,800 Not Permitted 6,800 5,200 Not Permitted
1-3 Unlimited 15,100 _.. . Not Permitted’
M4 SeeChamer 11
R-l Unlimited 29,900 13,500 9,100’ 13,500 9,100’ |I 3,500 | 10,500 6.000’
R-3 Unlimited
For open parking garages, see Section 709. N—No requirement for fire resistance |
•See Section 903. F.R.-Fire Resistive
See Section 1002(b). " ’ H.T.—Heavy Timber
Tor agricultural buildings, see also Appendix Chapter 11.
’For limitations and exceptions, see Section 1202(b). i
Ol
cn
6
umronw duiluinu Luut j 1979 EDITION


Division 2.1. Any building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of 300 or more without a stage, including such buildings used for educational purposes and not classed as a Group E or Group B, Division 2 Occupancy.
Division 3. Any building or portion of a building have an assembly room with an occupant load of less than 300 without a stage, including such buildings used for educational purposes and not classed as a Group E or Group B, Division 2 Occupancy.
Location on Property
Sec. 603. Buildings housing Group A Occupancies shall front directly upon or have access to a public street not less than 20 feet in width. The access to the public street shall be a minimum 20-foot-wide right-of-way, unobstructed and maintained only as access to the public street. The main entrance to the building shall be located on the public street or on the access way. The main assembly floor of Division 1 Occupancies shall be located at or near the adjacent ground level.
For fire-resistive protection of exterior walls and openings, as determined by location on property, see Section 504 and Part IV.
Light, Ventilation and Sanitation
Sec. 605. All enclosed portions of Group A Occupancies customarily used by human beings and all dressing rooms shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area not less than one-tenth of the total floor area, and natural ventilation by means of openable exterior openings with an area of


not less than one-twentieth of the total floor area or shall be provided with artificial light and a mechanically operated ventilating system. The mechanically operated ventilating system shall supply a minimum of 5 cubic feet per minute of outside air with a total circulated of not less than 15 cubic feet per minute per occupant in all portions of the building and such system shall be kept continuously in operation during such time as the building is occupied. If the velocity of the air at the register exceeds 10 feet per second, the register shall be placed more than 8 feet above the floor directly beneath.
There shall be provided in an approved location at least one lavatory for each two water closets for each sex, and at least one drinking fountain for each floor level.
Chapter 7
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP B OCCUPANCIES
Light, Ventilation and Sanitation
Sec. 705. All portions of Group B Occupancies shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area equal to one-tenth of the total floor area, and natural ventilation by means of exterior openings with an area not less than one-twentieth of the total floor area, or shall be provided with artificial light and a mechanically operated ventilating system as specified in Section 605.
Every building or portion thereof where persons are employed shall be provided with at least one water closet. Separate facilities


shall be provided for each sex when the number of employees exceeds four and both sexes are employed. Such toilet facilities shall be located either in such building or conveniently in a building adjacent thereto on the same property.
Such water closet rooms in connection with food establishments where food is prepared, stored or served shall have a nonabsorbent interior finish as specified in Section 1711, shall have hand-washing facilities therein or adjacent thereto, and shall be separated from food preparation or storage rooms as specified in Section 510.
Chapter 12
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP R OCCUPANCIES
Group R Occupancies Defined
Sec. 1201. Group R Occupancies shall be:
Division 1. Hotels and apartment houses.
Convents and monasteries (each accommodating more than 10 persons).
Construction, Height and Allowable Area
Sec. 1202. (a) General. Buildings or parts of buildings classed in Group R because of the use or character of the occupancy shall be limited to the types of construction set forth in Tables No. 5-C and No. 5-D and shall not exceed, in area or height, the limits specified in Sections 505, 506 and 507.
(b) Special Provisions, Group R, Division 1 Occupancies more than two stories in height or having more than 3000 square feet of floor


area above the first story, shall be not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction throughout.
Exit Facilities
Every sleeping room below the fourth story shall have at least one operable window or exterior door approved for emergency egress or rescue. The units shall be operable from the inside to provide a full clear opening without the use of separate tools.
All egress or rescue windows from sleeping rooms shall have a minimum net clear opening of 5.7 square feet. the minimum net clear opening height dimension shall be 24 inches. The minimum net clear opening width dimension shall be 20 inches. Where windows are provided as a means of egress or rescue they shall have a finished sill height not more than 44 inches above the floor.
Light, Ventilation and Sanitation
Sec. 1205. (a) Light and Ventilation. All guest rooms, dormitories and habitable rooms within a dwelling unit shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area not less than one-tenth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 10 square feet. All bathrooms, water closet compartments, laundry rooms and similar rooms shall be provided with natural ventilation by means of openable exterior openings with an area not less than one-twentieth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 1 1/2 square feet.
All guest rooms, dormitories and habitable rooms within a dwelling unit shall be provided with natural ventilation by means


f openable exterior openings with an area of not less than one-twentieth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 5 square feet.
In lieu of required exterior openings for natural ventilation, a mechanical ventilating system may be provided. Such system shall be capable of providing two air changes per hour in all guest rooms, dormitories, habitable rooms and in public corridors. One-fifth of the air supply shall be taken from the outside. In bathrooms, water closet compartments, laundry rooms and similar rooms a mechanical ventilation system connected directly to the outside, capable of providing five air changes per hour, shall be provided.
For the purpose of determining light and ventilation requirements, any room may be considered as a portion of an adjoining room when one-half of the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and provides an opening of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room or 25 square feet, whichever is greater.
Required exterior openings for natural light and ventilation shall open directly onto a street or public alley or a yard or court located on the same lot as the building.
Exception: Required windows may open into a roofed porch
where the porch:
1. Abuts a street, yard, or court; and
2. Has a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet; and
3. Has the longer side at least 65 percent open and un-
obstructed.


(b) Sanitation. Every building shall be provided with at least one water closet. Every hotel or subdivision thereof where both sexes are accommodated shall contain at least two separate toilet facilities which are conspicuously identified for male or female use, each of which contains at least one water closet.
Additional water closets shall be provided on each floor for each sex at the rate of one for every additional 10 guests, or fractional part thereof, in excess of 10.
Room Dimensions
Sec. 1207. (a) Ceiling Heights. Habitable space shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches except as otherwise permitted in this section. Kitchens, halls, bathrooms and toilet compartments may have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling. Where exposed beam ceiling members are spaced at less than 48 inches on center, ceiling height shall be measured to the bottom of these members. Where exposed beam ceiling members are spaced at 48 inches or more on center, ceiling height shall be measured to the bottom of the deck supported by these members, provided that the bottom of the members is not less than 7 feet above the floor.
If any room in a building has a sloping ceiling, the prescribed ceiling height for the room is required in only one-half the area thereof. No portion of the room measuring less than 5 feet from the finished floor to the finished ceiling shall be included in any computation of the minimum area thereof.


If any room has a furred ceiling, the prescribed ceiling height is required in two-thirds the area thereof, but in no case shall the height of the furred ceiling be less than 7 feet.
Fire-warning and Sprinkler Systems
Sec. 1210. (a) Fire-warning Systems, Every dwelling unit and every guest room in a hotel or lodging house used for sleeping purposes shall be provided with smoke detectors conforming to U.B.C. Standard No. 43-6. In dwelling units, detectors shall be mounted on the ceiling or wall at a point centrally located in the corridor or area giving access to rooms used for sleeping purposes. In an efficiency dwelling unit, hotel sleeping room and in hotel suites, the detector shall be centrally located on the ceiling of the main room or hotel sleeping room. Where sleeping rooms are on an upper level, the detector shall be placed at the center of the ceiling directly above the stairway. All detectors shall be located in accordance with approved manufacturer^ instructions. When actuated, the detector shall provide an alarm in the dwelling unit or guest room.
In new construction, required smoke detectors shall receive their primary power from the building wiring when such wiring is served from a commercial source. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than those required for overcurrent protection.
Heating
Sec. 1211. Every dwelling unit and guest room shall be provided with heating facilities capable of maintaining a room temperature


of 70°F. at a point 3 feet above the floor in all habitable rooms.
Access to Buildings and Facilities
Sec. 1213. Buildings containing more than 20 dwelling units or 20 guest rooms shall be accessible to the physically handicapped by a level entry, ramp or elevator. The number of dwelling units or guest rooms accessible to the physically handicapped shall be not less than the following:
21 through 99 one unit
100 and over one, plus one for each additional 100
units or fraction thereof
To determine the total number of accessible units, more than one structure on a building site shall be considered as one building.
REQUIREMENTS BASED ON TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION Chapter 17
CLASSIFICATION OF ALL BUILDINGS BY TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Usable Space Under Floors
Sec. 1703. Usable space under the first story shall be enclosed except in Groups R, Division 3 and M Occupancies, and such enclosure when constructed of metal or wood shall be protected on the side of the usable space as required for one-hour fire-resistive construction. Doors shall be self-closing, of noncombustible construction or solid wood core, not less than 13/4 inches in thickness.


Roofs
Sec. 1704. Roof coverings shall be fire retardant except in Types III, IV and V buildings, where it may be as follows:
1. Ordinary roof coverings may be used on buildings of Group R, Division 3 or Group M Occupancies.
2. Ordinary roof coverings may be used on buildings of Group R, Division 1 Occupancies which are not more than two stories in height and have not more than 3000 square feet of projected roof area and there is a minimum of 10 feet from the extremity of the roof to the property line on all sides except for street fronts.
3. Class C roof coverings which comply with U.B.C. Standard No. 32-7 and roofs of No. 1 cedar or redwood shakes and No. 1 shingles constructed in accordance with the requirements of U.B.C. Standard No. 32-14 for Special Purpose Roofs may be used on Group A, Division 3; Group B, Divisions 1 and 2 and Group R, Division 1 Occupancies which are not more than two stories in height and
have not more than 6000 square feet of projected roof area and there is a minimum of 10 feet from the extremity of the roof to the property lines on all sides except for street fronts.
Skylights shall be constructed as required in Chapter 34.
Penthouses shall be constructed as required in Chapter 36.
For use of plastics in roofs, see Chapter 52.
For attics: Access and Area, see Section 3205. For Roof Drain-
age, see Section 3207.


