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Ludlow massacre remembered

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Title:
Ludlow massacre remembered
Series Title:
This week in history
Creator:
Castro, Richard T.
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
Richard T. Castron
Publication Date:
Language:
English

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Auraria Library
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Auraria Library
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Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
Ludlow Massacre Remembered by
Richard T. Castro
April 20th marks the date when coal miners and their women and
CHILDREN SHED THEIR BLOOD ON THE FIELDS OF LUDLOW, IN SOUTHERN
Colorado, in 1914. Following a 10 day battle between these miners
AND A SUBSIDIZED U.S. MILITIA, ORGANIZED LABOR FINALLY ESTABLISHED
it's right to share in the basic human rights of religious and
POLITICAL LIBERTY, FREE SPEECH, FREE ASSEMBLY, AND ECONOMIC FREEDOM.
This strike was not strictly Colorado matter. The state was
MERELY THE TESTING GROUND FOR TWO DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW THAT THE NATION WAS DEBATING. ON THE ONE SIDE, FIRMLY ENTRENCHED AND IN FULL POWER AND STRENGTH, THOSE WHO HELD TO THE THEORY THAT ALL BENEFITS PROPERLY TRICKLE DOWN FROM ABOVE, AND ON THE OTHER THOSE WHO DEVOTEDLY MAINTAINED THE DEMOCRATIC PROPOSITION THAT MEN AND WOMEN WHO TOIL WITH THEIR BACKS AND HANDS ARE ENTITLED TO SHARE IN THE FRUITS OF THEIR PRODUCTIVE LABOR.
Today, as our national leaders debate whether to lower the minimum
WAGE, RELAX HEALTH AND SAFETY STANDARDS FOR WORKERS, OR TO SUPPORT THE CONCEPT OF EQUAL PAY FOR EQUAL WORK, WE WOULD DO WELL TO REFLECT
on the "Ludlow Massacre" and the lessons to be learned from this
EVENT WHICH HAPPENED 74 YEARS AGO. LUDLOW IS AN EVER PRESENT AND GRIM REMINDER THAT THE CONFERENCE TABLE IS MORE IN KEEPING
with American civilization that the torch and the machine gun.


- 2 -
The scene of the struggle was the region surrounding Trinidad
AND WALSENBURG, COLORADO. IT WAS GEOGRAPHICALLY ISOLATED FROM THE SOCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL LIFE OF THE REST OF THE STATE. IN THESE ISOLATED COMMUNITIES THE COLORADO FUEL & IRON COMPANY (CFI), THE
Rocky Mountain Fuel Company, the Victor-American Fuel Company,
AND A NUMBER OF SMALLER OPERATORS, FUNISHED SUBSISTANCE FOR 30,000
people. Most of the workers were of Mexican, Greek, Italian and Slavic background.
According to Samuel Yellen, in a book titled "American Labor Struggles", since the 1880's and 1890's, when the development
OF THE COAL INDUSTRY IN SOUTHERN COLORADO BEGAN, THE COMPANIES HAD PERFORMED ALL OF THE FUNCTIONS OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT AND HAD REGULATED ALL SOCIAL ACTIVITIES.
Isolation was only one factor in the economic and political oppression WHICH THE MINERS SUFFERED. IN SOME PLACES IT APPROACHED SERFDOM. More important was the ownership of the mining camps
BY THE COMPANIES. NOT ONLY THE MINERS' DWELLINGS, BUT THE SCHOOL AND THE CHURCH WERE THE PROPERTY OF THE COMPANY. TEACHERS AND MINISTERS WERE SUPERVISED AND SELECTED BY THE COMPANY. THE MINER BOUGHT HIS FOOD, CLOTHING, AND OTHER SUPPLIES AT THE COMPANY
store. There was usually only one place of public entertainment,
THE COMPANY SALOON. IT WAS USUALLY OPERATED UNDER A CONCESSION.
The houses, according to one observer who served during part of
THE STRIKE AS A MILITIAMAN, WERE "SHABBY, UGLY, AND SMALL."


