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Los Conquistadores, Spring, 1973

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Title:
Los Conquistadores, Spring, 1973
Series Title:
Los Conquistadores
Creator:
Los Conquistadores
Vigil, John H ( Editor )
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
Ulibarri, Joe I.
Quintana, Lawrence O.
Manufacturer:
Lucero Reprographics
Publication Date:
Language:
English

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Auraria Library
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Auraria Library
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Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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‘'Los Conquistador^
Volume 2, No. 2
SPRING ISSUE 1973
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Bilingual-Cultural Educational Program Ces&r Chavez Visits Denver Valdez Seeks School Post A Language of Pride |
Chicano Poetry .


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EDITORIAL
Mr. Vigil is principal of Hulustrom Elementary School District No. 12, Adams County. He is a leading Chicano educator, political activist, writer and advocate of the poor.
Since our last issue, a number of significant and historical events have taken place. In December of 1972, President Harry S. Truman expired. History is destined to judge him one of the greatest presidents ever, for he was a man who was honest, sincere, dedicated, and frank. With him it was, “This is where the buck stopped.”
President Lyndon Baines Johnson also expired in January of 1973. It is truly tragic that he died a few days before peace was a-chieved in Vietnam. He had struggled dramatically and committed everything he had toward this end. His concern for the poor and his war on poverty was perhaps the most outstanding endeavor ever embarked upon by a government of this world against miseries, disease, and impoverished conditions. His faith in democracy and the American peoples will to do good was truly unsurpassed in the story of man. His fight and committment for the betterment of education stands alone and unequaled in the annals of history.
The end of the Vietnam war announced by President Nixon is the best news this country has heard in the past decade. The return of the
prisoners of war is indeed the most heartwarming “show” ever displayed on national television. One cannot help but feel a sense of tremendous relief. However, do not let us forget the price of peace was not cheap. Thousands of American soldiers never made it back from Vietnam. And thousands have suffered great physical and mental damage. A great deal must be committed to assist those returning veterans to insure the best opportunities possible for their return to a normal and productive life. The families of those soldiers that did not return must also be assured of some type of security and commitment from this government and country, that their sacrifice was not in vain.
And lastly, the tragic news that the present administration is planning for the dismantlement of the Office of Economic Opportunity (OE 0) must also be considered with great concern. In essence, the “voice for the voiceless” is being gagged. For although there were programs that were not living up to par, funded by 0E0, it is a researchable fact that never in the history of this country have the poor had greater opportunity to practice democratic involvement, governmental participation, and community action. In a study released from 0E0 in January of 1973, the following facts were derived:
1. Of all the funds expended for 0E0 programs, 58 per cent in kind and in cash were mobilized from the local communities.
2. Of 146,000 0E0 employees interviewed in 1972, 94,000 were former welfare recipients. (It seems to
JOHN H. VIGIL, EDITOR
me it makes more sense that these individuals be working for their community than to be drawing welfare).
3. Of testimony given in Washington, D.C., to the Special Sub-Committee on Welfare, chaired by Congressman Hawkins (D-California) in early February, 1973, was overwhelmingly in support of retaining OEO~sponsored programs for their success and benefit to the communities they served.
It would be my hope that in the words of Richard Nixon’s In— naugrual Address of 1969, “That the government will listen. It will strive
to listen in new ways--------to the
injured voices, the anxious voices, the voices that have despaired of being heard,” would become a reality.
In the final analysis, it will be the concept of Revenue Sharing that will bear the burden of proof as to whether or not cities, counties, and states can and will serve the will, and needs of all the people. Without a doubt, the poor have shown through 0E0 that they are willing and able to support and participate in their country’s democracy, given the opportunity.
Editor’s Note: CORRECTION: The article printed in our last issue on pages 34 and 35, The Westside Coalition, was not printed in sequential order as submitted by its author, Mr. Richard Castro. My apologies.


LOS C0NQU1STAD0RES QUARTERLY MAGAZINE
Personnel:
Publishers: Joe I. Ulibarri
Lawrence 0. Quintana
Editor: John H. Vigil
Secretary: Joyce Vigil
Printing by: fucero Reprographics
Subscription Rates:
Mail subscription for one year $5.00, for four (4) issues. (Price includes mailing cost.) Over The Counter Copies $1.00 per issue. (Single copy mailed $1.25)
Advertising Rates: (50% due on order)
Full page.....................$200.00
Half page.....................$100.00
Quarter page................. $50.00
Color advertising on request only.
Cover advertising on request only as follows:
Inside Cover..................$300.00
Outside Cover.................$500.00
Center Fold...................$600.00
(Note: Art work included unless otherwise requested and mutually agreed upon. Prices effective January 1973)
Correspondence:
Please direct subscriptions, advertising insertion orders, stories, and/or letters to the Editor, 3820 W. 66th Ave. Arvada, Colorado, 80002, Phone 433-8277
Lawrence 0. Quintana and Joe l„ Ulibarri, Los Conquistadores Publishers, proudly review the first issue of their magazine.
INTRODUCING NEW PUBLISHERS Mr. Joe I. Ulibarri and Mr. Lawrence 0. Quintana are the new publishers of Los Conquistadores. The magazine was recently pur-
chased from its former owners, Gil Lopez and Associates, when Lopez decided to edit “La Luz,” the only national Chicano magazine.
Joe I. Ulibarri is General
Contractor and owner of Ulibarri Construction Company, 4750 Tejon, Denver, Colorado, Mr. Ulibarri and his wife Andrea live at 1455 South Moline, Aurora, Colorado. Mr. and Mrs. Ulibarri have four children: David 16, Darlene 14, Margaret 13, and Connie 4.
Mr. Lawrence 0. Quintana is is owner and president of Reliable Carpets, 3946 Federal Boulevard, Denver, Colorado. Mr. Quintana and his wife Peggy live at 4875 Zuni, Denver, Colorado. They are also the parents of four children: Larry 10, James 9, Steven 7, and Lisa 3.
The new publishers sincerely believe that the new LOS CONQUIS— TADORES will be a very vital communication vehicle that will bring a lot of our people together and provide the necessary information that will assist our community. They pledge that LOS CONQUISTADORES will be designed specifically to meet the needs of our people and the philosophy of the magazine will be non-partisan, broadbased, and a communications medium that all Chicanos will be proud to read.
4


%os
Goqguistadoies
TABLE OF CONTENTS
BILINGUAL-BICULTURAL EDUCATION PROGRAM... ..6
CESAR CHAVEZ VISITS DENVER.......................... . 7
BUSINESS PROFILE . . . .................... 8
OUR LADY OF THE VISITATION CHURCH................... 9
MARCELA TRUJILLO A CHICANA ON THE MOVE.. .11
LTC. (RET) THOMAS H. MARTINEZ .....................12
ESTILO AMERICANO . . ....................... 13
TONYL. BACA ELECTED NEW CHAIRMAN .......... , ;.15
A THEATINE PRIEST............................16
RAMIREZ RECEIVES DSA AWARD................. .17
PROJECT GO................................. . . 19
QUO VADIS CHICANO? ....................... .20
CONQUISTADORES SIN NOMBRE ......................... 24
A LANGUAGE OF PRIDE........................ 25
WFSTSIDF CO AIITION
TO LAUNCH STREP EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM ............ . 29
OUR LADY OF GUADALUPE MESTIZO DANCERS .............. 32
THE LEGEND OF TERICIO VALLEY. . ... ... . . I . . 33
CREATIVE CHICANO POETRY......................35
ENCUENTRALO . .................. • - ........ 38
SOUTHERN COLORADO STATE COLLEGE TEACHER CORPS . .... .40 PINTO PROJECT. ........................ 56
VOLUME 2, No. 2
Copyright by Los Conquistadores, Inc., ^
1973 Printed in the United States All rights reserved. Cover and contents may not be reproduced in whole or in part without prior written permission.
5


BILINGUAL-BICULTURAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM
Five (5) million children belonging to America's ethnic groups need special attention-----instruc-
tion in their own native tongues and education about their own culture.
The United States Congress has in recent years provided strong support for bilingual education. The program, now under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Office of Education (USOE) Division of Bilingual Education, was created in 1967 through Title VII Amendment (PL90-247) to the Elementary an d Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965 (PL89— 10). The program started with a 7,5 million dollar grant for seventy-six (76) programs in twenty-one (21) states.
Although, most of the funds have been for children from ages 3—18, who come from the low-income families whose language is Spanish, this same concern could be stated
Chicanita returns home from a day at at school.
with equal validity for children whose background is French, Portuguese, Chinese, Chamorro (a language used in Guam)’ Japanese, Indian, and Eskimo.
The concept of bilingual education has grown so much that by 1972, 35 million dollars were allocated to support 213 bilingual educational programs in 29 states and the trust territories. In the fiscal year 1973, federal officials expect 40 million dollars to be ear-marked for bilingual programs, which was established when influential senators and congressmen spoke out in sup-
port of bilingualism; and both houses voted to ear-mark four per cent of the Emergency School Aid Act (part of the Educational Amendments of 1972). The school aid act carries an authorization of one billion dollars for 1973.
USEO's Division of Bilingual Education officials assert that they could easily put to work as much as 100 million dollars on behalf of bilingual programs. However, at this point there are some uncertainties regarding the operation of bilingual education. With the new reorganization being planned by the present administration, these programs may be placed with the newly created Assistant Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW), and/or with the USOE's Office of Civil Rights, and/or with the Assistant Commission for Regional Coordination.
It appears only logical that one would expect local and state funding agencies in Colorado to recognize the fact that the same major purposes embraced by federal officials justifying bilingual—bicultural education opportunities for the Spanish-speaking communities in almost all of Colorado's 186 local school districts would be equally valuable on a district by district basis.
The indisputable fact is that exclusive use of the “American tongue'' does not always serve the educational needs of the some five (5) million children in our country and many thousands of Spanishspeaking children in Colorado.
According to A Report to the United States Commission on Civil Rights, entitled, “Educational Practices Affecting Mexiacn Americans in the Southwest,'' May, 1972, 27 per cent of first grade Mexican American pupils do not speak English as well as the average Anglo first grade student. This same report stated that Colorado received a total of 260,823 dollars for 235 students in 1970. In that year one bilingual program was new and one was an existing program for a grand total of two. This obviously is a very small per cent of participation for the Spanishspeaking community of Colorado.
The following are recognized major purposes for bilingual-bicul-tural educational programs by federal officials:
Chicanitos prepare for a daily reading lesson.
1. Improving the educational achievements of students in communities charactarized by high concentration of poor, non-English speaking families whose needs are not being met by the existing educational system.
2. Instructing classroom programs using two languages-English and the other dominant language of the region-as the media of instruction.
3. Developing a curriculum model, including plans for instruction, material acquisition, staff training (pre-service and in-service), evaluation and community involvement.
4. Insuring that qualified teachers are recruited and/or trained who are fluent in two languages; competent in the teaching of subject matter in two languages; and sensitive to the needs of students involved.
5 Making certain that, with the exception of special classes, the two groups of students are not ethnically segregated for a major part of the learning day, but that they are together in bilingual-
continued on page 42


CESAR CHAVEZ VISITS DENVER
A POSITIVE MIND, DETERMINITATION AND PATIENCE ARE HIS VIRTUES
"SI SE PUEDE”
On Sunday, February 11, 1973, Ce&ar Chavez visited St. Andrew's Seminary, 1050 South Birch. Cesar Chavez, en route to Chicago, Boston, and New York City, stopped at St. Andrew's with a busload of seventy lettuce working strikers. The oc— cation was to attend a Mariachi Mass and rally in support of the lettuce boycott.
In Colorado, Richard Longoria, Director of the United Farm Workers in this state, stated that the major boycott effort was focused on the Safeway Stores, Inc., simply because Safeway was the largest lettuce buyer in the nation and that A&P Grocers together with Safeway control twenty per cent in the United States, and in Denver, Safeway controls 43% of the food buying business. The Colorado effort also suggested that 5,000 people had been turned away from Denver Safeway stores, and 1,500 from the Boulder Safeway Stores.
Three thousand people waited more than two hours to see Cesar Chavez and were entertained by the Guadalupe Mestizo Dancers, hearing speeches, and listening to Mariachi music. The anticipation grew as “Las Manaitas" were sung. A tremendous surge of pride seemed to fill the entire room. The shout of
“Viva Cesar Chavez” rang out. Another speaker spoke urging support for the lettuce boycott. He cited the need for the United Farm Workers to have the right to determine what their services would be worth on a contractual basis.
The announcer stated that word had been received that Cesar Chavez was on the grounds of the Seminary. The music started again, the Mariachis led the audience in the song “DE Colores.'' Everyone waited anxiously for the entrance of Cesar Chavez. The feeling of the room was joyous, yet solemn and for a moment the music seemed to calm the audience. The moment of entrance approached— Cesar Chavez entered the room. The people rose in a desperate attempt to get a view of their hero. A small humble man, yet a great man, a man who seems to carry the conscience of this nation on his shoulders, the shouts of “Viva Cesar Chavez'' gained momen-mentum. “Viva La Huelga,” “Chavez Si, Safeway, No,''—the shouting finally ended with “Si Se Puede'' (meaning yes it can be done). After a series of speakers again basically supporting the efforts of Cesar Chavez, Cesar took the podium. Immediately he took command of the audience. A quick look around the audience saw a sensation of faith once again burst through the shouts• and movements of the audience. Tears came to eyes of most people as Cesar Chavez pointed out experiences that he and the camposinos had experienced en route to Denver, and in his efforts to gain rights for the poorest of American citizens.
The Mariachi Mass that was scheduled for the afternoon never took place due to the lateness of arrival. Father John, Principal of St. Andrew's Seminary, pleaded with the audience to refrain from stomping on the floor of the gym. He feared that the structitre would not hold the thousands of people it now contained. At this point, Cesar Chavez introduced his film, “Si Se Puede?' He emphasized the importance of the right to boycott as thel only visible weapon that the camposinos could depend on to secure their rights in gaining feasible contracts.
The film, as well as the record of Cesar Chavez, clearly
portrays a non-violent approach which Cesar Chaves has endorsed as the foundation of his effort. Most of the support gained by the U.F.W. (United Farm Workers) has been through its leaders own personal suffering. It could be said with reasonable accuracy that Cesar Chavez has won major victories for the ( poor by simply suffering on various occasions through “nonviolent religious fastings'.'
In an informal discussion, held with a smaller audience in the cafeteria of St. Andrew's Seminary, Cesar in his soft spoken manner explained his determined efforts to win victory in the lettuce boycott and he felt that the methods of nonviolence was instrumental in the grape boycott. He literally believes that there is “no end to the good) that can be done with non-violent protest and a positive mind which has been underlined and coined in Cesar Chavez's motto, “Si Se Puede!'' (It can be done'') In an answer to a question from the audience, he stated, “No I don't
consider myself a legend------there
are enough people who don't like me to keep me honest. I am just like the other workers, when I go home my wife treats me like a husband.'' When asked who his hero was, he replied, “Los Camposinos, the farmworkers.''
There is no doubt in this writers mind that Cesar Chavez is a hero in his own right. An honest, dedicated, religious, and loyal American who refuses to be defeated. Viva Cesar Chavez! Viva la Justicia!
®
Education es la luz del mundo
7


CHICANO UNITY PRODUCES BUILDERS HARDWARE
BUSINESS PROFILE “Chuck Duran’s Dream Comes True”
Mr* Charles (Chuck) Duran is forty—one years old. He and his wife June reside at 7752 Webster Way, Arvada, Colorado. They are the proud parents of five children: Carrie 17, Christine 14, Carmel ll, Chuck Junior 8, and Craig 6.
The story of Builders Hardware, Inc., started with an idea and desire of Mr. Charles (Chuck) Duran, ex—salesman in the building industry. Mr. Duran has had extensive experience with nine years at the Colorado Title Company, four years with the American Builders Supply Company, as supervisor of the hardware department, twelve years with Denver Company Hardware, and for the past year with the S and S Sales Company, as manufactor’s representative.
The first problem Mr. Duran faced was, “how was he going to acquire the capitol necessary to purchase the large inventory needed for this type of business. He was introduced to the Colorado Economic Development Association (CEDA) and to the League of United Latin American Citizens Contractors Association (LULAC). He presented his idea to the LULAC Contractors and the Contractors realized the need for this type of wholesale outlet facility. Select members of the group decided the idea would be a worthy investment. In addition, many other people in the Spanish-speaking community also were of tremendous support, assistance and encouragement. Specifically, Mr. Ted Samano, or Rainbow Paint Company who was the prime source of reinforcement, Mr. Manuel Maes of Maes Construction Co., Inc., and Mr. Ben Martinez of Martinez Construction, the former
president of LULAC Contractors Association. Mr. Henry Esquibel, who was assigned the project by CEDA to analyze, package, and to complete the project was also extremely valuable in making the project a success. Mr. Duran described Henry Esquibel as a guy who went out of his way a hundred times in a sincere and unselfish manner. “He is truly a credit to our community
The initial investment was $20,000.00 put forth by Mr. Duran and nine initial investors. Afraid of being under-capitalized, the group sought additional investing funds through La Raza Investment Corporation, who used this business as a “pilot*’ means of funding future minority programs in the Spanish-speaking community. La Raza Investment then provided an additional $28,000.00 of capital.
The success of getting additional funds are also attributed to many people too numberous to mention but Mr. Ed Lucero and his staff at CEDA are credited with being truly instrumental in this phase. Mr. Duran stated, “This is living proof that Ed Lucero gets things done in a magnificent and
Mr. Chuck Duran reviews hardware selestions for his new home customers, Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence 0. Quintana.,
business like fashion.”
With $48,000.00 in his pocket as initial capital, a great faith in his endeavor, Chicano business unity and a mountain of Chicano support and expertise, Mr. Duran approached the Small Business Administration (SBA) in Denver for a small business loan. Mr. Duran describes what happened then, “Henry Esquibel went to SB A and ran with the package, he secured a loan for $100,000 and with most cooperative effort of a very capable banker, Mr. Daryl
Hobson, of Central Bank and Trust Company, the loan became a reality.” This effort on the part of Mr. Duran and his many capable “amigos” serves as testimony to the fact that when a man believes in himself, believes in his people, and believes in his community-at-large, the sky is the limit. Mr. Duran states, “Although, we are young in this business as we- are in the company, we face the future with no fear or uncertainties, and a great
deal of enthusiasm-----knowing full
well that with a tremendous amount of need and support demonstrated thus far for our services we can’t help but be successful.”
November 15, 1972, was the opening day of Builders Hardware. One year to the date from the time Mr. Druan first approached CEDA with the idea of a minority Chicano owned, one hundred per cent, Builders Hardware Supply Company. From the very beginning Mr. Duran desired the ambition to own his own business. Today Duran Builders Hardware Supply Company does in fact exist at 2360 Curtis Street, Denver, Colorado. Chuck Duran’s dream has come true. A likely example that the Chicano does in fact have it “together.” We wish Mr. Duran only the very best success in the future in his own venture.
Chuck Duran, President of Builders Hardware explains the importance of a very extensive inventory for the hardware line of business to John H. Vigil, Editor of Los Conquistadores.
8


OUR LADY OF THE VISITATION CHURCH
By Julia, Castillo
(Editor's Note: Mrs. Julia Castillo is Chairwoman of the Parish Club of Our Lady of Visitation Catholic Church. She is employed by Improvement Association Senior Employment ~
cars to convert them into a Church.
In the early part of the 1950's, Archbishop Urban J. Vehr, through the Archdiocese of Denver, lid for the installation of water and twer lines to the parish site, and ^authorized the building of a small ihurch.
After Father Trudel retired, write priests from Mt. Carmel WK^s^Denver, took charge of the tsiwjj^sThe Reverend Roger Rao, f.S.MmRs^still remembered for his greakJmduamong the people.. The churWk jy^lVenamed Our Lady of Vi^b&tionA k*br lieu of the original n anm:;^po%wheph erd.
1957, the Reverend jGeorg* EvanMt assistant chancellor Bf tfte^Hudiqclese, administered the Sacra/He/ifck tone people. He later BkamS Ifie ^Auxiliary bishop of VeB It was during his tenure turn the parish hall was built.
Onmil]Ml, 1958^^0ur Lady (^misitation wjE madd^rt of Holy Twmty Parisâ„¢ whiqhJtad been creafed^paa iMepenamft parish in Amustf, ^SbvK^heariests from Hmy j fnfp^f^ehdrcfp Reverend Amert.
Kw
p
Our Lady of Visitations %e only Mission chucrh in Denver+btyat was built by the people in munity. Plans for the builu$n£j&re drawn among the small^Mmber^^ men from the parish antf kxm pripm.
Father Trudel. Oil U j
As far as we wfow, mdver£nd John Trudel, Chaplajn omMefcy Hospital in Denver, sajwmrfe n&ed of apostolic work ammmthe Catholic families who live^/njmttpeiSavory Mushroom plant ayHMtmvekue and Federal Boulevard. This Iwaa an idea that lingelffd in 1 is mhoumts day in and daympt, for a ihurchno be built in in the
viomity *of Place and
PMggai ^oulev^J^Xllthatmmme, in^^^me c&raMgWf jfeMw'as once re/CTtedw^! ^ujMt jmlU but which lateY^Msn^Mimnjm c4mP to the mfonte
Capri^J mm I
ifi v 19401
a kind
of &en G^^ffiWhiL and ^^Vencn^reh/ bpugmJ(vr^acsefjt of l^^^^^hMnfyi resides Jl i
wh ere j^tio^PP^y
is /a) Jf
i jf^Car^h Jdpilfi
FathBr^^^X/M dinners
poSS<%mMld became
One da&yt ^pa^^about that the ciifW /om oari sh
of Deader gave FatW^^rudel
f^^hinss and
Now €^SmSs Lfor the hall,
was f are
to^stSfeW y^jj&ch ^ f.
mmnimsti
evgSk^d Joseph Haber, pumjal needs
Wd&p Kurinsthis
ier carnivals were prW used to mgSwmem, to re-ainjf th^^utJid^^frtfie^church, and
The men ^Mtged^Jthe kitchen
.gimp^t^wPGburr^yohmiflren by
s jdr^ and vo^~
donapBr the tips street\^lJMie^my l^ach^iV^fThere are 280
car ^ould be mSed 1pd they could W Catholic families that are affiliated
start tk^ySmrch. Instead of one9 street ^dar,Wather Trudel became owner of two street cars.
In the late 1944's, Ben Garcia signed title and contract with Father Trudel so that the construction could take place. Once the contract was signed, a small number of men (nine) started work on the two street
with the small church. The parish is governed by a citizen's council of fourteen members (The Altar and Rosary Society and the men's group reorganized into one group called the Visitation Parish Club) which meet once a month to plan and organize the finances and affairs of the Church.
The annual Bazaar is the main money-making project throughout the year. This activity is held during the month of July, following the weekend of July fourth. Another annual event is the Mexican Dinner which is held during the first part of November.
The parish hall has been made available to the Adams County Welfare Department to assist in meeting the needs of the low—income. The Salvation Army and its Senior Citizens program is also headquartered at the parish hall every day, six days out of the week.
continued on page 55
9


ll£i£SH
BERNARD VALDEZ SEEKS ELECTION TO DENVER SCHOOL BOARD
Bernard Valdez to seek election to Denver Board of Education for a six year term on May 15, 1973.
CHAIRMAN
William Grant
CO-CHAIRMAN Mrs. Mary Baca
MEMBERS
Dr. Karl Arndt Mrs. Helen Arndt Mrs. Jean K. Bain Junius F. Baxter Hon. Betty Benavidez Hon. John R. Bermingham Miss Mildred Biddick Marvin W. Buckets Hon. Palmer L. Burch Hugh R. Catherwood George A. Cavender Mrs. Della Chavez Hon. Roger Cisneros Dr. William M. Covode Walter C. Emery Hon. Don Friedman Peter Grant Mrs. Rhondda Grant L. Michael Henry Mrs. Edward H. Hilliard, Jr. Earl Howe
Mrs. Philomena Johnson Mrs. Bernice A. Knuckles Mason K. Knuckles Rabbi Manuel Laderman Jessie Manzanares William H. Miller Mrs. William D. Millett Mrs. Stephanie Moore Blaise J. Plaisance Mrs. Sara Lee Pollock Paco Sanchez Dr. Edith M. Sherman Benjamin F. Stapleton Sheldon Steinhauser David S. Touff Mrs. Terry Tourf Dr. Daniel T. Valdes Jake R. Valdez Hon. Ruben A. Valdez Reverend Charles Woodrich Minoru Yasui
Committee to Elect BERNARD VALDEZ
DENVER BOARD OF EDUCATION
AN OPEN LETTER TO DENVER VOTERS DEAR VOTER:
In June 1972 I was appointed to the Board of Education to replace Mr. Bert Gallegos who resigned his position on the Board upon leaving the State. The law requires that this position must now be filled by a vote of the electorate.
Based upon my experience on the Board since last June, I feel that I have a contribution to make on the Board of Education to enhance the educational opportunities of all the children in Denver. Therefore, I am a candidate for a six-year term at the forthcoming May 15 School Board Election.
In this regard I urge you to consider my administrative experience, my civic involvement and my commitment to education in making your choices at the polls. Let me then share with you some philosophical ideas on a few basic issues on education.
The Public Schools:
In a democratic society the public school system must serve as the basic fabric which binds our institutions and all our people into a unified whole, not necessarily by the creation of a monolithic mass but allowing those differences which enrich our culture and cause it to flourish. Educational opportunities must be available to all children regardless of economic circumstance. Special educational programs must be made available to children with special needs, such as children with mental or physical handicaps. Education should serve as the equalizer of opportunities by challenging each child to achieve to his utmost intellectual potential.
Neighborhood Schools:
In the last ten years the neighborhood school has become the object of great controversy. This controversy has raged especially in the urban centers where racial isolation is most severe. Our efforts to resolve our racial and economic isolation by destroying the value of the neighborhood school only serves to complicate our problem. The neighborhood school is about the last institution which binds the neighborhood together and should be protected, not as an instrument of isolation but as a tool to bind our cultures and heal our differences.
Personnel Policy:
The primary function of our schools is to provide quality education to every child. This requires good teachers with high morale, adequate teaching materials and the best learning environment we can possibly afford, pur teachers must have good working conditions and salaries which are comparable to similar districts in the country.
Annexation:
Under Colorado Statutes, Denver’s School Board must approve all annexations to the city before consideration by City Council. In my opinion, Denver must continue to expand its boundaries wherever possible to avoid becoming plagued with “Core City’’ problems, and to keep a diversity of socio-economic conditions in the District.
School Financing:
Quality Education is not a bargain item. It is very expensive. Denver cannot afford a second-rate educational system. I pledge my efforts to work within the School Board to achieve the best and most efficient educational school system we can possibly afford.
10


MARCELA TRUJILLO A CHICANA ON THE MOVE
“Her Life and Work”
Marcela Trujillo was born to Agapito and Rose Torres Lucero in Alamosa, Colorado. Her educational record is as follows: Attended high school at Annunciation Catholic High School in Denver, Colorado. She received her B.A. Degree with a major in English and a minor in Education from the University of Denver. Marcela received her M.A. Degree from Kansas University, 1968, in Spanish. She has also taken post-graduate courses in linguistics and is a PHD candidate at Union College, Yellowsprings Ohio.
Mrs. Trujillo has ten years of teaching experience. She has taught English language and literature, Spanish language and literature, and French language and literature.
In addition, Mrs. Trujillo has worked in the Spanish departments at the University of Colorado and the University of Kansas, Intensive English Center Department, Kansas
University; Denver University Center for students from abroad; and Shaw Heights Jr. High (District No. 50. Adams County, Colorado): Assistant Professor, Arts and Humanities, Colorado University, Denver Center Director, Mexican American Education Program.
Mrs. Trujillo has held academic membership with the following organizations:
AATSP, American Association of Teachers, Spanish and Portuguese NCTE, National Council Teachers of English TESL, Teachers of English as a second language Kappa Delta Pi (Education)
(Honorary)
Phi Sigma Iota, Honorary, Modern Languages Sigma Delta Pi, Honorary, Spanish
National Concilio of Chicano Studies
Editorial Board, EPOCA,
Mrs. Marcela Trujillo, Assistant Director of Colorado Pinto Project.
continued on page 44
MANUEL MAES
OWNER
MZE/
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LTC. (RET) THOMAS H. MARTINEZ
WINS COMMUNITY LEADER AWARD FOR 1972 LATIN AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATION, INC. “The life of a Man Who Would Rather Wear Out Than Rust Out”
youngest AHA president elected in the history of Lodge No. 75, Trinidad, Colorado. Previously, in 1933, Martinez had graduated from Wel-senburg High School in the top third of his class. He was also selected twice by his school officals in 1932 as a member of the National Honor Society for his outstanding work, and participation in athletic and high school events.
In July, 1942, he was inducted into the U.S. Army during World War II as a private in Fort Logan, Colorado. After basic training at Fort Warren, Wyoming, and a year's stateside service, he volunteered for Officer Cadindate School at Fort Lee, Virginia. He successfully completed the course and was commissioned a 2nd Lt., Quartermaster Corps, July, 1943. He performed stateside and overseas combat duty with the 86th Infantry Division from August, 1943, until April, 1946, in Europe and the Phillipines. In January, 1945, prior to going to Europe, he married Eralia I. Garcia of Trinidad, and after a one day
continued on page 48
(Editor's Note: It is a real pleasure to have the opportunity to include the life and work of LTC (Ret) Thomas H. Martinez in our Spring Issue of “Los Conquistadores.'' His dedication, loyaly, and hard won accomplishments will serve as a guiding light to our people. It is my hope that more Chicanos will chocse to “wear out rather than to rust out." His record of 43 years of public, community, state and national service to La Raza and our beloved country speaks for itself.)
LTC. (RET) THOMAS H. MARTINEZ FAMILY---------.—T0P ROW (Left t9 Right):
Tom, Jr., Linda, Mary, James; MIDDLE ROW: Mrs. Martinez, LTC. (RET) Thomas H. Martinez, William, FRONT ROW: John.
Thomas Henry Martinez is a native of Trinidad, Colorado, a member of the Indio-Hispanic peoples of the Great Southwest. He was born February 8, 1914. His fore—fathers, and oujs, as history relates in Colorado, ventured into this region with the early Spanish explorers over 431 years ago with Coronado's great expedition which reached far as Kansas in 1541 •
Thomas was reared as a poor rancher's boy in Vallorosa, Colorado In 1920, when his dad was killed, the family of six with his mother moved into Trinidad, Colorado. He was encouraged by his wonderful mother, Onofre G. Martinez, to pursue his elementary education in Walsen-burg, Colorado. He graduated from high school in 1933. During the depression era of the early 1930's he worked in the farm fields of the San
Luis Valley, served in the Civilian Conservation Corps Tree Army, and labored in the coal mines of Valdez, Colorado from 1936 to 1938. He was hired as a Spanish interpreter and receptionist in 1939 in the Trinidad Welfare Department, where he did much social welfare work in behalf of the people. In early 1942, he got into Civil Service with the Navy Department as a Senior Clerk Typist in Washington, D.C.
In 1930 when Thomas joined his first Chicano organization, the Prosperity Club in Walsenburg, Colorado as a youth of sixteen, the people recognized his leadership potential by his aggressive competition in school and community events. In 1934, he joined the Alianza—Hispano— Americana, the largest fraternal organization of la raza in the southwest. At age 25, he became the
12