Exceptions to Table No. 17-A
Sec. 1705.(a) General. The provisions of this section are intended as exceptions to construction requirements specified in Chapters 5 through 12 and 18 through 22.
(c) Folding, Portable or Movable Partitions. Approved folding, portable or movable partitions need not have a fire-resistive rating, provided:
1. They do not block required exits (without providing alternative conforming exits) and they do not establish an exit corridor.
2. Their location is restricted by means of permanent tracks, guides or other approved methods.
3. Flammability shall be limited to materials having a flame-spread classification as set forth in Table No. 42-B for rooms or areas.
Water Fountains
Sec. 1712. Where water fountains are provided, at least one shall have a spout within 33 inches of the floor and shall have upfront, hand-operated controls. When fountains are located in an alcove, the alcove shall be not less than 32 inches in width.
Telephones
Sec. 1713. Where public telephones are provided, at least one shall be installed so that the handset, dial and coin receiver are within 54 inches of the floor. Unobstructed access within 12 inches of the telephone shall be provided. Such access shall be not less than 30 inches in width.


Guardrails
Sec. 1716. All unenclosed floor and roof openings, open and glazed sides of landings and ramps, balconies or porches which are more than 30 inches above grade or floor below, and roofs used for other than service of the building shall be protected by a guardrail. Guardrails shall be not less than 42 inches in height. Open guardrail and stair railings shall have intermediate rails or an ornamental pattern such that a sphere 9 inches in diameter cannot pass through. The height of stair railings on open sides may be as specified in Section 3305 (j) in lieu of providing a guardrail.
Ramps shall, in addition, have handrails when required by Section 3306.
EXCEPTIONS: 1. Guardrails need not be provided on the loading
side of loading docks.
2. Guardrails for Group R, Division 3 and Group M, Division 1 Occupancies may be 36 inches in height.
3. Interior guardrails within individual dwelling units or guest rooms of Group R, Division 1 Occupancies may be 36 inches in height.
4. The open space between the intermediate rails or ornamental pattern of guardrails in areas of commercial and industrial type occupancies which are not accessible to the public may be increased such that a 12-inch-diameter sphere cannot pass through.
5. Guardrails on a balcony immediately in front of the first row of fixed seats and which are not at the end of an aisle may
be 26 inches in height.


Chapter 33
(d) Determination of Occupant Load. The occupant load permitted in any building or portion thereof shall be determined by dividing the floor area assigned to that use by the square feet per occupant as set forth in Table No. 33-A.
EXCEPTIONS: 1. The occupant load of an area having fixed seats shall be determined by the number of fixed seats installed.
Aisles serving the fixed seats and not used for any other purpose shall not be assumed as adding to the occupant load.
2. The occupant load permitted in a building or portion thereof may be increased above that specified in this section if the necessary exits are provided. An approved aisle or seating diagram may be required by the building official to substantiate an increase in occupant load.
When the square feet per occupant are not given for a particular occupancy, they shall be determined by the building official, based on the area given for the occupancy which it most nearly resembles.
In determining the occupant load, all portions of a building shall be presumed to be occupied at the same time.
EXCEPTION: Accessory use areas which ordinarily are used only by persons who occupy the main areas of an occupancy shall be provided with exits as though they were completely occupied, but their occupant load need not be included in computing the total number of occupants for the building.


(e) Overcrowding. The number of occupants of any building or portion thereof shall not exceed the permitted or posted capacity.
(g) Mixed Occupancies. The capacity of a building containing mixed occupancies shall be determined by adding the number of occupants of the various portions as set forth in Table No. 33-A.
(h) More Than One Purpose. For determining exit requirements the capacity of a building or portion thereof which is used for different purposes shall be determined by the occupant load which gives the largest number of persons.
(i) Exit Obstruction. No obstructions shall be placed in the required width of an exit except projections permitted by this chapter.
(j) Posting of Room Capacity. Any room having an occupant load of more than 50 where fixed seats are not installed, and which is used for classroom, assembly or similar purpose, shall have the capacity of the room posted in a conspicuous place near the main exit from the room. Approved signs shall be maintained in a legible manner by the owner or his authorized agent and shall indicate the number of occupants permitted for each room use.
(k) Changes in Elevation. Within a building, changes in elevation of less than 12 inches along any exit serving a tributary occupant load of 10 or more shall be by ramps.
Exits Required
Sec. 3302.(a) Number of Exits. Every building or usable portion thereof shall have at least one exit and shall have not less than two exits where required by Table No. 33-A.


In all occupancies, floors above the first story having an occupant load of more than 10 shall have not less than two exits.
EXCEPTIONS: 1. Except as provided in Table No. 33-A, only one exit shall be required from a second floor area within an individual dwelling unit. Refer to Section 1204 for emergency exit requirements from sleeping rooms.
2. Two or more dwelling units on the second story may have access to only one common exit when the total occupant load does not exceed 10.
Each mezzanine used for other than storage purposes, if greater in area than 2000 square feet or if more than 60 feet in any dimension, shall have not less than two stairways to an adjacent floor.
Every story or portion thereof having an occupant load of 501 to 1000 shall have not less than three exits.
The number of exits required from any story of a building shall be determined by using the occupant load of that story plus the percentages of the occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under consideration, as follows:
1. Fifty percent of the occupant load in the first adjacent story above (and the first adjacent story below, when a story below exits through the level under consideration).
2. Twenty-five percent of the occupant load in the story immediately beyond the first adjacent story.
The maximum number of exits required for any story shall be maintained until egress is provided from the structure. (See Section
3311.)


For purposes of this section, basements and occupied roofs shall be provided with exits as required for stories. Floors above the second story and basements shall have not less than two exits except when such floors or basements are used exclusively for the service of the building.
(b) Width. The total width of exits in feet shall be not less than the total occupant load served divided by 50. Such width of exits shall be divided approximately equally among the separate exits. The total exit width required from any story of a building shall be determined by using the occupant load of that story plus the percentages of the occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under consideration, as follows:
1. Fifty percent of the occupant load in the first adjacent story above (and the first adjacent story below, when a story below exits through the level under consideration).
2. Twenty-five percent of the occupant load in the story immediately beyond the first adjacent story.
The maximum exit width required from any story of a building shall be maintained.
(c) Arrangement of Exits. If only two exits are required they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-half
of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served measured in a straight line between exits.
EXCEPTION: Where exit enclosures are provided as the required means of egress and are interconnected by a corridor conforming to the requirements of Section 3304(g), exit


separations may be measured in a direct line of travel within the exit corridor. Enclosure walls shall be not less than 30 feet apart at any point in a direct line of measurement.
Where three or more exits are required, they shall be arranged a reasonable distance apart so that if one becomes blocked the others will be available.
(d) Distance to Exits. The maximum distance of travel from any point to an exterior exit door, horizontal exit, exit passageway or an enclosed stairway in a building not equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout shall not exceed 150 feet or 200 feet in a building equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout. These distances may be increased 100 feet when the last 150 feet is within a corridor, complying with Section 3304. See Section 3317 for Group E Occupancy travel distances.
(e) Exits Through Adjoining or Accessory Areas. Exits from a room may open into an adjoining or intervening room or area, provided such adjoining room is accessory to the area served and provides a direct means of egress to an exit corridor, exit stairway, exterior exit, horizontal exit, exterior exit balcony or exit passageway.
EXCEPTION: Exits are not to pass through kitchens, store-
rooms, restrooms, closets or spaces used for similar purposes.
Foyers, lobbies and reception rooms constructed as required for corridors shall not be constructed as intervening rooms.


(f) Entrances to Buildings. Main exits from buildings requiring access by the physically handicapped, as listed in Table No. 33-A, shall be usable by individuals in wheelchairs and be on a level that would make the elevators accessible where provided.
Doors
Sec. 3303.(a) General. This section shall apply to every exit door serving an area having an occupant load of more than 10, or serving hazardous rooms or areas, except that Subsections (c), (i) and (j) shall apply to all exit doors regardless of occupant load. Buildings or structures used for human occupancy shall have at least one exit door that meets the requirements of Subsection (e).
(b) Swing. Exit doors shall swing in the direction of exit travel when serving any hazardous area or when serving an occupant load of 50 or more.
Double-acting doors shall not be used as exits serving a tributary occupant load of more than 100 nor shall they be used as a part of a fire assembly nor equipped with panic hardware. A doubleacting door shall be provided with a view panel of not less than 200 square inches.
(c) Type of Lock or Latch. Exit doors shall be openable from the inside without the use of a key or any special knowledge or effort.
(f) Door Leaf Width. No leaf of an exit door shall exceed 4 feet in width.
(g) Special Doors. Revolving, sliding and overhead doors shall not be used as required exits. Power operated doors complying with U.B.C. Standard No. 33-1 may be used for exit purposes.


(h) Egress from Door. Every exit door required by this section shall give immediate access to an approved means of egress from the building.
(i) Change in Floor Level at Doors. Regardless of the occupant load, there shall be a floor or landing on each side of a door.
The floor or landing shall be not more than 1 inch lower than the threshold of the doorway. Where doors open over landings, the landing shall have a length of not less than 5 feet.
Corridors and Exterior Exit Balconies
(b) Width. Every corridor serving an occupant load of 10 or more shall be not less in width than 44 inches. Regardless of occupant load, corridors in Group R, Division 3 Occupancies and within dwelling units in Group R, Division 1 Occupancies shall have a minimum width of 36 inches. For special requirements for Groups E and I Occupancies, see Sections 3317 and 3319.
(c) Height. Corridors and exterior exit balconies shall have
a clear height of not less than 7 feet measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling.
(e) Access to Exits. When more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to go in either direction from any point in a corridor to a separate exit, except for dead ends not exceeding 20 feet in length.
(f) Changes in Elevation. When a corridor or exterior exit balcony is accessible to an elevator, changes in elevation of the floor shall be made by means of a ramp.