- 3 -

There were few provisions for sanitation; refuse was dumped without
CARE IN OR NEAR THE CAMP, AND THE WATER SUPPLY WAS OFTEN PUMPED DIRECTLY FROM THE MINES AND USED WITHOUT FILTRATION, As A RESULT, DISEASES DEVELOPED EASILY AND SPREAD RAPIDLY. THE MINER WHO PROTESTED LOST SIMULTANEOUSLY, HIS JOB, HIS DWELLING, AND HIS RIGHT TO REMAIN IN THE COMMUNITY.
The economic and political domination of the companies was rendered
ABSOLUTE BY A SYSTEM OF ESPIONAGE WHICH DETECTED EMPLOYEES WHO,
BY WORD OR DEED, CHALLENGED THE BEHAVIOR OF THE COMPANIES, AND THE BLACKLIST PUNISHED THEM. THE RIGHTS OF FREE SPEECH, FREE PRESS, AND FREE ASSEMBLY WERE ARBITRARILY SUPPRESSED; PERIODICALS WERE CENSORED, PUBLIC SPEAKERS WERE EXPELLED, AND EVEN THE FREEDOM OF SPEECH IN INFORMAL GATHERINGS WAS CURTAILED THROUGH THE FEAR
OF SPIES. The miners and their families were at the mercy of
THE CAMP MARSHALS.
It was against this backdrop that the United Mine Workers Union
(UMW) HIRED A UNION ORGANIZER NAMED JOHN LAWSON TO LEAD A DRIVE TO UNIONIZE ALL OF THE COAL MINERS IN THE STATE. UNION ORGANIZERS DURING THAT PERIOD WERE A HARDY BREED. THEY WERE ROUTINELY HOUNDED OFF TRAINS AND DRIVEN FROM HOTELS. THEY WERE MESSENGERS IN THE NIGHT OFTEN RISKING LIFE AND LIMB FOR SMALL GAIN. LAWSON WAS LATER JOINED BY AN 80 YEAR OLD WOMAN ORGANIZER NAMED MOTHER JONES, WHO WAS AS SALTY AS THEY COME. SHE WAS ASKED ONCE WHERE SHE LIVED AND QUICKLY RESPONDED, "WHERE EVER THERE IS A FIGHT." JONES,
Lawson, and other organizers attempted to get the corporations
TO NEGOTIATE WITH THE UNIONS, BUT TO NO AVAIL.


George McGovern in his book "The Great Coalfield War", describes
THE SITUATION AS FOLLOWS, "WHEN THE OWNERS REFUSED TO MEET WITH UNION AGENTS WHO WERE TRYING TO ORGANIZE THE WORKERS IN DEMAND OF BETTER CONDITIONS, THE MINERS WENT OUT ON STRIKE. THE COMPANIES, ASSISTED BY DETECTIVE AGENCIES WITH A NOTORIOUS HISTORY OF STRIKE BREAKING, SETTLED IN FOR THE FIGHT, WHILE 13,000 MEN AND WOMEN,
FORCED FROM THE COMPANY-OWNED TOWNS, BEGAN AN EXODUS DOWN THE THE MOUTAINS THROUGH SNOW AND BITTER COLD TO SHELTER IN TENT CAMPS ON THE PRAIRIE."
All of these dynamics led up to a clash between miners and militia
PAID FOR BY MANAGEMENT. THE INCIDENT IS KNOWN AS THE "LUDLOW
Massacre". It took place at Ludlow, Colorado, on April 20, 1914. Twenty-one persons, including eleven children, lost their lives.
THIS TRAGEDY WAS THE CLIMAX OF SEVEN MONTHS OF STEADILY MOUNTING TENSIONS BETWEEN 9,000 EMPLOYEES AND THE MANAGEMENT OF THE COLORADO
Fuel and Iron Company, whose major shareholder was John D. Rockefeller, Jr.
An EARLIER STRIKE IN 1903-1904 WAS CRUSHED BY A MERCENARY MILITIA, PAID OPENLY BY THE MINE OPERATORS, WHO HERDED MEN IN BULL PENS LIKE CATTLE, BURNED HOMES, SUSPENDED THE WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS,
AND LOADED HUNDREDS OF STRIKERS ONTO TRAIN CARS AND DUMPED THEM INTO THE DESERT WITHOUT FOOD AND WATER.
After miners were unable to get Governor Elias Ammons to enforce Colorado Law which spelled out miners rights and benefits, violence
BETWEEN THE WORKERS AND COMPANY GUARDS BEGAN TO ERUPT IN SEPTEMBER