ESTILO AMERICANO
By Lawrence Alan Trujillo
(Editor's Note: “Estilo Americano’* is written by a young author, Larry A. Trujillo, an instructor at the University of Coloraco, and a part-time instructor at Metropolitan . State College. He is host of a new television series “UP” carried by Channel
Ji
9. Larry is also Director of the Trujillo Dancers, Director of the Guadalupe Mestizo Dancers, Vice-President of the Colorado Folk Arts Council, and Committee member for the Advisory Board for the Denver Center of the Performing Arts. He holds a B.A. Degree, and is presently enrolled in Graduate School at the University of Colorado and has also studied at the Universidad Autonoma de Mexico.)
Notreamerica es uno de los paises m&s ricos y mas pobres del mundo. Si observamos el estilo americano de vivir podemos entenderlo mejor. Voy a citar algunas situaciones comunes en la vida americana.
El americano empieza su dia a las siete y media de la manana. Se echa una taza de caf6 con tal rapidez que no le toma sabor-menos mal! Inmediatamente, el americano corre a su choce y
empieza el vuelo a su trabajo con los demas en la lucha del transito. Cada chofer en su poderoso coche compite con los demas para ver quien llega primero. Si el oberro
llega vivo, empieza a trabajar.
Otra vez, le encontramos en un mundo de competiciSn. Tiene que producir todo lo que puede sin atender a la calidad de su producto. El jefe le dice constantemente:
“Adelante! Adelante!" “Corre! Corre!"
“El tiempo es Divero”
El obrero trabaja rapidamente aunque su producto resulte de mala calidad. Esto no importa ya que el publico lo necesita y lo compra. Quiza es prefetible que el producto sea inferior. De esta manera la clientela tendra que comprar mas porque el producto pronto se estrope a. y
Despues de una manana
continued on page 46
for the best in Kitchen Cabinets
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President
13


Names In The News
The editor wishes to encourage readers to submit “Names in the News” where people have distinguished themselves in the business community and in private endeavors.
JOHN H. VIGIL, Editor of El Conquistador, was recently appointed to the Adams County Board of Adjustments and Variances as Associate Member.
JOSE ANTONI SOSA has been elected President of the Board of Directors of the Manhatton Valley Spanish Civic Organization in New York City.
PAUL A LARID has been elected the new Chairman of the LULAC Contractors Association for the 1973 fiscal year.
MAGDALENO “LEN” AVILA, United Farm Workers Union, of Center, Colorado, won the 17th Annual Whitehead Award from the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU).
LILLIAN GUTIERREZ, Shaw Heights, was recently appointed to Adams County School District 50 Advisory Accountability Committee for 1973.
DR. PHILIP D. ORTEGA has been appointed Assistant to the President and Professor of Urban Studies at Metropolitan State College, Denver, Colorado.
LYLA GARCIA, a native of Denver, Colorado, has been appointed Coordinator of the Federal Women's Program for the U.S. Department of Labor in the Dallas region.
TONY BACA, of Adams County Colorado, was recently elected the new Chairman of El Valle Del Norte American G.I. Forum, the fastest growing chapter in the State of Colorado.
ALEX RAMIREZ, Executive Director of ADCO Improvement Association was appointed to the Adams County Planning Commission.
EDMUND ALVAREZ of Oakland, California has been appointed Assistant Director for Administration at the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs.
JEANNE MARTINEZ, Commerce City, recently appointed to Adams County School Board District No. 14.
REPRESENTATIVE RUBEN
VALDEZ (D), Denver, recently introduced the most comprehensive Bilingual-Bicultural Education Bill in the history of the State of Colorado.
COUNCILMAN LUIS A. CORTEZ JR., an appointee, is running as a candidate in the Colorado Springs City Council Election, April 3, 1973.
LORENZO RAMIREZ of Richardson, Texas, was recently sworn in as Dallas Regional Director of the Equal Employment Commission.
JOSEPH G. RAMIREZ of Pittsburg, California, has been elected Chairman of the Central Committee for a Planned National Congress of Cultural and land Reform. The National Congress was held October 20-22, 1972, in the Albuquerque, New Mexico Convention Center.
CHRIS C. RUIZ of Los Angeles has been appointed to serve for one year as Administrative Assistant to Dr. George Smith, Superintendent of Mesa, Arizona Public Schools.
ELIAS C. RODRIGUES of Fairfax, Virginia, has been Coordinator for the President's Sixteen Point Program at the Civil Aeronautics Board.
MARCIO GARCIA, World War II Congressional Medal of Honor winner died in a recent auto crash. He was 52 years old.
GRACE OLIVAREZ, a native of Arizona, is the first woman graduate of the Notre Dame University Law School. This very active Chicana attended Notre Dame on a John Hay Whitney Fellowship.
BERNARDO SANDOVAL of Bee-ville, Texas, was honored at a recent Recognition Banquet. He is the National Executive Secretary of the American G.I. Forum.
MR. BERNARD VALDEZ, appointed to the Denver School Board vacated by Bert Gallegos, has announced plans to seek reelection to the post.
14


Tony L. Baca
NEWLY ELECTED VALLE DEL NORTE AMERICAN G. f FORUM CHAIRMAN
Tony L. Baca, Adams County resident, was recently elected Chairman of the American G.I. Forum, Valle Del Norte Chapter, Thornton, Colorado. Mr. Baca was born June 10, 1925, in Longmont, Colorado to Nazario and Pablita Baca. He and his wife Helen, reside at 8420 Dawson Dr., Denver, Colorado. They are the parents of three children: Cynthia, 22, Catherine, 20, and
Amado Antonio, 10. Mr. Baca attended elementary school at La Salle, Colorado, and high school at Greeley, Colorado. In 1943, he joined the U.S. Navy and served in the South Pacific during World War 11 until 1946. After being honorably discharged, he was employed by the Veteran*s Administration and the U.S. Forestry Service. In July, 1972, Mr. Baca completed twenty-one years of employment service with Consolidated Freightways of Delaware. He is the Vice-President of Consolidated Freightways Employees Credit Union. Mr. Baca also sits on the ADCO Improvement
Association Board of Directors.
Mr. Baca is proud of the fact that the Valle Del Norte Chapter is among the youngest Forum chapters in the state receiving its Charter April 14, 1971, yet this chapter is the largest growing one in the entire state. Mr. Baca re-
ports that there are ninety active members in his organization. He explained that the G.I. Forum is a Veteran*s family organization whose main purpose is raising funds for scholarships for youngsters regardless of race, color, or creed. Recently a fund raising dance and dinner at Holy Cross Church in Thornton, Colorado netted $1500.00 dollars for the Valle Del Norte*s Scholarship effort.
Other officers elected for 1973 were: Vice-Chairman, Bob
Baca; Secretary, Andres Zamora; Dave Caravas; Sergeant—at-arms,
Virgil McRhyew; Chaplain, Jim Dominquez; Public Realtions Director, Alex Ramirez; Parliamentarian, Toy Roybal; Historian, Grover
Steinbeck.
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates state police enrollments will rise rapidly in the 1970*s, with 2,900 new officers being recruited each year.
todw m or mo aw owy mm


LIFE MEANS GROWTH
The Theatines had been in Colorado only a brief time before their unselfish work, particularly with the Spanish—speaking, attracted favorable notice among the priests of hte state.
From the city of Denver, the pastor of St. Leo's Church asked the Theatine Father Caldentey to preach a mission in Spanish to his Hispano parishioners. This mission was so successful that these two priests along with Bishop Tihen, decided to form a parish for the Spanish-speaking of Denver. Temporary quarters were in the basement of St. Leo's. In 1926’ St. Cajetan's Church in Denver was dedicated-a monument to the direction of the Theatines, the sacrifice of the Hispano parishoners, and the generosity of several Denver Catholic families.
The work of the Theatine priests is broad indeed - it is essential to realize that there are some 50,000 Spanish surnamed families in Denver, a number which increases each year with migrations to the city from rural Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and Old Mexico. Migrant workers settle in Denver in hopes of a better life, but are bewildered by a strange Culture and a strange language. These people find stability and direction in the parishes of the Theatines - priests who have spent their lives in helping the Spanish-speaking American.
To further aid in their aposto-late, the fathers founded a parish in Fort Collins, Colorado, in 1935. This parish, Holy Family, has been a true mission to the Hispanos of Northern Colorado. The latest method of contacting and serving the
A Theatine Priest
A MAN WITH A MISSION
Father Larry Gallegos
Part II CONCLUSION: Continued From Winter Issue 1973
migrants outside of Fort Collins is the mobile chapel of Our Lady of Guadalupe - a huge house-trailer converted to a complete church, which is moved from migrant camp to migrant camp during the growing season. The Theatines administer the Sacraments and give missions from this chapel, moving through a huge geographical area and bringing the Church to thousands of God's people.
In 1948, Our Lady of Guadalupe church was founded in Colorado Springs. This church, in the downtown of the city, ministers to a large Hispano population who previously had no church to call their own.
In 1960, again with the idea of continuing the unique apostolate, the Fathers were asked to establish a parish in New York State - Our Lady of Fatima at Plattkille.
Also in 1960, the North American and Mexican work of the Theatines was recognized by Rome, and the area was made the North American Province, with Father Bartholomew Quetglas as the first Porvincial. GROWTH MEANS CHANGE
By the time of the Golden Jubilee year of the Colorado foundation, many changes had taken place in the work of the Congregation of Clerks Regular, as the Theatines are also known. The crucial necessity of reaching minority became one of the nation's foremost problems. No one was in a better position to reach the Hispano citizens than the Theatines, who had spent their labors for half a century with these people. Long before minority causes became a national concern, these fathers were doing inner-city work, and social work, and contact work, through missions preached in Spanish over the whole Western area.
Modern methods of communica-
tion were used from the beginning. Publications in Spanish were used to unite the people, and in 1950 a daily radio program was begun in Spanish. Talent shows have been a vehicle. for Hispano recognition, and television whenever possible.
Home masses, C.C.D. programs, youth programs, and the Cursillo movement have all had a great positive effect on all the people with whom the Theatines work, for their work is not, of course confined to Spanish-speaking. Cultural programs, including the Mariachi Mass have introduced the ways of the Hispano to their Anglo neighbors. Priests of the Order “speak out'' for their less articulate flock-in both Church and political activities.
The Theatines realize that it is not enough to have priests from Spain to do their North American work. They established St. Andrew Seminary in Denver in J.955, a seminary with both major and minor study programs for both Hispano and Anglo students. The Seminary faculty priests serve the Archdiocese of Denver on several Ecclesiastical committees and are active in Liturgical work and assist in many Denver parishes.
A major step in the work of the Theatines came in the late '50*8, when one of the Colorado priests established1 a parish in one of the poorest sections of Mexico City. From the fantastic beginning, several parishes were founded, some in other barrios, and others in residential sections of the city. One of these has been designated as the National Shrine of St. Cajetan.
“I cannot understand how it is possible for anyone not to believe in the promises of Christ... He commands me not to be oversolicitous concerning what I shall eat or what I shall put on... I confidently trust that He will take care in providing us with food and dress...'' Words of St. Cajetan to the Pope and the Cardinals in the founding of the Theatines.
St. Cajetan founded the Clerks Regular in 1524. The basic rule of the Order is contained in the Gospel of St. Matthew; Chapter 6, verses 24
continued on page 49
16


RAMIREZ RECEIVES DSA AWARD
Mr. Alex Ramirez, Executive Director of the Adams County Improvement Association (ADCO), was recently named the Distinguished Service Award winner by the Northglenn Jaycees. Mr. Ramirez, his wife, Mae, and their four children: Tanya, 11, Brent, 10, Suzette, 8, and Maria, 7, reside at 7937 Pearl Street, Adams County.
The purpose- of the Colorado Jaycees DSA Award is to select, recognize, and honor the most outstanding men of Colorado...Men who, because of extraordinary achievements, leadership, and service to their community during the calendar year of 1972, have distinguished themselves in their chosen vocation and/or avocation.
Mr. Ramirez is a graduate of St. Joseph's Military Academy, Hays, Kansas, 1955—59. He was active in football, basketball, track, music, marching band, and glee club. He served in ROTC, and graduated a second lietutnant. In addition, he attended Garden City Junior College and Metropolitan State College, Denver, Colorado. He served in the U.S. Marine Corp. For additional training, he interned at Fort Logan Mental Health Center, Children's Asthmatic Reasrech Hospital, and Laradon Hall, constituting some 600 hours working with handicapped children.
In 1968-69, he acquired the position of Assistant Psychologist in the Head Start Program that involved Head Start Centers in Denver. He was credited with being instrumental in making constructive reforms for this program.
In 1969, Mr. Ramirez began his governmental service career with the Social Security Administration, supervising benefit programs for elderly citizens. He supervised sixteen disadvantaged high school and college youth counselors working with the senior citizens. In this capacity, Mr. Ramirez produced the most complete information and the best results of any of the twelve-tested cities. He was personally complimented by Hubert H. Humphrey, Vice-President of the United States.
Mr. and Mrs. Alex Ramirez display the 1972 DSA Award presented to Mr. Ramirez By the Northglenn Jaycees.
In 1970, Mr. Ramirez joined the Adamsi County Improvement
Association, an 0E0 (Office of Equal Opportunity) funded agency as Director of Manpower and Economic Development. He worked with low-income families to improve their job opportunities and to provide them with technical assistance.
In May of 1972, Mr. Ramirez was appointed as Interim Executive Director of the Adams County Improvement Association. In August of 1972, he was appointed Executive Director of ADCO and is responsible for all programs and funds that constitute 500,000 dollars per year. Through his direct leadership and guidance, ADCO developed a track record and an extremely favorable reputation of delivering effective services to the poor and exemplary programs to the community.
Mr. Ramirez was one of five young men picked nationally to represent the 0E0 as a consultant to the National United States Jaycees in the area of human development. His civic contributions include the following: Vice-Chairman of Adams County Planning Commission Public-Relations Officer of Valle Del Norte G.I. Forum Chapter, Member of the Colorado Migrant Development Corporation Board of Directors, and a member of School District No. 14 Alternative Educational Method for High School dropouts.
Regarding the DSA Award Mr. Ramirez stated that he felt “It was certainly an honor for me to be selected for this outstanding award". He reflects that as a young boy he had to work hard to assist his mother as his father had died when Alex was seven years old. He remembers working at anything he could find, from shining shoes to delivering papers, and other odd jobs. He gives a great deal of credit to his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Paul Lopez, 204 Walker Street, Garden City> Kansas. “Without the great deal of support my mother, Antonia, gave me, it would not have been possible to get where I am at today. My mother worked for sixty cents an hour as a Nurse's Aid to put me through St. Joseph's Military Acade4 my at Hays, Kansas, a prep school run by Capuchen Franciscan priests.
I honestly feel that my associations at the Academy made the difference in motivating me to better myself.
I am very grateful to my mother, aunts, and uncles, and to the rest of my family who were so good to me and helped me so much. 1 am especially grateful to my wife, Mae, for her understanding and help through my many endeavors. I have to truly be a gifted man as a result."
Mr. Ramirez feels that the opportunities look better for our people today, but, “We have a long way to go in terms of any type of parity (full equality). We have to continue to work hard to see to it that many, many, more people have the opportunity for a better and happier life
(Editor's Note: The Distinguished Service Award rendered to his community by Alex Ramirez speaks for itself. The outstanding factor is that this young man has only begun. There is no doubt that he will continue to contribute in a magnificent manner to his people, to his community, and to hi£ country.)
«----««----------
LOVE AND SUPPORT YOUR BROTHERS AND YOUR SISTERS ALWAYS! BIEN VENIDOS A LOS CONQUISTADORES
17


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PROJECT GO-GENERATING OPPORTUNITIES
By Doflaldo Lucero
A program that provides Educational opportunities for minority students at Colorado State University. Project Go was established in the Fall of 1968 as an attempt to meet neeos of students who otherwise might not be able to attend College. Project Go is a Special Service Program for potential college students who come from low—income families and who have limited educational experience. A primary objective of the program is to identify and encourage interested students to continue their education beyond high school and to provide them with financial aid as well as academic support.
The current director, Sefior Doifialdo Lucero, who has been associated with the program since 1969, has seen the program expand form 61 students, to the present enrollment of 400 students, (52% Chi-canos, 26% Blacks, 16% Anglos, 67% Asian-Americans and Native Americans). Also, very encouraging is the fact that “Special Service Programs'* (or E.O.P. programs) are being implemented at most of the universities and colleges in Colorado.
He also stated that 6 Project Go students graduated in 1971, 30
graduated in 1972 and that approximately 40 additional students will graduate by the summer of 1973. He noted that the attrition rate (students who withdraw, or fail) of Project students is not much different than the attrition rate for other students. Even though, many of the students admitted are considered moderate risk or high risk students. STAFF
Project Go presently maintains four full-time staff members, (Direct tor, Assistant Director, and two secretaries), and two half-time staff members (Financial-Aid Advisor and Staff Counselor). Upper-division students are hired through the work-study program to serve as peer advisors for incoming freshman. These peer advisors also monitor the student's academic progress and serve as a liaison between student's and the Go office.
Our responsibiliteis to students are broken down into four areas; RECRUITING
Our recruiting efforts involves contacting high school counselors and community leaders. We've met many individuals who are really sympathetic to our type of program. The Educational Talent Search
trim-rite corn
program (a division of SER) in Denver and Centro Emiliano Zapata de Aztlan in Alamosa have been extremely helpful to us with our recruiting efforts. The most rewarding aspect of the recruitment according to Sefior Lucero is the personal contact they have with potential students and discussing with them the opportunities abailable. Many of our contacts are minorities who have been out of school for a while and want to come back. These older students seem to be most motivated. Senor Lucero also stated that they are still accepting applicants and those interested prospects should contact him at 429—5722 or write Project Go, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 81521 *
ADDMISSIONS
Acceptance to Project Go is based on the academic potential of students to succeed in a degree program at C.S.U. No single criterion is used when considering a student for admissions. Although, traditional academic predictors and high school performance are factors in student selection, eligibility is also based on other significant factors such as student attitude, motivation, personal recommendation and other more sub-
intinuedon page 50
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19


QUO VADIS, CHICANO?
Const & Developers
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By J. A. Rosales (Assistant Professor of Curriculum and instruction, University of Northern Colorado)
(Editor's Note: Mr. John A. Rosales is an outstanding educator and public servant, and a leading Chicano personality. He has been working hard for the enhancement of his people for over twenty-five years. His dedication, knowledge, and ability has produced a track record all Chicanos can be proud to relate. We are happy that he took time to express his thoughts in his article entitled, "Quo Vadis, Chicano?)
Education, to me, is making available to students the greatest number of options by which they can be self-sufficient after they are out of school. In this country, the value of an education being what it is, the more education a student receives, the greater the chances are for his being economically self-sufficient. Until only recently, the Mexican American or Chicano child in the United States has, for the major part, not been able to become economically self-sufficient because his education has been some — what limited and meager.
Two national organizations in which 1 presently hold membership are attempting to help change this. These two organizations are the National Education Task Force of La Raza and the Southwest Council of La Raza.
The second of these, the Southwest Council of La Raza, came about as a result of the Cabinet Hearings in El Paso, Texas, where some of us presented position papers and/or testimony concerning the plight of the Mexican American in the areas of Education, Housing, Economic Development, Welfare, etc. Soon after its foundation as a regional organization, the Southwest Council of La Raza established several areas in which they hope to concentrate much time and effort. Education was one of the first comr-mittees to be formed and I was honored by being selected as its first chairman. By September, 1968, a proposal for educational reforms
was submitted to the Ford Foundation by this committee. It was funded for approximately 125,000 dollars.
It is important to point out that the committee proposed a solution-oriented approach in attempting to ameliorate the conditions which prevailed in the schools of the Southwest where there was a heavy impact of “Mejicanitos." This was done by identifying model programs throughout the Southwest where teachers were honestly making attempts to help the Spanish-speaking child examine and reach his potential. One such program was found in Pueblo, Colorado, where, Miss Dorothy McKeag and colleague, Mr. Dan Martinez, Coordinator of Foreign Languages for District 60, had implemented a Music Project at Fulton Heights Elementary School— a school with 99.99 per cent Mexican American children. Miss McKeag "accentuated the positive" in her teaching by preparing an elementary program which taught mucisal skills through singing emphasis and stressed pride in the rich musical heritage of the Hispano/Chicano/ peoples of the region. The kids really loved it!
Specifically, there were few local organizations in search of educational reform at that time. Even now, they have appeared as so many eddies on the surface of a deep pool that lies stagnant and contained, not going anywhere. Our task, then, it to help those local organizations clarify their goals toward educational change, to support them with financial and technical assistance, to cooperate with them in planning specific strategies, and to induce them to join hands in a larger regional effort of cooperation.
At present, this committee is awaiting a decision by the Ford Foundation to determine whether this endeavor will continue or not.
The National Education Task Force de La Raza comes into being at a meeting at Newport Beach, California, in 1970. I was honored to have been one of the twenty-five persons chosen through the
continued on page 51
20


PUBLICATIONS AND BOOK REVIEW
CHICANOS: SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES by George Valdez and edited by Nathaniel N. Wagner and Marsha J. Haug provides an overview of the current literature on the psychological and sociological perspectives of the Chicano.
TWELVE SPANISH AMERICAN POETS by H. R. Hays, a bilingual anthology, is a standard work in the field and an excellent introduction to Latin American poetry. Published by Beacon, it costs $12.50 (hardbound) and $3.95 (paperback).
SELECTED PORMS by Miguel Hernandez and Bias de Otero is a bilingual edition.
THE EXCLUDED STUDENT, the third in a series of studies on the education of the Mexican American in the Southwest, has been released by the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. Copies of the study may obtained from the Civic Rights Commission, Office of Information and Publications, 1121 Vermont Ave, N.W., Washington, D C. 20425
LIBROS DE NUESTRA GENTE
Beautiful Books
Below is printed a list of books that are about the Chicano, his culture, history and contributions. These books reflect the story of the Mexican—Americans in their struggle to survive and keep their identity:
ww
BENITO JUAREZ, BUILDER OF A NATION, Emma Sterne, Knopf. 1967, $3.95.
FORGOTTEN PEOPLE, STUDY OF NEW MEXICANS, George I. Sanchez, Calvin Horn, 1967, $5.75.
LOS HISPANOS - Social Studies Unit for Teachers, School District No. 12, Adams County, 10480 No. Huron, Denver, Colorado 80221, $3.00.
A SIMULATED EXPERIENCE IN HUMAN RELATIONS A TOTAL IMMERSION IN THE HISPANO CULTURE, School District No. 12, Adam i County, 10480 No. Huron, Denver, Colorado 80221, $3.00.
MEXICAN AMERICANS: A BRIEF LOOK AT THEIR HISTORY, Julian Nava, Anti-Defamation League B*nai B’rith, 315 Lexington Avenue, New York, New York 10016.
LOS CUATRO, Abelardo Delgado, Reynundo* "Tigre” Perez, Richardo Sanchez, and Juan Valdez (Magdaleno Avila), Barrio Publications, Box 88, Denver, Colorado 80201, $3.00.
MEXICAN-AMERICANS IN THE SOUTHWEST, Ernesto Galarza, Herman Gallegos, Julian Samora, McNally, Santa, Barbara, $2.50.
GR1TO!, Reis Tijerina and the New Mexico Land Grant War of 1967, James Gardner, Bobbs-Merrill, New York, $8.00.
THE MEXICAN AMERICAN AND THE UNITED STATES, Charles J. Bustamante and Patricia L. Bustamante, Patty-LAR Publi-^i cations, L.T.D., P.O. Box 4177, ~~M4n. View, Calif., 14040, $1.00.
MEXICAN AMERICAN CHALLENGE TO A SCARED COW, Aztlan Publications, Chicano Studies Center. Monograph I, U.C.L.A., Los Angeles $2.99.
SAL SI PUEDES: CESAR CHAVEZ AND THE NEW AMERICAN REVOLUTION, Peter Matthissen, Random, 1969, $6.95.
TEJER1NA AND THE COURTHOUSE RAID, Peter Nabokov, New Mexico U. Press, 1969, $6.95.
MERCHANTS OF LABOR, Ernesto Gallarza, McNally & Loftin, 1964, $5.00. Also available in paperback.
MEXICAN AMERICANS, PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE, Julian Nova, American Book Co., New York.
FIFTEEN FAMOUS LATIN AMERICANS, Bailey and Grijalva, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1971.
NORTH FROM MEXICO, Carey McWilliams, Greenwood, 1968, $11.25. Also available in paperback.
LA RAZA: FORGOTTEN AMERICANS, Julian Samora, Notre Dame U. Press, 1963, $4.95.
DELANO, Johti Dunne, Farrar, 1967, $4*95. Also available in paperback.
21


LA MAMA.....Dedicated to All Mothers
LA MAMA is a symbol of dedication and love for all mothers. Sin la MAMA no haycorazon en la familia.
Therefore, remember your mother oh every day.
Remember your mother especially on Mother's Day,
May 13, 1973. 0


23


CONQUISTADORES SIN NOMBRE
Conrad Romero, born in the San Luis Valley, San Acacio, Colorado. He and his wife Sylvia have four children: Albert, Ray, Adrienne, Eufemia. Conrad was educated at Adams State, B. A.—1950, M.A.—1960, He is presently employed in the Colorado Department of Education as Consultant for Equal Educational Opportunity. Mr. Romero writes poetry, in Spanish, to keep up the Spanish-induced customs.
When the Spanish Armada was defeated by the English in 1588 this perpetuated a chain of events that affected many people in different parts of Spain's colonization movement in many different ways. This is a recount of what happened to a group of “conquistadores” who, as a direct result of the defeat, became stranded in northern New Mexico and in southern Colorado for a period of 263 years. They established settlements on both sides of the beautiful Sangre de Cristo Mountains, the San Luis Valley and Taos Valley on the west and Raton and Trinidad on the east.
News traveled very slowly in those days. The news concerning the defeat of Spain’s Armada was no exception. The Spanish colonizers in Mexico did not hear about it for many months and some of the “conquistadores” who were then probing the northern expanse of lands now known as the United States never really heard about it. This is why I have titled this presentation, “Conquistadores Sin Nombre”. These settlers thought they were establishing settlements that would create for Spain a larger, richer, more influential empire, not
Conrad A. Romero, Consultant Colorado Department of Education
(This lecture was prepared to accentuate the different cultures that developed among Spanish settlers in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado, particularly in the San Luis Valley. These “white” settlers, many who came as early as 1585, developed settlements and claimed lands for Spain for a long time after the defeat of the Spanish Armada. These settlements served as outposts and supply bases for the United States move westward after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. For the 263 years in between, these people lived with and among the natives found here and became the placid, gentle, folk who did not realize, until to late, that the “other” white move west was going to strip them not only of their land, but of most of their rights under a constitution that they totally accepted and believed in.)
knowing that Spain’s balloon had burst and would not be heard from again.
Legendary stories of riches to be found to the north spurred the people on. The stories of the “seven cities of Cibola” and the one about the “isle of Amazons” were probably the most influential. As a direct result of these two legends there were established chains of missions and “pueblos” along the “Rio Bravo del Norte” (Rio Grande) and along the western coast of California.
Friars, Jesuit priests, and sisters from the orders of Loretto and Charity were among the first religious white persons in the southwest. These religious people, along with some of the settlers, set precedents which affected greatly the behavior that the Indians expressed toward them. The deep belief in self-sacrifice and self-punishment, such as that practiced by the “ Penitentes”, impressed the Indians greatly. They themselves had practiced many similar acts in their religious ceremonies and this led many of them to accept and embrace Catholicism. This alone was probably the factor that led to the peace-
ful coexistence of the Spanish and Indian until the “other” white man invaded the territory in the 1800’s.
Most of the Spanish settlers originated from stock that had lived off the land. The pueblos they established for farm and sheep ranching purposes had deep roots. Some other settlements that were founded primarily for mining purposes were very unstable and did not last long. People cannot live very long without food no matter how much gold or silver they accumulate. Missions established by the religious people also had deep roots. Part of the learning shared with the Indian was that of growing grains and fruits other than the maise and wild fruits the Indian had before the white man came. Apples, plums, peaches, and pears were introduced in the areas where the climate would allow such growth. White flour was used to make “tortillas” and blue corn meal became “chaqueque” and “atalito”.
Since these Spanish settlers lived for such a long time “in absencia” of influences from Europe and Mexico they created a new and different culture with the:ir own foods, music, humor, and in some cases vocabulary.
Relative to foods, it can be stated that these people did not make burritos, tostadas, or enchiladas, as was done in Mexico. They used some of the same ingredients in their cookery, but they devised other ways for using them. They gave rise to chicos, burriniates, panocha, and torta de huevo con chile Colorado. They discovered that wild “quelites” or lambs’ quarters when cooked with “semilla de chile” were very delicious. Empanaditas were filled with mincemeat made from a mixture of powdered, dried fruit and “lomito de puerco.”
All over the world the people who are descendants of the “latino” have a taste for fast, lively music. The New Mexico and Colorado settlers were no exception. They liked and enjoyed polkas and lively waltzes. “El valse de las mascadas,”
continued on page 52
24