Stairways
Sec. 3305.(a) General. Every stairway serving any building or portion thereof shall conform to the requirements of this section.
(b) Width. Stairways serving an occupant load of more than 50 shall be not less in width than 44 inches. Stairways serving an occupant load of 50 or less may be 36 inches wide. Private stairways serving an occupant load of less than 10 may be 30 inches wide.
Handrails may project into the required width a distance of 3 1/2 inches from each side of a stairway. Other nonstructural projections such as trim and similar decorative features may project into required width 11/2 inches on each side.
(c) Rise and Run. The rise of every step in a stairway shall be not less than 4 inches nor greater than 71/2 inches. Except as permitted in Subsections (d) and (f), the run shall be not less than 10 inches as measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the furthermost projection of adjacent treads.
(g) Landings. Every landing shall have a dimension measured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway. Such dimension need not exceed 4 feet when the stair has a straight run.
A door swinging over a landing shall not reduce the width of the landing to less than one-half its required width at any position in its swing nor by more than 7 inches when fully open.
(i) Distance Between Landings. There shall be not more than 12 feet vertically between landings.
(j) Handrails. Stairways shall have handrails on each side,
and every stairway required to be more than 88 inches in width shall


be provided with not less than one intermediate handrail for each 88 inches of required width. Intermediate handrails shall be spaced approximately equal within the entire width of the stairway.
Handrails shall be placed not less than 30 inches nor more than 34 inches above the nosing of treads. They shall be continuous the full length of the stairs and except for private stairways at least one handrail shall extend not less than 6 inches beyond the top and bottom risers, and ends shall be returned or shall terminate in newel posts or safety terminals.
(o) Stairway to Roof. In every building four or more stories in height, one stairway shall extend to the roof surface, unless the roof has a slope greater than four in 12.
(p) Headroom. Every required stairway shall have a headroom clearance of not less than 6 feet 6 inches. Such clearances shall be established by measuring vertically from a plane parallel and tangent to the stairway tread nosing to the soffit above at all points.
Ramps
Sec. 3306.(a) General. Ramps used as exits shall conform to the provisions of this section.
(b) Width. The width of ramps shall be as required for stairways.
(c) Slope. Ramps required by Table No. 33-A shall not exceed a slope of one vertical to 12 horizontal. The slope of other ramps shall not exceed one vertical to 8 horizontal.
When provided with fixed seating, the main floor of the assembly room of a Group A, Division 1, Division 2, 2.1 or 3 Occupancy may


have a slope not to exceed one vertical to five horizontal.
(d) Landings. Ramps having slopes greater than one vertical to 15 horizontal shall have landings at the top and bottom, and at least one intermediate landing shall be provided for each 5 feet of rise. Top landings and intermediate landings shall have a dimension measured in the direction of ramp run of not less than 5 feet. Landings at the bottom of ramps shall have a dimension in the direction of ramp run of not less than 6 feet.
Doors in any position shall not reduce the minimum dimension of the landing to less than 42 inches and shall not reduce the required width by more than 31/2 inches when fully open.
Aisles
(c) Distances to Nearest Exit. In areas occupied by seats and
in Group A Occupancies without seats, the line of travel to an exit door by an aisle shall be not more than 150 feet. Such travel distance may be increased to 200 feet if the building is provided with
an approved automatic sprinkler system.
(d) Aisle Spacing. With standard seating, as specified in Section 3314, aisles shall be so located that there will be not more than six intervening seats between any seat and the nearest aisle.
With continental seating, as specified in Section 3314, the number of intervening seats may be increased to 29 where exit doors are provided along each side aisle of the row of seats at the rate of one pair of exit doors for each five rows of seats. Such exit
doors shall provide a minimum clear width of 66 inches.


(e) Cross Aisles. Aisles shall terminate in a cross aisle, foyer or exit. The width of the cross aisle shall be not less than the sum of the required width of the widest aisle plus 50 percent of the total required width of the remaining aisles leading thereto.
In Groups A and E Occupancies, aisles shall not provide a dead end greater than 20 feet in length.
Chapter 40
MOTION PICTURE PROJECTION ROOMS
General
Sec. 4001.(a) Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall apply where ribbon-type cellulose acetate or other safety film is used in conjunction with electric arc, Xenon or other light source projection equipment which develops hazardous gases, dust or radiation. Where cellulose nitrate film is used, projection rooms shall comply with Part III of U.B.C. Standard No. 48-1.
(b) Projection Room Required. Every motion picture machine projecting film as mentioned within the scope of this chapter shall be enclosed in a projection room. Appurtenant electrical equipment, such as rheostats, transformers and generators, may be within the projection room or in an adjacent room of equivalent construction.
Construction
Sec. 4002. The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 square feet for a single machine and at least 40 square feet for each additional machine. Each motion picture projector, floodlight, spotlight or similar piece of equipment shall not be used


unless approved and shall have a clear working space not less than 30 inches by 30 inches on each side and at the reat thereof, but only one such space shall be required between two adjacent projectors .
The projection room and the rooms appurtenant thereto shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches.
Projection Ports and Openings
Sec. 4004. The aggregate of openings for projection equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the wall between the projection room and the auditorium.
All openings shall be provided with glass or other approved material so as to completely close the opening.
(b) Projection Booth. 1. Supply air. Each projection room shall be provided with two or more separate fresh-air inlet ducts with screened openings terminating within 12 inches of the floor and located at opposite ends of the room. Such air inlets shall be of sufficient size to permit an air change every three minutes. Fresh air may be supplied from the general building air-conditioning system, but when this is done it shall be so arranged that the projection booth will continue to receive one change of air every three minutes, regardless of the status of the general air-conditioning system.
2. Exhaust air. Each projection room shall be provided with one or more exhaust-air outlets which may be manifolded into a single duct outside the booth. Such outlets shall be so located as to insure circulation throughout the room. Projection room


exhaust-air systems shall be independent of any other air systems in the buildings. Exhaust-air ducts shall terminate at the exterior of the building in such a location that the exhaust air cannot be readily recirculated into the supply-air system. The exhaust system shall be mechanically operated and of such a capacity as to provide a minimum of one change of air every three minutes. The blower motor shall be outside the duct system. The projection room ventilation system may also serve appurtenant rooms, such as the generator room and the rewind room.
(c) Projection Equipment Ventilation. Each projection machine shall be provided with an exhaust duct which will draw air from each lamp and exhaust it directly to the outside of the building in such a fashion that it will not be picked up by supply inlets. Such a duct shall be of rigid materials, except for a continuous flexible connector approved for the purpose. The lamp exhaust system shall not be interconnected with any other system.
Miscellaneous Equipment
Sec. 4006. Each projection room shall be provided with rewind and film storage facilities.
Sanitary Facilities
Sec. 4007. Every projection room shall be provided with a lavatory.


I. Thesis Semester Schedule
February
February
March 1
March 15 March 20
April 15 May
1
15
• Development of alternative design schemes with plan and three dimensional approaches.
• Meetings with advisors.
• Focus on one design scheme and begin to "fine tune" building spaces and massing.
• Develop three dimensional character appropriate to the site.
• Meetings with advisors.
• Refine structural and mechanical concepts.
• Meetings with advisors.
• Final design decisions and changes.
• Presentation preparation.
• Graphic presentation
• Model construction
• Presentation


J. References
Architectural Graphic Standards, sixth edition, 1966.
H. 0. Brough, Assistant Dean, Continuing Education.
Bill Deno, Planner/Architect, University of Colorado.
Uniform Building Code, 1979.
University of Colorado at Boulder. Long Range Facilities Master Plan, 1979.


Full Text

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l ll l llllllllllllllll l llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll lllllllllll 3 1204 00255 4245 CONTINUING EDUCATION CENTER FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT BOULDER by Mark Ward --B.A., University of Colorado, 1979 Thesis Preparation Report, Fall 1980 University of Colorado at Denver College of Environmental Design Department of Architecture

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CONTENTS A. Advisory Board B. Project Introduction C. Project Background 1. Climate 2. Transportation 3. Public Service 4 . Continuing Education 5 . Boulder Campus Environs 6 . Architectural Precedents 7. Accessibility for the Physically Handicapped 8 . Energy Conservation 9 . Site Location 10. Topography 11. Subsurface Soil Conditions 12. Landscape 13. Lighting 14. Entrances 15. Campus Edges 16. Signing of Buildings on Campus 17. Energy Utilities 18. Electricity 19 . Sanitary Sewers D. Site Analysis E. Activities Defined/Allocations F . Matrix -Activity Relationships

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G. Functional Relationships -Diagram(s) H. Code Requirements I. Thesis Semester Schedule J. References

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A. Advisory Board Bob Kindig G. K. Vetter Gary Long Bill Dena H. 0. Brough Professor of Architecture, University of Colorado, Denver Professor of Architecture, University of Colorado, Denver Professor of-Architecture, expertise in mechanical and electrical systems, University of Colorado, Denver Planner/Architect for University of Colorado at Boulder -Office of Facilities Development Assistant to the Dean of Continuing Education, Boulder Campus

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B. Project Introduction The division of Continuing Education is a division within the University of Colorado at the Boulder Campus. Its main purpose is to expose the university facilities to outside, off campus groups. These groups are predominantly made up of professionals who wish to further their education. Also included are group s who wish to satisfy professional licensing and certification requirements of their profession. The Continuing Education Center also reaches out to foreign students who need or wish to upgrade their English language skills and further their intercultural understanding. The Continuing Education Center is divided into divisions of 1) The Center for Lifelong Learning (CLL), 2) Intensive English Center (IEC), 3) Marketing and Communications (M and C), and 4 ) The Center for Con ferences and Management/Technical Programs (CCMT). All four divisions work with each other to supply t h e demands of local, state, and regional education constituencies. A s stated, the four divisions work with each other but also operate each within its own entity . A t the time o f programming it is apparent the pre-selected s ite for the proposed Continuing Education Cente r is inadequate for the Center for Conferences and Management/Technical Programs (CCMT). The director of this division, Ann Wahl, e xplains t h e proposed site is too far f rom t h e local service s that would enhance the use of a conference facility . She p r op o ses t h e expansion of the p r esent confe r ence facilit y , T h e College Inn, to supply the

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needs of this division. Accordingly, this division is excluded from the proposed project. A detailed analysis of the site and the other division requirements demonstrates that the proposed site will be adequate for the remainder of divisions. The proposed site is located adjacent to the Williams Village housing complex. The site proper lies to the south with views in all directions and good exposure from the Boulder-Denver Turnpike. Further site information is given in the project background and site analysis.

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C. Project Background The following background information was taken from the University of Colorado, at Boulder, Long Range Facilities Master Plan. Information was drawn from the master plan as it pertained directly to this particular project. 1. Climate Boulder is situated in a region of rapid transition between high plains climate and mountain climate. The climate is affected by the presence of mountains to the west, which increase the annual precipitation and reduce the annual and daily temperature ranges. Winter temperatures are moderated by warm downslope westerly winds. Specific data are given below. J F M A M J J A s a N D ANNUAL [lempetat\HI iot Monmly Norm 32.5 j34 . 7 39.3 48.9 56.9 66. 8 73.6 71. 8 64. 1 53.6 41.3 35.1 51 .&•t-PrKipitanon .71 . n 1 .79 2.68 3.05, 2.01 1 .39 1 .69 1 .27 1 .34 .97 .62 18.57 lnchnMonmly Norm Snowfall 10.9 10.3 17.3 14. 3 2.8 0 1 0 0 1 . 0 4 . 3 11.5 8.0 81.0 l nches-Monmly Norm Days / Monm Max. Temp. Above 90 ( avg) 0 0 0 0 1 4 11 6 1 0 0 0 22 Oays / Montl'l Min. Temp. Below 32 ( avg) 26 23 21 8 1 0 0 0 1 4 18 25 127 Oear Days / Mont!! 15 12 12 11 0 11 Norm 9 10 13 17 13 15 147 Panly Ooudy Days/ 14 14 15 17 18 18 21 20 15 12 14 13 191 Mont!!• Norm Oouay Days /Month 2 2 4 2 4 1 1 . 111 2 2 3 3 v Norm 2 . Transportation The primary transportation link between the Denve r Metro politan Area and the Boulder Campu s is U . S . 36, better k nown as the BoulderDenver Turnpike. This limited access divided highway carries automobiles, trucks a nd buses f rom t h e Denver Interstate Highways almost directly c o t h e Main Cam p u s .