of 1913. Governor Ammons, in an effort to quell the violence,
SENT A 695 MAN FIELD FORCE OF THE COLORADO NATIONAL GUARD INTO THE STRIKE ZONE. BECAUSE THE COLORADO LEGISLATURE WAS NOT IN SESSION, THE COLORADO FUEL AND IRON COMPANY PAID THE INITIAL
$75,000 to $80,000 to fund the militia. This fact later contributed to the Guards' actions against the workers, for they were
PAID BOTH BY THE STATE AS TROOPERS AND BY THE COLORADO FUEL AND
Iron Company as guards and employees.
Tension between the workers and the company controlled National Guard reached a boiling point on April 20, 1914 when troops in
SEARCH OF AN ANONYMOUS PERSON ENGAGED IN OPEN HOSTILITIES WITH THE WORKERS BY OPENING FIRE ON THE STRIKERS' TENT COLONY.
There is a monument to these early heros of the union movement at Ludlow, which is between Trinidad and Walsenburg. Inscribed
ON THE MONUMENT ARE THE NAMES AND AGES OF THESE INDIVIDUALS. I AM LISTING THEM BELOW TO GRAPHICALLY SHOW THE EXTENT TO WHICH
CF&I and J. D. Rockefeller went to crush industrial uprisings in Colorado.
KILLED AT LUDLOW
Louis Tikas 30 YRS . OLD
James Fyler 43 YRS , OLD
John Bartolette 45 YRS. OLD
Fedlina Costa 31 YRS . OLD
Frank Rubino 23 YRS. OLD
Patria Valdez 37 YRS. OLD
Onafrio Costa 6 YRS. OLD


- 6 -
Lucy Costa 4 YRS. OLD
Eulala Valdez 8 YRS. OLD
Mary Valdez 7 YRS. OLD
Elvira Valdez 3 MONTHS OLD
Joe Petrucci 4 YRS. OLD
Lucy Petrucci 2 1/2 YRS. OLD
Frank Petrucci 6 MONTHS OLD
William Snyder 11 . YRS. OLD
Rodgero Pedregone 6 YRS. OLD
Cloriva Pedregone 4 YRS. OLD
Since the Bureau of Mines began compiling statistics in 1910;
OVER 80,000 MEN HAVE DIED IN AMERICAN COAL MINES. No ONE GATHERED STATISTICS ON THE RATE OF DISABLING INJURIES UNTIL 1930; SINCE THEN THE FIGURE HAS EXCEEDED 1,500,000. COAL MINING REMAINS THE MOST DANGEROUS OF ALL INDUSTRIAL OCCUPATIONS.
The insidious peril of pneumoconious - "black lung" - surely
PREVALENT BUT UNSUSPECTED AT THE TIME OF LUDLOW, ADDS AT LEAST 1,000 TO THE ANNUAL MINE FATALITY COUNT IN PENNSYLVANIA ALONE.
The lethal properties of coal dust are greater than anything dreamed
OF BY INDUSTRIAL RESEARCHERS SEVENTY YEARS AGO. YET IN MEASURABLE CONCERN OVER PNEUMOCONIOSIS, THE UNITED STATES LAGS 30 YEARS BEHIND
the British.
NOW, AS THEN, THE MINERS' UNION SHAKES UNDER THE PRESSURES OF INTERNAL DISCORD, BUT NOW IT'S SCANDALS AND INTRIGUE ARE UNDER