A LANGUAGE OF PRIDE
Chicano Spanish Communication is a new language course that was initiated in the Chicano Studies Department at Metropolitan State College this past quarter. A growing interest in the area has been expressed by the students. Proof of this can be seen by the more than 75 students who registered for the first class during the summer quarter of 1972.
Originating as a research paper by Professor Rueben Aguirre, Chairman of the Department, it now has a potential of being a part of the curriculum and playing a major role in the teaching of the language, history, and culture of the Chicano.
Professor Aguirre went on to give his views on the development of the new written language:
Traditionally, modern language departments in institutions of higher learning throughout the United States have placed emphasis on a universal European form of Spanish emanating from Spain. However, they have neglected unconsciously to study the various regional Spanish dialects inherent in the Southwestern United States. Consequently, the student who learns Spanish through traditional textbooks is at a disadvantage in these geographical areas when it comes to developing a rapport with Spanish-speaking people.
The Spanish dialect spoken in the Southwest acquires a variety of forms. Each region and barrio develops its own form of language and vocabulary with the passing of time. In the Southwest it is combined with the various English dialects. This dialect to a great extent emanated from a language that was handed down from generation to generation not in written form nor in a recorded manner, but in oral form and only recently has it been written and vocabulary lists compiled.
In the cities of the Southwest today, the Chicanos use an oral style of communication defined by many linguists as a dialect arising from a mixture of languages. It has been called a barrio language, Chicano Spanish, folk Spanish, American Spanish, slang along with a number of other terms. Basically, it is a variant of Spanish and borrows
heavily from English words. Many terms used in dialect were brought to the southwestern United States during the 16th and 17th century.
To aid in distinguishing it from standard Spanish, he refers to it in this paper as “Chicano Spanish” - dialect of the southwestern United States. This form can be considered similar to the difference of the English spoken in the British Empire.
In sentence construction, Chicano Spanish is closely related to American English. To make an overall statement concerning the nature of Chicano Spanish would be difficult if not impossible since its vocabulary is a mixture of words of several linguistic sources. First, being a Southwestern dialect, second, Chicano Spanish has many words pronounced and spelled differently, and lastly, words have been invented by the speakers themselves.
But there is yet another form of language spoken in the Southwestern United States. In its proper context, it could be referred to as anglicized Spanish. That is an English word adapted to a new Spanish word. An example of this would be the word, brakes, which in a regional Spanish would be referred to as, “brecas”. As such the Chicano people had to create their own language, “La Lengua del Chicano”. Today the
By Rueben Aguirre,
Chicano Studies Metropolitan State College majority of them speak their own language which is in many instances, a mixture of Spanish and English. It is a beautiful language in its own right. Words are invented when necessary and many words are English and given a Spanish sound; for example, truck “troque”. One of the main characteristics of Chicano Spanish is heavy reliance on hispan-ized words and expressions. The speakers are interested in oral communicating with others.
Many Chicanos entering school, have been told that this is an incorrect Spanish. The truth is that using this dialect of American English. “Many Anglo Americans continue to equate ‘good’ Spanish with Castilian Spanish, lisp and all. In many schools this Castilian Spanish is being taught to Chicano Students.” *
Many students become frustrated in this confusion of dialects and it is many times a contributing factor to the high “push out” rate. The solution to this problem is to re-enforce the Chicano Spanish by continued use of the oral and written form of communication, the language they
*Dr. Ortego.“Montezuma’ Children” 1972
continued on page 43
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25


v m
AEAICO AACRICANO CALCNDARJO m5TORJCO
MEXICAN AMERICAN HISTORICAL CALENDAR
Printed in part from
ABRIL - APRIL 1
Lagor contract covering U.S. table-grape pickers signed in Los Angeles, 1970.
El contrato de trabajo cubriendo a los piscadores de la uva de mesa de los Estados Unidoe fue firmado en Lbs Angeles. 1970
9
Los Angeles has more people of Mexican descent than any other city in North America except Mexico City and Guadalajara. 1971.
Los Angeles tiene m£s gente de decendencia mexicana que cualquier otra ciudad en Norteamerica con excepcion de la cuidad de Mexico y Guadalajara. 1971.
13
The University of Mexico, founded in 1551, was the first university to be created in North America.
La universidad de Mexico, fundada en 1551, fue la primera universidad creada en Norteamerica.
15
Two of the 50 signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence were native Mexicans; another, born in Mexico, was that republic's first vice-president.
Dos de los 50 que firmaron la Declaracion de Independencia de Texas fueron nativos de Mexico; otro, nacido en Mexico, fue el primer vice presidente de esa republica.
30
The first cattle to appear in California taken ashore from the San Carlos, part of the Serra expedition anchored in San Diego Bay. 1769 El primer ganado que aparecio en California fue desembaccado del San Carlos, parte de la expedicion de Serra ancio en la bahia de San Diego. 1769
MAYO - MAY 5
Cinco de Mayo; Mexican troops of Juarez defeated the French forces of Maximilian at Puebla, Mexico. 1862 Cinco de Mayo; las tropas mexicanas de Juarez derrotaron a las fuerzas francesas de Maximilano en Puebla, Mexico. 1862
11
President James Polk delivered a message to Congress urging war against Mexico. 1846 El presidente James Polk entrego el mensaje a 1 congreso recomendando guerra contra Medico. 1846 19
Treaty between U.S. and Mexico for cession of California and New Mexico ratified. 1948 Se ratifica el tratado entre E.U.A. y Mexico sobre la cesion de California y New Mexico (1848).
t 22
Mexico declared war on Germany, Italy, and Japan in 1942; soon after, Mexican workers began arriving in the U.S. (total of 100,000).
Mexico- declarb guerra contras Alemania, Italia, y Japon en 1942; poco despues trabajadores mexicanos empezaron a los Estados Unidos (total de 100,000).
28
In 1770 Juan Bautista de Anza was the first to lead a colony overland to the North Pacific shores.
En 1770 Juan Bautista de Anza fue el primero en guiar un grupo sobre tierra hacia las playas del Norte Pacifico.
31
The Gadsden Purchase brought 19 Million acres of land to the U.S. for $10 million; ratified by Mexico. 1854.
El “Gadsen Purchase" compro 19 millones de acres de tierra para los Estados Unidos por 10$ millones. Fue ratificada por Mexico. 1854.
JUNIO - JUNE 1
Two outstanding units stationed in the Philippines were the 200th and the 515th Coast Artillery; comprises of Mexican Americans from Arizona, Texas, and New Mexico.
Dos notables unidades coast artillery 200 y 525 estacionadas en las Filipinas fueron compuestas por mexico americanos de Arizona, Texas y Nuevo Mexico.
16
Ford Foundation announced formation of Southwestern Council of La Raza to coordinate efforts to achieve civil rights for Mexican Americans. 1968.
La Fundacion Ford anuncio la formacion del Concilio del Suroeste por la Raza con motivo de coordinar esfuerzos para lograr derechos civiles para Mexico Americanos. 1968
21
Luis Antonio Argilello. First governor of upper California under the government of Mexico. Born in San Francisco. 1784
Luis Antonio Arguello, primer gobernador de Alta California bajo el gobierno Mexicano. Nacio en San Francisco en 1784.
25
Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzalez founded the Crusade for Justice in Denver in 1965 to further Chicano demands for jobs, better housing, and land reform.
Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzalez fundo la Cruzada por la Justicia en Denver en 1965. Se fundo con motive de avanzar las demandas Chicanas de trabajo, mejor alojamiento, y reforma agraria.
30
Death of Moctezuma II from the effect of his wounds. 1520 La muerte de Moctezuma II causada por heridas infligidas. 1520
26


(Editor's Note: We would like to thank Be a Montoya, Norma Samano, and Martha Martinez for submitting the following recipes.)
TAMALES - Bea Montoya
Preparation of Husks:
Take corn husks apart and soak in hot water (preferably overnight) until they are soft.
Filling:
Boil No. 3 fresh ham or pork butt until meat falls off easily from bone (save meat stock). Cut meat into small pieces or pull apart by hand. Add red chili powder (enough to suit own taste). Stir in 5 Tsps. flour, salt to taste, 1 Tsp. cominos and 1 clove of garlic (ground up). Next
add enough water to cover meat mixture. Chili mixture should be of medium consistency. Bring to boil and then simmer for about one hour.
Masa:
5 lbs Masa Harina
Vz cup ground red chili powder
2 cups salad oil (or lard)
3 Tbsps. salt
Meat Stock:
Add Vz cup ground red chili powder to masa. Work it into the masa real good, together with salt. Add salad oil. Work it into the masa and add enough meat stock to make the masa into a workable paste (not too thin).
Preparation of Tamales:
Spread the masa onto the husk, about 1/8" in thickness, leave about an inch on both sides and on the bottom that will not have masa. Add about 2 Tbsps. chili filling on top of the masa; fold right side over about 3/4 of the way, fold bottom part up (part that does not have masa on it); fold left side over.
Steam Cook Tamales:
Steam cook tamales for one hour in a large pan with an airtight lid that will hold approximately five dozen tamales, add approximately two inches of water. Line the pan with tinfoil and corn husks and stand a quart jar in middle of pan and stand your tamales around this jar. The important thing is to try and keep the tamales upright in the water so they will be cooking with just the steam. Tamales are done when the husk peels away from the masa. Yields five dozen.
MENU DO: Martha Martinez-Norma Samano
1 - 2 lbs. Tripe 1 large can of Hominy 1 Tbsp. shortening 1 Tbsp. flour 1 Tbsp. chili powder 1 Tbsp. salt
Boil Tripe for approximately 2-Vz hours. Brown flour and chili in melted shortening. Add to the Tripe your browned mixture, hominy, and salt and let simmer for one half hour. Yields approximately 8—12 servings.
Educacion es la luz del mundo
About 20 per cent or 5.4 million of the 23 million members of unions and employee bargaining associa—. tions in the United States were women as of 1970.
Some of our senior citizens and even those of us who remember our mothers preparing the following dishes will be delighted and mildly surprised that they are still prepared in some areas of the Southwest:
QUELITES (These usually grow wild in your own backyard!)
2 Tbsp. shortening 2 Tbsp. chopped onion 2 cu ps chopped Quelites 1 Tbsp. chili seeds 1 Tbsp. salt
Vz cup cooked pinto beans
Place shortening in skillet, saute chopped onion, add Quelites, season with chili powder, cooked beans and salt.
PRIDE and HONOR start at HOME !
VERDOLAGAS (Sometimes called Purslane, these also may be growing wild in your garden.)
3 cups washed and Chopped Verdolagas Vz cup salt pork 1 small chopped white onion 1 cup cooked meat 1 Tsp. coriander Salt
Mix Verdolagas with salt pork, onion which has been sauteed, add cooked meat and season with coriander seed and salt to taste. Cover and cook until tender. (I remember my mother just frying Verdolagas with scrambled egg-it was delicious.)
If you have a favorite recipe you would like to share with our readers, please send them to: Los Conquistadores, Recipe Dept., 3820 W. 66th Avenue, Arvada, Colorado 80002.
27


LITTLE CHILDREN
A TRIBUTE TO LITTLE CHILDREN
Little children love to play Little children love to be gay Little children love to stay Little children love to pray
Little children do give embraces Little children do make faces Little children do go places Little chidlren do make messes
Little children are so gracious ’ Little children are so gentle Little children are so honest Little children are so precious
Thank God for Little Children I @
28


WESTSIDE COALITION TO LAUNCH STREP EDUCATION PROGRAM
By Richard Castro
The Westside Coalition, a community organization in Near West Denver, will be conducting a year long program geared towards educating low-income residents about the dangers of strep throat and rheumatic fever.
Rheumatic fever causes more long-term crippling illness in children than any other disease. It particularly attacks children of school age. This illness transcends all ethnic and class distinctions, yet is more pronounced in the lower socio-economic classes due to the lack of proper education about the illness, and the absense of good quality health programs located in the target areas.
One of several factors that Can contribute to strep infection that can lead to rheumatic fever and heart ailments is that the disease is easily transmitted from one individual to another, In lower economic areas we find that the density of population provides the catalyst and spawning ground for the disease to run rampent. Since many of the symptoms are not easily recognizable (i.e. someone may be infected with the strep germ yet not have a sore throat) epidemics can spread through an entire neighborhood without warning.
Chicanos like other ethnic groups (Blacks, Indians, Puerto Ricans, etc.) do not have access to health education programs in their barrios of the inner city or their colonies or the rural areas. Even if programs do exist in their barrios, very often these programs are not communicated to the people at a grass-roots level, and are, therefore,
not utilized.
Near West Denver is a Chicano barrio located in the core of the city. The boundaries for this area are West Colfax Avenue on the North, Speer Boulevard and Broadway on the East, Alameda on the South, and the Rio Grand Railroad tracks on the West.
There are nearly 15,000 residents located in this target area, 70% of whom are Chicano. Of this number approximately 60% of the total population are on public assistance.
The problems facing this community are the same as those across this country where the poor have been relegated to crowded inadequate housing, exploitation by insensitive politicians and slum landlords, education that is mediocre at best with little hope of making things better in later life for our youth, industrial and businessmen who move their warehouses and junkyards into our communities but refuse to hire residents and keep the flow of money in this neighborhood.
The Westside Coalition is a grass-roots neighborhood group that was founded three years ago, seeking to address itself to those problems innumerated above, and the countless other neighborhood problems that face this community in its struggle for existence.
The Westside Coalition will be sponsoring this health education program in partnership with the Colorado Heart Association and the Colorado—Wyoming Regional Medical Program. The goal of the program will be to educate residents about the causes of rheumatic fever and strep throat and the dangers that are inherent if not treated promptly and properly.
The Coalition will link up with the neighborhood health centers in the area (i.e., Casita Esperanza, Mariposa Health Stateio, etc.) and provide a referral service that would raise the understanding and change the behavior of residents so that they would begin to utilize these health facilities when they have the symptoms of strep throat.
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vaneed; one (1) member-at-large; four (4) elected officers of the Parent Committee; and the pastor of Our Lady of Guadalupe Parish.
Mr. Sal Carpio was elected president of the Parent Committee for the 1973 calendar year. Meetings for the new year were set up for the fourth Wednesday of every month at 7:30 p.m. at Our Lady of Guadalupe Parish Hall.
continued on page 52

Our Lady of Guadalupe Mestizo Dancers
The dance school at Our Lady of Guadalupe Catholic Church has been in existence for a little over three years. The dancers perform under the name of the Guadalupe Mestizo Dancers. In the past few years, these dancers have become well known in the Denver area. The school operates two nights a week. Monday night there are classes held for beginners and adults, *and Wednesday night intermediate and advanced classes are given. The Director of the program is Larry Trujillo, who has studied dance extensively in the United States and Mexico. His sister, Karen, is the Assistant Director and the instructors are Becky Zamora, Beverly Garceau, Robin Romero and Denise Valdez.
A major reason for the success of this program is the support of Father Lara and of the parents of the children. The parents group takes part in the. administration and programming. The parents make sure all costumes are made or purchased and help greatly with the programs. There is no cost to anyone who participates.
The purpose of the program is to encourage our culture through the arts of Mexico and Spain. Dancing and music are a major part of our lives and they live in our youth more vividly through our dances.
In early January, 1973, the Mestizo Dancers from Our Lady of Guadalupe reorganized into a formal non-profit Parent Committee. This committee of parents formally organized to govern, supervise, regulate, and maintain all activities, functions and policies of the Guadalupe Mestizo Dancers.
Membership to the dancing group is open to all children and adults attending the dance sessions. The Board of Directors consists of twelve members according to following criteria: (two (2) members from each of the dance group levels -beginners, intermediate, and a d-
Robin Romero and Beverly Garceau instruct beginners at Our Lady of Guadalupe. Robin is the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Floyd Romero. She has two (2) years dancing experience and is a student ot St. Francis Catholic School. Beverly Garceau is the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Garceau. She has four (4) years dancing experience and is a student at Holy Family Catholic School.
LEFT TO RIGHT FRONT ROW: Ncvdine Gonzales and Pete Morales.
LEFT TO RIGHT BACK ROW: Robin Romero, Miranda Gonzales, Kevin Romero, and Beverly Garceau.
MESTIZO DANCERS: Larry and Karen (brother and sieter) Dancing Team model authentic dancing costumes. They are the head dance instructors for the group.
32


THE LEGEND OF TERICIO VALLEY
As I was growing up, I once heard a strange story concerning the unknown and the supernatural.
In the early 1800*s in a large farming valley in southern Colorado, lived a beautiful Spanish girl. Her name was Angela Tericio. She was the daughter of General Tericio, a famous and wealthy gentleman in the Spanish Army. Many a young man fell in love with Angela and asked for her hand in marriage. But Angela*s time and love for the Church came before and beyond anything else.
By the time she was nineteen, she had not been promised to anyone, and her parents thought that she would be an “old maid.” They tried very hard to find someone she would agree to marry, but their search was in vain.
4s the days passed, her black hair grew longer and shinier, her green eyes sparkled with love and happiness, but the most noticeable change was her radiant smile. Even the poor men who were turned down when they asked for her hand felt a warmth in their hearts when she spoke or was near. The girls envied and were jealous of Angela. They made silly accusations as to why she was so pure. They said that she was actually a tool of. the Devil and that she was full of evil.
As the days passed and she spent more and more of her time at the church, Angela spent hours making fancy altar cloths for the little church’s altar. Many times when people entered the church, they saw beautiful flowers in front of the statues and Angela kneeling on the stone floor saying rosary after rosary.
Father Salez, the only priest of the small church, was happy that one of his parishioners could cherish and love the Church so much...but he also felt a pity for her. He thought it was sad that such a beautiful girl should make the Church her entire life. Father Salez loved Angela as he would a daughter, so as the days passed and the Church became a bigger part of her life, the Father worried more and more.
General and Senora Tericio,
with the help of Father Salez, worked and searched for a man suitable to Angela, but none of them was the right man for her. Father Salez had another worry; he had to make preparations for the May Celebration (the May Celebration was one of the great festive days of the Church). It was then that he realized that this would be a great opportunity to bring all of the young men together.
Father Salez and the Tericio’s worked on the celebration. They wanted everything to work out right for the Church as well as for Angela.
The word was spread distant towns about the May Celebration. Most of the people for many miles around planned on attending the great feast and dance.
As the day of the cele— bration drew closer, the people became more excited. People began to arrive from all over. But all this had little or no effect on Angela. Her only joy was the Church.
Finally the day arrived. Senora Tericio insisted that Angela take part in all of the activities. Angela agreed because of the respect she had for her mother, and because this was such a great day for the church.
People came from all over. They planned to spend the two days in the valley. All of the guest rooms at the Tericio’s were taken because so many prominent families stayed with them.
Everyone was happy with the celebration on the first day. Everything ran so smoothly that they were sure that God was smiling upon them. Angela wanted the celebration to end quickly, because every time she attended church, many people were there. It was expected of her to stop and pay her respects to most of the people. This seemed to rob her of precious moments in the church.
Angela prayed for the dance, which would end the celebration, to come quickly. All she wanted was to be in peace again:
On the second day some people remembered seeing a handsome, well-dressed young man
By Judy Vallejos
(Editors Note: Judy Vallejos is a 1972 graduate of West High School in Denver. She is eighteed years old and intends to continue her education at Fort Collins. She is presently employed by Safeway at Shaw Heights, Denver, Colorado.)
walking around with a sad look on his face. Some even remembered that he was always watching Angela. Whether he was watching Angela from the beginning or not, no one will ever know.
But that night at the great dance held at the Tericio’s house, a young good looking man was there. He was well-dressed and rode a great white horse. No one knew him or where he was from, but they accepted him without question.
Many a young girl had her eye on him, but it was apparent that Angela had already caught his attention. He asked her to dance, but she refused. After all a man had not entered her life before! She was not able to understand why she felt disgusted with herself for not accepting his offer. Afterwards, when her parents told her that she had to dance with anyone who asked, she secretly wished for the handsome man to ask her again.
She danced many dances,
continued on page 53
33


LABOR DEPARTMENT INFORMATION:
3Vz million full-time wage and salary workers earned less than $60—2-week, according to personal reports of workers who responded to a special question in the 1970 Census Report. AbuUt two-thirds of these workers were women, and fifteen per cent young men, 16 to 24.
The average salary of all teachers t7T the United States was $9,680 in 1971-72, according to the National Education Service. Among the states, the California average, $12,095, was the highest, and Mississippi's, $6,670, the lowest.
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34


C/teatiue Ckcano ^Poet/ty
COLORADO
Con rostro rayado, Colorado, miras hacia el cielo azul, loas a Dios por ser un estado, por tu beldad de montaHas, adorado.
Vamos a pasar por vista historicas,
Veamos una alborda de siglo pasado y una escena de una cadena de picos niveos en su gran primor... ...Sacudiendo la aureola, asciende el sol tinendo bermejo el vasto firmamento alumbrando arreboles, salpicadas por rayas destilan y banan las cimas nevadas, enlazando a si la tierr a con el cielo.
...La naturaleza en toda su belleza, arrodillo el cura que lo presencio y lo bautizo, “La Sangre de Cristo”
En memoria de ese tiempo antiguo,
El fondo del Rio * reluce rojizo,
A la haz lleva un penacho de espuma,
espuma espesa que sopla burbujas
y murmura en luto
cantilenas heroicas
de cortejos viejos
de heroes ignotos
cuyas hazanas pasaron
por el paramo a ire
para siempre quedar
desconocidas por nosotros
y olvidadas por cronistas.
Reclama historia la tierra colorada,
Tenida por la sangre derramada de la raza indigena
que en espa^ol hablada y a Jesucristo rezaba.
Mas la tierra carmin recobra en vano las poblaciones y pueblos que dieron grano a la herencia y a la cultura del indio y del hispano.
Y casi con ironia el maizal todavia besa el viento del Norte * en incauta armonia.
El verde zacate escala los montes,
Matizandose morado
al llegar a lo alto,
donde se ven coronadas
las cumbres nevadas,
que por las nubes giran
y a 1 sol desafian
para probar el poder de Dios.
* Con mayuscula porque se refiere a 1 Rio Colorado.
* Con mayuscula porque se refiere a 1 continente de Norteamerica.
POEMS
By Marcela Christine Lucero Trujillo
MEXICO, D.F.
6 Cuando volvere a ver? tus calles lagrimosas por un llanto de lluvia, secadas por varias luces alhajas del las avenidas.
Las luces coloridas, arco iris joyena, que llama por toda parte explosiva alegrTa.
En tal ambiente artfstico, el viento convertido pintor sacude nubes esparcidas, y las cuelga en telas tenidas.
6 Cuando volvere a ver ?
Escenas que se muevan sal ritmo mexicano, de vitalidad, actividad, amabilidad,
6 Cuando volvere a ver....?
6Mas habra algun rinconcito que tus poetas eminentes no hayan cantado por todos los continentes ?
TU
Por venir aca te vi
y en ti vi mi porvenir.
A SNOWFLAKE CAME
Spiraling octagon, swirling down,
Sparkling points weave in and out,
Frost lace web, prism of fantasy,
Defies the compass of geometry.
Intricate, perfect, it could not last.
Its moment came, its moment passed.
A shaking leaf hid it from the sun before it passed into oblivion.
Mrs. Trujillo is a leading Chicana in the field of education, and the concern of the Chicano. She is currently the Assistant Director of Colorado Pinto Project, a federally funded program by the Department of Labor, Washington, D.C., in Denver, Colorado.
35


POEMS, con't.
UNCHARTERED ODYSSEY
“Teresias* why do you sigh ?
Blind men, too, can also cry”
“Of my blindness, I only sigh,
I only cry when I long to die,
Although I am blind, I can see,”
“Tell me then, what do you see?”
“My vision is as limitless as sound,
Luckier is man who looks all around,
Luckier is the bull who looks right or left,
Luckier was Cyclops who looked straight ahead.
These century-old wrinkles on my face, etched by memories, tears or fears,
Tell the story of the human race from Homer to the Age of Space.
Although I am blind, I have foreseen-''
“Tell me then, what have you seen?”
“Through the holocaust of war-torn terrain,
Screeching bloodily, I heard the dirge
of the Sweet Bird of Youth* as It fell displumed,
into the mud, the muck, the once—called * earth/
..I now seek the darkness of my solitude,
I retreat within, I reject the day;
I* 11 deny the sunlight for zones of twilight,
Vd prolong the night, and curse my fright..”
“Old wise man of this country Tell us of our Odyssey,
Will our Ulysses return, what is to be?”
He did not answer, but his eyes had hinted, of a history which will never be printed.
*Teresias, a blind prophet who warned Ulysses of future troubles. Here in this poem, he is treated as a centuries-old Prophet, who can foretell any century to come.
*Capitalized to symbolize the names of dead service— mdn.
ARBOL VIAJERO
Arbol alto
con cariho,
tus raices nervudos
clavan nidos
bajo la tierra madre,
mientras tus dedos verdes
mecen con el viento
y giran hacia el cielo
para tocar los linderos
del eterno techo.
By Marcela Christine Lucero Trujillo
“Y hay tiempo ido, a 1 cual el alma vuelve los nostalgicos ojos.” Ruben Dario
“April is a cruel month, breeding Lilacs out of the dead land, mixing memory and desire, stirring Dull roots with Spring rain.” T. S. Eliot
VERDE VERDUGO*
Verde vienes a atormentar la vista que trastorna la sangre y despierta el cuerpo con nostalgia necia de recuerdos meurtos,
6 Por que no te quedaste?
Bajo el bianco manto del invierno santo
Bajo el bianco manto del invierno santo
donde yacen trozos de los sueTios fuertes.
6 Por que no te quedaste ?
Bajo el bianco manto del invienro santo
Bajo el bianco manto del invierno santo
Helando los brazos que daman por amor tPor que no te quedaste?
Bajo el bianco manto del invierno santo
Bajo el bianco manto del invierno santo
cubriendo ojos mustios que se clavan a 1 sol.
6 Por que no te quedaste?
Bajo el bianco manto del invierno santo Bajo el bianco manto del invierno santo c Por que no te quedaste?
Bajo el bianco manto del invierno Bajo el bianco manto del Bajo el bianco manto Bajo el bianco Bajo el bianco Bajo el Bajo el Bajo
*Verde Verdugo means The Green Hangman or Executioner. The concept here is taken from T. S. Eliot and Ruben Dario, who have written poems which say that April or Spring is a cruel time of year for the old person who can only be nostalgic about a youthful love. There is sancturay, however, during the Winter when nature cannot aid the stirring of the emotions, because the green landscape is covered with snow.
WHITE FASHION
Queen in lavish white splendor Dispelled her winds' wailing siren, and descended softly on the town,
Encompassing all in her star-flaked gown.
Designing frocks in dazzling white fashion,
She dressed bare trees in her latest style,
Decked their thin limbs with diamond-flecked rings, And left them vying for the cold moon's smile.
36


Cneatwe Cfucano Composed thirty minutes before delivery at the final
session of the N.E.A. Conference for Human Rights. »' krf 1 "##;' .
Poem was recited just prior to the major talk given by Conrad Romero
Mr. Julian Bond. Denver, Colorado
DERECHO, 0 NO DERECHOS
Nos juntamos en D.C., Corazon pesado en pecho,
A dar recomendaciones Que a 1 joven den su derecho.
Nos juntamos muchas gentes. Negroes, blacnos, Asianos... Tambien se aparecio el Indio, Y unos pocos Mejicanos.
Todo nino en este mundo Nace honesto y competente; Hasta que no lo maltratan No trata el de ser violente.
i Pobrecito el Chamaquito !
Su problema es personal.
Todo lo que pide a 1 mundo Es que lo traten igual.
Ya hablamos de muchas cosas Recomendando accion.
El trato igual de uno a otro Salvara nuestra Nacion.
Ojala que de esta junta, Regresando a cada hogar, no se sientan tan conformes... i Tenemos que trabajar!
SMILE TOMORROW IS THE FIRST DAY OF THE REST OF YOUR LIFE!
37


ENCUENTRALO
EN DEFENSA DE LAS LENGUAS MODERNAS
By Lawrence Alan Trujillo
A1 Senor Publico :
La mayor parte de la gente termina su educacion formal a 1 graduarse del dolegio. Despues de salir del colegio algunos se casan, otros trabajan y otros viajan. Si hay una falla en su educaci6n superior, permanecera probablemente para siempre. Aqui hablo de la importancia de las lenguas vivas en las escuelas superiores. Aqui voy a citar un punto sobre la ensenanza de las lenguas vivas.
Con el conocimiento de un idioma adicional puede abrirse un nuevo mundo en todo sentido. Cada pais tiene su propia musica y bailes. Cada pais tiene su literatura. En estas tres artes podemos ver algo nuevo, folklorico, cultural y mas importante aun, la manera de pensar de otro cultura. Dentro de la musica la letra siempra lleva la psicologia del pueblo. Por ejemplo, la cancion “Guatanamera” emplea los 44Versos Sencillos” de Jose Marti quien escribio los pensamientos nacionales de los Cubanos.
Yo soy un hombre sincero
de donde crece > la palma;
y antes de morirme, quiero
echar mis versos del alma.
Yo vengo de todas partes
y hacia todas partes voy;
arte soy entre las a rets
en los montes, monte soy.
Todo es hermoso y constante,
todo es musica y razon,
y todo, como el diamente,
antes que luz es carbon.
Esto nos dice que el es un hombre creativo y como artista tiene el deseo de erear. Tambien, es un
hombre que cree en la libertad. Es un hombre universal. Todo en el mundo es arte. Ademiis, lo que tiene gran importancia para cada uno es que hay que comenzar si uno lograr un ideal. Marti nos dice mucho mas en sus versos. Solamen-te, hay que lee'rlos. Otro ejemplo, es la 4 4 Cancion mixteca" donde encontramos el amor sincero a su tierra del hombre mexicano y lo mismo ocurre con la cancion 44Mexico Undo,” por, Jorge Negrete.
De las danzas del mundo voy a usar como ejemplo el baile nacional de Mexico - El Jarabe Tapatio. El vestuario es el del charro con sombrero y el de la mujer es el de la china poblana. El vestuario tiene su historia folklorica tambien. Habia una princesa muy hermosa en China que estaba muy aburrida de la vida en la casa real chinesca. Por eso, ella salia todos los dias del palacio y andaba por la playa. Un dia unos piratas se la llevaron prisionera. Despues de muchas peticiones pidiendo para su libertad, los piratas la dejaron en Acapulco. Un charro la compro a los piratas y a primera vista se enamoro de ella. Ella estaba tan contenta que no tenia deseos de regresar a su tierra natal. Ella estaba acostumbrada a joyas y ropas finas y fue la primera mujer que se vistio con lentejuelas. Cuando murio en Puebla, donde la gente la queria tanto que adoptaron su manera de vestir despues de su muerte. Por eso, hoy tenemos el vestido de la mujer, 44La China Poblana” para el baile nacional. El traje de charro suele ser el traje de hombre para fiestas. El vestido es tipico de los vaqueros y primeramente fue hecho por ellos. El estilo mas famoso es del charro rico o dueno de tierras. El traje tiene botones de plata y oro a1 lado de los pantalones con un broche a 1 centro de la chamarra. * Por lo tanto, la china poblana y el charro - los tipos del baile nacional-tienen su propia historia tradicional. Ademas, el baile es tipico de la region de la ganadera mexicana. Esta region incluye los estados de Jalisco, y los del Norte de Mexico. En esta region se origino El Jarabe Tapatio. El baile representa el cortejo entre un joven y una joven. La joven acepta a 1 joven cuando baila alrededor del sombrero que el charro pone a sus pies. El baile origino a lrededor del ano 1920. . El
*Salomay L. Harrison, 4 4 Mexico
Simpatico”, (D.C. Health and
Company, Texas, 1929), p.p. 30-35, reference only.
nombre del baile nos dice que tipo de baile es y de donde viene. Primeramente, este jarabe es una serie de danzas populares que incluye zapateados y tambien, jarabe quiere decir algo muy dulce. Tapatio le llaman a todo lo que viene del estado de Jalisco.
Hasta ahora, he hablado solamente de la musica y de un baile mexicano. Ahora, la tercera cosa que estudian los alumnos de una lengua viva es la literatura. Una persona aprende tanto de la psicologia de una raza en la lituratera como en la musica y el baile. Aqui hay unos cuantos refranes populares.
Mas vale un pajaro en mano que cien volando.
El que viene primero, tiene
pripero.
Mas vale tarde que nunca. Estos refranes dicen mucho pero sin el conocimiento del idioma el espanol uno no va a saber lo que dicen. Hay obras maestras que
siempre pierden el significado cuando uno se las lee en la forma traducida. Aqui voy a citar algunos ejemplos de la riqueza que se puede encontrar en la literatura. Por ejemplo, Jorge Manrique vivo en el siglo XV y escribio 44Las coplas.” Una parte de estas coplas dice:
Nuestras vidas son los rios que van a dar en la mar que es el morir: a 111 van los senonos derechos a se acabar y consumir;
alli los rios caudales, alii los otros, medianos y mas chicos, allegados son iguales, los que viven por sus manos y los ricos.
Vemos una comparacion que compara la vida con el no. El mar pueda ser la muerte. Nacimos para morir. Todos comenzamos y pasamos la vida chaparros, altos, ricos, pobres o lo que sea. Pero, el fin viene para todos y_ para todos es igual.
Gustavo Adolfo Becquer fue uno de los mejores escritores de la literatura romantica de Espana. Vivo en el siglo XIX, 1836-1870.
38