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3. Public Service Public service extends campus resources to citizens throughout Colorado and beyond. It is the vehicle whereby the Boulder Campus mission to lead in the advancement and dissemination of knowledge is broadened to include thousands (and probably millions) of persons outside the University. Public service activities are provided through the Division of Continuing Education and by faculty, staff, schools, colleges and other campus units. 4 . Continuing Education The Division of Continuing Education offers credit and noncredit courses, seminars, workshops, conferences, and related services to over 30,000 persons each year. Boulder faculty frequently are the primary providers of instruction, particularly in the professional fields of law, business, engineering, and pharmacy. Programs are administered by the Dean of Continuing Education who reports to the Vice Chancelor for Academic Affairs. Continuing Education also offers programs through the Center for Conferences and Management/Technical Programs. Short, intensive courses, seminars, workshops, and conferences are offered which do not lead to credit for a degree but may carry continuing education (CEU) credit. The programs focus on improving the professional and management skills of personnel from a variety of fields, including business, sales, manufacturing, corrections, personnel, education, engineering, and public relations.

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The Center for Conferences and Management/Technical Programs operates as an auxiliary enterprise at UCB and is self-supporting through tuition and fees. The programs serve about 20,000 persons each year. Activities are expected to increase during the planning period because of growing interest in professional development by both employers and employees and the fact that the Boulder Campus is the only higher education institution in Colorado offering many of the programs. The College Inn Conference Center, a residential conference center in Boulder acquired by the University in 1974, provides a year-round facility, at present, for activities of the Center for Conferences and Management/Technical Programs. The facility includes 140 rooms, dining and classroom facilities, and is the only such year-round residential faciliJ in Colorado. 5. Boulder Campus Environs The University of Colorado at Boulder is situated in a magnificent physical setting. The Flatirons and the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains are visible from nearly everywhere on campus, and the snow caps of the Rocky Mountains are visible from man y locations. The view of the Great Plains to the east is also impressive for its immense sky , small lakes, and undulating horizon. At an altitude of over 5,000 feet the semi-arid climate is temperate with pleasant day s and cool evenings. More t han 300 day s o f sunshine a year encourage outdoor activitie s year-round. However, Boulder is well known for extremely h i g h winds, especially i n the winte r and s p r i n g .

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The relationship between the City of Boulder and the Uni versity has been close since the time when scores of Boulder citizens raised funds to match a legislative appropriation for the construction of Old Main. Today University students, faculty and staff constitute of the population of the City. The University not only enriches the cultural life of the city, but its presence has also been instrumental in the growth of the technology businesses that have developed in Boulder in the last decades. The presence of the University can, however, have unpopular effects on parking in neighborhoods near the campus and the housing situation in the entire community. 6. Architectural Precedents The architectural style of Boulder Campus buildings should reflect the site location. What is appropriate on one campus and site may not be appropriate elsewhere. The architectural style at the Williams Village Campus has been established by the design of the existing student housing complex. Any future development should respect this already established pattern. 7. Accessibility for the Physically Handicapped The University of Colorado at Boulder is obligated to make all programs physically available and accessible to the entire campus community. All new facilities on the Boulder Campus are designed to provide accessibility to the physically handicapped. Major facility

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renovations will include provisions for accessibility. Some facilities cannot be made accessible without great expense, but program accessibility can be achieved through other approved methods such as moving programs and/or services. 8. Energy Conservation The University is particularly aware that energy resources are finite and all planning must be done with this in mind. Buildings will be designed to meet or exceed ASHRAE standard 90-75, as developed by the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers. Architects will be encouraged to exceed this standard whenever economically feasible or appropriate to improved performance. These guidelines specifically advocate the use of passive solar energy, encouraging good architectural design and compatible, energy-efficient design of mechanical systems rather than the more experimental active solar systems. Energy conservation is and will continue to be practiced in all existing buildings to reduce consumption. 9. Site Location Three quarters of a mile to the southeast of the Main Campus is the 64.5-acre Williams Village Campus bounded b y the Denver-Boulder Turnpike on the southwest, 30th Street on the west, Baseline Road on the north, and a single-family residential neighborhood on the east.

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10. Topography The Williams Village property slopes gently about 25 feet from a high point on the southwest corner to a low point on the northeast. The Bear Creek storm drainage channel flows northeasterly through the eastern half of the property. 11. Subsurface Soil Conditions The soil investigation for Williams Village dormitories indicates 7 to 21 feet of sandy clay over weathered shale to hard blue shale at 27 feet, suggesting a high bearing capacity for multi-story buildings in that area. 12. Landscape The mainstay of the planned landscape on the Boulder Campus is living plants and trees. The landscape identifies the University as a University, marking boundaries and entrances. Special places such as Varsity Lake are memorable to visitors, students, and those who stay at the University for longer periods. The continuity and age of the Boulder Campus results in a landscape whose value far exceeds the original cost of planting saplings or setting of lawns. Similarly, efforts to improve the landscape now will continue to have significant, long-term rewards in the future. Landscape planning must both recognize the special qualities of individual sites and encourage a consistency of materials and treatment that will identify the campus as a whole.

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13. Lighting Properly planned lighting reduces the chances for crimes against persons and property, increases pedestrian and vehicular safety and improves the aesthetic appearance of the campus. Nighttime movement to activities, centers, and classes is far safer, more convenient, and certainly more pleasant on adequately lighted paths and streets than it is on unlighted streets. The high cost of lighting (including fixtures and electricity ) is an impetus to careful design. 14. Entrances Campus entrances should be clearly marked out and distinguished from one another. They should invite and guide visitors who must orient themselves quickly without know i ng the campus well. 15. Campus Edges The edges of the campus are among its most visible aspects and may be the only impression many people who pass will have of the University . The simplicity and cleanliness of t h e landscaping on the edges of the campus, whether cultivated or uncultivated, indicate that the University is a good nei g hbor, and p erfects the image which the University wishes to project. Edges designed to present a natural appearance must receive trash pickup and other maintenance but little or no irrigation. 16. Signing o f Buildings and Campus Visitors and newcomers t o t h e cam pus r equire g u idance i n finding desire d buildi ng and o ther facilities. In addi tion,

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information about various ongoing activities or events is useful and regulations concerning traffic movement are mandatory. Signs create an image of the University which is either positive or negative depending upon execution. For example, too many signs and/ or poorly designed signs can create clutter and confusion. A series of exterior signs now identify various University facilities. These range from highway directional signs all the way to doorway identification numbers and include directional signs, locator maps, a visitor information center, building identification signs and doorway identification signs. The existing system works well when used. 17. Energy Utilities Heating System Natural gas supplied by the Public Service Company is the primary fuel used to heat campus buildings. Interruptable natural gas represents 70-80 percent of the gas used on the Main Campus and Williams Village under the E-2 rate (Industrial Service). It is burned at the Heating Plant to produce steam for heating and cooling campus buildings. When the Public Service Company interrupts the natural gas supply, No. 6 fuel oil is burned at the heating plant as a back-up. Fuel oil use is erratic, depending on the Public Service Company's supply of gas, demand from its customers and the weather. Number 2 fuel oil is burned at the Williams Village Heating Plant on the same basis as No. 6 fuel oil at the Heating Plant. The Williams Village Heating Plant currently has sufficient capacity and is able to sustain a 50 percent increase in peak demand with

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the system still maintaining one boiler in reserve. When natural gas becomes unavailable for use in heating University buildings, coal may be used as a fuel. If this is to be done at the University, an entirely new heating plant would have to be constructed and an oncampus location would be difficult. However, an attractive alternative to this has been studied and shown to be technically feasible. Steam from the Public Service Company's Valmont Steam Electric Station could be brought to the East Campus, Williams Village, and Main Campuses and used to heat buildings. The steam would be produced at the Valmont station and transported to the campuses via a large underground steam pipe system. This system would insure adequate energy supplies for the University for heating and cooling for many years. 18. Electricity Williams Village has a single feeder (13.8 KV). However, this feeder is not dedicated to the University b y Public Service Company of Colorado and has other users on the line. Thus increased use of electricity b y non-University customers might limit t h e power available to the University . All interior lighting at the University is controlled b y manual switches. Outdoor lighti n g is controlled automatically . Building HVA C systems are controlled in most buildings by time clocks which limit the hours the equipment will run. These are adjusted each semester according to the building schedule.

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Future plans reveal another 13.8 KV loop system to Williams Village which will alleviate possible lack of power due to growth of non-University users presently on the existing line. 19. Sanitary Sewers The existing Williams Village system is in very good condition. The system can be further loaded as expansion occurs in the area. Alternatively, the system serving the new development could discharge into the same 12-inch city main running along the south side of Baseline Road.