f
- 7 -
SCRUTINY FROM WITHOUT, IT IS STILL ONE OF THE MOST POWERFUL TRADE UNIONS IN THE NATION, BUT THE MULTIPLYING CRACKS IN THE MONOLITH MAY PROVE IRREPARABLE, CO INCIDENTLY, THE INDUSTRY MAY FACE AN UNPRECEDENTED BOOM. SAFETY, ECOLOGY AND HIGH COSTS HAVE DARKENED THE ONCE BRIGHT FUTURE FORECAST FOR NUCLEAR FUEL, OlL AND GAS RESOURCES ARE SHRINKING. FOREIGN DEMANDS FOR U.S. COAL HAVE SOARED.
George McGovern, writing sixteen years ago, probably stated the
SITUATION BEST WHEN HE SAID, "THE GREAT EXPANSION OF THE COAL INDUSTRY WILL EXACT ITS TOLL IN HUMAN LIFE AND MISERY. SACRIFICES WILL RESULT FROM THE SAME KIND OF GREED AND MORAL INSENSIBILITY THAT LED TO LUDLOW. AND IF, IN JUSTICE TO THE INNOCENT DEAD,
WE ARE CONSTRAINED TO SEEK MEANING IN WHAT BEFELL THERE, PERHAPS IT IS TIMELY TO SETTLE FOR "THE KINSHIP OF HUMANITY" THAT ROCKEFELLER INSISTED THE TRAGEDY HAD TAUGHT HIM, THE MOST FAMILIAR YET DISREGARDED OF ALL LESSONS, THAT WHETHER WE CHOOSE TO BE OR NOT, EACH ONE OF US IS HIS BROTHERS' KEEPER."


Full Text

PAGE 1

I LUDLOW MASSACRE REMEMBERED BY RICHARDT. CASTRO APRIL 20TH MARKS THE DATE WHEN COAL MINERS AND THEIR WOMEN AND CHILDREN SHED THEIR BLOOD ON THE FIELDS OF LUDLOW, IN SOUTHERN COLORADO, IN 1914. 10 DAY BATTLE BETWEEN THESE MINERS AND A SUBSID1ZED U.S. MILITIA, ORGANIZED LABOR FINALLY ESTABLISHED IT'S RIGHT TO SHARE IN THE BASIC HUMAN RIGHTS OF RELIGIOUS AND POLITICAL LIBERTY, FREE SPEECH, FREE ASSEMBLY, AND ECONOMIC FREEDOM. THIS STRIKE WAS NOT STRICTLY COLORADO MATTER. THE STATE WAS MERELY THE TESTING GROUND FOR TWO DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW THAT THE NATION WAS DEBATING. ON THE ONE SIDE, FIRMLY ENTRENCHED AND IN FULL POWER AND STRENGTH, THOSE WHO HELD TO THE THEORY THAT ALL BENEFITS PROPERLY TRICKLE DOWN FROM ABOVE, AND ON THE OTHER THOSE WHO DEVOTEDLY MAINTAINED THE DEMOCRATIC PROPOSITION THAT MEN AND WOMEN WHO TOIL WITH THEIR BACKS AND HANDS ARE ENTITLED TO SHARE IN THE FRUITS OF THEIR PRODUCTIVE LABOR. TODAY, AS OUR NATIONAL LEADERS DEBATE WHETHER TO LOWER THE MINIMUM WAGE, RELAX HEALTH AND SAFETY STANDARDS FOR WORKERS, OR TO SUPPORT THE CONCEPT OF EQUAL PAY EQUAL WORK, WE WOULD DO WELL TO REFLECT ON THE "LUDLOW MASSACRE" AND THE LESSONS TO BE LEARNED FROM THIS EVENT WHICH HAPPENED 74 YEARS AGO. LUDLOW IS AN EYER PRESENT AND GRIM REMINDER THAT THE CONFERENCE TABLE IS MORE IN KEEPING WITH AMERICAN CIVILIZATION THAT THE TORCH AND THE MACHINE GUN.