Cito algunas de sus rimas que tambieh nos dice mucho.
XI
Yo soy ardiente, yo soy morena,
yo soy el simbolo de la pasion;
de ansias de goces mi alma esta llena;
da mi me buscas ? no es a ti, no.
Mi frente es palida; mis trenzas de oro; puedo brindarte dichas sin fin;
y de ternura guardo un tersoro;
Yo soy un suelio, un imposible, vano fantasma de niebla y luz;
soy incoporea, soy intangible; no puedo amarte. - Oh, ven; i ven tu!
Aqui vemos que lo imposible es lo ideal. Asi es el ser humano tambien. Cada uno lucha para mejorarse y para mejorar la humanidad y nuestro nivel de vivir. Otra rima es:
XXXVIII
Los suspiros son a ire y van a 1 a ire.
Las lagrimas son agua y van a 1 mar.
Dime, mujer: ? cuando el amor se olvida, sabes tu adonde va ?
Esto si es una buena pregunta. ? Adonde va el amor cuando se lo olvida ?
Todo lo que he citado y hablado se muy poca cosa en comparacion con la riqueza que se puede hallar cualquier persona. Hay un mundo de sabiduna en la literatura. Todo el conocimiento del ser humano esta escrito. Solamente, se necesita uno que aprender y leer.
Ahora que usted ha terminado leyendo esta parte micoscronica de
lo que se puede conocer, i cree usted que seria justo quitar de los estudiantes el derecho de tomar clases de lenguas vivas? Cuando no existe el requisito de una lengua extranjera los alumnos no tendran que enfrentarse con otras culturas. Hay muchos que dicen que esto no tiene importancia. Pero, hoy en dia estamos en un mundo donde debemos tratar de entender a nuestros vecinos. Ademas, en los Estados Unidos hay mucha gente que habla otros idiomas.
En conclusion, vale la pena tomar un curso de una lengua extranjera y conocer a nuestros vecinos del mundo.
(Author's Note: I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Professor Arthur Campa for his comments and criticisms.)
An estimated 50,000 persons were licensed as funeral directors and embalmers in 1972. About two per cent were women.
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39


SOUTHERN COLORADO STATE COLLEGE TEACHER CORPS
Intern Mary Sanchez from Trinidad, Colorado assisting g student at Minnequa school in Pueblo's south side.
Southern Colorado State College, Pueblo, Colorado, has received a distinguished achievement award for its Teacher Corps program from the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (AACTE).
AACTE aims to encourage and recognize excellence in teacher education, while supporting innovation, implementation and change for progress of teacher education programs. According to the AACTE, such excellence often goes unnoticed, although many schools of education across the country are still striving for improvement despite dwindling resources, curtailed budgets, widespread criticism and general apathy.
The S.C.S.C. Teacher Corps project is the largest in the nation and has been designated as as “exemplary** program by Teacher Corps, Washington, D C. Because of this “exemplary” designation the
S.C.S.C. program has been given extra funds for program development and information dissemination in the areas of community-based education and communications. The uniqueness and contributions to the field of Education has been recognized by S.C.S.C. officials who nominated the Teacher Corps Program at S.C.S.C. for the American Association of Colleges for the Teacher Education Distinguished Achievement Award. Colleges and Universi-^ ties recognized for their innovative
efforts were named February 21, 1973.
Working in six elementary schools in low-income neighborhoods the Pueblo projects features:
-A cross-cultural component for all participants designed to build an understanding and appreciation of the dignity and worth of individual cultures. The cross-cultural component was iniated three years ago and was the first of its kind in Teacher Corps nation wide. Since then, the program has developed to the point of becoming a viable vehicle in the areas of community involvement and cross-cultural curriculums.
-A community-based component which moves the community through stages from “assistance” to “advisory” to “participation in decision making” in the education of children, and for teachers of the children.
-A two year intern training program at the undergraduate level which is community-based, field-based, and competency-based. Interns learn to become effective teachers in a real classroom
Christina Sena, intern from Raton, New Mexico, works with children at Minnequa School.
setting with assistance from an experienced co-operating teacher.
- A career ladder component closely coordinated with school development plans in each of the six schools, which provides programs from the G.E.D. or high school diploma through Teacher Aide Certification, Master of Arts, Ed. S., or three types of doctrates, and which is designed to build expertise in areas of need identified by schools. Six colleges throughout Colorado and New Mexico are involved.
— A sophisticated communications component designed to build an open communications system anomg all participants. The rationale for the communications component is simply stated: it is easy for a teacher or a prospective teacher to care deeply for the Chicano child, to love him and to provide him a cultural education as the teacher thinks he can handle; however, it is not likely that a person (teacher) of low self-esteem, who has an apparent lack of motivation for self-discovery, can effectively lead a child into a world of excitment, challenge, experimentation and creativity. The teacher must be experiencing this himself and identify the process of this experience for the child.
-A “portal school plan” for the coordination of all activities in the school with participation by community, school, and college personnel.
A strong development team composed of representatives from the community, public schools, and six colleges originally developed the program, which is geared toward accomplishing improvement in education through change.
The Teacher Corps project includes 48 college students who are in training to become teachers.
40


These interns work in five barrio schools in Pueblo. Each intern is assigned to a cooperating teacher or to an instructional team in a school and is working a minimum of 25 hours a week with children, teachers, school projects, parents, community members and community projects. During this time the intern will fulfill the teacher certification requirements through his work in the school, interns also attend classes on campus to complete major course requirements. Interns selected for the program are drawn from persons with a commitment to working with poverty area children; children from a Chicano cultural background, and most important a commitment to continue working with the poor Chicano children. A high percentage of interns represents persons from the same background as those of the six target areas in Pueblo.
What does all this mean to children who begin school every year and find themselves in a en-
vironment which will greatly influence their learning and psychological development? Whafrwill happen to them when they leave the warm friendliness of their families and walk into the world of the school ? In most cases their language, cognitive and cathetic experiences are not part of their daily school life. The result is confusion as children come to wonder what is acceptable? The way of the family ~or those things being modeled at school ?
Steve Archuleta, from Questa, New Mexico who is interning at Eastwood Elementary made the following obseravtion after working in the classroom for a period of time: “young school children,
especially Chicanitos need a male model to identify with”.. He went on to state “the Chicano family revolves around a firm father figure, thus a Chicano male teacher can more easily gain a good rapport with the school children and be more effective in his teaching”.
Teacher Corps, S.C.S.C. doesn't pretend to have all of the answers for the problems affecting the educational system in the United States. However, they are trying to 1develop some creative solutions for many of these problems.
Ray Archibeque, intern at Spann Elementary School explaings the game of volly ball to students in P.E„ class.

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41


BILINGUAL-BICULTURAL PROGRAM, cont.
bicultural programs learning each others language, history, and culture and gaining appreciation of both cultures.
6. Involving parents as advisors, classroom resource people, teacher aids or members of PTA-type organizations.
7. Planning to extend bi-lingual-bicultural programs gradually upward through the grades.
In an atricle which appeared in the official Colorado Department of Education Publication, “Education Colorado,” Vol. VIII, No. 5, Denver, Colorado, January, 1973, Bernard Martinez, Consultant, and Conrad Romero, Assistant Director, Community Services Unit, Colorado Department of Education, stated, “that bilingual abilities of children should be fostered/' They further
argued that:
A true bilingual-bicultural program is one in which all subject matter is presented in two or more languages. Such a program is neither remedial nor conpensator. It treats bilingual children as advantaged and seeks to develop bilingualism as an asset. Its aim is to take advantage of knowledge and culture to broaden education for all children. It creates an atmosphere in the classroom conducive to more wholesome self-concepts and relationships. Bilingual-bicultural education shares the difficulties and advantages of both languages.
In two years, from 1970 through 1972, the total number of school districts in Colorado participating in bilingual-bicultural programs have increased to nineteen: Rocky Ford, 251 pupils; Johnstown, 250 pupils; Denver (Elmwood Elementary School only), 210 pupils;
Cortez, 169; Fort Lupton, 162; La Jara, 157; La Junta, 134; Mancos, 125; Center, 113; Dolores, 95; San Luis, 85; Monte Vista, 82; Manzan-ola, 56; Antonito, 43; Colorado Springs, 42; Blanca, 32; Sanford, 21; Rico, 20; and Egnar, 16.
Locations of federally funded Title 1 ESEA projects having some bilingual-bicultural activities are: Boulder, Greeley, Colorado Springs, Commerce City, Walsenburg, Aguilar, Cortez, Mancos, Naturita, Pueblo, (both city and rural districts), Tellur ide, Norwood, Egnar, Sargent, Las Animas, and Ignacio (including Bureau of Indian Affairs school). In addition, the Denver Diagnostic Center has bilingual-bicultural activities.
Locations of and number of pupils involved in district-funded bilingual-bicultural programs are Fort Collins, 345 pupils; Stratton, 24 pupils; Windsor, 18; Brighton,, 15; Boulder Valley, 15; Dove Creek, 8; and Kim, 6.
Head Start programs in Adams County, Greeley, Denver, Colorado Springs, and Pueblo also give attention to bilingual-bicultural education.
VALDEZ PROPOSES BILINGUAL BICULTURAL LAW
Recently, Representative Ruben Valdez (D) Denver, Colorado, introduced the most comprehensive bilingual-bicultural bill ever designed in the history of Colorado. The bill is co-sponsored by Representative Benavidez, Lucero, Foster, Strong, and Senator Cisneros. This bill is basically set up to make available five million dollars for the purpose of establishing bilingual-bicultural educational programs in Colorado school districts. If there are one hundred or more pupils under the age of twelve with limited English language skills, or if 25 per cent of the pupils in grade levels kindergarten through four (K-4) have limited skills, the school board shall establish a program such classifications. Under this law, the program would be open to all pupils, and the school district shall, to the fullest extent possible, enroll a substantial number of pupils whose English language skills are not limited. The board of education would be obligated to inform the parents or legal guardian of each child that they have the right to visit the classes in which their child is enrolled in and that they have the right to withdraw their child from the program if they so
desire.
Plans for bilingual-bicultural educational programs under this proposed law would be honored as of July 1, 1973, for review and acceptance to be instituted on or after Januaryl, 1974.
RESEARCH IS NOW AVAILABLE
Although it is true that bilin— ual-bicultural programs are not the panacea (total answer to the problems) of the children of the Chicano community, it is true that empirical evidence now does exist that children from the Spanish—speaking community, all other factors being as equal as possible, that children participating in bilingual-bicultural programs do in fact accomplish significantly better on English language skills than do their equal counterparts without such exposure to their own language and culture, according to, “The Southwest Educational Development LaboratoryAustin, Texas.
The facts are that there are large numbers of pupils in the State of Colorado who come to the public schools with limited English language skills due to the dominance of another language, and/or culture in their family, community, peer group, and environment, and that public school classes in which the instruction is given only in English are
Chicanitos check out library books
42


often inadequate for the education of these pupils.
It behooves all citizens in the State of Colorado to support this effort to promote quality education for all children. The dramatic imbalance of Spanish-speaking children on the dropout rate must be considered intolerable, and corrected. The need to provide for programs to
perfect the English language skills of these pupils must be recognized. It is this writer's opinion that this will best be accomplished through bilingual-bicultural programs which will assist the chicanitos educational advancement by developing culture pride and understanding for the individual child, realizing that the educational process is a difficult
endeavor at best. Q)
LANGUAGE OF PRIDE, con't.
have already mastered before entering school.
It is of utmost importance for school systems to realize the advantages of being truly bi-lingual and teachers should show respect for the social language that many Chicano students speak and cherish. Also, it is a "great" language and Chicano Spanish should be emphasized and teachers should have special training in courses dealing with Chicano Spanish and the language and culture. They too, should learn that Spanish can be used as a teaching language in the education process in order to avoid conflicting attitudes in dealing with Mexican-American students. So, why don't teachers learn a little Spanish ? Why can't they encourage the speaking of this language ?
4s of yet, there has been no complete comprehensive published study of the various dialects of the Spanish spoken here. Undoubtedly such studies exist in other states on a limited basis.
Many Chicanos are now speaking their own language and are proud of it. Many are using it for oral and written communication and many are studying it in institutions of higher learning, Metropolitan State College serving as a model in this region. Language means more to a Chicano than just conversing. Spanish is also a symbol to them of their existence as a community of people with a proud language, history and culture.
In conclusion, it would suffice to say that Chicano Spanish, dialect of the Southwest, is here to stay. School systems and institutions of higher learning should provide meaningful courses and experiences to allow the Chicano students to use their own language. Curriculum of schools should be modified to include a vocabulary of Chicano Spanish in written form, a language that has been used over one hundred years.
43


MARCEL A TRUJILLO, con’t
Carter Enterprises of Denver
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Journal for National Concilio, Chicano Studies Executive Board member, Colorado Committee Mass Media for the Spanish Sur-named
Executive Board member, Grandfalloon Denver Educational Broadcasting Co. Board member, Channel 9 Task Force, KBTV, Denver, Colorado
Literary Editor, Totinem Publishing Company, Denver, Colorado
Co—Producer of “Feliz Navidad,” written for and shown on Channel 9, KBTV, December 1971 and December 1972.
Director and Judge for first Colorado Chicano Drama Contest
Was designated grantee from Colorado Council on Arts and Humanities Member, IMAGE (Inc. Mexican American Government Employees)
Mrs. Trujillo has also given many speeches on the 44Chicano movement” in the last three years. These professional engagements included the following:
Chicanismo,” principal
speaker, Chicano Unity Conference, SCSC, Pueblo, Colorado, Spring, 1970 Coorinator for the first Chicano Conference ever held in Colorado State Peniteniary, September, 1972. Conference was called ttConcilio de Uunidad”.
"Chicano Literature” NCTE ConferenceLas Vegas, 1971 44 Approaches to teaching Chicano Literature,” Utah State University, 1972 44Chicano Studies,” Chicano Mobile Institutes, Fort Collins, Colorado, 1970 44 Labyrinth of Solitude,” C.S.U., Fort Collins, Colorado, 1970
4‘Colorado Spanish” Seminar on Chicano Studies, Mexico City, Mexico, 1972 44The role of the local dialect and its relationship to
44


world standard Spanish” Bilingualism Symposiym, University of California, Santa Barbara, November 11, 1972 "Chicano Literature” Southwest Regional Conference on English, March, 1973, Tulsa, Oklahoma
“Higher Education and the Chicano” Conference for Education, Flint, Michigan, April 13, 1973 Since becoming the Editor of The Cardinal, at Annunciation High while at that shcool, Mrs. Trujillo developed a very impressive and high literary background. The following is a list of the work she has written and/or published: EDITOR, The Cardinal, Annunciation High School Denver Post Student Editor of, "School Week” (a student Columnist for The Denver Post while in high school.
Book reviewer for T*Akra,
Loretto Heights Quarterly Poetry in Foothills, a University of Denver quarterly Colorado University of Boulder, 1962
Poetry in National Anthology of College Poetry, 1959 Poetry in Penny Poetry, C.U. Boulder, 1962 "Colorado” a poem in Spanish, published in El Tiempo 1962
"What does Chicano mean?” Perspective Section, The Denver Post, January, 1970 "Guidelines for Employment in Chicano Studies,” EPOC A, March, 1972
"Mexican Americans in School: A history of Educational Neglect,” Book Review in NEA Journal, November, 1971
"There is something New Under the Sun: Chicano Writers and Poets,” to be published in LA LUZ, March, 1973
"Barrio Spanish: Key to Unwritten History of the Southwest,” Perspective Section, The Denver Post, January 7, 1973 Identity through the Spanish Language, Unpublished, 1973. In an exclusive interview with the editor and in discussing the status of the "Chicano movement” with Mrs. Trujillo, she stated that, "at first we experienced an idealistic feeling. At first we had a lot to fight for, somehow people have lost sight of what the "movement” is all about, which to me is El Plan Espiritual de Atzlan. El Plan Espiritual de Atzlan is the concept of all Chicanos working for the betterment of each other socially, economically, educationally, and spiritually.”
Mrs. Marcela Trujillo goes on to say that, "We must regroup and unite now that we are "aware” and have developed a positive self-image. It is very important that we
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learn to reinforce each other as brothers and sisters and specifically as Chicanos.”
At this point, Mrs. Trujillo pointed out that we must understand that, “Our issues (as related to the Chicano) are diverse and somewhat scattered. There has been no synthesis of things that count. You have to understand from the outset that Chicano philosophy is still being developed. We are a complex people. The“mestizoness”us makes it difficult to solidify the process of our philosophy.”
Mrs. Trujillo feels that two Chicano philosophers, Tomas Martinez in his work, Chicanismo, and Elihu Carranza, in his work Pensamientos, point to the fact that in order to reach the Chicano ethic, Chicano philosophy, we need to find common denominators beyond Conor, religion, or even the ability to speak the Spanish language, One of the common denominators is Atzlan, a bonding factor for all Chicanos. This notion is similar to the fact that Jewish people relate to Israel and Moslems look toward and honor Mecca, and Catholics (at least Italians) respond to Rome. This concept is the mother idea of returning to the mythical and/or real place of origin.
Yet, Mrs. Trujillo emphasizes that many people get “hung up” on the mistake of thinking of Atzlan as a physical, geographic area rather than a psychological and/or philosophical symbol of unity.
According to Paz, a Mexican philosopher, there is need for cau-
tion as one can easily become frustrated by the complexity of ourselves. There is no answer to the question of what is a “Mejicano?” The fact that the Chicano is living in an Anglo environment simply compounds the problem. Because the Mestizo has always been at odds with himself, the European, Spanish, and Indio blood has never really synthesized. He tends to always be alone, alienated from all others, almost by his own design and desire. The Mestizo is suspicious of foreigners because the foreigner has always been the conqueror. The seeds of solitary life lie in the Mexican's history, he is afraid to trust. Perhaps this is explained by some Spanish philosophers who have prophesized, “that the mortal sin of Spaniards is envy.”
However, Mrs. Trujillo declares we must break the cycle of mistrust. We must become aware of trust and perpetuate trust as a common denominator to produce the needed unity for our people. This in turn will result in a higher level of educational, social, and economical status for all Chicanos.
On the question of where does La Chicana fit into the “movement,” Mrs. Trujillo related these thoughts, “The place of La Chicana is beside her man, not in front or behind. She must learn to realize her own potential so that she may be a creative individual and contributor to her people. This must be beyond the mere necessity of child bearing. On the other hand, the Chicano must realize that La
Chicana is not competing with men, but she has the right to aspire to any level.” (§)
ESTR1L0 AMERICANO, con't.
llena de infierno el pobre ameri-cano sale para comer. La hora del almuerzo debe ser una hora de descanso; pero,<> Como puede serlo cuando hay dos mil personas tratando de comer a la misma vez? Por lo general, las otras mil no-vecientas noventa y nueva personas estan frente de el y cuando Uega a 1 comedor solamente le quedan a 1-gunos perros calientes y todo lo demas y esta agotado.
En fin, despues de todo, el pobre tiene que regresar a su trabajo sin honor y a su a mo dictador. Cuando sale en el lio del transito tiene que volver a luchar por la vida derrotada. Pero, ha ganado - a 1 estilo americano-su dinero que le hace parte de la vida americana.
Lo que cuenta es el Mr. Dollar.
Author's Note:
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Professor Arthur Campa for his comments and criticisms.
By one measure, federal government really isn't that big. In 1946, more than 50 per cent of all government employees were federal. By 1972, the percentage had declined to less than 19 per cent, as the number and volume of state and local employees dramtaically increased.
.Gabriel
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46


V
•^vesto DecNuestro^iS?[.
•v
1973
COLORADO STATE CONVENTION 25th, 26th, and 27th of May
Albany Hotel — Denver, Colorado
THEME
El Ano del Manifesto de Nuestro Destino Economico This is the Year of Our Economic Destiny
The How and Where of Business, Education, and Employment Opportunity will be explored! The WORK SHOP to be held on Saturday, the 26th of May, starting at 10:00 are as follows:
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT.........
EDUCATION and CULTURAL ARTS
EMPLOYMENT and CAREERS (INDUSTRY and FEDERAL GOVERNMENT) REVENUE SHARING
Including over 20 Booths offering Information and Literature
Cost:
Registration - - - ................$3.00*
Luncheon .............$5.00
Banquet .............$6.00
Dance | . - -----...............$4.00
or the entire package for $15.00
.iv benefit for more than the cost of registration.
*You can personally Denem


LTC (RET) MARTINEZ, con’t.
honeymoon in New Mexico, was ordered off to the war in Central Europe.
After returning home in April 1946, from the Phillipines, he volunteered to remain on active duty in the Transportation Corps. He served in all major U.S. Ports of New Orleans, San Francisco, Seattle, and New York. Overseas he worked in transportation port services in Leghorn, Italy, Austria, Pusan and Inchon, Korea.
In 1957, he was assigned to Fort Carson, Colorado. Martinez joined Divine Redeemer Parish and became active in Scout work as an Institutional Representative, Troop Committeeman, and Neighborhood Commissioner for a period of five years. He was elected to the Parish Council and has been more than involved in ushering, lecturing, and assisting his parish in all religious and educational endeavors for fifteen years.
In 1962, he retired from the U. S. Army after suffering a myocardial heart infraction at Killeen Base, Texas. After hospitalization and recovery he returned to his native Colorado and settled in the city of Colorado Springs. He and his wife have reared a family of four boys and two girls, and have been deeply engaged in the community life of their adopted city, the State of Colorado, and the Nation. In between times during his service career and community involvement, Martinez garnered a two year college equivalent educational status in 1957 at Fort Carson, Colorado. Three of his older boys have attended colleges in Colorado, Arizona, and in Pueblo, Mexico; two have graduated, and one boy should a-chieve his degree in 1973. The other three younger children are now attending high school and junior high, but eventually will obtain a good education if they desire.
Since 1963, Mr. Martinez has lived in Colorado Springs and pretty well recovered from his heart ailment. Here he undertook the monumental task of proving his famous slogan which has prevailed during his busy life: “IT’S BETTER TO WEAR OUT
THAN TO RUST OUT.” He volunteered to help the Heart Fund of El Paso County for two consecutive years in the Publicity Committee in their fund-raising campaigns.
Thomas has served as Department of Colorado Reserve Officers Association President (1964), and was busliy engaged in struggling to save the U.S. Army Reserve from being eliminated by the former Secretary of Defense, Mr. Robert Me Namara. Through the Department of Colorado and other National ROA’s magnificent efforts on a nationwide basis, the battle for the Reserves was won, thereby assuring that the national defense and secutiry of the United States was maintained by an available and stable Reserve. Today he is still active as an ROA Minuteman of the Volunteer Brigade which will always fight and defend the cause of liberty, freedom, justice, and an adequate military posture for the United States second to none.
From 1964, through the present date, Martinez has been a community leader in Colorado Springs. Known for his outspoken and aggre-sive participation in humanitarian causes, he has taken part in several military and veteran associations. He has been named to work and assist in the Veteran Memorial Park Association, a member of the Mayor’s Civic Planning Committee on Urban Renewal, and the G.I, Forum’s member on the Jobs for Veterans Task Force in Colorado and in the Pikes Peak Region.
From 1965 through 1967, Martinez aided in organizing and revitalizing the Society of St. Vincent de Paul to help the poor and underprivileged in the Pikes Peak RE— gion’s nine parishes. He served as Secretary and President and with his fellow workers, established the marginal income people’s economy store which operates at 520 South Tejon Street, in Colorado Springs.
In 1968, Thomas joined the Big Brother’s Program to help boys in fatherless families in El Paso County. He served as an actual Big Brother to the Maes family, and
also, on the Board of Directors for three years. For his voluntary work and efforts in this humanitarian program, he was nominated by the Colorado Springs Chapter of Big Brothers to compete against thirty-four other contestants throughout America for the 1971 National Big Brother of the Year Award. Even though a New York representative received the top honor, the people of Colorado Springs were proud to have Martinez’s work as a Big Brother recognized in Colorado and the Nation.
In 1970, LTC (Ret.) Martinez was elected Chairman of the Veterans and Military Council, and was deeply involved in veteran community activiteis and programs honoring the American soldiers, sailors, airmen and marines which make up our regular and reserve forces.
Since 1969, Martinez and his wife, Eralia, and his family members have been involved in the new Chicano movement in various capacities. They strive to obtain and achieve equal employment, education, housing, and justice for all the native born naturalized citizens of the Spanish surnamed communities. His major aim and direction has been to materially improve the socio-economis and political status of all Spanish surnamed Americans to taste and participate in the ideal American way of life. However, in no way losing the great culture, heritage, and history of their Indio-Hispanic background in America. To encourage, aid, and advise our youth to be-become productive and useful citizens of their communities, and to openly compete in all phases of urban and rural life in America, on the same level, as all races and groups that make up the citizenary of the United States of America.
During the past four years, Colonel Martinez has given his time and effort to many charitable and educational causes in Colorado, and principally, in the job of Executive Secretary of the Colorado Springs Chapter of the Latin American Educational Foundation, Inc. Since 1968, Mr. Martinez and the officers and members of LAEF have worked
48


numerous hours to help over 137 Spanish surnamed students to get started in college and various vocational trade schools in Colorado. He has commuted between Denver and Colorado Springs to represent his chapter in the Denver LAEF parent organization board, regardless of the weather conditions and other obstacles encountered
Now in 1973, Mr. Martinez was elected to the chairmanship of the Colorado Springs American G.l. Forum. In view of his many endeavors, he has regretfully tendered his resignation as Secretary of LAEF in Colorado Springs to give more time to his added responsiblities. He will, however, remain as a member of the Board of Directors in Colorado Springs, to aid, advise, and guide his successor in LAEF's important work
LTC (Ret.) Thomas H. Martinez won the Community Leader Service Award given by the Latin Educational Foundation Inc. for his outstanding work on behalf of his people, of his community, and of his country. Congratulations Mr. Martinez!
WMMfMitMH
THEATINE PRIEST, con't.
to 33, which includes the motto of the Theatine priests:
“Seek first the kingdom of God and His justice...”
The Theatines have had an inspiring history and have always 'worked tirelessly for the poor. Pope Pius XII said of the group of men: “Through four centuries, this order has served the Church so well, especially as molder of worthy and holy priests, that we hope with good reason that it will continue this glorious tradition.”
The fifty years of Theatine labors in North America seem to be without a doubt a continuance of that tradition of which the Pope spoke.
Father Larry Gallegos was born to Julian and Eloisa Gallegos in Antonchico, New Mexico, on April 9, 1939. In 1944, the family moved to Denver. He attended Sacred Heart Elementary, Annunciation High, and
graduated from Regis College with a B.A. Degree. Father Larry then went on to four years more of college to receive his M.A. Degree in Theology from St. Thomas Diocesan Seminary in Denver.
Father Larry was ordained into the priesthood in 1969. In March of 1971, he became the rector of St. Andrew's Seminary where he had been a student and teacher since 1959.
The basic purpose of St. Andrew Seminary and the work of Father Larry Gallegos is to develop the formation of students for the priesthood. According to Father Larry, the influences of modern day have had its definite effects on the work of the Theatine priests and the establishment of vocations for the priesthood as a whole. Today's young man must deal with a lot more problems in comparison to times a decade or two ago. Students must have a desire to carry on the work of the Theatine priests to suceed in the program. Any student regardless of income of family finances will be taken into the seminary if he wants to dedicate himself to “serve the spiritual needs of people and to serve the poor through social movements and involvement.”
St. Andrew Seminary had its beginning in 1952 when the residence
building was built. Its aim was always been to give young men who believe they have a vocation to the priesthood the opportunity to realize this no matter what their background might be.
Due to the fact that the Seminary did not have its own school, the students attended Regis High School, living in the community at St. Andrew's. These birth pangs which would be of immense value to other young men in the future, lasted for twelve years.
In 1964, a new high school building was erected, and this truly put St. Andrew's on a footing as a full fledged seminary, although the college and theology students yet attend classes at St. Thomas Seminary.
Now in its walking stage, St.
49


Andrew’s is still hobbled by the fact that it is little known, resulting in lack of material and financial support. The buildings lack the necessary repairs. The cleaning and repairs that are done, are done by the priests, brothers, and students.
The tuition paid barely suffices to pay the salaries of the lay teachers and the cooks; the religious teachers receive no salary whatsoever. The 450 dollar per year tuition charged is about half of what a normal boarding school charges.
+At the present, about ten students are not able to meet this; nevertheless, they are allowed to continue if their desire in a vocation persists. The support received from the Province does not cover the expenses of the essential necessities, such as utilities, telephone, etc. The Province cannot supply more because it is paying the debt of the high school. The rest of the expenses are met by income from dona-I tiohs, fund raising events, and 1 ministerial work on weekends. I Somehow ends are met. Could it be I God provides because it is such a I worthwhile cause ?
At the present, the school con-I sists of six lay teachers, five I religious teachers, and thirty I students. Six students attend St. Thomas. The school is college prep offering twenty-nine units in four years.
Father Larry Gallegos is dedicated to his committment. He is Rector, Administrator, teacher, maintenance man, and in general, guardian of St. Andrew Seminary. His mission is not an easy one but he is convinced that through God’s help and only with your support and good will, his work will continue, that young men will come forth to meet the needs of the people. Father Larry stated, “It’s worth it to
me if we can get our students to the point where they will “stand up’’ like a real man and think things through and go ahead and do the right thing.’’
Father Larry’s prayer is that he can get St. Andrew’s to the point where he won’t have to be Rector, Administrator, teacher, counselor, fund raiser, and public relations man all by himself, but rather that he will be given the opportunity to deal more directly with his work and the people he wants to serve. May the Good Lord Bless Father Larry and make it possible for him to meet his mission.
PROJECT GO, con’t.
jective evaluations. Sefior Lucero stated that, in fact, several students are enrolled in the program without a high school diploma, but they do have the equivilance of such a degree. Senor Lucero also stated, that in many instantces, high school performance of minorities, may or may not indicate college success. FINANCIAL-ASSISTANCE
Financial-Aid awarded to recipients is based on documented need (parents income and number of dependents) as determined by federal and university regulations. Every attempt will be made to provide the necessary financial support to Project Go students.
SUPPORT SERVICE
The most important aspect of our program, once a student enrolls, is our supportive service program. Our primary responsibility is to help the student acclimate to the university setting.
UNIVERSITY LEARNING LAB LAB The learning lab program is designed to help individuals with academic problems, by providing instructors with special skills in various academic fields. This is accomplished through small groups, individual instructions, and the use of teaching aids. Through the learning lab, we hope to identify and correct any academic deficiencies. In addition, tutorial service are available
UNDERGRADUATE ASSISTANCE One of the most important set—
COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY at FORT COLLINS, COLORADO is actively recuriting