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D. Site Analysis Base Map Existing Use Views Pedestrian Access Auto Access Sun Wind Flood Plain Site Context/Surroundings

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N >-0 < 0 a: al Adjacent Business and Comme rc i a l ;-=tgg Boulde r Campus IRIS 0 en ....J 0 u.. 0 1 / 4 1 / 2 3 1 4 ll___f""I_J SCAL E I N MILES VALMONT ARAPAHOE -r I Exh i bit 6 A 1aunu"'t ' H " ITV nr: "'"' nnAnn A T anti Inc • D 1 n ul'! OI\Un.C Dl dl.l 1070

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I STING 0 200 DARLEY TOWERS < BASELINE ROAD . open space -site

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E.. Activities Defined The Center for Lifelong Learning (CLL) The Center for Lifelong Learning offers University-level credit and non-credit classes, certificate and telecommunications courses for students, professionals, and the general adult population interested in off-campus and outreach programs. Credit courses are offered in a wide variety of traditional university disciplines. Self-enrichment and vocational interests are served through the courses. To satisfy professional licensing and certification requirements, courses are also offered in pharmacy, business, law, real estate, engineering, resort management and education. Special programs have been developed to serve the needs of the adult population. Intensive English Center (IEC) The Intensive English Center ' ' s overall mission is to teach the English language to all international clientele of potential higher-education students, to provide a ulaboratoryu site for observation and practice teaching in ESL, to act as a general source of professional TEFL/TESL expertise, to contribute, both locally and farther afield, to intercultural understanding. Marketing and Communications In order to further foster delivery of academic programs of both credit and non-credit nature to the various segments of society so that individuals, government units, and corporate entities would be fully informed of the man y educational services available to them, the Division of Continuing Education established in 1979

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a Marketing and Communications unit reporting to the Office of the Dean. This unit is focusing directly on direct mail marketing, telephone interviews, and person-to-person contacts for the purpose of identifying and recommending educational programs to the various clientele publics of the Division.

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Allocations Division of Continuing Education Space Needs Dean offices and related activities Administrative-single occupancy offices Dean office Associate Dean Assistant Dean Assistant Dean Division Accountant Secretarial and clerical Dean's Secretary Multiple Occupancy PBX Secretary Adm. Clerk Typist Steno-Transcriber Conference Room Space Conference Room Service Space Storage P. John Lymberopoulos Robert de Kieffer H. o . Brough William Grelle Tom Sheehy Eve Dubus Judy Kern Kim Skoczelas Vacant 180 S. F. 120 S.F. 120 S.F. 120 S.F. 120 S.F. 80 S.F. 65 S.F. 65 S.F. 65 S. F. 225 S.F. 400 S. F . 1,560 S.F .

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Center for Lifelong Learning Space Needs Administrative Director Clay Berg 120 S.F. University Program Specialist Melissa de Kieffer 120 S.F. II II II Carol Lipsey 120 S.F. II II II Peter Seward 120 S.F. II II II Eloise Pearson 120 S. F . II II II Jim Keyes 120 S.F. II II II Will Fischer 120 S.F. II II II Eric Green 120 S.F. II II II Heather Weiffenbach 120 S.F. II II II Myrna Radl 120 S. F. II II II Chris Stroman 120 S.F. Multiple Occupancy -Specialized Equipment Word Processing Nancy Grandinetti 85 S. F . II II Millie MacGregor 85 S.F. C.R.T. Alice Morie 170 S.F. II ( 2) Vacant 170 S.F. ea. Microfishe Vacant 170 S. F . Accounting Technician Nina Paulson 85 S.F. II II Mary Deault 85 S.F. II II Linda Mallinoff 85 S. F.

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Mul tiple Occupancy Administrative Clerk Typist " II II II II II II II Secretary II Typist Service Space Program Assistants (6) Storage II II II II 4 Classrooms 50 people each Conference Room Space Conference room Esther Openshaw 65 S.F. Diana Davis Dana Klein Jean Fur slow Gerri Walters Toni Ensley Ursula Hotz Donna Davis 65 S.F. 65 S. F . 65 S.F. 65 S.F. 65 S.F. 65 S.F. 65 S.F. 225 S.F. 400 S.F. 50xl5x4 = 3000 S. F. 225 S.F. 6,795 S.F.

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Intensive English Center Space Needs Administrative Directo r Professional Admissions Advisor Services Adviso r Academic Coordinator Accountant/Registrar Multiple Occupancy Advanced Level Coord. Inst. Beginning Level Coord. Inst. Jea n Engler Katrina Novak Audrey Putney Michael Masyn Grace Gonzales (2) Intermediate Level Coord. Inst. Administrative Clerk Typist (2) Administrative Clerk Michael Mitchell Service Space Instructors (16) Storage Vacant 14 Classrooms -seating for 20 each Language Lab accommodate 20 carrels Conference Room Space 20x30 120 S .F. 120 S.F. 120 S.F. 120 S.F. 120 S . F . 85 S.F. 85 S .F. 85 S.F. ea. 65 S. F. 65 S .F. ea. 400 S. F. 400 S.F. 4200 S. F . 600 S. F. 325 S .F. 7,060 S .F.

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Marketing and Communications Space Needs Administrative Director Professional Kipp Hayes University Program Specialists (3) Vacant " " Specialist " " Secretarial and Clerical Directors Secretary " John Birchman Pat Jensen Linda Whitmarsh Joan Byers Multiple Occupancy, Specialized Equipment Word Processing Multiple Occupancy Administrative Clerk Typist " " Service Space Storage " " Duplicating Machine Conference Room Space Conference room " " Vacant Trina Benton Christina Schay Diana La Due Vacant 120 S.F. 120 S.F. ea. 120 S.F. 120 S.F. 120 S.F. 80 S. F. 85 S .F. 65 S. F. 65 S.F. 65 S. F. 65 S.F. 400 S.F. 80 S.F. 2 2 5 S.F. 2,330 S.F.

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Other, Unassigned Area, Space Needs Service Space Registration Area 400 S.F. Mail Room 200 S.F. Xerox Reproduction 300 S.F. Storage Xerox 400 S.F. 1,100 S.F. Other Space Required Lounge/Snack 1200 S.F. Toilet Rooms Water closets 1/40 males 7 (4) 1/30 females 9 Urinals 1/25 males 11 (14) Lavatories 1/40 persons 7 Drinking fountains 1/50 persons 6 Approx . total 2,400 S.F. Note: 1) approximately 280 of each sex -basis for fixture requirements 2) 2/3 reduction in water closets allowed for provision of urinals 3) drinking fountains not to be in toilet rooms Total Assigned Square Feet 21,245 S.F. air handling 3 % area served 637 S .F. electrical/telephone = 2 % area served 425 S. F. general circulation = 15 % area served 3,186 S. F. total gross 25, 493 S.F.

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F. I • IMMEDIATELY ADJACENT 'it ADJACENT Q-SEMIADJACENT SEMI-DISTANT _ _ Q DISTANT 'g. .

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-------. I I • IMMEDIATELY ADJACENT lit ADJACENT Q-SEMIADJACENT DISTANT _ Q . DISTANT

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I . • IMMEDIATELY ADJACENT w SEMIADJACENT SEMI-STANT DISTAN . T

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. . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

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______ . .. ------------.. --... ----------------. . -. . . _-_-_ ____________________ _ _ __

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-. -SPAce= Mf01Er<-

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A t horoug h investigation of form, scale and massing reveals that the shape and size of the Continuing Education Center must be cohesive with t h e established pattern of Williams V.illage. Williams Village consists of 13-15 floor dormitory tow ers and one three level commons building w hich provides food a nd other services to students. The proposed site is adjacent to the existing commons building which is a dominant form determinant. The C ontinuing Educ ation Center& The design parameters for massing and form are determined primarily by the existing commons building located to the west of th site. The commons building, being of a pyramid form, is simple and very much a d ominant shape which must be considered for future development at t his scale on the Williams Village site. Therefore many architectural features from the commons building are incorporated into the Continuing Education Center. The roof pitch and roof material s ar repeated as well as the use of tan brick with brick columns set o n a grid which carries through the theme of Williams Village. Another major consideration in the design is making use of the tremendous panorama from the site. Where this is not possibt , spaces (mainly offices) are orientated to a central atrium which is at the center of the pyramid form. This gives visual relief to interior offices and classrooms within the building which I feel is important for "day workers" on a typical eight hour s hift. Vehicular access to the building is from Apache Drive and an exp a nded bus route that presently runs to the Williams Vi llage d ormitories from t h e University of Colorado campus.

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The parkin g scheme is a continuation of the existing pattern from the commons building -vlith a vista framed wi t h trees directed to1..)ards the main entry to the Center. The landscaping at Williams Villag e is another which helps to coordinate the Williams Village complex and this takes advantage of and further enhances the Continuing Education Center making it even more appropriate to Williams Village. "Earth sculpture" is continued from t h a commons building and "wrapped" around the proposed building on two sides. Furthermore, deciduous trees follow this "earth sculpture" to enforce this concept. The parameters of form, massing, building mat erials, landscaping and building placement (relative to existing parking a nd e xisting structures) I have attacked so as to draw the Continuing Education Center cohesively and aesthetically together with the Williams Village complex. Structure: The Continuing Education Center has a steel frame wi t h brick curtain wall which bears on t h e steel frame. A steel frame is chosen with present day construction procedures, costs, and erection coordination parameters as m a jor considerations. Using this method and with the scale of this building, steel frame c a n be erected without interference and interruption of other trades. Next, construction proceeds by masons. From this point typical interior constructi on continues to a point of occupancy. This method of construction enables "trade" labor ro complete a task a ppropriate t o the craft and evacuation of t h e site for further "trades." This procedure,with times o f climbing interes t rates, is vita l to construction tim e and eventual occupancy.

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Mechanical: As stated in t h e Williams Village background, the entire complex is supplied with a f our pipe system, generated from a central plant. The plant has a increase capacity in which only a small portion would be for the Continuing Education Center. The four pipe system is directed to four fan rooms throughout the center which are appropriately for the office space , classrooms, a semiconditioned atrium, and passing corridors. Th atrium is equipped with a mechanical vent at the top fon warm air that needs to be expelled. During cold periods, heat loss will be minimal to the atrium. Triple is provided for all a trium penetration primarily with consideration of heat loss. Also a smoked exterior glass lamination is provided to prohibit excess hea t gain during warm and sunny periods. Due to the building' s use, massing and dynamics of the site, deep overhangs are emplo yed. This not only decreases direct solar penetration to office spaces but also decreases the cooling load for the Continuing Education Center. This feature decreases direct solar penetration to most spaces, yet it still provides ample diffused lighting. This is achieved by means of maximum fenestration to all spaces with a maximum area possible determined by the window pattern resolv ed by the program requirements of office and classroom size. The proposed Continuing Educati on Center' s primary parameter is to incorporate already existing forms and site planning. This Continuing Education Center is cohesive with the Williams Village vernacular and it incorporates scale, program requirements, planned use/ identity, form and landscaping (earth sculpture and planting). The transportation link is an expansion of the existing parking and bussing system from t h e main campus to Williams Village.