PAGE 2

-2 -THE SCENE OF THE STRUGGLE WAS THE REGION SURROUNDING TRINIDAD AND WALSENBURG, COLORADO. IT WAS GEOGRAPHICALLY ISOLATED FROM THE SOCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL LIFE OF THE REST OF THE STATE. IN THESE ISOLATED COMMUNITIES THE COLORADO FUEL & IRON COMPANY (CFI), THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN FUEL COMPANY, THE VICTOR-AMERICAN FUEL COMPANY, AND A NUMBER OF SMALLER OPERATORS, FUNISHED SUBSISTANCE FOR 30,000 PEOPLE. MOST OF THE WORKERS WERE OF MEXICAN, GREEK, ITALIAN AND SLAVIC BACKGROUND. ACCORDING TO SAMUEL YELLEN, IN A BOOK TITLED "AMERICAN LABOR STRUGGLES", SINCE THE 1880's A N D 1890's, WHEN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE COAL INDUSTRY IN SOUTHERN COLORADO BEGAN, THE COMPANIES HAD PERFORMED ALL OF THE FUNCTIONS OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT AND HAD REGULATED ALL SOCIAL ACTIVITIES. ISOLATION WAS ONLY ONE FACTOR IN THE ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL OPPRESSION WHICH THE MINERS SUFFERED. IN SOME PLACES IT APPROACHED SERFDOM. MORE IMPORTANT WAS THE OWNERSHIP OF THE MINING CAMPS B Y THE COMPANIES. NOT ONLY THE MINERS' DWELLINGS, BUT THE SCHOOL AND THE CHURCH WERE THE PROPERTY OF THE COMPANY. TEACHERS AND MINISTERS WERE SUPERVISED AND SELECTED BY THE COMPANY. THE MINER BOUGHT HIS FOOD, CLOTHING, AND OTHER SUPPLIES AT THE COMPANY STORE. THERE WAS USUALLY ONLY ONE PLACE OF PUBLIC ENTERTAINMENT, THE COMPANY SALOON, IT WAS USUALLY OPERATED UNDER A CONCESSION. THE HOUSES, ACCORDING TO ONE OBSERVER WHO SERVED DURING PART OF THE STRIKE AS A MILITIAMAN, WERE "SHABBY, UGLY, AND SMALL,"

PAGE 3

-3 -THERE WERE FEW PROVISIONS FOR SANITATIONi REFUSE WAS DUMPED WITHOUT CARE IN OR NEAR THE CAMP, AND THE WATER SUPPLY WAS OFTEN PUMPED DIRECTLY FROM THE MINES AND USED WITHOUT FILTRATION. As A RESULT, DISEASES DEVELOPED EASILY AND SPREAD RAPIDLY. THE MINER WHO PRO TESTED LOST SIMULTANEOUSLY, HIS JOB, HIS DWELLING, AND HIS RIGHT TO REMAIN IN THE COMMUNITY. THE ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DOMINATION OF THE COMPANIES WAS RENDERED ABSOLUTE BY A SYSTEM OF ESPIONAGE WHICH DETECTED EMPLOYEES WHO, BY WORD OR DEED, CHALLENGED THE BEHAVIOR OF THE COMPANIES, AND THE BLACKLIST PUNISHED THEM. THE RIGHTS OF FREE SPEECH, FREE PRESS, AND FREE ASSEMBLY WERE ARBITRARILY SUPPRESSEDi PERIODICALS WERE CENSORED, PUBLIC SPEAKERS WERE EXPELLED, AND EVEN THE FREEDOM OF IN INFORMAL GATHERINGS WAS CURTAILED THROUGH THE FEAR OF SPIES. THE MINERS AND THEIR FAMILIES WERE AT THE MERCY OF THE CAMP MARSHALS. IT WAS AGAINST THIS BACKDROP THAT THE UNITED MINE WORKERS UNION (UMW) HIRED A UNION ORGANIZER NAMED JOHN LAWSON TO LEAD A DRIVE TO UNIONIZE ALL OF THE COAL MINERS IN THE STATE. UNION ORGANIZERS DURING THAT PERIOD WERE A HARDY BREED. THEY WERE ROUTINELY HOUNDED OFF TRAINS AND DRIVEN FROM HOTELS. THEY WERE MESSENGERS IN THE NIGHT OFTEN RISKING LIFE AND LIMB FOR SMALL GAIN. LAWSON WAS LATER JOINED BY AN 80 YEAR OLD WOMAN ORGANIZER NAMED MOTHER JONES, WHO WAS AS SALTY AS THEY COME. SHE WAS ASKED ONCE WHERE SHE LIVED AND QUICKLY RESPONDED, "WHERE EVER THERE IS A FIGHT." JONES, LAWSON, AND OTHER ORGANIZERS ATTEMPTED TO GET THE CORPORATIONS TO NEGOTIATE WITH THE UNIONS, BUT TO NO AVAIL.