CHICANOS - CHICANAS for
FACULTY - ADMINISTRATION - PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS
The University has established an AFFIRMATIVE ACTION PLAN that maintains an open up to date listing of all position openings,,
Address all inquires to:
MR. CLIFF ROMERO, Human Relations — Affirmative Action Officer, Room 200—A Student Center Colorado State University Fto Collins, Colorado 80521 303 491-5836
50


vices they perform is the establishment and maintenance of peer group relations through informal counseling, tutoring, and any general service that is supportive to students. ACADEMIC ADVISORY
Project Go, in cooperation with the various departments on campus, has acquired the services of a number of faculty members who have volunteered to work specifically with students in the program. In-service training-sessions are held with the volunteer Academic Advisors to familiarize them with problems that con-from many students from low-income families and minority groups. COUNSELING
Counseling Project Go participants is primarily assumed by the Go staff and Sefior Mario Rodriquez, a member of the University Counseling Center. In addition, student administrative assitsants and faculty advisors are involved in a great deal of individual counseling. CONCLUSION
The biggest problem encountered in these types of programs, according to Senor Lucero, is perhaps a lack of communication between special service programs and the university's population which invariably leads to a lack of understanding and many misconceptions about Project Go. The most rewarding aspect of
directing a special service program is the fact that we are part of a team providing educational opportunities, for many who never had this chance before.
QUO VADIS, CHICANO?, con’t.
joint effort of the Bureau of Educational Personnel Development, the Office of Spanish Speaking Affairs and the Department of HEW, to identify and discuss a number of problems and critical issues affecting the education of Mexican Americans.
We directed our attention to such programs as: Early Childhood Development, Teacher Training, Community Institutions, Bilingual Education, and Community Participation in School Affairs. We attempt to involve the people of the Chicano community when we serve via training institutes in cities where problems in education are serious and where heavy concentration of la raza are found.
By the time of this writing, conferences have already been held in places like Albuquerque, Denver, San Antonio, and Los Angeles. As members of this national organization, we serve as consultants to make need assessments of commu-
nities and providing resources for the purpose of providing a higher quality instructional program for Chicano children. Also, we serve in an advisory capacity to the U.S. Office of Education and other state and regional educational agencies.
Within the last year, Colorado became a member of the Regional Task Force de La Raza, as the National Education Task Force members thought that better service could be provided if we operated within a region. Also, each state could expand its membership. As an example, Manuel Andrade, Coordinator for the Denver Public Schools, and myself, were the two original members from Colorado to serve on the National Task Force as it originated in Newport in 1970. Recently, the Regional members met and decided to expand the Colorado membership to six. At present, the Colorado members of the Regional Task Force are: Manuel Andrade, Arlene Vigil de Sutton, Larry Gomez, Sal Carpio, Ernest Andrade, and myself as Chairman.
Each of these members have submitted mini—proposals to the national office for funds to be used in implementing projects in the various geographical areas of Colorado as represented by them. That is, Gomez in the Valle de San Luis, Sutton in the Arkansas Valley, Andrade and Carpio in the Metro area of Denver, and Andrade and myself in northern Colorado.
In conclusion, the multi-facted activities of these two organizations have given me the opportunity to talk to, advise, and train many Mexican Americans of all ages and professional backgrounds, thus allowing for increased and improved educational opportunities for them. In speaking with these people, one thing was forcefully clear—we haven't got the time for the type of rhetoric which demeans and destroys unity among members of la raza. We must get on with the task at hand—that of helping ourselves to make the future of our children a brighter one than that of our parents and grandparents.
TIM CORREA
Proprietor
(Formerly the Santa Fe Theatre)
974 Santa Fe Drive Phone 573-0188
The ATZLAN THEATRE is newly repaired, comfortably heated, and has a delightful concession strand for your eating pleasure.
Organizations and individuals are welcome to rent'the theatre on days not listed below.
AZTLAN THEATRE'S NEW SCHEDULE:
ENGLISH SPEAKING FILMS:(Thursday fc Fridays)- Doors Open 6:30 - Show Time 7:00PM MEXICAN FILMS: (Saturdays Sc Sundays)- Doors Open 4:30 - Show Time 5:00PM ENGLISH SPEAKING MATINEE: (Sunday Only)- Doors Open 11:80 - Show Time 12i00PM
51


MESTIZO DANCERS, con’t.
Members of our Lady of Guadalupe Mestizo Dancers (Intermediate Level) performed one of their favorite dances for parents and the public during the last Christmas season at the Parish HalL
« ««------"W ----ZZX
CONQUISTADORES, con’t.
“El valse de los dias,” “El barillito,’’ and many others were enjoyed by many. The violin and guitar were the primary instruments. Many of the songs composed told stories of past experiences and of past heroes and heroines. Singing “ alabados’’ in the churches, moradas, and other meeting places were accomplished without the use of an instrument to accompany the singers.
Families lived close together and had a close-knit comradeship. They played jokes on one another and seldom lost their temper. The story is told about an old Indian who had resigned himself to live with the Spanish in the little community of S&n Acacio rather than follow his own nomadic tribe. One day one of the settlers was killing a hog and all of his neighbors came by to offer advice and to help as much as they could. The old Indian tended the fire to heat the water for cleaning the carcass and thus expected to get a small share of the meat. The gentleman who owned the hog asked the Indian what portion of the meat he preferred. The Indian answered
that he would take the head but that he wanted to cut it himself. The owner agreed to this, so when the carcass was clean and ready for quartering, the owner handed a knife to the Indian and asked him to cut the head off the carcass. The Indian took the knife and proceeded to cut the head off almost immediately in front of the animal’s fore legs. This meant that he would take about one—fourth of the hog. The owner’s face reddened but he did not say a word. The other people there turned their heads and laughed silently. The owner of the hog knew that he would have to “get back’’ at the Indian some day in about the same manner the Indian had gotten to him. Matching wits with one another was part of the game. Don Cacaguate y Dona Seboya were characters used to exemplify many jokes and these two names were known by all.
Some of the words in the vocabulary used in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado are different from those used in Mexico for some items. A hoe is known as a “cabador’’ in New Mexico and as an “asadon’’ in Mexico. A turkey is called a “ganso’’ in one place and as a “wihalo” in the other.
The northern New Mexican derived many of his words from the English language for new words were added to their vocabulary as things were invented. Examples of this are the use of the word “bos’’ for bus in the Southwest, while Mexicans use the word “camion’’. Bananas were not known in the inland communities for a long time and were forgotten until they were transported into stores in the early 1900’s so the southern Colorado people called them “bananas’’ instead of
“platanos.’’ Generally the language is identical—dialectical differences sometimes occur—but then, this is also true of the “nortenio’’ in Mexico when we compare his dialect with that of the southern Mexican. Texans and New Englander’s also speak in different ways.
The people from northern New Mexico and southern Colorado led and still lead a proud but very gentle way of life. The old are respected highly and there is hardly a case where an older person is ever placed in an “old folks’ home.’’ El Senor Paco Sanchez, well known radio station owner from Denver, Colorado, tells about the time that he set up a home for the “viejitas y viejitos” who did not have anyone to care for them. He went broke within six months on that venture because he didn’t get any tenants.
A lecture about these people would not be complete without mentioning the land grants that were given by Spain and its governments in the New World, to individuals who agreed to establish settlements and otherwise make use of the land. In 1841 Guadupe Miranda and Carlos Beaubian applied for .and were given a huge portion of the Sangre de Cristo mountain range in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico.
The vast quantities of land that were available in the southwest caused the Spanish settlers to acquire an attitude that is best expressed in Spanish. “Pa todos ay mientras no arebaten.’’ Translated this means, “There is enough for everyone as long as you don’t start grabbing.’’ When Miranda and Beaubian received their grant they promised other people a share in the
52


I
grant if they helped them to settle it. For the most part, many of the settlers had never really “owned” property: they just built a home and lived in an area of their choice because they liked the location. They did not have to legally file for ownership. This was true regarding the land acquired under the land grants.
When the United States government took over the southwestern lands after the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo it set up its own governmental bodies and established the present county government system that we have today. Many of the Spanish settlers in the Southwest did not realize that they had to file claim for ownership of the land they had lived on for so long. Anglo land speculators came in and filed for many choice plots of land. The Spanish surnamed inhabitants did not realize at the time that the American enterprise system as we know it today was emerging. They did not know that all small farmers would
eventually be put out of business. The beginning of the end for these small land owners came at the outset of World War II when so many of their young boys went out to serve the United States against the Nazi and Japanese agressors. Others went to the big city to work in shipyards and other government installations. When it was time to transfer from wartime to peacetime occuaptions many of these people were the first fired. Their lack of education and the fact that they had held on to their native language were the two main reasons that they suffered discrimination in the placement in American Society.
At the present time there is a movement by both federal and state governments to better the plight of the minority groups. The Mexican American, Chicano, Spanish American, Spanish Surnamed minority group is known by many titles or labels. “The Sleeping Giant” is making moves that will
soon resolve an awakening that will have a great effect on the people of the entire Southwest. Bilingual programs in the United States are set up only in the Spanish and/or Indian languages along with English. This is a legacy which I am proud and glad my forefathers handed on to us. The cries of “Viva la Raza” and reply “Que viva” are evidence of the fact that the “Mejicano” has come of age in the United States. You will be hearing from us from now on.
TER1CI0 VALLEY, con't.
and finally when she thought that she could not dance another step, she sat down exhausetd. As she sat she looked down at the floor so that just in case someone should ask her to dance she could pretend not to see him. She never really understood why she finally did look up, but when she did the stranger was standing there. He didn't say
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PRES. Paul Alarid VICE PRES. Alex Salazer SEC. Mel Tanguma
FOR INFORMATION CALL 573-9025
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53


Devil was jealous of the love Angela had for God. But most of all the expression in her eyes said that no matter what, she still loved this man, and that she wasn't afraid of him or God.
The Father then carried Angela to her room. By this time she was already unconscious. She was to remain this way for a year, and nothing would bring to an end the unrestful sleep which engulfed her.
As the time passed, the scars never faded. Angela never repoened her eyes. But the Tericio’s and Father Salez never gave up hope. Beside her bed one of them usually was to be found. They nursed her, but she gave no response to their efforts.
On the same day, exactly a year later, her mother noticed a smile on Angela's face. And later that day the scars began to fade. They decided to deep a constant guard on Angela just in case she might regaih consciousness.
a word or even make a motion. At first their eyes just met and nothing else was real for them. Finally he held out his hand to her. As he held her hand in his, Angela felt more love than she had ever known before.
From that moment on, they danced only with each other. The only thing that existed for Angela was this handsome man. Nothing was real except the two of them dancing. They weren't even aware of all of the talking being done about them or of all the good wishes as well as bad wishes being wished for them. They never saw all of the happiness in the eyes of the Tericio's and Father Salez. They didn't even know that the end of the night was drawing near. All they knew was the love they had for each other.
For some reason, General Tericio looked at his watch at midnight. As he looked at his watch, he was suddenly aware that some-
thing was
his eyes fell on his beautiful daughter and the stranger. Suddenly everyone's eyes were on them. Everyone stood quiet, just watching and waiting. What they were waiting for nobody knew. As Father Salez's eyes fell on the stranger's feet they began to take the shape of goat's hooves. As the Father's eyes rose he saw a tail fall out of the stranger's jacket, then the Devil's horns appeared and everyone knew exactly who the stranger was.
The Devil began to claw at Angela's face. After he? vanished, the trance was broken.
The Father was the first
to reach the now slumped body of Angela. Something which startled him the most was a strange look in Angela's eyes. It lasted only an instant, but the priest read the look as though it were a book.
The look said that this man who captured her heart a few hours earlier, she knew, was the Devil, and also the only reason that this to her was because the
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54


VISITATION CHURCH, con't.
That night while General Tericio was sitting beside Angela's bedside an uneasy feeling began to take hold within the General. He was suddenly very tired. Finally he fell a sleep. As he slept he had an awful dream.
When the General awakened it was to find Angela standing at an open window. As she turned, she spoke, “Dear Father, I love you so much, but you must understand I love him more. He will come for me and when he does, I will leave with him. Please try to forgive me." And with that she slumped over. As her father lifted her back into bed, a rosary fell out of her hand. He picked it up, kissed it, and returned it to a closed fist.
He then walked over to close the window and he saw a man and a woman ride off across the valley. As he turned back around, his daughter was dead, and he understood exacity what she meant. He reached down for her rosary so
that he might some say prayers for her, but her rosary was gone.
Later when the General was talking to Father Salez, the priest gave out a little laugh. When asked to explain what this bit of merriment was all about, he explained that the Devil thought that he had won out over God, but instead when God let Angela go it was with a rosary. She would always be protected by God no matter what.
And that is how the legend of Tericio came into being. Even to this day, in Tericio, Colorado, lives this legend. If one is lucky, one might see a beautiful girl and a handsome man riding on a white horse into the middle of the night (especially in May)!
LOS CONQUISTADORES
The parish club has been very involved in helping Mrs. Lita Montez, who has been suffering from a kidney disease, and is on the waiting list for a kidney transplant. Two benefit dances were held producing some 2800 dollars for Mrs. Montez. A number of rummage and bake sales for the Montez family were also sponsored by the club. This is an example of the concern, willingness, and desire of the small church community to help each other and to ensure the continuance of their very beloved church. This community intends to maintain their
55


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
OFFICE OF INFORMATION, DENVER, COLORADO
ISSUED BY:
Ernie Sanchez 16408 Federal Office Building, Denver, Colorado 80202
mission church as a symbol of their dedication and religious faith in “Our Lady of Visitation.’’ The people of the parish are proud of their little “box-car church.’’
PINTO PROJECT ON THE MOVE
DENVER—The Colorado Pinto Project, an effort ot help Chicano ex-offenders “make it on the outside’’ is losing no time in establishing a track record.
“What has helped the project is the staff’s determina,tion to place people immediately after they contact the project,’’ said Dave Cano, Labor Department Manpower Development specialist who is coordinating the six-month-old project for the Department.
The purposes of the Denver-based Pinto Project, Cano summarizes, are to attack recidivism (exoffenders’return to prison) and to assits the ex-offender in his transition to a productive life.
“Our preliminary findings strongly show that the project is successfully accomplishing its objectives,’’ Cano observed. He pointed to results reported since it was funded July 15, 1972:
136 ex-offenders have found jobs through the program; A total of 343 ex-offenders have been provided with some Pinto service;
19 have been successfully placed in vocational training; 285 have been referred to the job development component; 37 have been helped to continue their education; 28 are now enrolled in college or university programs; and Since its creation lust July and after only little more than three months of full-time operation, no parolee enrolled in the program has been returned to the State Penetentiary. they’ve followed up on so far, 88 indicate they are still employed, and five are still enrolled in vocational training.
Charles Vigil, Chicano program liaison officer for Manpower Administration, notes that one of the most
important elements in their initial success is that there is “compre-
What else does the mostly Chicano staff do to achieve success?
“Follow up!’’ declares Project Director Pat Vigil, himself an exconvict.
He said that of the 109 clients hensive counseling’’—a counseling that points out problems of exconvicts and tries to give them direction.
Sometimes that counseling extends to the employer of potential employer, says Eddie Garcia, Pinto employment corrdinator. He “beats the bushes’’ every day looking for his clients and trying to break down fears and stereo-types of employers.
Garcia, an ex-prizefighter and ex-Pinto, stresses that he knows he has to follow up on the Pinto and
the boss to help them in adjusting to working with each other.
Marcella Trujillo, assistant director, is enthusiastic about tne project’s success, and notes that there have been some services provided to female ed-cons. But she points to a great need to develop a stronger program for working with women ex-offenders.
The Pinto Project was the product of a Chicano self-help inmate group at the State Penitentiary at Canon City known as The Latin American Development Society (LDAS).
Sixty per cent of the Pinto’s are ed—offenders, and 14 of 15 staff members are Chicano. The project is open, however, to any ex—offender.
Funded with $336,000 in Manpower Administration funds, the project will continue another year.
Director-U MAS-EOP: Joe Franco
Asst. Director-U MAS-EOP
Paul Acosta
Director-E.A.P. Robert Corrales
Main Office Phone 443-2211 - Ext. 8316
Counselor Coordinator: Sam Gallegos
Tutorial Pool Coordinator: Joey Henderson
English Coordinator:
Mary Ann Shea
Office Manager:
Celso Baca
LOST TO
EDUCATION IS OUR STAND.
“Chicano teachers needed for summer program in the area of Math, English, and Reading. For further information: call the
main office* \
UNIVERSITY of COLORADO at BOULDER
56


Meeting Your Meat Budget
By Virginia Knauer Special Assistant to the President and Director
Office of Consumer Affairs
(Reprinted from: Noticias De La Semana, U. S. Department of Labor. March, 1973)
According to President Nixon's recent report on the economy, the impact of brisk demand on food supplies will probably cause food prices to rise until mid-year. That's when the President's new food supply measures will begin to take full effect.
It's during these next few months, then, that “shopping harder" at the supermarket will be important.
A good place to start stretching your food dollart is at the meat counter, where approximately one-third of all the money you spend on food goes.
To take advantage of the best buys at the meat counter, you need to be aware of the many cuts of meat available and how to use them in meals.
Another important point to remember is that the economy of a cut depends on the amount of cooked lean meat it provides as well as its price per pound. Often the lowest price per pound is not the best buy. A more expensive cut with little or no waste may be more economical per serving than a low-priced cut with a lot of bone and fat.
Determining the cost per serving is another important consideration at the meat counter. According to the Agriculture Department, three ounces of meat is equal to one serving. Using this figure, you can compare meat costs by dividing the price per pound of various cuts by the number of servings it will provide once the waste (fat and bone) is removed.
In addition to these shopping guides, there are other steps you can take to save money on meats:
Experiment with meat grades. Using beef as an example, you can choose from three retail cuts—prime, choice or good. Although not as tender as prime or choice, the good
grade with proper cooking can result in a tasty and nutritious meal. Along this same line, learn the different cuts of meat and how to identify them.
Cut some of the meat yourself. Even if you're not a butcher's wife, there are several kinds of meat that lend themselves to easy cutting. A good example is round. It contains three natural sections: Top round makes a good roast, bottom round a pot roast and eye round a tender steak.
Read up on new ways to prepare meat and new ideas in planning meals. Agriculture Department publishes several booklets that could help you, including: Family Food Budgeting (150), Money-Saving Main Dishes (300), Your Money's Worth in Foods (250), Beef and Veal in Family Meals (200), (also lamb and
poultry (200 each) and the How to Buy series (200 each) on beef and roasts, beef steaks, (each booklet contains mear charts on the different cuts). To order any of these publications, write Consumer Products Information, Pueblo, Colorado 81009. Make check or money order payable to Superintendent of Documents.
Education es la luz del mundo
57


m


480 Bridge St. Brighton 659-2120 Ext. 260
ADCO
431 W. 84th Thornton 428-0974
or
428-9300
IMPROVEMENT
ASSOCIATION, INC.
OUR BUSINESS ISTO SERVE LOW'-v-INCOME RESIDENTS IN ADAMS COUNTY
OU R STAFF CAN HELP YOU WITH:
STRIVING to IMPROVE^niE QUALITY OF LIFE IN ADAMS COUNTY"
• ‘ H' VIGIL' CHAIRMAN
BOARD OF DIRECTORS


BULK RATE UoS„ POSTAGE
‘ PAID
PERMIT 313 DENVER, COLO
f
MEXICAN
m
real good
often 11a.ni.to 12ft. m.
2255 ^eonoa. Street
Vender 341-2/51

SPECIALIZING W MARGARITAS
li


Full Text

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os Volume 2, No. 2 SPRING ISSUE J973 Bilingual-Cultural Educational Program Ces(Jr Chavez Visits Denver Valdez Seeks School Post A Language of Pride Chicano Poetry . . $J.OO Quarterly

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4Re builders hardware inc. onavenfure fion THE LEADER IN FINE DECORATIVE HARDWARE 2360 curtis st

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M r o Vigil is principal of Hulustrom Elementary School District Noo 12, Adams Countyo He is a leading Chicano edu-cator, political activist, writer and advocate of the pooro Since our last 1 s sue, a number of significant a nd historical events have taken place. In December of 1972 , President Harry S. Truman expired. His tory is destined to judge him one of the greatest p re sidents ever, for he was a man who was honest, sincere, dedicated, an d frank. With him it was , u This i s where the buck stopped." President Lyndon Baines John son also expired in January of 197 3 . It is truly tragic that he died a few ilays before peace was achieved in Vietnam. He had struggled dramatically and committed everything he had toward this end. His concern for the poor and his war on poverty was perhaps the most outstanding endeavor ever embarked upon by a government of this world against miseries, disease, and impoverished conditions. His faith in democracy and the American peoples will to do good was truly unsurpassed in the story of man. His fight and committment for the betterment of education stands alone and unequaled in the annals of history. The end of the Vietnam war announced by President Nixon is the best news this country has heard in the past decade. The return of the I JOHN H. VIGIL, EDITOR prisoners of war is indeed the most me it makes more sense heartwarming u show" ever displayed that these individuals be on national television. One cannot working for their commu-help but feel a sense of tremendous nity than to be drawing relief. However, do not let us forget welfare). the price of peace was not cheap. 3. Of testimony given 1n Thousands of American soldiers Washington , D.C., to the never made it back from Vietnam . Special Sub-Committee And thousands have suffered great on Welfare , chaired by physical and mental damage. A Congressman Hawkins (D-great deal must be committed to California) in early assist those returning veterans to February, 1973, was overinsure the best opportunities possi-whelmingly in support of ble for their return to a normal and retaining OEO-sponsored productive life. The families of programs for their success those soldiers that did not return and benefit to the commu-must also be assured of some type nities they served. of security and commitment from this -It would be my hope that in government and country, that their the words of Richard Nixon's In-sacrifice was not in vain. naugrual Address of 1969, ''That the And lastly, the tragic news government will listen. It will strive that the present administration is to listen in new ways---to the planning for the dismantlement of the injured voices, the anxious voices, Office of Economic Opportunity (OE the voices that have despaired of 0) must also be considered with great being heard , " would become a concern. In essence, the "voice for reality. the voiceless" is being gagged. In the final analysis, it will For although there were programs be the concept of Revenue Sharing that were not living up to par, funded that will bear the burden of proof as by OEO , it is a researchable fact to whether or not cities, counties, that never in the history of this and states can and wil{ serve t he country have the poor had greater will, and needs of all the people. opportunity to practice democratic Without a doubt, the poor have involvement, governmental participa-shown through OEO that theY, aie tion, and community action. In a will{ng and able to support and study released from OEO in January participate in their country's demo-of 1973, the following facts were cracy, given the opportunity. @ derived: 1 . Of all the funds expended for 0 EO programs, 58 per cent in kind and in cash were mobilized from the local communities. 2. Of 146,000 OEO employees interviewed in 1972, 94,000 were former welfare recipients. (It seems to Editor's Note: CORRECTION: The article printed in our last issue on j pages . 34 and 35, The Westside Coalition, was not printed in sequential order as submitted by its author, Mr. Richard My apologies.

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LOS CONQUISTADORES QUARTERLY MAGAZINE Personnel: Publishers: Editor: Secretary: Printing by: Subscription Rates: Joe I. Ulibarri Lawrence 0. Quintana John H. Vigil Joyce Vigil Jrurero Jteprographirs Mail subscription for one year $5. 00, for four ( 4) issues. (Price inc.ludes mailing cost.) Over The Counter Copies $1.00 per issue. (Single copy mailed $1.25) Advertising Rates: (50% due on order) Full page ... . Half page ....... . Quarter page . . . . . . Color advertising on request only. ... $200.00 . $100.00 . ... $50.00 Cover advertising on request only as follows: Inside Cover ........... $300.00 Outside Cover . . . . . . . . . . $500.00 Center Fold . . . . . . . . . . . $600.00 (Note: Art work included unless otherwise requested and mutually agreed upon. Prices effective January 1973) Correspondence: Please direct subscriptions, advertising insertion orders, stories, and/or letters to the Editor, 3820 W. 66th Ave. Arvada, Colorado, 80002, Phone 433-8277 Contractor and owner of Ulibarri Construction Company, 4750 Tejon, Denver, Colorado, Mr. Ulibarri and his wife Andrea live at 1455 South Moline, Aurora, Colorado. Mr. and Mrs. Ulibarri have four children: David 16, Darlene 14, Margaret 13, and Connie 4. Mr. Lawrence 0. Quintana is is owner and president of Reliable Carpets, 3946 Federal Boulevard, Denver, Colorado. Mr. Quintana and his wife . Peggy live at 4875 Zuni, Denver, Colorado. They are also the parents of four children: Larry 10, James 9, Steven 7, and Lisa 3. Lawrence Oo Quintana and Joe I. Ulibarri, Los Conquistadores Publishers, proudly review the first issue of their magazine. The new publishers sincerely believe that the new LOS CONQUIS TADORES will be a very vital communication vehicle that will bring a lot of our people together and provide the necessary information that will assist our community. They pledge that LOS CONQUISTADORES will be designed specifically to meet the needs of our people and the philosophy of the magazine will be non-partisan, broadbased, and a communications medium that all Chicanos will be proud to read. INTRODUCING NEW PUBLISHERS Mr. Joe I. Ulibarri and Mr. Lawrence 0. Quintana are the new publishers of Los Conquistadores. The magazine was recently pur4 chased from its former owners, Gil Lopez and Associates, when Lopez decided to edit "La Luz," the only national Chicano magazine. Joe I. Ulibarri is General

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/ OS TABLE OF CONTENTS BILINGUAL-BICULTURAL EDUCATION PROGRAM ............. 6 CESAR CHAVEZ VISITS DENVER . . ...... ................. 7 BUSINESSPROFILE ............ . . .... ....... . . . . . . . ... 8 OUR LADY OF THE VISITATION CHURCH ................... . 9 MARCELA TRUJILLO A CHICANA ON lliE MOVE ............. LTC. (RETITHOMASH . MARTINEZ ....................... 12 ESTILO AMERICANO .................................. 13 TONY L . BACA ELECTED NEW CHAIRMAN .................. 15 A THEA TINE PRIEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................. 16 RAMIREZ RECEIVES DSA A WARD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 17 PROJECT GO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Q U 0 V AD IS CHI CAN 0 ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 CON QUIST ADORES SIN NOMBRE ............ o o o o o o o o 0 0 0 0 0 24 A LANGUAGE OF PRIDE .... . .................. . ...... 25 WESTSIDE COALITION TO LAUNCH STREP EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM .......... 29 OUR LADY OF GUADALlPE MESTIZO DANCERS .............. 32 THE LEGEND OF TERICIO VALLEY ........ 0 •••••••••••••• 33 CREATIVE CHICANO POETRY ..... 0 0 ••• 0 ••• 0 •••••• 0 0 ••• • 35 ENCUENTRALO .... 0 0 ••• 0 ••••• 0 ••••••••••••••••••••• 38 SOUTHERN COLORADO STA1E COLLEGE TEACHER CORPS ...... 40 PINTO PROJECT 0 •••• 0 •••• 0 ••••••••••••••••••••• • • • 0 56 VOLUME 2, No . 2 Copyright by Los Conquistadores, Inc., 1973 Printed in the United States All rights reserved. Cover and contents may not be reproduced in whole or in part without prior written permission. 5

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BILINGUAL-BICULTURAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM Five ( 5) million children belonging to America's ethnic groups need special attention----instruction in their own native tongues and educatio11 about their own culture. The United States Congress has in recent years provided strong support for bilingual education. The program, now under the jurisdiction of the U .S. Office of Education (USOE) Division of Bilingual Education, was created in 1967 through Title VII Amendment (PL90-247) to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965 (PL89-10). The program started with a 7 ! 5 million dollar grant for seventysix (76) programs in twentyone (21) states. Although, most of the funds have been for children from ages 3-18, who come from the low-income families whose language is Spanish, this same concern could be stated with equal validity for children whose background is French, Portuguese, Chinese, Chamorro (a language used in Guam)' Japanese , Indian, and Eskimo. The concept of bilingual education has grown so much that by 1972, 35 million dollars were allocated to support 213 bilingual educational programs in 29 states and the trust territories. In the fiscal year 197 3, federal officials expect 40 mi111on dollars to be ear-marked for bilingual programs, which was established when influential senators and congressmen spoke out in sup-port of bilingualism; and both houses voted to ear-mark four per cent of the Emergency School Aid Act (part of the Educational Amendments of 1972). The school aid act carnes an authorization of one billion dollars for 1973. USED's Division of Bilingual Education officials assert that they could easily put to work as much as 1 00 million dollars on behalf of bilingual programs. However, at this point there are some uncertainties regarding the operation of bilingua I education. With the new reorganization being planned by the present administration, these programs may be placed with the newly created Assistant Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) , and/or with the USOE's Office of Civil Rights, and! or with the Assistant Commission for Regional Coordi. nation. It appears only logical that one would expect local and state funding agencies in Colorado to recognize the fact that the same major purposes embraced by federal officials justifying bilingual-b i cultura l education opportunities for t he Span ish-speaking communities in almost all of Colorado's 186 local school districts would be equally valuable on a district by district basis. The indisputable fact is that exclusive use of the tongue" does not always serve the educational needs of the some five (5) million children in our country and many thousands of Spanish-speaking children in Colorado. According to A Report to the United States Commission on Civil Rights, entitled, It Educational Prac tices Affecting Mexiacn Americans in the Southwest, " May, 1972, 27 per cent of first grade Mexican American pupils do not speak English as well as the average Anglo first grade student. This same report stated that Colorado received a total of 260,823 dollars for 235 students in 1970. In that year one bilingual program was new and one was an existing program for a grand total of two. This obviously -is a very small per cent of participation for the Spanishspeaking community of Colorado. The following are recognized major purposes for bilingual-bicultural educational programs by federal officials: / Chi canitos prepare for a daily reading lesson. 1. Improving the educational achievements of students In communities charactarized by high concentration of poor, non-English speaking families whose needs are not being met by the existing educational system. 2 . Instructing classroom programs using two languages-English and the other dominant language of the region-as the media of 3. Developing a curriculum model, including plans for instruction, material acquisition, staff training (pre-service and in-service), evaluation and community involvement. 4. Insuring that qualified teachers are recruited and! or trained who are fluent in two languages; competent in the teaching of subject-matter in two languages; and sensi tive to the needs of students involved. 5 Making certain that, with the exception of special classes, the two group s of students are not ethnically segregated for a major part of the learning day, but that they are together In bilingual-continued on page 42

