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September 16th : el grito de dolores

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Title:
September 16th : el grito de dolores
Series Title:
This week in history
Creator:
Castro, Richard T.
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
Richard T. Castron
Publication Date:
Language:
English

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Auraria Library
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Auraria Library
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Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
This Week In History
September 16th: El Grito de Dolores by
Richard Castro
On September 16, 1810, the first open rebellion by Mexicans against Spanish rule began in the little town of Dolores. The movement was led by a Mexican Creole priest, Father Hidalgo y Costilla. Assisted by two other revolutionary leaders, Father Hidalgo recruited a small army of Creoles and Mestizos and took the Mexican cities of Guanajuato and Guadalajara from the Spanish forces. Then, with an army of about 80,000 men, he marched on Mexico City.
Although Hidalgo's army had some preliminary victories, it was defeated by a Spanish army on November 6, 1811, after more defeats at the hands of the Spanish, Father Hidalgo was captured and later shot with the men who had supported him. Despite the ultimate failure of his mission, Father Hidalgo was the first hero of the Mexican Revolution, and the day of the uprising he led in Dolores - September 16, 1810 - is still celebrated as Mexican Independence Day.
After Father Hidalgo's first move to start the revolution, Mexican leaders began to appear. Father Morelos, a mestizo priest who had served in Hidalgo's revolutionary army, took over leadership of the revolution after Hidalgo's execution.


2
Morelos, however, had the Gachupines, the conservative Mexicans, and the Mexican monarchs against him. The rich Creoles, and Gachupines had never intended to support a revolution which might hurt their privileged position, and the Morelos' revolution was rapidly taking on the look of a popular uprising, supported by Indians and mestizo's. Morelos suffered a series of defeats and in 1815 was captured by" the Spanish forces and suffered the same fate as Father Hidalgo. He was executed by a firing squad.
In 1820, revolution broke out again. That year, word reached Mexico of an uprising against Ferdinand VII in Spain, and the Mexican ruling class decided that the only way to survive was to revive the revolution Father Hidalgo had started and seize control of it.
The spokesman for the new conservative revolutionary movement in Mexico was Agustin Iturbide, a former Spanish army officer who had fought against Father Morelos Iturbide and his followers wanted an independent Mexican monarchy as severe and autocratic as Spain's had been before the Napoleonic wars. In 1821, most members of the ruling classes in Mexico
agreed on the Plan de Iguala, which was both a declaration of independence from Spain and a plan for the new monarchy of Mexico.
In July 1821, a newly appointed Spanish viceroy of Mexico, Juan O'Donoju, arrived at Veracruz. He was informed by the Mexican authorities that he would not be allowed to proceed to Mexico City and take office because Mexico was Independent of Spain. Since the revolutionaries had established their control over the army, O'Donoju had no choice but to


3
recognize Mexican independence, which he did by signing the Treaty of Cordoba. On September 27, 1821, Inturbide entered Mexico City as a revolutionary hero and as the future emperor of Mexico.
Mexico's history as an independent nation was not to be calm. The half-century following independence from Spain was a chaotic period for Mexico. During that time, the country had forty presidents, two emperors, and several provisional governments. Through the glory-loving exploits of one of its rulers, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (who was in and out of office eleven times), Mexico lost half of her territory to the U.S.
It was these turbulant years that left Mexico vulnerable to U.S. intervention and attack in 1846. The United States declared war against Mexico and proceeded to push its "Manifest Destiny" from the East coast to the West coast and eventually set up the U.S. southern border of the Rio
Grande river.


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On December 22, 1815, at a spot outside Mexico City, the kneeling Morelos (below left) was put to death be a firing squad. The order for his execution was given by Felix Maria Calleja del Rey, the Spanish commander in charge of crushing revolutionary activity in Mexico.
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Father Hidalgo is shown kneeling at right with a cross in his hand another revolutionary leader are executed by a firing squad on July 31, In the rear, more of Hidalgo's followers are being put to death.


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i The dark area on this map represents the land that Spain controlled in the ! New World prior to Mexican Independance.