PAGE 4

-4 GEORGE McGOVERN IN HIS BOOK "THE GREAT COALFIELD WAR", DESCRIBES THE SITUATION AS FOLLOWS, "WHEN THE OWNERS REFUSED TO MEET WITH UNION AGENTS WHO WERE TRYING TO ORGANIZE THE WORKERS IN DEMAND OF BETTER CONDITIONS, THE MINERS WENT OUT ON STRIKE. THE COMPANIES, ASSISTED BY DETECTIVE AGENCIES WITH A NOTORIOUS HISTORY OF STRIKE BREAKING, SETTLED IN FOR THE FIGHT, WHILE 13,000 MEN AND WOMEN, FORCED FROM THE COMPANY-OWNED TOWNS, BEGAN AN EXODUS DOWN THE THE MOUTAINS THROUGH SNOW AND BITTER COLD TO SHELTER IN TENT CAMPS ON THE PRAIRIE." ALL OF THESE DYNAMICS LED UP TO A CLASH BETWEEN MINERS AND MILITIA PAID FOR BY MANAGEMENT. THE INCIDENT IS KNOWN AS THE "LUDLOW MASSACRE". IT TOOK PLACE AT LUDLOW, COLORADO, ON APRIL 20, 1914. TWENTY-ONE PERSONS, INCLUDING ELEVEN CHILDREN, LOST THEIR LIVES. THIS TRAGEDY WAS THE CLIMAX OF SEVEN MONTHS OF STEADILY MOUNTING TENSIONS BETWEEN 9,000 EMPLOYEES AND THE MANAGEMENT OF THE COLORADO FUEL AND IRON COMPANY, WHOSE MAJOR SHAREHOLDER WAS JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, JR. AN EARLIER STRIKE IN 1903-1904 WAS CRUSHED BY A MERCENARY MILITIA, PAID OPENLY BY THE MINE OPERATORS, WHO HERDED MEN IN BULL PENS LIKE CATTLE, BURNED HOMES, SUSPENDED THE WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS, AND LOADED HUNDREDS OF STRIKERS ONTO TRAIN CARS AND DUMPED THEM INTO THE DESERT WITHOUT FOOD AND WATER. AFTER MINERS WERE UNABLE TO GET GOVERNOR ELIAS AMMONS TO ENFORCE COLORADO LAW WHICH SPELLED OUT MINERS RIGHTS AND BENEFITS, VIOLENCE BETWEEN THE WORKERS AND COMPANY GUARDS BEGAN TO ERUPT IN SEPTEMBER

PAGE 5

/ -5 OF 1913. GOVERNOR AMMONS, IN AN EFFORT TO QUELL THE VIOLENCE, SENT A 695 MAN FIELD FORCE OF THE COLORADO NATIONAL GUARD INTO THE STRIKE ZONE. BECAUSE THE COLORADO LEGISLATURE WAS NOT IN SESSION, THE COLORADO FUEL AND IRON COMPANY PAID THE INITIAL $75,000 TO $80,000 TO FUND THE MILITIA. THIS FACT LATER CONTRI BUTED TO THE GUARDS1 ACTIONS AGAINST THE WORKERS, FOR THEY WERE PAID BOTH BY THE STATE AS TROOPERS AND BY THE COLORADO FUEL AND IRON COMPANY AS GUARDS AND EMPLOYEES. TENSION BETWEEN THE WORKERS AND THE COMPANY CONTROLLED NATIONAL GUARD REACHED A BOILING POINT ON APRIL 20, 1914 WHEN TROOPS IN SEARCH OF AN ANONYMOUS PERSON ENGAGED IN OPEN HOSTILITIES WITH THE WORKERS BY OPENING FIRE ON THE STRIKERS1 TENT COLONY. THERE IS A MONUMENT TO THESE EARLY HEROS OF THE UNION MOVEMENT AT LUDLOW, WHICH IS BETWEEN TRINIDAD AND WALSENBURG. INSCRIBED ON THE MONUMENT ARE THE NAMES AND AGES OF THESE INDIVIDUALS. I AM LISTING THEM BELOW TO GRAPHICALLY SHOW THE EXTENT TO WHICH CF&I AND J. D. ROCKEFELLER WENT TO CRUSH INDUSTRIAL UPRISINGS IN COLORADO. KILLED AT LUDLOW Lours TI KAS 30 YRS. OLD JAMES FYLER 43 YRS. OLD JOHN BARTOLETTE 45 YRS. OLD FEDLINA COSTA 31 YRS. OLD FRANK RUBINO 23 YRS. OLD PATRIA VALDEZ 37 YRS. OLD ONAFRIO COSTA 6 YRS. OLD