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CESAR CHAVEZ VISITS DENVER A POSITIVE MIND, DETERMINITATION AND P -ATIENCE ARE HIS VIRTUES "SI SE PUEDE" 11Viva Cesar Chavez" rang out. Another speaker spoke urging support for the lettuce boycott. He cited the need for the United Farm Workers to have the right to determine what their services would be worth on a contractual basis. The announcer stated -that , word had been received that Cesar Chavez was on the grounds of tlie Seminary. The music started the Mariachis led the audience in the song 11 DE Colores." Everyone waited anxiously for the entrance of Cesar Chavez. The feeling of the room was joyous, yet solemn and for a moment the music seemed to calm the audience. The moment of entrance approached--Cesar Chavez entered the room. The people rose in a desperate attempt to get a view of their hero. A small humble man, yet a great man, a man who seems to carry the conscience of this nation on his shoulders, the shouts of "Viva Cesar Chavez" Rained momen mentum. "Viva La Huelga," On Sunday, February 11, 1973, Chavez visited St. Andrew's Seminary, 1 OSO South Birch. Cesar en route to Chicago, Boston, and New York City, stopped at St. Andrew's with a busload of seventy lettuce working strikers. The occation was to attend a Mariachi Mass and rally in support of the lettuce boycott. "Chavez Si, Safeway, No," --the shouting finally ende
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CHICANO UNITY PRODUCES BUILDERS HARDWARE BUSINESS PROFILE Mro Charles (Chuck) Duran is forty-one years oldo He and his wife. June reside at 7752 Webster Way, Arvada, Coloradoo They are the froud parents of five children: Carrie 7, Christine 14, Carmel 11, Chuck Junior 8, and Craig 60 The story of Builders Hardware, Inc., started with an idea and desire of Mr. Charles (Chuck) Duran, ex-salesman in the building industry. Mr. Duran has had extensive experience with nine years at the Colorado Title Company, four years with the American Builders Supply Company, as supervisor of the hardware department, twelve years witb Denver Company Hardware, and for the past year with the S and S Sales Company, as manutactor's representative. The first problem Mr. Duran faced was, 11 how was he going to acquire the capitol necessary to purchase the large inventory needed for this typ e of business. He was introduced to the Colorado Economic Development Association (CEDA) and to the League of United Latin American Citizens Contractors Association ( LU LAC). He presented his idea to the LU LAC Contractors and the Con 'tractors realized the need for this type of wholesale outlet facility. Select members of the group decided the idea would be a worthy investment. In addition, many other people in the Spanish-speaking community also were of tremendous support, assistance and encouragement. Specifi cally, Mr. Ted Samano, or Rainbow Paint Company who was the prime source of reinforcement, Mr. Manuel Maes of Maes Construction Co., Inc., and Mr. Ben Martinez of Martinez Construction, the former 8 ''Chuck Duran's Dream Comes True" president uf LU LAC Contractors Association. Mr. Henry Esquibel, who was assigned the project by CEDA to analyze, package, and to complete the project was also extremely valuable in making the project a success. Mr. Duran described Henry Esquibel as a guy who went out of his way a hundred times in a sincere and unselfish manner. q He is truly a credit to our community." The initial investment was $20,000.00 put forth by Mr. Duran and nine initial investors. Afraid of being under-capitalized, the group sought additional investing funds through La Raza Investment Corporation, who used this business as a t. pilot" means of funding future minority programs in the Spanish-speaking community. La Raza Investment then provided an additional $28,000.00 of capital. The success of getting additional funds are also attributed to many people too n umberous to mention but Mr. Ed Lucero and his staff at CEDA are credited with being truly instrumental in this phase. Mr. Duran stated, is living proof that Ed Lucero gets things done in a magnificent and Mro Chuck Duran reviews hardware selestions for his new home customers, Mro and Mrso Lawrence Oo Quintanao, business like fashion.'' With $48,000.00 in his pocket as initial capital, a great faith in his endeavor, Chicano business unity and a mountain of Chicano support and expertise, Mr. Duran approached the Small Business Administration (SBA) in Denver for a small business loan. Mr. Duran describes what happened then, Esquibel went to SBA and ran with the package, he secured a loan for $1 OO,UUO and with most cooperative effort of a very capable banker, Mr. Daryl Hobson, of Central Bank and Trust Company, the loan became a reality." This effort on the part of Mr. Duran and his many capable t t • '' . am1gos serves as testimony to the fact that when a man believes in himself, believes in his people, and believes in his community-at-large, the sky is the limit. Mr. Duran states, we are young in this business as we_ are in the company, we face the future with no fear or uncertainties, and a great deal of enthusiasm---knowing full well that with a tremendous amount of need and support demonstrated thus far for our services we can't help but be successful." November 15, 1972, was the opening day of Builders Hardware. One year to the date from the time Mr. Druan first approached CEDA with the idea of a minority Chicano owned, one hundred per cent, Builders Hardware Supply Company. From the very beginning Mr. Duran desired the ambition to own his own business. Today Duran Builders Hardware Supply Company does in fact exist at 2360 Curtis Street, Denver, Colorado. Chuck Duran's dream has come irue. A likely example that the Chicano does in tact have it We wish Mr. Duran only the very best success in the future in his own venture. @ Chuck Duran, President of Builders Hardware exp I a ins the i mpo rtan ce of a very extensive inventory for the hardware line of business. to John Ho Vigil, Editor of Los Conquistadoreso

PAGE 9

< OUR LADY OF THE VISITATION -CHURCH (Editor's Note: Mrs. Julia Castillo is Chairwoman of the Parish Club of Our Lady of Visitation Catholic Ch urch. She is employed by ADC Imp rovement Association Senior Employment Our Lady of Visitatio only Mission chucrh in Denv was built by the people in muni ty. Plans for the bu dra w n among the small men f rom the parish Fathe r Trudel. As far as we Joh n T r udel , Chapl pital in Denver, ap ostolic work families who liv Mus hroo m plant F e d e ra l Boulev id_ea that ling da y in and day b e built start owner of t o street cars. In the lat& 1944's, Ben Garcia signed title and contract with Fat her Trudel so that the construction could take place. Once the contract was signed, a small number of men (nine) started work on the two street cars to convert them into a Church. In the early part of the 1950's, J:lrchbishop Urban J. Vehr, through the Archdiocese of Denver ' ' d for ' the installation of w.ater and er lines to the parish site,_ and uthorized the building of a small urch. Alter Father Trude 1 retired . ' ite priests from Mt. Carmel Denver, took charge of the he Reverend Roger Rao, till remembered for his ong the The named Our Lady of lieu of the original epherd. t , 1957, the Reverend assistant chance.llor se, administered the e people. He later xiliary bishop of during his tenure hall was built. , Our Lady of Holy whit h . ,:had been \ epenel)i parish in iests from q r Reverend oseph Huber , 1 needs .. gs and or the hall. ns are ' by qkity and vol are 280 c fa ilie at are affiliated with the small church. The parish is governed by a citizen's council of fourteen members (The Altar and Rosary Society and the men's g'toup reorganized into one group called the Visitation Parish Club) which meet once a month to plan and organize the finances and affairs of the Church. By Julia Castillo The annual Bazaar is the main money-making project throughout the year. This activity is he-ld during the month of July, following the weekend of July fourth. Another annual event is the Mexican Dinner which "is held during the first part of November. The parish hall h a s been made available to the Adams County Welfare Department to assist in meeting the needs of the low-income. The Salvation Army and its Senior Citizens program is also headquartered at the parish hall every day, six days out of the week. continued on page 55 9

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BERNARD VALDEZ SEEKS ELECTION TO DENVER SCHOOL BOARD Bernard Vatdez to seek election to Denver Board of Education for a six year term on May 15, 1973. 10 CHAIRMAN William Grant CO-CHAIRMAN Mrs. Mary Baca MEMBERS Dr. Karl Arndt Mrs. Helen Arndt Mrs. Jean K . Bain Junius F . Baxter Hon. Betty Benavidez Hon. John R. Bermingham Miss Mildred Biddick Marvin W . Buckels Hon. Palmer L. Burch Hugh R. Catherwood George A . Cavender Mrs. Della Chavez Hon. Rogef Cisneros Dr. William M . Covode Walter C . Emery Hon. Don Friedman Peter Grant Mrs. Rhondda Grant L. Michael Henry Mrs. Edward H . Hilliard , Jr . Earl Howe Mrs. Philomena Johnson Mrs. Bernice A . Knuckles Mason K . Knuckles Rabbi Manuel Laderman Jessie Manzanares William H . Miller Mrs. William D . Millett Mrs. Stephanie Moore Blaise J. Plaisance Mrs. Sara Lee Pollock Paco Sanchez Dr. Edith M . Sherman Benjamin F. Stapleton Sheldon Steinhause r DavidS. Touff Mrs. Terry Tourf Dr. Daniel T . Valdes Jake R. Valdez Hon. Ruben A . Valdez Reverend Charles Woodrich Minoru Yasui Committee to Elect BERNARD VALDEZ DENVER BOARD OF EDUCATION AN OPEN LETTER TO DE NVER VOTERS DEAR VOTER: In June 1972 I was appointed to the Board of Education to replace Mr. Bert Gallegos who resigned his pos ition on the Board upon leaving the State. The law re quires that this position must now be filled by a vote of the electorate. Based upon my experience on the Board since last June, I feel that I have a contribution to make on the Board of Education to enhance the educational opportunities of all the children in Denver. Therefore, I am a candidate for a six-year term at the forthcoming May 15 School Board Election. In this regard 1 u rge you to consider my administrative experience, my civi c involvement and my commitment to education in making your choices at the polls. Let me then share wi th you some philosophical ideas on a few basic issues on education. The Public Schools: In a democratic society the public school system must serve as the basic fabric which binds our institutions and all our people into a unified whole, not necessarily by the creation of a monolithic mass but allowing those differences which enrich our culture and cause it to flourish. Educational opportunities must be available to all children regardless of economic circumstance. Special educational programs must be made available to children with special needs, such as children with mental or physical handicaps . Education should serve as the equalizer of opportunities by challenging each child to achieve to his utmost intellectual potential. Neighborhood Schools : In the last ten years the neighborhood school has become the object of great controversy. This controversy has raged especially in the urban centers where racial isolation is most severe. Our efforts to resolve our racial and economic isolation by destroying the value of the neighborhood school only serves to complicate our problem. The neighborhood school is about the last institution which binds the neighborhood together and should be protected, not as an instrument of isolation but as a tool to bind our cultures and heal our differences. Personnel Policy: The primary function of our schools is to provide quality education to every child . This requires good teachers with high morale, adequate teaching materials and the best learning environment we can possibly afford. pur teachers must have good working conditions and salaries which are comparable to similar ckstricts in the country. Annexation: Under Colorado Statutes, Denver's School Board must approve all annexations to the city before consideration by City Council. In my opinion, Denver must continue to expand its boundaries wherever possible to avoid becoming plagued with "Core City" problems, and to keep a diversity of socio-economic conditions in the District. School Financing: QuaHty Education is nota bargain item . It is very expensive. Denver cannot afford a second-ra,te educational system. I pledge my efforts to work within the School Board to achieve the best and most efficient educational school system we ca n possibly afford. P.O. BOX 2202 • DENVER, COLORADO 80202

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MARCELA TRUJILLO A CHICANA ON THE MOVE Marcela Trujillo was born to Agapito and Rose Torres Lucero in Alamosa, Colorado. Her educational record is as follows: Attended high school at Annunciation Catholic High School in Denver, Colorado. She received her B.A. Degree with a major in English and a minor in Education from the Uni versity of D enver. Marcela received her M.A . De_gree from Kansas University, 1968, in Spanish. She has also taken post-graduate courses in linguistics and is a, PHD candidate at Union College, Yellowsprings Ohio. Mrs. Trujillo has ten years of teaching experience. She has taught English language and literature, Spanish language and literature, and French language and li-terature. In addition, Mrs. Trujillo has worked in the Spanish departments at the University of Colorado and the University of Kansas, Intensive English Center Department, Kansas ''Her Life and Work'' University; Denver University Center for students from abroad; and Shaw Heights Jr. High (District No. 50. Adams County, Colorado): Assistant Professor, Arts and Humanities, Colorado University, Denver Center Director, Mexican American Education Program. Mrs. Trujillo has held academic membership with the following organizaqons: AATSP, American Association of Span ish and Portuguese NCTE, National Council Teachers of English TESL, Teachers of English as a second language Kappa Delta Pi (Education) (Honorary) Phi Sigma Iota, Honorary, Modern Languages Sigma Delta Pi, Honorary, Spanish National Concilio of Chicano Studies Editorial Board , EPOCA. , Mrs. Marcela Trujillo, Assistant Director of Colorado Pinto Project. continued on page 44 CONSTRUCTION GENERAL CONTRACTOR 1022 SANTA FE DRIVE DENVER, COLORADO 80204 MANUEL MAES OWNER TELE. 893-5,240 ' 11

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LTC. (RET) THOMAS H. MARTINEZ WINS COMMUNITY LEADER AWARD FOR 1972 LATIN AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATION, INC. "The life of a Man Who Would Rather Wear Out Than Rust Out" Thomas Henry Martinez is a native of Trinidad, Colorado, a member of the Indio-Hispanic peoples of the Great Southwest. He was born February 8, 1914. His fore-fathers, and OlifS, as history relates in Colo rado, ventured into this region with the early Spanish explorers over 431 years ago with Coronado's great expedition which reached . far as Kansas in 1541. Thomas was reared as a poor rancher's boy in Vallorosa, Colorado In 1920, when his dad was killed, the family of six with his mother moved into Trinidad, Colorado. He was encouraged by his wonderful mother, Onofre G. Martinez, to pursue his elementary education in Walsenburg, Colorado. He graduated from high school in 1933. During the depression era of the early 1930's he worked in the farm fields of the San I Luis Valley, served in the Civilian Conservation Corps Tree Army, and labored in the coal mines of Valdez, Colorado from 1936 to 1938. , He was hired as a Spanish interpreter and receptionist in 1939 in the Trinidad Welfare Department, where he did much social welfare work in behalf of the people. In early 1942, he got into Civil Service with the Navy Department as a Senior Clerk Typist in Washington, D.C. In 1930 when Thomas joined his first Chicano organization, the Prosperity Club in Walsenburg, Colorado as a youth of sixteen, the people recognized his leadership potential by his aggressive competition in .school and community events. In 1934, he joined the Alianza-HispanoAmericana, the largest fraternal organization of la raza in the south-west. At age 25, he became the ' LTC. (RET) THOMAS H. MARTINEZ FAMILY-----TOP ROW (Left tQ Right): T om, Jr., Linda, Mary, James; MIDDLE ROW: Mrs. Martinez, LTC. (RET) Thomas H. 'Martinez, WiJ,Iiam, FRONT ROW: John. 12 youngest AHA president elected in the history of Lodge No. 75, Trinidad, Colorado. Previously, in 1933, Martinez had graduated from Welsenburg High Sr.hool in the top third of his class. He was also selected twice by his school officals in 1932 as a member of the National Honor Society for his outstanding work, and participation in athle-tic and high school events. In July, 1942, he was inducted into the U.S. Army during World War II as a private in Fort Logan, Colorado. After basic training at Fort Warren, Wyoming, and a year's stateside service, he volunteered for Officer Cadindate School at Fort Lee, Virginia. He successfully completed the course and was commissioned a 2nd Lt., Quartermaster Corps, July, 1943. He performed stateside and overseas combat duty with the 86 th Infantry Division from August, 1943, until April, 1946, in Europe and the Phillipines. In January, 1945, prior to gning to Europe, he married Eralia I. Garcia of Trinidad, and after a one day continued on page 48 (Editor's Note: It is a real pleasure to have the opportunity to include the life and work of LTC (Ret) Thomas H. Martinez in our Spring Issue of It Los Conquistadores." His dedication, loyaly, and hard won accomplishments will serve as a guiding light to our people. It is my hope that more Chicanos will chocse to "'wear out rather than to rust out." His record of 43 years of public, community, state and national service to La Raza and our beloved country speaks for itself.)

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ESTILO AMERICANO By Lawrence Alan Trujillo / (Editor's Note: u Estilo Americana" is written by a young author, Larry A. Trujillo, an instructor at the Uni versity of Coloraco, and a part-time instructor at Metropolitan . State College. He is host of a new television series "UP" carried by Channel 9. Larry is also Director of the Trujillo Dancers, Director of the Guadalupe Mestizo Dancers, VicePresident of the Colorado Folk Arts Council, and Committee member for the Advisory Board for the Denver Center of the Performing Arts. He holds a B.A. Degree, and is presently enrolled in Graduate School at the University of Colorado and has also studied at the U niversidad Aut6noma de Mexico.) N otreametica es uno de los / / . , pa1ses mas ncos y mas pobres del mundo. Si observamos el estilo americana de vivir podemos entenderlo mejor. Voy a citar algunas situaciones comunes en la vida americana. El ameri cana empieza su d{a a las siete y media de la manana. Se ech a una taza de cafe con tal rapidez que no le toma sabor-menos man Inmediatamente, el americana corre a su chace y INC. for the best in Kitchen Cabinets empieza el vuelo a su trabajo con los demas en la lucha del transito. Cada choler en su poderoso cache compite con los demas para ver quien llega primero. Si el oberro llega vivo, empieza a trabajar. Otra vez, le encontramos en un mundo de competici6n. Tiene que producir todo lo que puede sin atender a la calidad de su producto. El jete le dice constantemente: II Adelante! Adelante!" "Carre! Carre!" "E 1 tiempo es Divero" El obrero trabaja rapidamelite aunque su producto resulte de mala calidad. Esto no importa ya que el publico lo necesita y lo compra. Quiza es preferible que el producto sea inferior. De esta manera la / / clientela tendra que comprar mas porque el producto pronto se estropea. / , Despues de una manana continued on page 46 JCectt ;}-( e!\AWAUk}' President 13

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Names In The News The editor wishes to encourage readers to submit "Names in the News" wh ere people have distinguished themselves i n the business community and in private endeavors. JOHN fl . VIGIL, Editor of El Conquistador, was -recently appointed to the Adams County Board of Adjustments and Variances as Associate Member. JOSE ANTONI SOSA has been elected President of the Board of Directors of the Manhattan Valley Spanish Civic Organization in New York City. PAUL ALARID has been elected the new Chairman of the LU LAC Contractors Association for the 1973 fiscal year. MAGDALENO u LEN" AVILA, United Farm Workers Union, of Center, Colorado, won the 17th Annual Whitehead Award from the American Civil LibertiesUnion (ACLU). LILLIAN GUTIERREZ, Shaw Heights, to Adams Advisory for 1973. was recently appointed County School District 50 Accountability Committee DR. PHILIP D. ORTEGA has been appointed Assistant to the President and Professor of Urban Studies at Metropolitan State College, Denver , Colorado. LYLA GARCIA, a native of Denver , Colorado, has been appointed Coordinator of the Federal Women ' s Program for the U .S. Department of Labor in the Dallas region. TONY BACA, of Adams County Colorado, was recently elected the new Chairman ot'.El Valle Del Norte American G .I. Forum, the fastest growing chapter in the State of Colorado. ALEX RAMIREZ, Executive Director of ADCO Improvement Association was appointed to the Adams County Planning Commission. EDMUND ALVAREZ of Oakland, California has been appointed Assistant Director for Administration at the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs. 14 JEANNE MARTINEZ, Commer c e City, recently appointed to Adam s \ County School Board District No. 14. REPRESENTATIVE RUBEN VALDEZ (D), Denver, recently introduced the most comprehensive Bilingual-Bicultural Education Bill in the history of the State of Colorado. COUNCILMAN LUIS A. CORTEZ JR. , an appointee, is running as a candidate in the Colorado Springs City Council Election, April 3 , 1973 . LORENZO RAMIREZ of Richardson , Texas, Dallas Equal was recently sworn in as Regional Director of the Employment Commission. JOSEPH G . RAMIREZ of Pittsburg, California, has been elected Chairman of the Central Committee for a Planned National Congress of Cultural and land Reform. The National Congress was held October 20-22, 1972 , in the Albuquerque , New Mexico Convention Center. CHRIS C. RUIZ of Los Angeles has been appointed to serve for one year as Administrative Ass i stant to Dr. George Smith, Superintendent of Mesa, Arizona Public Schools. ELIAS C. RODRIGUES of Fairfax, Virginia, has been Coordinator for the President's Sixteen Point Pro gram at the Civil Aeronautics Board. -MARC/0 GARCIA, World War II Congressional Medal of Honor winner died in a recent auto crash. He was 52 years old. GRACE OLIVAREZ, a native of Arizona, is the first woman graduate of the Notre Dame University Law School. This very active Chicana attended Notre Dame on a John Hay Whitney Fellowship. BERNARDO SANDOVAL of Beeville, Texas, was honored at a recent Recognition Banquet. He is the National Executive Secretary of the American G./. Forum. MR. BERNARD VALDEZ, appointed to the Denver School Board vacated by Bert Gallegos, has announced pla. ns to seek reelection to the post.

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Tony L. Baca NEWLY ELECTED VALLE DEL NORTE AMERICAN G. I. FORUM Tony L. Baca, Adams County resident, was recently elected Chairman of the American G./. Forum, Valle Del Norte Chapter, Thornton, Colorado. Mr. Baca was born June 10, 192 5, in Longmont, Colorado to Nazario and Pablita Baca. He and his wife Helen, reside at 8420 Dawson Dr., Denver, Colorado. They are the parents of three children: Cynthia, 22, Catherine, 20, and Amado Antonio, 10. Mr. Baca attended elementary school at La Salle, Colorado, and high school at Greeley, Colorado. In 1943, he joined the U.S. Navy and served in the South Pacific during World War II until 1946. After being honorably discharged, he was employed by the Veteran's Administration and the U.S. Forestry Service. In July, 1972 , Mr. Baca completed twentyone years of employment service with Consolidated Freightways of Delaware. He is the Vice-President of Consolidated Freightways Employees Credit Union. Mr. Baca also sits on the ADCO Improvement Tony l o Boca newly elected Va lie Del Notre American G o L Forum Chairmano Association Board of Directors. Mr. Baca is proud of the fact that the Valle Del Norte Chap ter is among the youngest Forum chapters in the state receiving its Charter April 14 , 1971, yet this chapter is the largest growing one in the entire state. Mr. Baca re-ports that there are ninety active members in his organization. He explained that the G./. Forum is a Veteran's family organization whose main purpose is raising funds for scholarships for youngsters regardless of race, color, or creed. Recently a fund raising dance and dinner at Holy Cross Church in Thornton, Colorado netted $1500.00 dollars for the Valle Del Norte's Scholarship effort. Other officers elected for 1973 were: Vice-Chairman, Bob Baca; Secretary, Andres Zamora; Dave Caravas; Sergeant-at-arms, Virgil McRhyew; Chaplain, Jim Dominquez; Public Realtions Director, Alex Ramirez; Parliamentarian, Toy Roybal; Historian, Grover Steinbeck. ............................. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates state police enrollments will rise rapidly in the 1970's, with 2,900 new officers being recruited each year. &Jrl,llff LINE Of 8EAtl(y AIOS OLD FASHION M AND MEXICAN FOODS! OPEN WEEKDAYS 8:30 A.M. TO 1:30 P.M. SUNDAYS & HOLIDAYS 9 A.M. TO 6 P.M. 727 Santa Fe Drive WHAT YOU EAT DISPLAY, SEE IS WHAT UGET! PARKING IN REAR OF STORE

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LIFE MEANS GROWTH The Theatines had been in Colorado only a brief time before their unselfish work, particularly with the Spanish-speaking, attracted favorable notice among the priests of hte state. From the city of Denver, the pastor of St. Leo's Church asked the T heatine Father Caldentey to preach a mission in Spanish to his Hispano parishioners. This mission was so successful that these two priests along with Bishop Tihen, decided to form a parish for the Spanish-speaking of Denver. Temporary quarters were in the basement of St. Leo's. In 1926, St. Cajetan' s Church in Denver was dedicated -a monument to the direction of the T heatines, the sacrifice of the H ispano parishoners, and the generosity of several Denver Catholic families. The work of the T heatine priests is broad indeed -it is essential to realize that there are some 50,000 Spanish surnamed families in Denver, a number which increases each year with migrations to the city from rural Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and Old Mexico. Migrant workers settle in Den\ler in hopes of a better lite, are bewildered by a strange C'(llture and a strange language. These people find stability and direction in the parishes of the Theatines-priests who have spent their lives in helping the Spanishspeaking American. To further aid in their apostolate, the fathers founded a parish in Fort Collins, Colorado, in 1935. This parish, Holy Family, has been a 'true mission to the Hispanos of Northern Colorado. The latest method of contacting and serving the 16 A Theatine Priest A MAN WITH A MISSION Father Larry Gallegos Part II CONCLUSION: Continued From Winter Issue 1973 migrants outside of Fort Collins is the mobile chapel of Our Lady of Guadalupe-a huge house-trailer converted to a complete church, which is moved from migrant camp to migrant camp during the growing season. The T heatines administer the Sacraments and give missions from chapel, moving through a huge geographical area and bringing' the Church to thousands of God's people. In 1948, Our Lady of Guadalupe church was founded in Colorado Springs. This church , in the downtown of the city, ministers to a large Hispano population who previously had no church to call their own. ,_ In 1960, again with the ide a of continuing the unique apostolate, the Fathers were asked to establish a parish in New York State-Our Lady of Fatima at Plattkille. Also in 1960, the North American and Mexican work of the Theatines was recognized by Rome, and the area was made the North American Province, with Father Bartholomew Quetglas as the first Porvincial. GROWTH MEANS CHANGE By the time of the Golden Jubilee year of the Colorado founda tion, many changes had taken place in the work of the Congregation of Clerks Regular, as the Theatines are also known. The crucial necessity of reaching minority became one of the nation's foremost problems. No one was in a better position to reach the H ispano citizens than the Theatines, who had spent their labors for half a century with these people. Long before minority causes became a national concern, these fathers were doing inner-city work, and social work, and contact work, through missions preached in Spanish over the whole Western area. Modern methods of tion were used from the beginning. Publications in Spanish were used to unite the people, and in 1950 a daily radio program was begun in Spanish. Talent shows have been a vehicle .. for Hispano recognition, and television whenever possible. Home masses, C. C. D. programs, youth programs, and the C ursillo movement have all had a great positive effect on all the people with whom the Theatines work, for their work is not, of course confined to Spanish-speaking. Cultural programs, including the Mariachi Mass have introduced the ways of the Hispano to their Anglo neighbors. Priests of the Order "speak out " for their less articulate flock-in both Church and political activities. The T heatines realize that it is not enough to have priests from Spain to do their North American work. They established St. Andrew Seminary in Denver in )955, a seminary with both major and minor study programs for both Hispano and Anglo students. The Seminary faculty priests serve the Archdiocese of Denver on several Ecclesiastical committees and are active in Liturgical work and assist in many Denver parishes. A major step in the work of the Thea tines came in the late '50's, when one of the Colorado priests established' a parish in one of the poorest sections of Mexico City. From the fantastic beginning, several parishes were founded, some in other barrios, and others in residential sections of the city. One of these has been designated as the National Shrine of St. Cajetan. ''I cannot understand how it is possible for anyone not to believe in the promises of Christ... He commands me not to be oversolicitous concerning what I shall eat or what 1 shall put on... I confidently trust that He will take care in providing us with food and dress ... " Words of St. Cajetan to the Pope and the Cardinals in the founding of the Theatines. St. Cajetan founded the Clerks Regular in 1524. The basic rule of the Order is contained in the Gospel of St. Matthew; Chapter 6, verses 24 continued on page 49

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Mr. Alex Ramirez, Executive Director of the Adams County Improvement Association ( ADCO ), was recently named the Distinguished Service Award winner by the Northglenn Jaycees. Mr. Ramirez, his wife, Mae , and their four children: Tanya, 11, Brent, 10, Suzette , 8, and Ma_ria, 7, reside at 7937 Pearl Street, Adams County. The purposeof the Colorado Jaycees DSA Award is to select, recognize, and honor the most outstanding men of Colorado ... Men who, because of extraordinary achievements , leadership, and service to their community during the calendar year of 1972, have _distinguished themselves in their chosen vocation and /or avocation. Mr. Ramirez is a graduate of St. Joseph ' s Military Academy, Hays, Kansas, 1955-59. He was active in football, basketball, track, music, marching band , and glee club. He served in ROTC, and graduated a second lietutnant. In addition, he attended Garden City Junior College and Metropolitan State College, Denver, Colorado. He served in the U . S . Marine Corp. For additional training, he interned at Fort Logan Mental Health Center, Children's Asthmatic Reasrech Hospital, and Laradon Hall, constituting some 600 hours working with handicapped children. In 1968-69, he acquired the position of Assistant Psychologist in the Head Start Program that involved Head Start Centers in Denver. He was credited with being instrumental in making constructive reforms for this program. In 1969 , Mr . Ramirez began his governmental service career with the Social Security Administration, supervising benefit programs for elderly citizens. He supervised sixteen disadvantaged hig h school and college youth counselors working with the senior citizens. In this capacity, Mr. Ramirez produced the most complete information and the best results of any of the twelvetested cities. He was personally complimented by Hubert H. Humphrey, Vice-President of the United States. RAMIREZ RECEIVES DSA AWARD Mr. and Mrs. Alex Ramirez display the 1972 DSA Award presented to Mr. Ramirez By the Northglenn Jaycees. In 1970, Mr. Ramirez joined the Adams County Improvement • Association, an OEO (Office of Equal Opportunity) funded agency as Director of Manpower and Economic Development. He worked with lowincome families to improve their job opportunities and to provide them with technical assistance. In May of 1972 , Mr. Ramirez was appointed as Interim Executive Director of the Adams County Improvement Association. In August of 1972, he was appointed Executive Director of ADCO and is responsible for all programs and funds that constitute 500,000 dollars per year. Through his direct leadership and guidance, ADCO developed a track record and an extremely favorable reputation of delivering effective services to the poor and exemplary programs to the community. Mr. Ramirez was one of five young men picked nationally to represent the OEO as a consultant to the National United States Jaycees in the area of human development. His civic contributions include the following: Vice-Chairman of Adams County Planning Commission PublicRelations Officer of Valle Del Norte G.I. Forum Chapter, Member of tbe Colorado Migrant Development Corporation Board of Directors, and a member of School District No. 14 Alternative Educational Method for High School dropouts. Regarding the DSA Award Mr. Ramirez stated that he felt "It was certainly an honor for me to be selected for this outstanding award". He reflects that as a young boy he had to work hard to assist his mother as his father had died when Alex was seven y_ears old. He remembers working at anything he could find, from shining shoes to delivering papers, and other odd jobs. He gives a great deal of credit to his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Paul Lopez, 204 Walker Street, Garden City, Kansas. "Without the great deal of support my mother, Antonia, gave me, it would not have been possible to get where I am at tqday. My mother worked for sixty cents an hour as a Nurse's Aid to put me through St. Joseph's Military Academy at Hays, Kansas, a prep school run by Capuchen Franciscan priests. I honestly feel that my associations at the Academy made the difference in motivating me to better myself. I am very grateful to my mother , aunts, and uncles, and to the rest of my family who were so good to me and helped me so much. I am especially grateful to my wife, Mae, for her understanding and help through my many endeavors. I have to truly be a gifted man as a result." Mr. Ramirez feels that the opportunities look better for our people today, but, "We have a long way to go in terms of any type of parity (full equality). We have to continue to work hard to see to it that many, many, more people have the opportunity for a better and happier life."@ (Editor's Note: The Distinguished Service Award rendered to his community by Alex Ramirez speaks for itself. The outstanding factor is that this young man has only begun. There is no doubt that he will continue to contribute in a magnificent manner to his people, to his community, and to his country.) LOVE AND SUPPORT YOUR BROTHERS AND YOUR SISTERS ALWAYS! BIEN VENIDOS A L _OS CONQUISTADORES 17

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PROPERTY MANGT. SALES NOTAPY INSURANCE OFFICE 455-2852 RES. 429-4547 e 3948 FEDERAL BLVD. DENVER. COLO. 80211 MAX E. TRUJILLO OLYMPIC REAL ESTATE Ross Construction Co. 1001 YUBA sT. AURORA. coLo. ROSS CASTILLO 344-1991 General Building Contractors -General masonry Contractors Residential..; Custom Remodeling Alarid :Drywall & 18 Decorating Construction Co.= coMMERCIAL DAY 288-8657 NIGHT 659-3859 . •INDUSTRIAL •RESIDENTIAL JACOB J. ALARID JACOB ALARID JR. PAUL R. ALARID 922-8291 Tel. 922-8292

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PROJECT GO-GENERATING OPPORTUNITIES A program that provides Educational opportunities for minority students at Colorado State University. Project Go was established in the Fall of 1968 as an attempt to meet neeas of students who otherwise might not be able to attend College. Project Go is a Special Service Pro gram for potential college students who come from low-income families arid who have limited educational experience. A primary objective of the program is to identify and encourage interested students to continue their education beyond high school and to provide them with aid as well as academic support. The current director, Se'fior Donaldo Lucero, who has been associated with the program since 1969, has seen the program expand form 61 students, to the present enrollment of 400 students, (52% Chicanos, 26% Blacks, 16% Anglos, 67% Asian-Americans and Native Americans). Also, very encouraging is the fact that 11 Special Service Programs" (or E.O.P. programs) are being implemented at most of the universities and colleges in Colorado. He also stated that 6 Project Go students graduated in 1971, 30 By Donaldo Lucero graduated in 1972 and that approximately 40 additional students will graduate by the summer of 1973. He noted that the attrition rate (students who withdraw, or fail) of Project students is not much different than the attrition rate for other students. Even though, many of the students admitted are considered moderate risk or high risk students. STAFF Project Go presently maintains four full-time staff members, ( Director, Assistant Director, and two secretaries), and two half-time staff members (Financial-Aid Advisor and Staff Counselor). Upper-division students are hired through the work-study program to serve as peer advisors for incoming freshman. These peer advisors also monitor the student's academic progress and serve as a liaison between student's and the Go office. Our responsibiliteis to students are broken down into four areas; RECRUITING Our recruiting efforts involves contacting high school counselors ani community leaders. We've met many individuals who are really sympathetic to our type of program. The Educational Talent Search program (a division of SER) in Denver and Centro Emiliano Zapata de Aztlan in Alamosa have been extremely helpful to us with our recruiting efforts. The most rewarding aspect of the recruitment according to Senor Lucero is the personal contact they have with potential students and discussing with them the opportunities abailable. Many of our contacts are minorities who have been out of school for a whi.le and want to come back. These older students seem to be most motivated. Senor Lucero also stated that they are still accepting applicants and those interested prospects should contact him at 429-5722 or write Project Go,. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 81521. ADDMISSIONS Acceptance to Project Go is based on the academic potential of students to succeed in a degree program at C.S.U. No single criterion is used when considering a student for admissions. Although, traditional academic predictors and high school performance are factors in student selection, eligibility is also based on other significant factors such as student attitude, motivation, personal recommendation and other more sub-continued on page 50 NO is NO !i if you take NO for and answer.' It_ It 11! CUSTOM INTERIOR TRIM 11 PRE-HUNG ! 5n-sst5 . DENVER lg UNITY-UNITY UNITY Si Se Puede SMILE 19