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• -. < 1 f . :. I _ .,.. ___ .... __ .. -! • ...... • •

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l: PERSPECTIVE ' .ATRIUM

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EAST ELEV ATIO _

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PERSPECTIVE PERSPECTIVE

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H. Code Requirements This section contains portions of the Uniform Building Code, 1979 edition, as they pertain to this project occupancy. It includes possible occupancies of Group A2, A2.1, A3, R-1 and B2 which are all potential users on the proposed site whether they are present proposed or future proposed. Note also, no zoning requirements are stated. The University has no specific zoning plans or requirements but rather a process equivalent to a special review which is compatible with the University of Colorado Master Plan. The University conducts its own site inspections to guarantee safety requirements which are stated in the Uniform Building code. Fire Ratings for Occupancy Separations. Occupancy separations shall be provided between the various groups and divisions of occupancies as set forth in Table No. 5-B. 5. The following occupancies need not be separated from the uses to which they are accessory: assembly rooms having a floor area of not over 750 square feet; administrative and clerical offices and similar rooms which in the aggregate do not exceed 25 percent of the floor area of the major use when not related to Group H, Division 1 and Group H, Division 2 Occupancies. Chapter 6 REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP A OCCUPANCIES Group A Occupancies Defined Sec. 601. Group A Occupancies shall be: Division 2. Any building or portion of a building having an assembl y room with an occupant load of less than 1000 and a stage.

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TABLE NO. 5-8-REQUIRED . SEPARATION IN OF MIXED OCCUPANCY (In Hours) . ---. " A-1 A-2 A-2.1 A4 M B-1 B-2 11-3 ... E H-1 H-2 H-:1 H-44 I M• .... 1 .......... N N N N • 3 3 J I N • • • • 3 I .... 2 N N N N 3 I I I I N • • • • 3 I jlp:Z.1 N N N N 3 I I I I N • • • • 3 I A4 N N N .............. N J N I N I N • • • • 3 I M N N N N J • I I I i N • • • • J I 8-1 • J J J 3 "" I I I • 2 I I I • I 11-2 J ' I I N I I .............. I I I I 2 I I I 2 i I 11-3 J I I . I I I I 1---.......__ I I 2 I I I 4 I ... J I I N I I I I I l I I I • N E N N -N N N • I I I • • • • I I H-1 • • • • • 2 2 2 2 • I I I • I 1\-1 I I I I I ) ' ' I I I I • A-a I I I I I I N N N I • I g I i H-2 • • • . . • I I I I • I I I • I J J H-:1 • • • • • I I I I • I I I • I J J I ' " -5 • • • • • I I I I • I "'::::..: I I • I J J I 3 J 3 J J • 2 • • I • • • .............. • I I I ... . I 'I • . I I I I I I N I I I .............. I I I I I 11-1 I I I t I )' I I I I • J J J I I N -Fo< •••l< or agncu tural buildmgs. see also Appendix Chapter II. i ........ --------TABLE NO. SC-BASIC ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA FOR BUILDINGS ONE STORY IN HEIGHT (In Square Feet) I OCCUPANCY F.R. F . R . A-1 U nlimited 29,900 A) 2-2.1 U nl i m i t ed 29,900 A) 3-4 Unl im ited 29 , 900 B) 1-2 3' U nlim ited 39,900 B-4 Unli mited 59,900 E Unli m i ted 45,200 H) 1-2' 15,000 12.400 H) 3-4-5 U nlimited 24,800 I) 1-2 Unlimited 15,100 1-3 U nlimited 15,100 M' R-1 Unli m i ted I 29.900 R-3 ' For open park i n g garages, s ee Sec t ion 709 . 'See Sect ion 903. 'See Section 1002 (b). II ONEHOUR I 13,500 13,500 18,000 27. 000 20,200 5 . 600 1 1 ,200 6,800 1 3.500 'For agricultural build i ngs, see also Appendix Chapter II. 'For limitations and exceptions, see S ection 120 2 (b) . TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION II N II ONE HOUR Not 13,500 Permitted 9,100 13.500 12.000 18,000 18, 000 27, 000 13,500 2 0,200 3 7 00 5.600 7,500 11, 200 Not 6,800 Permitted S ee Chapter l l 9,100 ' 13,500 U nlimtted ---t• ---.• :----:::..----. -Ill II I N ll Not Permitted Not Permitted 9.100 12,000 18,000 13,500 3 ,7 00 7,500 Not Permitted Not Permitted' 9,100' I V II v H.T . II ON E-HOUR N 13,500 10,500 Not P ermitted 13,500 10,500 6,000 18,000 14, 000 8 , 000 27, 000 21,000 12,000 20,200 1 5,700 9 , 100 5 . 600 4,400 2,500 11.200 8,800 5,100 6,800 5,200 Not Permitted 13.500 " 10, 500 6 ,000' :-/-No requ i re m ent f o r f ire res ist ance F.R.-Fi re Resi stive H.T .-Heavy Timber I II ;;::: f ,.:< i };( i. :-* I J t J w. J I :8 i : e I c: ::il , c , a 5 ,. c: 2 ' C': c c: IT ... (Q (Q m 0 ::j 0 z (.11 0

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Division 2.1. Any building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of 300 or more without a stage, including such buildings used for educational purposes and not classed as a Group E or Group B, Division 2 Occupancy. Division 3. Any building or portion of a building have an assembly room with an occupant load of less than 300 without a stage, including such buildings used for educational purposes and not classed as a Group E or Group B, Division 2 Occupancy . Location on Property Sec. 603. Buildings housing Group A Occupancies shall front directly upon or have access to a public street not less than 20 feet in width. The access to the public street shall be a minimum 20-foot-wide right-of-way, unobstructed and maintained only as access to the public street. The main entrance to the building shall be located on the public street or on the access way. The main assembly floor of Division 1 Occupancies shall be located at or near the adjacent ground level. For fire-resistive protection of exterior walls and openings, as determined by location on property, see Section 504 and Part IV. Light, Ventilation and Sanitation Sec. 605. All enclosed portions of Group A Occupancies customarily used by human beings and all dressing rooms shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area not less than one-tenth of the total floor area, and natural ventilation by means of openable exterior openings with an area of

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not less than one-twentieth of the total floor area or shall be provided with artificial light and a mechanically operated ventilating system. The mechanically operated ventilating system shall supply a minimum of 5 cubic feet per minute of outside air with a total circulated of not less than 15 cubic feet per minute per occupant in all portions of the building and such system shall be kept continuously in operation during such time as the building is occupied. If the velocity of the air at the register exceeds 10 feet per second, the register shall be placed more than 8 feet above the floor directly beneath. There shall be provided in an approved location at least one lavatory for each two water closets for each sex, and at least one drinking fountain for each floor level. Chapter 7 REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP B OCCUPANCIES Light, Ventilation and Sanitation Sec. 705. All portions of Group B Occupancies shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area equal to one-tenth of the total floor area, and natural ventilation by means of exterior openings with an area not less than onetwentieth of the total floor area, or shall be provided with artificial light and a mechanically operated ventilating system as specified in Section 605. Every building or portion thereof where persons are employed shall be provided with at least one water closet. Separate facilities

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shall be provided for each sex when the number of employees exceeds four and both sexes are employed. Such toilet facilities shall be located either in such building or conveniently in a building adjacent thereto on the same property. Such water closet rooms in connection with food establishments where food is prepared, stored or served shall have a nonabsorbent interior finish as specified in Section 1711, shall have hand-washing facilities therein or adjacent thereto, and shall be separated from food preparation or storage rooms as specified in Section 510. Chapter 12 REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP R OCCUPANCIES Group R Occupancies Defined Sec. 1201. Group R Occupancies shall be: Division 1. Hotels and apartment houses. Convents and monasteries (each accommodating more than 10 persons). Construction, Height and Allowable Area Sec. 1202. (a) General. Buildings or parts of buildings classed in Group R because of the use or character of the occupancy shall be limited to the types of construction set forth in Tables No. 5-C and No. 5-D and shall not exceed, in area or height, the limits specified in Sections 505, 506 and 507. (b) Special Provisions, Group R, Division 1 Occupancies more than two stories in height or having more than 3000 square feet of floor

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area above the first story, shall be not less than one-hour fireresistive construction throughout. Exit Facilities Every sleeping room below the fourth story shall have at least one operable window or exterior door approved for emergency egress or rescue. The units shall be operable from the inside to provide a full clear opening without the use of separate tools. All egress or rescue windows from sleeping rooms shall have a minimum net clear opening of 5.7 square feet. the minimum net clear opening height dimension shall be 24 inches. The minimum net clear opening width dimension shall be 20 inches. Where windows are provided as a means of egress or rescue they shall have a finished sill height not more than 44 inches above the floor. Light, Ventilation and Sanitation Sec. 1205. (a) Light and Ventilation. All guest rooms, dormitories and habitable rooms within a dwelling unit shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area not less than one-tenth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 10 square feet. All bathrooms, water closet compartments, laundry rooms and similar rooms shall be provided with natural ventilation by means of openable exterior openings with an area not less than one-twentieth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 1 1/2 square feet. All guest rooms, dormitories and habitable rooms within a dwelling unit shall be provided with natural ventilation b y means

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f openable exterior openings with an area of not less than onetwentieth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 5 square feet. In lieu of required exterior openings for natural ventilation, a mechanical ventilating system may be provided. Such system shall be capable of providing two air changes per hour in all guest rooms, dormitories, habitable rooms and in public corridors. One fifth of the air supply shall be taken from the outside. In bathrooms, water closet compartments, laundry rooms and similar rooms a mechanical ventilation system connected directly to the outside, capable of providing five air changes per hour, shall be provided. For the purpose of determining light and ventilation requirements, any room may be considered as a portion of an adjoining room when one-half of the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and provides an opening of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room or 25 square feet, whichever is greater. Required exterior openings for natural light and ventilation shall open directly onto a street or public alley or a yard or court located on the same lot as the building. Exception: Required windows may open into a roofed porch where the porch: 1. Abuts a street, yard, or court; and 2. Has a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet; and 3. Has the longer side at least 65 percent open and unobstructed.

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(b) Sanitation. Every building shall be provided with at least one water closet. Every hotel or subdivision thereof where both sexes are accommodated shall contain at least two separate toilet facilities which are conspicuously identified for male or female use, each of which contains at least one water closet. Additional water closets shall be provided on each floor for each sex at the rate of one for every additional 10 guests, or fractional part thereof, in excess of 10. Room Dimensions Sec. 1207. (a) Ceiling Heights. Habitable space shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches except as otherwise permitted in this section. Kitchens, halls, bathrooms and toilet compartments may have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling. Where exposed beam ceiling members are spaced at less than 48 inches on center, ceiling height shall be measured to the bottom of these members. Where exposed beam ceiling members are spaced at 48 inches or more on center, ceiling height shall be measured to the bottom of the deck supported by these members, provided that the bottom of the members is not less than 7 feet above the floor. If any room in a building has a sloping ceiling, the prescribed ceiling height for the room is required in only one-half the area thereof. No portion of the room measuring less than 5 feet from the finished floor to the finished ceiling shall be included in any computation of the minimum area thereof .