Full Text

PAGE 1

This Week In History September 16th: El Grito de Dolores by Richard C astra On September 16, 1810, the first open rebellion by Mexicans against Spanish rule began in the little town of Dolores. The movement was led by a Mexican Creole priest, Father Hidalgo y Costilla. Assisted by two other revolutionary leaders, Father Hidalgo recruited a small army of Creoles and Mestizos and took the Mexican cities of Guanajuato and Guadalajara from the Spanish forces. Mexico City. Then, with an army of about 80, 000 men, he marched on Although Hidalgo's army had some preliminary victories, it was defeated by a Spanish army on November 6, 1811, after more defeats at the hands of the Spanish, Father Hidalgo was captured and later shot with the men who had supported him. Despite the ultimate failure of his mission, Father Hidalgo was the first hero of the Mexican Revolution, and the day of the uprising he led in Dolores -September 16, 1810 -is still celebrated as Mexican Independence Day. After Father Hidalgo's first move to start the revolution, Mexican leaders began to appear. Father Morelos, a mestizo priest who had served in Hidalgo's revolutionary" army, took over leadership of the revolution after Hidalgo's execution.

PAGE 2

2 Morelos, however, had the Gachupines, the conservative Mexicans, and the Mexican monarchs against him. The rich Creoles, and Gachupines had never intended to support a revolution which might hurt their privileged position, and the Morelos' revolution was rapidly taking on the look of a popular uprising, supported by Indians and mestizo's. Morelos suffered a series of defeats and in 1815 was captured by" the Spanish forces and suffered the same fate as Father Hidalgo. squad. In 1820, revolution broke out again. He was executed by a firing That year, word reached Mexico of an uprising against Ferdinand VII in Spain, and the Mexican ruling class decided that the only way to survive was to revive the revolution Father Hidalgo had started and seize control of it. The spokesman for the new conservative revolutionary movement in Mexico was Agustih Iturbide, a former Spanish army officer who had fought ag"linst Father Morelos Itnrbide 2.nd his followe:cs wantP.d an indepP.nde:1t Mexican monarchy as severe and autocratic as Spain's had been before the Napoleonic wars. In 1821, most members of the ruling classes in Mexico agreed on the Plan de I guala, which was both a declaration of independence from Spain and a plan for the new monarchy of Mexico. In July 1821, a newly appointed Spanish viceroy of Mexico, Juan O'Donoju, arrived at Veracruz. He was informed by the Mexican authorities that he would not be allowed to proceed to Mexico City and take office because Mexico was Independent of Spain. Since the revolutionaries had established their control over the army, O'Donoju had no choice but to

PAGE 3

recognize Cordoba. 3 Mexican independence, which he did by signing the Treaty of On September 27, 1821, Inturbide entered Mexico City as a revolutionary hero and as the future emperor of Mexico. Mexico's history as an independent nation was not to be calm. The half-century following independence from Spain was a chaotic period for Mexico. During that time, the country had forty presidents, two emperors, and several provisional governments. Through the glory-loving exploits of one of its rulers, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (who was in and out of office eleven times), Mexico lost half of her territory to the U.S. It was these turbulant years that left Mexico vulnerable to U.S. intervention and attack in 1846. The United States declared war against Mexico and proceeded to push its "Manifest Destiny" from the East coast to the West coast and eventually set up the U.S. southern border of the Rio Grande river.

PAGE 4

..... ... : ::•: On December 22, 1815, at a spot outside Mexico City, the kneeling Mo (below left) was put to death be a firing squad. The order for his was given by Felix Maria Calleja del Rey, the Spanish commander of crushing revolutionary activity in Mexico . • •• • :. : : • :: : • • • •.:, ..... • , .. : : .... , • :. : ...... :. • :::,. • : • • : : : : , 1:,: •fl: . . : . : . ..... . :", .• :: .. : , .••. , : . , . ........ :: ... : • . : .. : ... ; : ; : .; :::: ;. :; i::::; ::: ;p:; i; p p j ;T'i j 1 l l

PAGE 5

Hidalgo is shown kneeling at right with a cross in his hand, and another revolutionary leader are executed by a firing squad on July 31, 1811. In the rear, more of Hidalgo's followers are being put to death . ...... .. ... . : ... :•:.•.: ... ;. ..... . ....... . .... . ; .. : ... : ....... • ; ...... ;.•:; .... : :::: .

PAGE 6

Father Morelos New NORTH ClRCA 1790 100 200 300 !.Illes area on map represents prior to Mexican Independance. OF MEXICO CANADA lli ln ii' OF AMEniCA 1 ' 1 : : controlled in