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Const & Deveopers 225-5213 Custom built homes 2715 W" Colfax Ave " Denver y Colorado 80204 GRACIAS POR SU AYUDA AMIGOS! CHILE DINNgR Saturday, May 12, 2 to 6 P.M. Mountview Community Reformed Church 3939 W. Florida Rev Holbrook, Pastor Music by "Combo from Police District #2" and a "Mariachi" group For Information call . 20 Mary Nagel at 936-6762 Off. Benson at 825-0967 QUO VADIS, CHICANO? By J. A. Rosales (Assistant Professor of Curriculum and instruction, University of Northern Colorado) (Editor's Note: Mr. John A. Rosales is an outstanding educator and public servant, and a leading Chicano personality. He has been working hard for the enhancement of his people for over twenty-five years. His dedication, knowledge , and ability has produced a track record all Chicanos can be proud to relate. We are happy that he took time to express his thoughts in his article entitled, "QuoVadis, Chicano?) Education, to me, is making available to students the greatest number of options by which they can be self-sufficient after they are out of school. In this country, the value of an education being what it is, the more education a student receives, the greater the chances are for his being economically selfsufficient. Until only recently, the Mexican American or Chica no child in the United States has, for the major part, not been able to become economically self-sufficient because his education has been some what limited and meager. Two national organizations in which I presently hold membership are attempting to help change this. These two organizations are the National Education Task Force of La Raza and the Southwest Council of La Raza. The second of these, the Southwest Council of La Raza, came about as a result of the Cabinet Hearings in El Paso, Texas, where some of us presented position papers and ! or testimony concerning the plight of the Mexican American in the areas of Education, Housing, Economic Development, Welfare, etc. Soon after its foundation as a regional organization, the Southwest Council of La Raza established several areas in which they hope to concentrate much time and effort. ' Education was one of the first committees to be formed and I was honored by being selected as its first chairman. By September, 1968, a proposal for educational reforms was submitted to the Ford Foundation by this committee. It was funded for approximately 125,000 dollars. It is important to point out that the committee proposed a solution-oriented approach in attempting to ameliorate the conditions which prevailed in the schools of the Southwest where there was a heavy impact of 11 Mejicanitos." This was done by identifying model programs throughout the Southwest where teachers were honestly making attempts to help the Spanish-speaking child examine and reach his potential. One such program was found in Pueblo, Colorado, where , Miss Dorothy McKeag and colleague, Mr. Dan Martinez, Coordinator of Foreign Languages for District 60 , had implemented a Music Project at Fulton Heights Elementary School-a school with 99.99 per cent'Mexican American children. Miss McKeag u accentuated the positive" in her teaching by preparing an elementary program which taught mucisal skills through singing emphasis and stressed pride in the rich musical heritage of the Hispano/Chicanol peoples of the region. The kids really loved it! Specifically, there were few local organizations in search of educational reform at that time. Even now , they have appeared as so many eddies on the surface of a deep pool that lies stagnant and contained, not going anywhere. Our task, then, . it to help those local organizations clarify their goals toward educational change, to support them with financial and technical assistance, to cooperate with them in planning specific strategies, and to induce them to join hands in a larger regional effort of cooperation. At present, this committee is awaiting a decision by the Ford Foundation to determine whether this endeavor will continue or not. The National Education Task Force de La Raza comes into being at a meeting at Newport Beach, California, in 1970. I was honored to have been one of the twentyfive persons chosen through the continued on page 51

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PUBLICATIONS AND BOOK REVIEW CHICANOS: SOCIAL AND PSYCHO LOGICAL PERSPECTIVES by George Valdez and edited by Nathaniel N. Wagner and Marsha J. Haug provides an overview of the current literature on the psychological and sociological perspectives of the Chicano. TWELVE SPANISH AMERICAN POETS by H. R. Hays, a bilingual anthology, is a standard work in the field and an excellent introduction to Latin American poetry. Published by Beacon, it costs $12.50 (hardbound) and $3.95 (paperback). SELECTED PORMS by Miguel Hernandez and B las de Otero is a bilingual edition. THE EXCLUDED STUDENT, the third in a series of studies on the education of the Mexican American in the Southwest , has been released by the U .S. Commission on Civil Rights. Copies of the study may obtained from the Civic Rights Commission , Office of Information and Pub lications, 1121 Vermont Ave, N. W., Washington, D.C. 20425 ALL WORK GUARANTEED! 6630 JULIAN STREET 427-3290 LIBROS DE NUESTRA GENTE Beautiful Books Below is printed a list of books that are about the Chicano, his cu.lture, history and contributions. These books reflect. the story of the Mexican-Americans in their struggle to survive and keep their identity: BENITO JUAREZ, BUILDER OF A NATION, Emma Sterne, Knopf.. 1967, $3. 95. FORGOTTEN PEOPLE, STUDY OF NEW MEXICANS, George I. Sanchez, Calvin Horn, 1967, $5.75. LOS HISPANOS -Social Studies Unit for Teachers, School District No . 12, Adams County, 10480 No. Huron, Denver, Colorado 80221, $3.00. A SIMULATED EXPERIENCE IN HUMAN RELATIONS A TOTAL IMMERSION IN THE HISPANO CULTURE, School District No.12, Adam 1 County, 10480 No. Huron, Denver, Colorado 80221, $3. 00. MEXICAN AMERICANS: A BRIEF LOOK AT THEIR HISTORY, Julian Nava, Anti-Defamation League B'nai B'rith, 315 Lexington Avenue, New York, New York 10016. fertilzer rototilling top soil new lawns customs plowing power raking SCAPING LOS CUATRO, Abelardo Delgado, Reynundo. Perez, Richardo Sanchez, and Juan Valdez (Magdaleno Avila), Barrio Publications, Box 88, Denver, Colorado 80201, $3 .00. MEXICAN-AMERICANS IN THE SOUTHWEST, Ernesto Galarza, Herman Gallegos, Julian Samora, McNally, Santa, Barbara, $2.50. GRI'TO!, Reis Tijerina and the New Mexico Land Grant War of 1967, James Gardner, Bobbs-Merrill, New York, $8. 00. THE MEXICAN AMERICAN AND THE UNITED STATES, Charles J. Bustamante and Patricia L. Bustamante, Patty-LAR Publications, L.T.D., P.O. Box 4177, Mtn. View, Calif., 14040, $1.00. MEXICAN AMERICAN CHALLENGE TO A SCARED COW, Aztlan Publications, Chicano Studies Center. Monograph I, U.C.L.A., Los Angeles $2.99. SAL SI PUEDES: CESAR CHAVEZ AND THE NEW AMERICAN REVOLUTION, Peter Matthissen, Random, 1969 , $6.95. TEJERINA AND THE COURTHOUSE RAID, Peter Nabokov, New Mexico U. Press, 1969 , $6.95. MERCHANTS OF LABOR, Ernesto Gallarza, McNally & Loftin, 1964, $5.00. Also available in paperback. MEXICAN AMERICANS, PAST, PRE SENT, AND FUTURE, Julian Nova, American Book Co. , New York. FIFTEEN FAMOUS LATIN AMERICANS, Bailey and Grijalva, Pren tice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1971 . NORTH FROM MEXICO, Carey Mc-Williams, Greenwood, 1968, $11.25. Also available in paperback. LA RAZA: FORGOTTEN AMERICANS, Julian Samora, Notre Dame U. Press, 1963, $4.95. I • DELANO, John Dunne, Fa. rrar, 1967, $4.95. Also available in paper 21

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---------------MAMA LA M A MA. to A ll Mothers LA MAMA is a symbol of dedication and love for all mothers. Sin la MAMA no hay cor a zon en la familia. Therefore, remember your mother oil every day. Remember your mother especially on Mother's Day, May 13, 1973. (j)

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ZHffiORH ORILUnG CO. 288-8278 6960 Kearney St. Commerce City, Colo. 80022 Reasonable Rates RAY ALARID Free Estimates & [ill ROOFING 1115 WEST 42nd AVE. DENVER, COLORADO 80211 PHONE 433-1457 Real Estate Business Opportunities 110 SO. ELIOT ST. DENVER, COLORADO 80219 PHONE JULIAN J. DURAN OFFICE: 1801 WYNKOOP STREET BUS. PHONE: 623-6219 DENVER, COLORADO RES. PHONE: 477-3118 Johnny Barajas, 936-5547 ROOFING CONSTRUCTION OF ALL, TYPES LICENSED AND INSURED 23

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CONQUISTADORES SIN NOMBRE Conrad Romero, born in the San Luis Valley, San Acacio, Colorado. He and his wife Sylvia have four children: Albert, Ray, Adrienne, Eufemia. Conrad was educated at Adams State, B . A . -1950, M . A .-1960. He is presently employed in the Colorado Department of Education as Consultant for Equal Educational Oppor tunity. Mr. Romero writes poetry, in Spanish, to keep up the Spanish-induced . customs. When the Spanish Armada was defeated hy the English in 1588 this perpetuated a chain of events tha t affected many people in different parts of Spain's colonization movement in many different ways. This is a recount of what happened to a group of who , as a direct result of the defeat, became stranded in northern New Mexico and in southern Colorado for a period of 263 years. They established settlements on both sides of the beautiful Sangre de Cristo Mountains , the San Luis Valley and TaosValley on the west and Raton and Trinidad on the east. News traveled very slowly in those days. The news concerning the defeat of Spain's Armada was no exception. The Spanish colonizers in Mexico did not he a r about it for many months and some of t he who were t hen probing the northern expanse of lands now known as the . United States never really heard abou t it. This is why I have titled this presentation, Sin Nombre". These settlers thought they were establishing settlements that would create for Spain a larger, richer, more influential empire , not 24 Conrad A. Romero, Consultant Colorado Department of Education (This lecture was prepared to accentuate the different cultures that developed among Spanish settlers in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado, particularly in the San Luis Valley. These uwhite" settlers, many who came as early as 1585, developed settlements and claimed lands for Spain for a long time after the defeat of the Spanish Armada. These settlements served as outposts and supply bases for the United States move westward after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. For the 263 years in between , these people lived with and among the natives found here and became the placid, gentle, folk who did not realize, until to late, that the "other" white move west was going to strip them not only of their land, but of most of their rights under a constitution that they totally accepted and believed in.) knowing that Spain's b alloon had burst and would not be h ear d from ag ain. Legendary stories of riches to be found to the north s purred the people on. The stories of the ''seven cities of Cibola' ' a nd the one about the of Amazons" were probably the mos t influential. As a direct result of these two legends there were established chains of missions and "pueblos" along the "Rio Bravo del Norte" (Rio Grande) and along the western coast of California. Friars, Jesuit priests, and sisters from the orders of Loretto and Charity were among the first religious white persons in the southwest. These religious people , along with some of the settlers, set precedents which affected greatly the behavior that the Indians expressed toward them. The deep belief in self-sacrifice and self-punis hment, such as that practiced by the "Penitentes", impressed the Indians greatly. They themselves had practiced many similar acts in their religious ceremonies and this led I many of them to accept and embrace Catholicism. This alone was probably the factor that led to the peace-ful coexistence of the Spanish and Indian until the "other" white man invaded the territory in the 1800's. Most of the Spanish settlers originated from stock that had lived off the land. The pueblos they established for farm and sheep ranching purposes had deep roots. Some other settlements that were founded primarily for mining purposes were very unstable and did not last long. People cannot live very long without food no matter how much gold or silver thy accumulate. Missions established by the religious people also had deep roots. Part of the learning shared with the Indian was that of growing grains and fruits other than the maise and wild fruits the Indian had before the white man came. Apples, plums, peaches , and pears were introduced in the areas where the climate would allow such growth. White flour was used to make and blue corn mea 1 became u chaqueque" and "a tali to". Since these Spanish settlers lived for such a long time u in absencia" of influences from Europe and Mexico they created a new and different culture with their own foods , music, humor, and in some cases vocabulary. Relative to foods , it can be stated that these people did not make burritos, tostadas, or enchiladas, as was done in Mexico . They used some of the same ingredients in their cookery, but they devised other ways for using them . They gave rise to chicos, burriniates, panocha, and torta de huevo con chile colorado. They discovered that wild "que lites" or lambs' quarters when cooked with semilla de chile" were very delicious. Empanaditas were filled with mincemea t made from a mixture of powdered , dried fruit and "lomita d e puerco." All over the world the people who are descendants of the t-t latina" have a taste for fast, lively music. The New Mexico and Colorado settlers were no exception. They liked and enjoyed polkas and lively waltzes. "El valse de las inascadas," continued on page 52

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A LANGUAGE OF PRIDE By Rueben Aguirre, Chicano Studies Metropolitan State College Chicano Spanish Communication is a new language course that was initiated in the Chicano Studies Department at Metropolitan State College this past quarter. A growing interest in the area has been expressed by the students. Proof of this can be seen by the more than . 75 students who registered for the first class during the SUI11mer quarter of 1972. Originating as a research paper by Professor Rueben Aguirre, Chair man of the Department, it now has a potential of being a part of the curriculum and playing a major role in the teaching of the language , history, and culture of the Chicano. Professor Aguirre went on to give his views on the development of the new written language: Traditionally, modern language departments in institutions of higher learning throughout the United States have placed emphasis on a universal European form of Spanish emanating from Spain. However, they have neglected unconsciously to study the various regional Spanish dialects tnherent in the Southwestern United States. Consequently, the student who learns Spanish through traditional textbooks is at a disadvantage in these geographical areas when it comes to developing a rapport with Spanish-speaking people. The Spanish dialect spoken in the Southwest acquires a variety of forms. Each region and barrio develops its own form of language and vocabulary with the passing of time. In the Southwest it is combined with the various English dialects. This dialect to a great extent emanated from a language that was handed down from generation to generation not in written form nor in a recorded manner, but in oral form and only recently has it been written and vocabulary lists compiled. In the cities of the Southwest today, the Chicanos use an oral style of communication defined by many linguists as a dialect arising from a mixture of languages. It has been called a barrio language , Chicano Spanish, folk Spanish, American Spanish, slang along with a number of other terms. Basically, it is a variant of Spanish and borrows heavily from English words. Many terms used in dialect were brought to the southwestern United States during the 16th and 17th century. To aid in distinguishing it from standard Spanish, he refers to it in this paper as "Chicano Spanish" -dialect of the southwestern United States. This form can be considered similar to the difference of the English spoken in the British Empire. In sentence construction, Chicano Spanish is closely related to American English. To make an overall statement concerning the nature of Chicano Spanish would be difficult if not impossible since its vocabulary is a mixture of words of several linguistic sources. First, being a Southwe stern dialect, second, Chicano Spanish has many words pronounced and spelled differently, and lastly, words have been invented by the speakers themselves. But there is yet anot her form of language spoken in the Southwestern United States. In its proper context, it could be referred to as anglicized Spanish. That is an English word adapted to a new Spanish word. An example of this would be the word , brak_es, which in a regional Spanish would be referred to as, "brecas". As such the Chicano people had to create their own l_3nguage, ''La Lengua del Chicano". Today the majority of them speak their own language which is in many instances, a mixture of Spanish and English. It is a beautiful language in its own right. Words are invented when necessary and many words are English and given a Spanish sound; for example, truck "troque". One of the main characteristics of Chicano Spanish is heavy reliance on hispanized words and expressions. The speakers are interested 1n oral communicating with others. Many Chicanos entering school, have been told that this is an incorrect Spanish. The truth is that using this dialect of American English. ''Many Anglo Americans continue to equate 'good' Spanish with Castilian Spanish, lisp and all. In many schools this Castilian Spanish is being taught to Chicano Students." * Many students become frustrated in this confusion of dialects and it is many times a contributing factor to the high "push out" rate. The solution to this problem is to re-enforce the Chicano Spanish by continued use of the oral and written form of communication, the language they *Dr. Montezuma' Children" 1972 continued on page 43 BUS. 288-6176 RES. 287-6084 BODY SHOP AUTO BODY & PAINTING* WRECKS RE-BUILT DAN GONZALES . 8476 PEARL STREET D _ ENVER, COLORADO 80229 25

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JV\EXICO Af\ERJCANO CALEND 10 HISTORJCO Printed in part from MEXICAN AMERICAN HISTORICAL CALENDAR ABRIL-APRIL 1 Lagor contract covering U.S. tablegrape pickers signed in Los Angeles, 1970. El contrato de trabajo cubriendo a los piscadores de la uva de mesa de los Estados Unido e fue firm ado en Los Angeles. 1970 9 Los Angeles has more people of Mexican descent than any other city in North America except Mexico City and Guadalajara. 1971 . Los Angeles tiene mas gente de decendencia mexican a que cual quier otra ciudad en Norteamerica con excepcion de la cuidad de Mexico y Guadalajara. 1971. 13 The University of Mexico, founded in 1551, was the first university to be created in North America. La universidad de Mexico, fundada en 1551, fue la primera universidad creada en Norteamerica. 15 Two of the 50 signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence were native Mexicans; another, born in Mexico, was that republic's first vice-president. Dos de los 50 que firmaron la Declaracion de Independencia de Texas fueron nativos de Mexico; otro, nacido en Mexico, fue el primer -vice presidente de esa republica. 30 The first cattle to appear in California taken ashore from the San Carlos, part of the Serra expedition anchored in San Diego Bay. 1769 El primer ganado que aparecio en California fue desembaccado del San Carlos, parte de la expedicion de Serra ancio en la bahia de San Diego. 1769 26 MAYOMAY 5 Cinco de Mayo; Mexican troops of Juarez defeated the French forces of Maximilian at Puebla 1 Mexico. 1862 Cinco de Mayo; las tropas mexicanas ,. de Juarez derrotaron a las fuerzas francesas de Maximilano en Puebla, Mexico. 1862 11 President James Polk delivered a message to Congress urging war against Mexico. 1846 El presidente James Polk entrego el mensaje al congreso recomendando guerra contra 1846 19 Treaty between U.S. and Mexico for cession of California and New Mexico ratified. 1948 Se ratifica el tratado entre E. U.A. y Mexico sobre la cesion de California y New Mexico (18 4 8). t 22 Mexico declared war on Germany , Italy, and Japan in 1942 ; soon after, Mexican workers began arriving in the U.S. (total of 100 , 000 ) . MexiC{) _ declar6 guerra contras Alemania, Italia, y Japan en 1942 ; poco despues trabajadores mexicanos empezaron a los Estados Unidos (total de 1 00, 000). 28 In 1770 Juan Bautista de Anza was the first to lead a colony overland to the North Pacific shores. En 1770 Juan Bautista de Anza fue el primero en guiar un grupo sobre tierra hacia las playas del Norte Pacifico. 31 The Gadsden Purchase brought 19 Million acres of land to the U.S. for $10 million; ratified by Mexico. 1854. / El 11 Gads en Purchase" com pro 19 mil1ones de acres de tierra para los Estados Unidos por 10$ millones. Fue ratificada por Mexico. 1854. JUNIO-JUNE 1 Two outstanding units stationed in the Philippines were the 200th and the 51 5th Coast Artillery; comprises of Mexican Americans from Arizona, Texas, and New Mexico. Dos notables unidades coast artillery 200 y 525 estacionadas en las Filipinas fueron compuestas por mexico americanos de Arizona, / . Texas y Nuevo Mexico. 16 Ford Foundation announced forma-tion of Southwestern Council of La Raza to coordinate efforts to achieve civil rights for Mexican Americans. 1968. La Fundacion Ford anuncio la formaci6n del Concilio del Suroeste por la Raza con motivo de coordinar esfuerzos para lograr derechos civiles para Mexico Americanos. 1968 21 Luis Antonio Arguello. First governor of upper California under the government of Mexico. Born in San Francisco. 1784 Luis Antonio Arguello, primer gobernador de Alta California bajo el / gobierno Mexicano. Nacio en San Francisco en 1784. 25 Rodolfo Gonzalez founded the Crusade for Justice in Denver in 1965 to further Chicano demands for jobs, better housing, and land reform. Rodolfo Gonzalez !undo la Cruzada por la Justicia en Denver en 1965. Se fund o con motive de avanzar las demandas Chicanas de trabajo, mejor alojamiento, y reforma agraria. 30 Death of Moctezuma II from the effect of his wounds. 1520 La muerte de Moctezuma II causada por heridas infligidas. 1520

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(Editor's Note: We would like to thank Bea Montoya, Norma Samano, and Martha Martinez for submitting the following recipes.) TAMALES -Bea Montoya Pre paration of Husks: Take corn husks apart and soak in h o t water (preferably overnight) until they are soft. Filling: Boil No. 3 fresh ham or pork butt until meat falls off easily from bone (save meat stock). Cut meat into small pieces or pull apart by hand. Add red chili powder (enough to suit own taste). Stir in 5 Tsps. flour, salt to taste, 1 Tsp. cominos and 1 clove of garlic (ground up). Next MENUDO: Martha Martinez-Norma Samano 1 2 lbs. Tripe 1 large can of Hominy 1 Tbsp. shortening 1 Tbsp. flour 1 Tbsp. chili powder 1 Tbsp. salt Boil Tripe for approximately 2-% hours. Brown flour and chili in melted shortening. Add to the Tripe your browned mixture, hominy, and salt and let simmer for one half hour. Yields approximately 8-12 servings. Educaci6n es la luz del mundo About 20 per cent or 5.4 million of the 23 million members of unions and employee bargaining associations in the United States were women as of 1970. add enough water to cover meat mixture. Chili mixture should be of medium consistency. Bring to boil and then simmer for about one hour. Mas a: 5 lbs Masa Harina % cup ground red chili powder 2 cups salad oil (or lard) 3 Tbsps. salt Meat Stock: Add % cup ground red chili powder to masa. Work it into the masa real good, together with salt. Add salad oil. Work it into the masa and add enough meat stock to make the masa into a workable pas t e (not too thin). Some of our senior citizens and even those of us who remember our mothers preparing the following dishes will be delighted and mildly surprised that they are still prepared in some areas of the Southwest: QUELITES (These usually grow wild In your own backyard!) 2 Tbsp. shortening 2 Tbsp. chopped onion 2 cu JS chopped Quelites 1 Tbsp. chili seeds 1 Tbsp. salt % cup cooked pinto beans Place shortening in skillet, saute chopped onion, add Quelites, season with chili powder, cooked beans and salt. PRIDE and HONOR start at HOME! Preparation of Tamales: Spread the masa onto the husk, about 118" in thickness, leave about an inch on both sides and on the bottom that will not have masa. Add about 2 Tbsps. chili filling on top of the masa; fold right side over about 3/4 of the way, fold bottom part up (part that does not have masa on it); fold left side over. Steam Cook Tamales: Steam cook tamales for one hour in a large pan with an airtight lid that will hold approximately five dozen tamales, add approximately two inches of water. Line the pan with tinfoil and corn husks and stand a quart jar in middle of pan and stand your tamales around this jar. The important thing is to try and keep the tamales upright in the water so they will be cooking with just the steam. Tamales are done when the husk peels-away from the masa. Yields five dozen . VERDOLAGAS (Sometimes called Purslane, these also may be growing wild in your garden.) 3 cups washed and chopped Verdolagas % cup salt pork 1 small chopped white onion 1 cup cooked meat 1 Tsp. coriander Salt Mix Verdolagas with salt pork, onion which has been sauteed, add cooked meat and season with coriander seed and . salt to taste. Cover and cook until tender. (I remember my mother . just frying Verdolagas with scrambled egg-it was delicious.) If you have a favorite recipe you would like to share with our readers, please send them to: Los Conquistadores, Recipe Dept., 3820 W. 66th Avenue, Arvada, Colorado 80002. 27

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28 LITTLE CHILDREN uQue Son Los Ninitos" A TRIBUTE TO LITTLE CHILDREN Little children love co play Little children love to be gay Little children to stay Little children love to pray Little children do give embraces Little children do make faces Little children do go places Little chidlren do make messes Little children are so gracious Little children are so gentle Little children are so honest Little children are so precious Thank God for Little Children ! @

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WESTSIDE COALITION TO LAUNCH STREP EDUCATION PROGRAM . The Westside Coalition, a community organization in Near West Denver, will be conducting a year long program geared towards educating low-income residents about the dangers of strep throat and rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever causes more long-term crippling illness in children than any other disease. It particularly attacks children of school age. This illness transcends all ethnic and class distinctions, yet is more pronounced in the lower socio-economic classes due to the lack of proper education about the illness, and the absense of good quality health programs located in the target areas. One of several factors that can contribute to strep infection that can lead to rheumatic fever and heart ailments is that the disease is easily transmitted from one individual to another, In lower economic areas we find that the density of population provides the catalyst and spawning ground for the disease to run rampent. Since many of the symptoms are not easily recognizable (i.e. someone may be infected with the strep germ yet not have a sore throat) epidemics can spread through an entire neighborhood without warning. Chicanos like other ethnic groups (Blacks, Indians, Puerto Ricans, etc.) do not have access to health education programs in their barrios ot the inner city or their colonies or the rural areas. Even if programs do exist in their barrios, very often these programs are not communicated to the people at a grass-roots level, and are, therefore, By Richard Castro not utilized. Near West Denver is a Chicano barrio located in the core of the city. The boundaries for this area are West Colfax Avenue on the North, Speer Boulevard and Broadway on the East, Alameda on the South, and the Rio Grand Railroad tracks on the West. There are nearly 15,000 residents located in this target area, 70% o{ whom are Chicano. Of this number approximately 60% of the total population are on public assistance. The problems facing this community are the same as those across this country where the poor have been relegated to crowded inadequate housing, exploitation by insensitive politicians and slum landlords, education that is mediocre at best with little hope of making things better in later life for our youth, industrial and businessmen who move their warehouses and junkyards into our communities but refuse to hire residents and keep the flow of money in this neighborhood. The Westside Coalition is a grass-roots neighborhood group that was founded three years ago, seeking to address itself to those problems innumerated above, and the . countless other neighborhood problems that face this community in its struggle for existence. The Westside Coalition will be sponsoring this health education program in partnership with the Colorado Heart Association and the Colorado-Wyoming Regional Medical Program. The goal of the program will be to educate residents about the causes of rheumatic fever and strep throat and the dangers that are inherent if not (reated promptly and properly. The Coalition will link up with the neighborhood health centers iD the area (i.e., Casita Esperanza, Mariposa Health Stateio, etc.) and provide a referral service that would raise the understanding and change the behavior of residents so that they would begin to utilize these health facilities when tpey have the symptoms of strep throat. Nick's Landscaping LANDSCAPE CONTRACTOR RESIDENTIAL-COMMERCIAL INSTALLER OF: Quality Sod Sprinkler Systems 3458 LIPAN, DENVER, COLORADO 80211 433-2491 29

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CARPETS & DRAPERIES RELIABLE I SHOP AT HOME DECORATOR SERVICE R OOMS L U X URIOUS WAllTO -WAll NYLON CARPET. (liv ing room, Dining room & Hall) * Price inc/ d di u es sep U ng, tnstallar orate Pad. p to 320 s ton ond labor Pet 11 x 14 /'!ft. Enough to co . d ' 1\ltng rtntng roo room, 1 Ox 12 m and 4x 12 hall. SPEC! A:....i Z !NG i N CARr-:ETS & DRAPES PROFESSI O N A L RUG & U P HOLSTERY GLEANING RESlDEN T IAL & COMMERCIAL • Rugs • Installation • Drapes • Repairs We do any size job CALL NOW DAY OR NITE Specializing in Carpets & Drapes for Larry Quintana 8 Years in Business Leading Mills Suppliers 15 Years Experience 3948 North Federal 455-0298 X .. 30

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Ulibarri Con!itruct:ion to panylnc. CLASS A GENERAL CONTRACTOR 7295 N. Washington JOE I. ULIBARRI OWNER 287 Denver, Colorado 31

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Cur Lady of Guadalupe Mestizo The dance school at Our Lady of Guadalupe Catholic Church has been in existence for a little ov-er three years. The dancers perform under the name of the Guadalupe Mestizo Dancers. In the past few years, these dancers have become well known in the Denver area. The school operates two nights a week . Monday night there are classes held tor beginners and adults, •and Wednesday night intermediate and advanced classes are given. The Director of the program is Larry Trujillo, who has studied dance extensively In the United States and Mexico. His sister, Karen , is the Assistant Director and the instructors are Becky Zamora, Beverly Garceau, Robin Roli)ero and Denise Valdez. A major reason for the success of this program is the support of Father Lara and of the parents of the children. The parents group takes part in the administration and programming. The parents make sure all costumes are made or purchased and help greatly with the programs. There is no cost to any-one who participates. The purpose of the program is to encourage our culture through the arts of Mexico and Spain. Dancing and music are a major part of our lives and they live in our youth vividly through o.ur dances. In early January, 1973, the Mestizo Dancers from Our Lady of Guadalupe reorganized into a formal non-profit Parent Committee. This coiJlmittee of parents formally organized to govern, supervise, regulate, and maintain all activities, functions and policies of the Guadalupe Mestizo Dancers. Membership to the dancing group is open to all children and adults attending the dance sessions. The Board of Directors consists of twelve members according to fallowing criteria: (two (2) members from each of the dance group levels intermediate; and ad-32 Dancers vanced; one ( 1) four ( 4) elected officers of the Parent Committee; and the pastor of Our Lady of Guadalupe Parish. Mr. Sal Carpio was elected president of the Committee for the 1973 calendar year. Meetings for the new year were set up for the fourth Wednesday of every month at 7:30 p.m. at Our Lady of Guadalupe Parish Hall. continued on page 52 MESTIZO DANCERS: Larry and Karen (brother and sieter) Dancing Team model authentic dancing costumes. They are the head dance instructors for the group. Robin Romero and Beverly Garceau instruct beginners at Our Lady of Guadalupe. Robin is the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Floyd Romero. She has t,wo (2) years dancing experience and is a student ot St. Francis Catholic School. Beverly Gafceau is the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Garceau. She has four (4) years dancing experience and is a student at Holy Family. Catholic School. LEFT TO RIGHT FRONT ROW: No.dine Gonzales and Pete Morales. LEFT TO RIGHT BACK ROW: Robin Romero, Miranda Gonzales, Kevin Romero, and Beverly Garceau.