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If any room has a furred ceiling, the prescribed ceiling height is required in two-thirds the area thereof, but in no case shall the height of the furred ceiling be less than 7 feet. Fire-warning and Sprinkler Systems Sec. 1210. (a) Fire-warning Systems. Every dwelling unit and every guest room in a hotel or lodging house used for sleeping purposes shall be provided with smoke detectors conforming to U.B.C. Standard No. 43-6. In dwelling units, detectors shall be mounted on the ceiling or wall at a point centrally located in the corridor or area giving access to rooms used for sleeping purposes. In an efficiency dwelling unit, hotel sleeping room and in hotel suites, the detector shall be centrally located on the ceiling of the main room or hotel sleeping room. Where sleeping rooms are on an upper level, the detector shall be placed at the center of the ceiling directly above the stairway. All detectors shall be located in accordance with approved instructions. When actuated, the detector shall provide an alarm in the dwelling unit or guest room. In new construction, required smoke detectors shall receive their primary power from the building wiring when such wiring is served from a commercial source. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than those required for overcurrent protection. Heating Sec. 1211. Every dwelling unit and guest room shall be provided with heating facilities capable of maintaining a room temperature

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of 70F. at a point 3 feet above the floor in all habitable rooms. Access to Buildings and Facilities Sec. 1213. Buildings containing more than 20 dwelling units or 20 guest rooms shall be accessible to the physically handicapped by a level entry, ramp or elevator. The number of dwelling units or guest rooms accessible to the physically handicapped shall be not less than the following: 21 through 99 100 and over one unit one, plus one for each additional 100 units or fraction thereof To determine the total number of accessible units, more than one structure on a building site shall be considered as one building. REQUIREMENTS BASED ON TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION Chapter 17 CLASSIFICATION OF ALL BUILDINGS BY TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Usable Space Under Floors Sec. 1703. Usable space under the first story shall be enclosed except in Groups R, Division 3 and M Occupancies, and such enclosure when constructed of metal or wood shall be protected on the side of the usable space as required for one-hour fire-resistive construction. Doors shall be self-closing, of noncombustible construction or solid wood core, not less than 1 3/4 inches in thickness.

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Roofs Sec. 1704. Roof coverings shall be fire retardant except in Types III, IV and V buildings, where it may be as follows: 1. Ordinary roof coverings may be used on buildings of Group R, Division 3 or Group M Occupancies. 2. Ordinary roof coverings may be used on buildings of Group R, Division 1 Occupancies which are not more than two stories in height and have not more than 3000 square feet of projected roof area and there is a minimum of 10 feet from the extremity of the roof to the property line on all sides except for street fronts. 3. Class C roof coverings which comply with U.B.C. Standard No. 32-7 and roofs of No. 1 cedar or redwood shakes and No. 1 shingles constructed in accordance with the requirements of U.B.C. Standard No. 32-14 for Special Purpose Roofs may be used on Group A, Division 3; Group B, Divisions 1 and 2 and Group R, Division 1 Occupancies which are not more than two stories in height and have not more than 6000 square feet of projected roof area and there is a minimum of 10 feet from the extremity of the roof to the property lines on all sides except for street fronts. Skylights shall be constructed as required in Chapter 34. Penthouses shall be constructed as required in Chapter 36. For use of plastics in roofs, see Chapter 52. For attics: Access and Area, see Section 3205. For Roof Drainage, see Section 3207.

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Exceptions to Table No. 17-A Sec. 1705.(a) General. The provisions of this section are intended as exceptions to construction requirements specified in Chapters 5 through 12 and 18 through 22. (c) Folding, Portable or Movable Partitions. Approved folding, portable or movable partitions need not have a fire-resistive rating, provided: 1. They do not block required exits (without providing alternative conforming exits) and they do not establish an exit corridor. 2. Their location is restricted by means of permanent tracks, guides or other approved methods. 3. Flammability shall be limited to materials having a flamespread classification as set forth in Table No. 42-B for rooms or areas. Water Fountains Sec. 1712. Where water fountains are provided, at least one shall have a spout within 33 inches of the floor and shall have upfront, hand-operated controls. When fountains are located in an alcove, the alcove shall be not less than 32 inches in width. Telephones Sec. 1713. Where public telephones are provided, at least one shall be installed so that the handset, dial and coin receiver are within 54 inches of the floor. Unobstructed access within 12 inches of the telephone shall be provided. Such access shall be not less than 30 inches in width.

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Guardrails Sec. 1716. All unenclosed floor and roof openings, open and glazed sides of landings and ramps, balconies or porches which are more than 30 inches above grade or floor below, and roofs used for other than service of the building shall be protected by a guardrail. Guardrails shall be not less than 42 inches in height. Open guardrail and stair railings shall have intermediate rails or an ornamental pattern such that a sphere 9 inches in diameter cannot pass through. The height of stair railings on open sides may be as specified in Section 3305 (j) in lieu of providing a guardrail. Ramps shall, in addition, have handrails when required by Section 3306. EXCEPTIONS: 1. Guardrails need not be provided on the loading side of loading docks. 2. Guardrails for Group R, Division 3 and Group M, Division 1 Occupancies may be 36 inches in height. 3. Interior guardrails within individual dwelling units or guest rooms of Group R, Division 1 Occupancies may be 36 inches in height. 4. The open space between the intermediate rails or ornamental pattern of guardrails in areas of commercial and industrial t ype occupancies which are not accessible to the public may be increased such that a 12-inch-diameter sphere cannot pass through. 5. Guardrails on a balcony immediately in front of the first row of fixed seats and which are not at the end of an aisle may b e 2 6 i nc hes in height.

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Chapter 33 (d) Determination of Occupant Load. The occupant load permitted in any building or portion thereof shall be determined by dividing the floor area assigned to that use by the square feet per occupant as set forth in Table No. 33-A. EXCEPTIONS: 1. The occupant load of an area having fixed seats shall be determined by the number of fixed seats installed. Aisles serving the fixed seats and not used for any other purpose shall not be assumed as adding to the occupant load. 2. The occupant load permitted in a building or portion thereof may be increased above that specified in this section if the necessary exits are provided. An approved aisle or seating diagram may be required by the building official to substantiate an increase in occupant load. When the square feet per occupant are not given for a particular occupancy, they shall be determined by the building official, based on the area given for the occupancy which it most nearly resembles. In determining the occupant load, all portions of a building shall be presumed to be occupied at the same time. EXCEPTION: Accessory use areas which ordinarily are used only by persons who occupy the main areas of an occupancy shall be provided with exits as though they were completely occupied, but their occupant load need not be included in computing the total number of occupants for the building.

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(e) Overcrowding. The number of occupants of any building or portion thereof shall not exceed the permitted or posted capacity . (g) Mixed Occupancies. The capacity of a building containing mixed occupancies shall be determined by adding the number of occupants of the various portions as set forth in Table No. 33-A. (h) More Than One Purpose. For determining exit requirements the capacity of a building or portion thereof which is used for different purposes shall be determined by the occupant load which gives the largest number of persons. (i) Exit Obstruction. No obstructions shall be placed in the required width of an exit except projections permitted by this chapter. (j) Posting of Room Capacity. Any room having an occupant load of more than 50 where fixed seats are not installed, and which is used for classroom, assembly or similar purpose, shall have the capacity of the room posted in a conspicuous place near the main exit from the room. Approved signs shall be maintained in a legible manner by the owner or his authorized agent and shall indicate the number of occupants permitted for each room use. ( k ) Changes in Elevation. Within a building, changes in elevation of less than 12 inches along any e xit serving a tributary occupant load of 10 or more s hall be b y ramps. Exits Required Sec. 3302.(a) Number of E xits. Every building or usable portion thereof s h all have at least one exit and s hall have not less than two exits where required b y Tab l e No. 33-A .

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In all occupancies, floors above the first story having an occupant load of more than 10 shall have not less than two exits. EXCEPTIONS: 1. Except as provided in Table No. 33-A, only one exit shall be required from a second floor area within an individual dwelling unit. Refer to Section 1204 for emergency exit requirements from sleeping rooms. 2. Two or more dwelling units on the second story may have access to only one common exit when the total occupant load does not exceed 10. Each mezzanine used for other than storage purposes, if greater in area than 2000 square feet or if more than 60 feet in any dimension, shall have not less than two stairways to an adjacent floor. Every story or portion thereof having an occupant load of 501 to 1000 shall have not less than three exits. The number of exits required from any story of a building shall be determined by using the occupant load of that story plus the percentages of the occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under consideration, as follows: 1. Fifty percent of the occupant load in the first adjacent story above (and the first adjacent story below, when a story below exits through the level under consideration). 2 . Twent y-five percent of the occupant load in t h e story immediately beyond the first adjacent story . The maximum number of exits required for any story shall be maint ained until egress i s provided from the structure. (See Section 3311.)

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For purposes of this section, basements and occupied roofs shall be provided with exits as required for stories. Floors above the second story and basements shall have not less than two exits except when such floors or basements are used exclusively for the service of the building. (b) Width. The total width of exits in feet shall be not less than the total occupant load served divided by 50. Such width of exits shall be divided approximately equally among the separate exits. The total exit width required from any story of a building shall be determined by using the occupant load of that story plus the percentages of the occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under consideration, as follows: 1. Fifty percent of the occupant load in the first adjacent story above (and the first adjacent story below, when a story below exits through the level under consideration). 2. Twenty-five percent of the occupant load in the story immediately beyond the first adjacent story. The maximum exit width required from any story of a building shall be maintained. (c) Arrangement of Exits. If only two exits are required they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served measured in a straight line between exits. EXCEPTION: Where exit enclosures are provided as the required means of egress and are interconnected b y a corridor conforming to the requirements of Section 3304(g), exit

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separations may be measured in a direct line of travel within the exit corridor. Enclosure walls shall be not less than 30 feet apart at any point in a direct line of measurement. Where three or more exits are required, they shall be arranged a reasonable distance apart so that if one becomes blocked the others will be available. (d) Distance to Exits. The maximum distance of travel from any point to an exterior exit door, horizontal exit, exit passageway or an enclosed stairway in a building not equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout shall not exceed 150 feet or 200 feet in a building equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughr out. These distances may be increased 100 feet when the last 150 feet is within a corridor, complying with Section3304. See Section 3317 for Group E Occupancy travel distances. (e) Exits Through Adjoining or Accessory Areas. Exits from a room may open into an adjoining or intervening room or area, provided such adjoining room is accessory to the area served and provides a direct means of egress to an exit corridor, exit stairway, exterior exit, horizontal exit, exterior exit balcony or exit passageway. EXCEPTION: Exits are not to pass through kitchens, storerooms, restrooms, closets or spaces used for similar purposes. Foyers, lobbies and reception rooms constructed as required for corridors shall not be constructed as intervening rooms.