PAGE 6

-6 LUCY COSTA 4 YRS. OLD EULALA VALDEZ 8 YRS. OLD MARY VALDEZ 7 YRS. OLD ELVIRA VALDEZ 3 MONTHS OLD JOE PETRUCCI 4 YRS. OLD LUCY PETRUCCI 2 1/2 YRS. OLD FRANK PETRUCCI 6 MONTHS OLD WILLIAM SNYDER 11 YRS. OLD RODGERO PEDREGONE 6 YRS. OLD CLORIVA PEDREGONE 4 YRS. OLD SINCE THE BUREAU OF MINES BEGAN COMPILING STATISTICS IN 1910, OVER 80,000 MEN HAVE DIED IN AMERICAN COAL MINES. No ONE GATHERED STATISTICS ON THE RATE OF DISABLING INJURIES UNTIL 1930; SINCE THEN THE FIGURE HAS EXCEEDED 1,500,000. COAL MINING REMAINS THE MOST DANGEROUS OF ALL INDUSTRIAL OCCUPATIONS. THE INSIDIOUS PERIL OF PNEUMOCONIOUS uBLACK LUNGu SURELY PREVALENT BUT UNSUSPECTED AT THE TIME OF LUDLOW, ADDS AT LEAST 1,000 TO THE ANNUAL MINE FATALITY COUNT IN PENNSYLVANIA ALONE. THE LETHAL PROPERTIES OF COAL DUST ARE GREATER THAN ANYTHING DREAMED OF BY INDUSTRIAL RESEARCHERS SEVENTY YEARS AGO. YET IN MEASURABLE CONCERN OVER PNEUMOCONIOSIS, THE UNITED STATES LAGS 30 YEARS BEHIND THE BRITISH. Now, AS THEN, THE MINERS' UNION SHAKES UNDER THE PRESSURES OF INTERNAL DISCORD, BUT NOW IT'S SCANDALS AND INTRIGUE ARE UNDER

PAGE 7

-7 SCRUTINY FROM WITHOUT. IT IS STILL ONE OF THE MOST POWERFUL TRADE UNIONS IN THE NATION, BUT THE MULTIPLYING CRACKS IN THE MONOLITH MAY PROVE IRREPARABLE. COINCIDENTLY, THE INDUSTRY MAY FACE AN I UNPRECEDENTED BOOM. SAFETY, ECOLOGY AND HIGH COSTS HAVE DARKENED THE ONCE BRIGHT FUTURE FORECAST FOR NUCLEAR FUEL. OIL AND GAS RESOURCES ARE SHRINKING. FOREIGN DEMANDS FOR U.S, COAL HAVE SOARED. GEORGE McGOVERN, WRITING SIXTEEN YEARS AGO, PROBABLY STATED THE SITUATION BEST WHEN HE SAID, "THE GREAT EXPANSION OF THE COAL INDUSTRY WILL EXACT ITS TOLL IN HUMAN LIFE AND MISERY. SACRIFICES WILL RESULT FROM THE SAME KIND OF GREED AND MORAL INSENSIBILITY THAT LED TO LUDLOW. AND IF, IN JUSTICE TO THE INNOCENT DEAD, WE ARE CONSTRAINED TO SEEK MEANING IN WHAT BEFELL THERE, PERHAPS IT IS TIMELY TO SETTLE FOR "THE KINSHIP OF HUMANITY" THAT ROCKEFELLER INSISTED THE TRAGEDY HAD TAUGHT HIM, THE MOST FAMILIAR YET DISRE GARDED OF ALL LESSONS, THAT WHETHER WE CHOOSE TO BE OR NOT, EACH ONE OF US IS HIS BROTHERS' KEEPER."