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(f) Entrances to Buildings. Main exits from buildings requiring access by the physically handicapped, as listed in Table No. 33-A, shall be usable by individuals in wheelchairs and be on a level that would make the elevators accessible where provided. Doors Sec. 3303.(a) General. This section shall apply to every exit door serving an area having an occupant load of more than 10, or serving hazardous rooms or areas, except that Subsections (c), (i) and (j) shall apply to all exit doors regardless of occupant load. Buildings or structures used for human occupancy shall have at least one exit door that meets the requirements of Subsection (e). (b) Swing. Exit doors shall swing in the direction of exit travel when serving any hazardous area or when serving an occupant load of 50 or more. Double-acting doors shall not be used as exits serving a tributary occupant load of more than 100 nor shall they be used as a part of a fire assembly nor equipped with panic hardware. A doubleacting door shall be provided with a view panel of not less than 200 square inches. (c) Type of Lock or Latch. Exit doors shall be openable from the inside without the use of a key or any special knowledge or effort. (f) Door Leaf Width. No leaf of an exit door shall exceed 4 feet in width. (g) Special Doors. Revolving, sliding and overhead doors shall not be used as required exits. Power operated doors compl ying with U .B.C. Standard No. 33-1 may be used for exit purposes.

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(h) Egress from Door. Every exit door required by this section shall give immediate access to an approved means of egress from the building. (i) Change in Floor Level at Doors. Regardless of the occupant load, there shall be a floor or landing on each side of a door. The floor or landing shall be not more than 1 inch lower than the threshold of the doorway. Where doors open over landings, the landing shall have a length of not less than 5 feet. Corridors and Exterior Exit Balconies (b) Width. Every corridor serving an occupant load of 10 or more shall be not less in width than 44 inches. Regardless of occupant load, corridors in Group R, Division 3 Occupancies and within dwelling units in Group R, Division 1 Occupancies shall have a minimum width of 36 inches. For special requirements for Groups E and I Occupancies, see Sections 3317 and 3319. (c) Height. Corridors and exterior exit balconies shall have a clear height of not less than 7 feet measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling. (e) Access to Exits. When more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to go in either direction from any point in a corridor to a separate e xit, except for d ead ends not exceeding 20 feet in length. (f) Changes in Elevation. When a corridor or exterior e xit balcony is accessible to an elevator, changes i n elevation of t h e f l oor shall be made b y means of a ramp.

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Stairways Sec. 3305.(a) General. Every stairway serving any building or portion thereof shall conform to the requirements of this section. (b) Width. Stairways serving an occupant load of more than 50 shall be not less in width than 44 inches. Stairways serving an occupant load of 50 or less may be 36 inches wide. Private stairways serving an occupant load of less than 10 may be 30 inches wide. Handrails may project into the required width a distance of 3 1/2 inches from each side of a stairway. Other nonstructural projections such as trim and similar decorative features may project into required width 1 1/2 inches on each side. (c) Rise and Run. The rise of every step in a stairway shall be not less than 4 inches nor greater than 7 1/2 inches. Except as permitted in Subsections (d) and (f), the run shall be not less than 10 inches as measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the furthermost projection of adjacent treads. (g) Landings. Every landing shall have a dimension measured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway. Such dimension need not exceed 4 feet when the stair has a straight run. A door swinging over a landing shall not reduce the width of the landing to less than one-half its required width at any position in its swing nor by more than 7 inches when fully open. (i) Distance Between Landings. There shall be not more than 12 feet vertically between landings. (j) Handrails. Stairways shall have handrails on each side, and every stairway required to be more than 88 inches in width shall

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be provided with not less than one intermediate handrail for each 88 inches of required width. Intermediate handrails shall be spaced approximately equal within the entire width of the stairway. Handrails shall be placed not less than 30 inches nor more than 34 inches above the nosing of treads. They shall be continuous the full length of the stairs and except for private stairways at least one handrail shall extend not less than 6 inches beyond the top and bottom risers, and ends shall be returned or shall terminate in newel posts or safety terminals. (o) Stairway to Roof. In every building four or more stories in height, one stairway shall extend to the roof surface, unless the roof has a slope greater than four in 12. (p) Headroom. Every required stairway shall have a headroom clearance of not less than 6 feet 6 inches. Such clearances shall be established by measuring vertically from a plane parallel and tangent to the stairway tread nosing to the soffit above at all points. Ramps Sec. 3306.(a) General. Ramps used as exits shall conform to the provisions of this section. (b) Width. The width of ramps shall be as required for stairways. (c) Slope. Ramps required by Table No. 33-A shall not exceed a slope of one vertical to 12 horizontal. The slope of other ramps shall not exceed one vertical to 8 horizontal. When provided with fixed seating, the main floor of the assembly room of a Group A, Division 1 , Division 2 , 2.1 or 3 Occupancy may

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have a slope not to exceed one vertical to five horizontal. (d) Landings. Ramps having slopes greater than one vertical to 15 horizontal shall have landings at the top and bottom, and at least one intermediate landing shall be provided for each 5 feet of rise. Top landings and intermediate landings shall have a dimension measured in the direction of ramp run of not less than 5 feet. Landings at the bottom of ramps shall have a dimension in the direction of ramp run of not less than 6 feet. Doors in any position shall not reduce the minimum dimension of the landing to less than 42 inches and shall not reduce the required width by more than 3 1/2 inches when fully open. Aisles (c) Distances to Nearest Exit. In areas occupied by seats and in Group A Occupancies without seats, the line of travel to an exit door by an aisle shall be not more than 150 feet. Such travel dis tance may be increased to 200 feet if the building is provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system. (d) Aisle Spacing. With standard seating, as specified in Sec tion 3314, aisles shall be so located that there will be not more than six intervening seats between any seat and the nearest aisle. With continental seating, as specified in Section 3314, the number of intervening seats may be increased to 29 where exit doors are provided along each side aisle of the row of seats at the rate of one pair of exit doors for each five rows of seats. Such exit doors shall provide a minimum clear width of 66 inches.

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(e) Cross Aisles. Aisles shall terminate in a cross aisle, foyer or exit. The width of the cross aisle shall be not less than the sum of the required width of the widest aisle plus 50 percent of the total required width of the remaining aisles leading thereto. In Groups A and E Occupancies, aisles shall not provide a dead end greater than 20 feet in length. Chapter 40 MOTION PICTURE PROJECTION ROOMS General Sec. 400l.(a) Scope. The provi'sions of this chapter shall apply where ribbon-type cellulose acetate or other safety film is used in conjunction with electric arc, Xenon or other light source projection equipment which develops hazardous gases, dust or radiation. Where cellulose nitrate film is used, projection rooms shall compl y with Part III of U.B.C. Standard No. 48-1. (b) Projection Room Required. Every motion picture machine projecting film as mentioned within the scope of this chapter shall be enclosed in a projection room. Appurtenant electrical equipment, such as rheostats, transformers and generators, may be within the projection room or in an adjacent room of equivalent construction. Construction Sec. 4002. The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 square feet for a single machine and at least 40 square feet for each additional machine. Each motion picture projector, floodlight, spotlight or similar piece of equipment shall not be used

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unless approved and shall have a clear working space not less than 30 inches by 30 inches on each side and at the reat thereof, but only one such space shall be required between two adjacent projectors. The projection room and the rooms appurtenant thereto shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches. Projection Ports and Openings Sec. 4004. The aggregate of openings for projection equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the wall between the projection room and the auditorium. All openings shall be provided with glass or other approved material so as to completely close the opening. (b) Projection Booth. 1. Supply air. Each projection room shall be provided with two or more separate fresh-air inlet ducts with screened openings terminating within 12 inches of the floor and located at opposite ends of the room. Such air inlets shall be of sufficient size to permit an air change every three minutes. Fresh air may be supplied from the general building air-conditioning s ystem, but when this is done it shall be so arranged that the projection booth will continue to receive one chang e of air every three minutes, regardless of the status of t h e general airconditioning s ystem. 2 . Exhaust air. Each projection room shall be provided wit h one or mor e e xhaust-air outlets which may be manifolded into a single duct outside the booth. Such outle t s shall b e s o loca ted a s to insure circulation t h r o ughout t h e room . Projection room

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exhaust-air systems shall be independent of any other air systems in the buildings. Exhaust-air ducts shall terminate at the exterior of the building in such a location that the exhaust air cannot be readily recirculated into the supply-air system. The exhaust system shall be mechanically operated and of such a capacity as to provide a minimum of one change of air every three minutes. The blower motor shall be outside the duct system. The projection room ventilation system may also serve appurtenant rooms, such as the generator room and Ghe rewind room. (c) Projection Equipment Ventilation. Each projection machine shall be provided with an exhaust duct which will draw air from each lamp and exhaust it directly to the outside of the building in such a fashion that it will not be picked up by supply inlets. Such a duct shall be of rigid materials, except for a continuous flexible connector approved for the purpose. The lamp exhaust system shall not be interconnected with any other s ystem. Miscellaneous Equipment Sec. 4006. Each projection room shall be provided with rewind and film storage facilities. Sanitary Facilities Sec. 4007. Every projection room shall be provided with a lavatory.

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I. Thesis Semester Schedule February 1 February 15 March 1 March 15 March 20 April 15 M a y • Development of alternative design schemes with plan and three dimensional approaches. • Meetings with advisors. • Focus on one design scheme and begin to "fine tune" building spaces and massing. • Develop three dimensional character appropriate to the site. • Meetings with advisors. • Refine structural and mechanical concepts. • Meetings with advisors. • Final design decisions and changes. • Presentation preparation. • Graphic presentation • Model construction • Presentation

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J. References Architectural Graphic Standards, sixth edition, 1966. H. 0. Brough, Assistant Dean, Continuing Education. Bill Dena, Planner/Architect, University of Colorado. Uniform Building Code, 1979. University of Colorado at Boulder. Long Range Facilities Master Plan, 1979.