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• THE LEGEND OF TERICIO VALLEY As I was growing up, I once heard a strange story concerning the unknown and the supernatural. In the early 1800's in a large farming valley in southern Colorado, lived a beautiful Spanish girl. Her name was Angela Tericio. She was the daughter of General Tericio, a famous and wealthy gentleman in the Spanish Army. Many a young man fell in .love with Angela and asked for her hand in marriage. But Angela's time and love for the Church came before and beyond anything else. By the time she was nineteen , she had not been promised to anyone, and her parents thought that she would be an maid., They t-ried very hard to find someone she would agree to marry , but their search was in vain. As the days passed, her black hair grew longer and shinier, her green eyes sparkled with love and happiness, but the most noticeable change was her radiant smile. Even the poor men who were turned down when they asked for her hand felt a warmth in their hearts when she spoke or was near. The girls envied and were jealous of Angela. They made silly accusations as to why she was so pure. They said that she was actually a tool of the Devil and that she was full of evil. As the daJS passed and she spent more and more of her time at the church, Angela spent hours making fancy altar cloths for the little church's altar. Many times when . people entered the church, they saw beautiful flowers in front of the statues and Angela kneeling on the stone floor saying rosary after rosary. Father Sale z , the only priest of the small church, wa s happy that one of his parishioners could cherish and love the Church s o much .. . but he also felt a pity for her. He thought it was sad s uch a beautiful girl should make the Church her entire life. Father Salez loved Angela as he would a daughter , so as the days passed and the Church became a bigger part of her life, the Father worried more and more . General and Senora Tericio, with the help of Father Salez, worked and searched for a man suitable to Angela, but none of them was the right man for her. Father Salez had another worry; he had_ to make preparations for the May Celebration (the May Celebration was one of the great festive days of the Church). It was then that he realized that this would be a great opportunity to bring all of the young men together. Father Salez and the Tericio's worked on the celebration. . They wanted everything to work out right for the Church as well as for Angela. The word was spread distant towns about the May Celebration. Most of the people for many miles around planned on at tending the great feast and dance. As the day of the ce lebration drew closer, the people became more excited. People began to arrive from all over. But all this had little or no effect on Angela. Her only joy was the Church. Finally the day arrived. Senora Tericio insisted that Angela take part in all of the activities. Angela agreed because of the respect she had for mother, and because this was such a great day for the church. People came from all over. They planned to spend the two days in the valley. All of the guest rooms at the Tericio' s were taken because so many prominent families stayed with them. Everyone was happy with the celebration on the first day. Everything ran so smooth I v that they were sure that God was smiling upon them . Angela wanted the celebration to end quickly, because every time she attended church, many people were there. It was expected of her to stop and pay' her respects to most of the people : This seemed to rob her of precious moments in the church. Angela prayed for the dance, which would end the celebration, to come quickly. All she wanted was to be in peace again. On the second day some people remembered seeing a handsome, well-dressed young man By Judy Vallejos (Editor's Note: Judy Vallejos is a 1972 graduate of West High School in Denver. She is eighteed years old and intends to continue her education at Fort Collins. She is presently employed by Safeway at Shaw Heights, Denver, Colorado.) walking around with a sad look on his face. Some eFen remembered that he was always watching Angela. Whether he was watching Angela from the beginning or not, no one will ever know. But that night at the .great dance held at the Tericio' s house , a young good looking man was there. He was well-dressed and rode a great white horse. No one knew him or where he was from , but they accepted him without question. Many a young girl had her eye on him, but it was apparent that Angela had already caught his attention. He asked her to dance , but she refused. After all a man had not entered her life before! She was not able to understand why she felt disgusted with herself for not accepting his offer. Afterwards, when her parents told her that she had to dance with anyone who asked, she secretly wished for the handsome man to ask her again. She danced many dances, continued on page 53 33

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PLUMBING OF ALL KINDS HEATING CONTROLS GAS FIRED FURNACE HOT WATER HYDRONIC STEAM . ' ABEYTA'S PLUMBING and HEATING "HERE TO SATISFY" ANTHONY ABEYTA 465-3179 3334 CLAY STREET DENVER, COLO, 80211 L YOUR ARE WHAT YOU BELIEVE YOU ARE! RESIDENTIAL SALES Full service Office l o Residential appraising 2 0 Residential Sales 30 Business Opportunities We offer full line Insurance Coverage l o Auto 20 HomeOwners COMMERCIAL REAL-ESTATE & LABOR DEPARTMENT INFORM-ATION: 3% million full-time wage and salary workers earned less than $60-2-week, according to personal reports of workers who responded to a special question in the 1970 Census Report. Abvut two-thirds of these workers were women, and fifteen per cent young men, 16 to 24. The average of all teachers -trr the u nited States was $9,680 in 1971-72, according to the National Education Service. Among the states, the California average, $12,095, was the highest, and Mississippi's, $6,670, the lowest.. A representative sample of . the American work force was asked by the U.S. Department of Labor what con .tributed most to their happiness in a job. Interesting work was ranked first by a solid margin , followed by good pay, opportunity to get ahead and fringe benefits. LAND SALES JOHN C. GARCIA BROKER COME IN AND SEE US 3 0 Life-terms to fill your needs 4 o Commercial-Bonding INCOME TAX SERVICE AVAILABLE 3234 W. COLfAX • DENVER, COLORADO 80204 AVONDALE SHOPPING CENTER ' 34

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COLORADO Con rostra rayado, Colorado, miras hacia el cielo azul, loas a Dios por ser un estado, por tu beldad de monta'tias, adorado. Vamos a pasar por vista hist6ricas, Veamos una alborda de siglo pasado y una escena de una cadena de pi cos n1veos en su gran primor. .. .. . Sacudiendo la aureola, asciende el sol ti'fiendo bermejo el vasto firmamento alumbrando arreboles, salpicadas por rayas destilan y ban an las cimas nevadas, enlazando asi la tierra con el cielo. ... La naturaleza en toda su belleza, arrodillo el cura que lo presencia y lo bautizo, II La Sangre de Cristo" En memoria de ese tiempo antiguo, El fonda del R{o * reluce rojizo, A la haz lleva un penacho de espuma, espuma espesa que sopla burbujas y murmura en luto cantilenas her6icas de cortejos viejos de heroes ignotos cuyas hazaiias pasaron por el paramo aire para siempre quedar desconocidas por nosotros y olvidadas por cronistas. Reclama historia la tierra colorada, Tenida por la sangre derramada de l a raza ind{gena que en espaYiol hablada y a Jesucristo rezaba. Mas la tierra carm(n recobra en vano las poblaciones y pueblos que dieron grana a la herencia y a la cultura del indio y del hispano. Y casi con iron(a el maizal tod av{a besa el viento del Norte * en incauta armonia. El verde zaca te e scala los montes, Matizandose morado al llegar a lo alto, donde se ven coron a d as las cumbres nevadas, que por las nube s giran y al sol desaf[an para pr_pbar el poder de Dios . * Con mayuscula porque s e refiere al Rio Colorado. * Con mayuscula porque se refiere al continente de Norteamerica. POEMS By Marcela Christine Lucero Trujillo MEXICO, D.F . . , / Cuando volvere a ver? tus calles lagrimosas por un llanto de lluvia, secadas por varias luces alhajas del las avenidas. Las luces coloridas, . . . / arco HIS JOyena , que llama por toda parte explosiva alegr(a. En tal ambiente art{stico, el viento convertido pintor sacude nubes esparcidas, y las cuelga en telas tenida s. Cuando volvere a ver? Escenas que se muevan al ritmo mexicano, de vitalidad, actividad, amabilidad, (., Cuando volvere a ver. ... ? habra algun rinconcito que tus poetas eminentes no hayan cantado por todos los continentes ? TU / Por venir aca / te VI . / y en ti VI mi porvenir. Spiraling octagon, swirling down , Sparkling points weave in and out, Frost lace web, prism of fantasy, Defies the compass of geometry. Intricate, perfect, it could not last. Its moment came , its moment passed. A shaking leaf hid it from the sun before it passed into oblivion. Mrs. Trujillo is a leading Chicana in the field of education, and the concern of the Chicano. She is currently the Assistant Director of Colorado Pinto Project, a federally funded program by the Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. , in Denver, Colorado. 35

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'" POEMS, con't. UNCHARTERED ODYSSEY 11Teresias,* why do you sigh ? Blind men, too, can also cry." my blindness, I only sigh, I only cry when I long to die, Although I am blind, I can see," me then , what do you see?" vision is as limitless as sound, Luckier is man who looks all around, Luckier is the bull who looks right or left, Luckier was Cyclops who looked straight ahead. These century-old wrinkles on my face , etched by memories, tears or fears , Tell the story of the human race from Homer to the Age of Space. Although I am blind, I have foreseen -'' me then , what have you seen?" the holocaust of war-torn terrain , Screeching bloodily, I heard the dirge of the Sweet Bird of Youth* as It f ell displumed, into the mud, the muck , the once-called I earth , ' . . I now seek the darkness of my solitude, I retreat within, I reject the day; I' 11 deny the sunlight for zones of twilight, I'd prolong the night, and curse my fright.." wise man of this country Tell us of our Odyssey, Will our Ulysses return, what is to be?" He did not answer, but his eyes had hinted, of a history which will never be printed. *Teresias, a blind prophet who warned Ulysses of future troubles. Here in this poem, he is treated as a centuries-old Prophet, who can foretell any century to come. *Capitalized to symbolize the names of dead service\ men. ARBOL VIAJERO Arbol alto con cari'fio, tus ra(ces nervudos clavan nidos bajo la tierra madre, mientras tus dedos verdes mecen con el viento y giran hacia el cielo para tocar los linderos del eterno techo. By Marcela Christine Lucero Trujillo 36 11 Y hay tiempo ido, al cual el alma vuelve los nostaJgicos ojos." Ruben Dario is a cruel month, breeding Lilacs out of the dead land, m1x1ng memory and desire, stirring Dull roots with Spring rain." T. S. Eliot VERDE VERDUGO* Verde vienes a atormentar la vista que trastorna la sangre y despierta el cuerpo con nostalgia necia de recuerdos meurtos, i, Por que no te quedaste? Bajo el blanco manto del invierno santo Bajo el blanco manto del invierno santo donde yacen trozos de los suenos fuertes. i, Por que n o te quedaste? Bajo el bla nco manto del invienro santo Bajo e l blanco manto del invierno santo Helando los brazos que claman por amor / i, Por que n o t e quedaste? Bajo el bla nc o manto del invierno santo Bajo el blanco manto del invierno santo c ubrien d o ojos mustios que se clavan al sol . i, Por que n o t e quedaste? Bajo el b l anc o manto del invierno santo Bajo e l bla nco manto del invierno santo i, Por que no te quedaste? Bajo e l blanco manto del invierno Bajo el blanco manto del Bajo el blanco manto Bajo el blanco Bajo el blanco Bajo el Bajo el Bajo *Verde Verdugo means The Green Hangman or Executioner. The concept here is taken from T. S. Eliot and Ruben Dario, who have written poems which say that April or Spring is a cruel time of year for the old person who can only be nostalgic about a youthful love. There is sancturay, however, during the Winter when nature cannot aid the stirring of the emotions, because the green landscape is covered with snow. WHITE FASHION Queen in lavish white splendor Dispelled her winds' wailing siren, and descended softly on the town, Encompassing all in her star-flaked gown. Designing frocks in dazzling white fashion, She dressed bare trees in her latest style, Decked their thin limbs with diamond-flecked rings, And left them vying for the cold moon's smile.

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Clleatlve Chicano cpoetlly Composed thirty minutes before delivery at the final session of the N. E.A. Conference for Human Rights. Poem was recited just prior to the major talk given by Mr. Julian Bond. Conrad Romero Denver. Col or ado DERECHO, 0 NO DERECHOS Nos juntamos en D.C., Corazon pesado en pecho, A dar recomendaciones Que al joven den su derecho. Nos juntamos muchas gentes. Negroes, blacnos, Asianos ... Tambien se aparecio el Indio, Y unos pocos Mejicanos. Todo nino en este mundo Nace honesto y competente; H asta que no lo maltratan No trata el de ser violente. i Pobrecito el Chamaquito! Su problema es personal. Todo lo que pide al mundo Es que lo traten igual. Ya hablamos de muchas casas Recomendando accion. El trato igl:lal de uno a otro Salvara nuestra Nacion. Ojala que de esta junta, Regresando a cada hagar, no se sientan tan con formes ... ; Tenemos que trabajar! SMILE TOMORROW IS THE FIRST DAY OF THE REST OF YOUR LIFE! •• HAVE A NICE 0 A Y o . 0 0 .. 0 • 0 0 0 0 0 .. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 • 0 0 •• 0 0 FOR ALL OF YOUR PRINTING NEEDS. Jrurero J.eprographirs 2715 llrst alolfnx Aut. Druurr. 80204 ( 37

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, ENCUENTRALO EN DEFENSA DE LAS LENGUAS MODERNAS Al Senor Publico : La mayor parte de la gente termina su educacion formal al graduarse del colegio. . Despues de salir del colegio algunos se casan, otros trabajan y otros via jan. Si hay una lalla en su educaci6n superior, permanecera probablemente para siempre. Aqu{ hablo de la importancia de las lenguas vivas , I en las escuelas superiores. Aqu1 yay a citar un punta sabre la ensenanza de las lenguas Vivas. Con el conocimiento de un idioma adicional puede abrirse un nuevo mundo en todo sentido. Cada pa{s tiene su propia musica y bailes. Cada pa{s tiene su literatura. En estas tres artes podemos ver alga nuevo, folkl6rico, cultural y mas importante aun , la manera de pensar de otro cultura. Dentro de la musica la letra siempra lleva la psi.cologfu del pueblo. Par ejemplo, la can cion u Guatanamera" em plea los Sencillos" de Jose Mart{ quien escribio los pensamientos . nacionales de los Cubanos. Yo soy un hombre s1ncero de donde crece la palma; y antes de monrme, qu1ero echar mis versos del alma. Yo vengo de y hacia todas arte soy entre en los montes, todas partes partes voy; las arets monte soy. Tod.o es hermosa y constante, . / todo es mus1ca y razon , y todo, como el diamente , antes que luz es carbon. Esto nos dice que el es un hombre creativo y como artista tiene el des eo de crear. Tam bien, es un hombre que cree en la libertad. Es un hombre universal. Todo en el mundo es arte. lo que tiene gran importancia para cada uno es que hay que comenz.ar si uno lograr un ideal. Mart{ nos dice mucho mas en s.us versos. Solamente, hay que leerlos. Otro ejemplo, es la cion mixteca" don de encontramos el amor sincerp a su tierra del hombre mexicano y lo m1smo ocurre con la canci6n linda," par, Jorge Negrete. 38 De las danzas del mundo / voy a usar como ejemplo el baile nacional de Mexico-El Jarabe Tapatfo. E 1 vestuario es el del charro con sombrero y el de la mujer es el de la china poblana. El vestuario tiene su historia folklorica H abfa una princesa m uy hermosa en China que estaba muy aburrida de la vida en la casa real chinesca. Par eso, ella sal{a todos / los d1as del palacio y andaba par la playa. Un d[a unos piratas se la llevaron pns1onera. Despues de muchas peticiones pidiendo para su libertad, los piratas la de jaron en Acapulco. Un charro la compro a los piratas y a primera vista se enamoro de ella. Ella estaba tan contenta que no tenia deseos de regresar a su tierra natal. Ella estaba acostumbrada a joyas y ropas finas y fue la primera mujer que se vistio con lentejuelas. Cuando murio en / Puebla, donde la gente la quena tanto que adoptaron su manera de / vestir despues de su muer te. Par eso, hoy tenemos el vestido de la mujer, China Poblana" para el baile nacional. E 1 traje de charro suele ser el traje de hombre para fiestas. El vestido es t{pico de los vaqueros y primeramente fue hecho par ellos. El estilo mas famoso es del charro rico o dueno de tierras. El traje tiene botones de plata y oro al lado de los pantalones con un broche al centro de la chamarra. ' * Par lo tanto, la china poblana y el charro -los tipos del baile nacionaltienen su propia historia tradicional. Ademas, el baile es t{pico de la region de la ganadera mexicana. Esta region incluye los estados de Jalisco, y los del Norte de Mexico. En esta region se origin a E 1 J arabe Tapatfo. E 1 baile represen.ta el cortejo entre un joven y una joven. La joven acepta al joven cuando baila alrededor del sombrero que el charro pone a sus pies. El baile origin6 alrededor del ana 1920 . . El ' *Salomay L. Harrison, Simpatico", (D.C. Health and Company, Texas, 1929), p.p. 30-35, reference only. By Lawrence Alan Trujillo nombre del baile nos dice que tipo de baile es y de don de viene. Primeramente, este jar abe es una serie de danzas populares que incluye zapateados y tambfen, jarabe qu1ere decir alga muy dulce. , Tapat1o le llaman a todo lo que viene del estado de Jalisco. Hasta ahara, he hablado so lamente de la musica y de un baile mexicano. Ahara, la tercera cosa que estudian los alumnos de una lengua viva es la literatura. Una persona aprende tanto de la psicologia de una raza en la lituratera como en Ja musica y el baile. Aqu{ hay unos cuantos refranes populares. Mas vale un pajaro en mana que cien volando. El que viene primero, tiene pr!Jflero. Mas vale tarde que nunca. Estos refranes dicen mucho pero sin el conocimiento del idioma el espanol uno no va a saber lo que dicen. Hay obras maestras que siempre pierden el significado cuando uno se las lee en la forma traducida. Aqu{ voy a citar algunos ejemplos de la riqueza que se puede encontrar en la literatura. Par ejemplo, Jorge Manrique vivo en el siglo XV y escribio "Las cop las." Una parte de estas capias dice: Nuestras vidas son los rios que van a dar en Ia mar que es el morir: / / alll van los senorios derechos a se acabar y consumir; / / alll los nos caudales, alli los otros, median as y mas chi cos, allegados son iguales, los que viven par sus mano s y los ricos. V emos una comparacion que com para la vida con el rfo. EJ mar pued a ser la m uerte. N acimos para morir. Todos comenzamos y pasamos la vida chaparros, altos, ricos, pobres o lo que sea. Pero, el fin viene para todos y para todos es igual. / Gustavo Adolfo Becquer fue uno de los mejores escritores de la literatura romantica de Espana. en el siglo XIX, 1836-1870.

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Cito algunas de sus rimas que tambien nos dice mucho. XI Yo soy ardiente, yo soy morena, yo soy el simbolo de la "' pas1on; de ansias de goces mi alma , esta llena; mi me buscas ? no es a ti, no. Mi !rente / es palida; Iliis trenzas de oro; p.uedo brindarte dichas sin fin ' y de ternura guatdo un tersoro; c, .. a mi me llamas? -No, no es a ti? Yo soy un sueno, un imposible, vano fantasma de niebla y luz; soy incoporea, soy intangible; no puedo amarte. Oh, ven; i ven tu! Aqu{ vemos que lo imposible es lo ideal. As{ es el ser humano tambien. Cada uno lucha para mejorarse y para mejorar la humanidad y nuestro nivel de vivir. Otra rima es: XXXVIII Los susp1ros son aire y va11 al aire. Las lagrimas son agua y van al mar. Dime, mujer: ? cuando el amor se olvida, sabes tu adonde va? Esto si es una buena pregunta . / ? Adonde va el amor cuando se lo olvida? Todo lo que he citado y hablado / se m uy poca cos a en comparacion con la riqueza que se puede hallar cualquier persona. Hay un mundo de sabidurfa en la literatura. Todo el / conocimiento del ser humano esta escrito. Solamente , se necesita uno que aprender y leer. Ahara que usted ha terminado leyendo esta parte micoscrooica de DRAPERY CARPET INTERIORS 2460 ELIOT STREET DENVER COLORADO 80211 433-4491 * No Obligation in Home Shopping * Professional Decorating Advise * 10 Years Experience CUNRAD & ESTER BORQUEZ lo que se puede conocer, cree usted que seria justa quitar de los estudiantes el derecho de tamar clases de lenguas Vivas? Cuando no e ,xiste el requisito de una extranjera los alumnos no tendran que enfrentarse con otras culturas. Hay muchos que dicen que esto no tiene importancia. Pero, hoy en dfa estamos en un mundo donde debemos tratar de entender a nuestros vecinos. Ademas, en los Estados Unidos hay mucha gente que habla otros idiomas. En conclusion, vale la pena tamar un curso de una lengua extranjera y conocer a nuestros vecinos del mundo. (Author's Note: I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Professor Arthur Campa for his comments and criticisms.) ............... An estimated 50,000 persons were licensed as funeral directors and embalmers in 1972. About two per cent were women. OFFICES APA RTMENTS-CONDOMINIUMS 39

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Intern Mary Sanchez from Trinidad, Colorado assisting q student at Minnequa school in Pueblo's south side. Southern Colorado State College, Pueblo, Colorado, has received a distinguished achiev;ement award for its Teacher Corps program from the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (AACTE). AACT E aims to encourage and recognize excellence in teacher education, while supporting innovation, implementation and change for. progress of teacher education programs. According to the AACTE, such excellence often goes unnoticed, although many schools of education across the country are still striving for improvement de$pite dwindling resources, curtailed budgets, widespread criticism and general apathy. The S.C.S.C. Teacher Corps project is the largest in the nation and has been . designated as as "exemplary" program by Teacher Corps, Washington, D.C. Because of this II exemplary', designation the S.C.S.C. program has been given extra funds for program development and information dissemination in the areas of community-based education and communications. The uniqueness and contributions to the field of Education has been recognized by S.C.S.C. officials who nominated the Teacher Corps Program at S.C.s.c. for the American Association of Colleges for the Teacher Education Distinguished Achieve-ment Award. Colleges and Universi. ties recognized for their innovative 40 SOUTHERN COLORADO STATE COLLEGE TEACHER CORPS efforts were named February 21, 1973. Working In six elementary schools in low-income neighborhoods the Pueblo projects features: -A cross-cultural component for all participants designed to build an understanding and appreciation of the dignity and worth of individual cultures. The cross-cultural component was iniated three years ago and was the first of its kind in Teacher Corps nation wide. Since then, the program has developed to the point of becoming a viable vehicle in the areas of community involvement and crosscultural .curriculums. -A community-based component which moves the community through stages from 11 assist ance" to "advisory" to 11 participation in decision making" in the education of children, and for teachers of the children. -A . two year intern training program at the undergraduate level which is communitybased, field-based, and competency-based. Interns learn to become effective teachers in a real classroom Christina Sena, .intern from Raton, New Mexico, works with children at Minnequa School. setting with assistance from an experienced co-operating teacher. -A career ladder component closely coordinated with school . development plans in each of the six schools, which provides programs from the G. E.D. or high school diploma through Teacher Aide Certifi cation, Master of Arts, Ed. S., or three types of doctrates, and which is designed to build expertise in areas of need identified by schools. Six colleges throughout Colo rado and New Mexico are involved. -A sophisticated communica tions component designed to build an open communications system anomg all participants. The rationale for the communications component is simply stated: it is easy for a teacher or a prospective teacher to care deeply for the Chicano child, to love him and to provide him a cultural education as the teacher thinks he can handle; however, it is not likely that a person (teacher) of low self-esteem, who has an apparent lack of motivation for self-discovery, can effectively lead a child into a world of excitment, challenge, experimentation and creativity. The teacher must be experiencing this himself and identify the process of this experience for the child. -A I' portal school plan'' for the coordination of all activities in the schml with participation by community, school, and college personnel. A strong development team composed of representatives from the community, public schools, and six colleges originally developed the program, which is geared toward accomplishing improvement in education through change. The Teacher Corps project includes 48 college students who are In training to become teachers.

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These interns work in five barrio schools in Pueblo. Each intern is assigned to a cooperating teacher or to an instructional team in a school and is working a minimum of 25 hours a week with children, teachers, school projects, parents, community members and community projects. During this time the intern will fulfill the teacher certification requirements through his work in the school, interns also attend classes on campus to complete major course requirements. Interns selected for the program are drawn from persons with a commitment to working with poverty area children: children from a Chicano cultural background, and most important a commitment to continue working with the poor Chicano children. A high percentage of interns represents persons from the same background as those of the six target areas in Pueblo. What does all this mean to children who begin school every year and find themselves in a en-vironment which will greatly influence their learning and psychological development? Wharwill happen to them when they leave the warm friendliness of their families and walk into the world of the school ? In most cases their language, cognitive and cathetic experiences are not part of their daily school life. The result is confusion as children come to wonder what is acceptable? The way of the family -or those things being modeled at school? Steve Archuleta, from Questa, New Mexico who is interning at Eastwood Elementary made the following obseravtion after working in the classroom for a period of time: ''young school children, especially Chicanitos need a male model to identify with".. . He went on to state "the Chicano family revolves around a firm father figure, thus a Chicano male t eacher can more easily gain a good rapport with the school children and be more effective in his teaching". Teacher Corps, S.C.S.C. doesn't pretend to have all of the answers for the problems affecting the educational system in the United States. How ever, they are trying to •develop some creative solutions for many of these problems. Ray Archibeque, intern at Spann Elemen tary School explaings the game of volly ball to students in P.E. class. lJnr. in FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT: 1!\abtb l'albt? n _ 303 222-2353 n u 2715 W. COLFAX AVEUNE DENVER, COLORADO 80204 U n n 41

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BILINGUAL-BICULTURAL PROGRAM, conL bicultural programs 1 earning each others language, history, and culture and gaining appreciation of both cultures. 6. Involving parents as advisors, classroom resource people, teacher aids or members of PTA type organizations. 7. Planning to extend bi-lingual-bicultural programs gradually upward through the grades. In an atricle which appeared 1n the official Colorado Department of Ed,ucation Publication, Education Colorado," Vol. VIII, No. 5 , Denver, Colorado, January, 1973, Bernard Martinez, Consultant, and Conrad Romero, Assistant Director, Community Services Unit, Colorado Department of Education, stated, u that bilingual abliities of children should be fustered. '' They further argued that: A true bilingual-bicultural program is one in which all subject matter is presented in two or more languages . Such a program is neither remedial nor conpensator. It treats bilingual children as advantaged and seeks to develop bilingualism as an asset. Its aim is to take advantage of knowledge and culture to broaden education for all children. It creates an atmosphere in the classroom conducive to more wholesome self-concepts and relationships. Bilingual-bicultural education shares the difficulties and advantages of both languages. In two years , from 1970 through 1972, the total number of school districts fn Colorado participating in bilingual-bicultural programs have increased to nineteen: Rocky Ford, 251 pupils; Johnstown , 250 pupils; Denver (Elmwood Elementary School only), 210 pupils; Cortez, 169; Fort Lupton, 162; La Jara, 157; La Junta, 134; Mancos, 125; Center, 113; Dolores, 95; San Luis, 85; Monte Vista, 82; Manzanola, 56; Antonito, 43; Colorado Springs, 42; Blanca, 32; Sanford, 21; Rico, 20; and Egnar, 16. 42 Locations of federally funded Title I ESEA projects having some bilingual-bicultu,ral activities are: Boulder, Greeley, Colorado Springs , Commerce City, Walsenburg, Aguilar, Cortez , Mancos, Naturita, Pueblo , (both city and rural districts), Telluride, Norwood, Egnar, Sargent , Las Animas, and Ignacio (including Bureau of Indian Affairs school). In addition, the Denver Diagnostic Center has bilingual-bicultural activities. Locations of and numbe r of pupils involved in districtfu nded bilingual-bicultural program s are Fort Collins, 345 pupils; Stratton , 24 pupils; Windsor, 18; Brightun , , 15 ; Boulder Valley, 15; Dov e Creek, 8 ; and Kim , 6. Head Start program s in Adams County , Greeley, Denver , Colo rad o Springs , and Pueblo also g i v e atten .tion to bilingual-bicultural educa-tion. VALDEZ PROPOSES BILINGUAL BICULTURAL LAW Recently, Representative Ruben Valdez (D) Denver , C olorad o , introduced the most comp rehensive bilingual-bicultural bill ever design ed in the history of Colorado. The bill is co-sponsored by Repr esenta tive Benavidez, Lucero, Kaster, Strong, and Senator Cisneros . T his bill is basically set up to m ak e available five million dollars fo r the purpose of establishing bili ngualbicultural educational progr a m s in Colorado school districts . If there are one hundred or more pupils u nder the age of twelve wit h limited English language skills, or i f 25 per cent of the pupils in grade levels kindergarten through four ( K -4) have limited skills, the school board shall establish a program such classifications. Under this law, the program would be open to all pupils, a nd t he school district shall, to the fullest extent possible, enroll a substantial number of pupils whose English language skills are not limited. The board of education would be obligated to inform the parents or legal ian of each child that they have the right to visit the classes in which their child is enrolled in and that they have , the right to withdraw their child from the program if they so desire. Plans for bilingual-bicultural educational programs under this p roposed law would be honored as of July 1 , 1973, for review and acceptance to be instituted on or after January 1, 1974. R E SEARCH IS NOW AVAILABLE Although it is true that bilinual-bicultural program s are not the panacea (total answer to the problems) of the children of the Chicano c ommunity , it is true th a t empirical evidence now does exist that children from the Spanish-speaking community, all other factors being a s equal as possible, that children p articipating in bilingual-bicultural programs do in fact accomplish significantly better on English langu a ge skills than do their equal counterparts without such exposure to their own language and culture, according to , II The Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, " Austin, Texas. The facts are that there are large numbers of pupils in the State of Colorado who come to the public schools with limited English language skills due to the dominance of another language , and! or culture in their family, community , peer group , and environment , and that public school classes in which the instruction is given only in English are Chicanitos check out library books

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often inadequate for the education of these pupils. It behooves all citizens in the State of Colorado to support this effort to promote quality education for all children. The dramatic imbalance of Spanish-speaking children on the dropout rate must be considered intolerable, and corrected. The need to provide for programs to perfect the English language skills of these pupils must be recognized. It is this writer's opinion that this will best be accomplished through bilingual-bicultural programs which will assist the chicanitos educational advancement by developing culture pride and understanding for the individual child, realizing that the educational process is a difficult .llllllllllllllfffffffffffffffff, .fffffffffffffff fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffflllflffllffflfffffffff . ffffffllfffffffff.: .. _ . ::::: ...... . ... .. ...... . ... .. ...... . ... .. ...... . ... .. ...... . .. ... ...... . _ .. ...... . ... .. ...... . ... .. ...... . ... .. ...... .. .. _. . ... .. ...... fleue .... .. ...... . ... .. ...... ._ .. ...... . ..... -. .. ...... .. _ . . ..... ...... . ..... ::::: :::: ...... . ..... Complete Foundation Forming Service ...... . ... .. ...... . ... .. .. . . ... .. ...... . ... .. 4 to 8 foot concrete wall forming & retaining walls sidewalks & drive ways = = E 3 ...... ; ...... E 3 ...... v ...... -...... . ..... ... •• ...... . ..... ...... ___ .. = = = = .. _ ---\ -...... . ... .. ...... \ .... .. -.. _ --= c = ...... . ... .. ...... . ... .. ...... . ... .. ...... ..... ...... . ... .. ...... . . . . .. ...... . ... .. ...... ...... ...... 55551 MAGNOLIA STREET COMMERCE CITY, COLORADO 80022 287-5314 ...... . ..... ..... • ..... ..... . ..... . ..... . ..... .. . ..... ....... ...... .... ":"'• ... liiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 935-7156 RAYMOND GARCIA 395 So. Wolf Street Denver 80219 endeavor at best. @ •••••••••••••• LANGUAGE OF PRIDE, can't. have already mastered before entering school. It is of utmost importance for school systems to realize the advantages of being truly bi-lingual and teachers should show respect for the social language that many Chicano students speak and cherish. Also, it is a "great" language and Chicano Spanish should be emphasized and teachers should have special training in courses dealing with Chicano Spanish and the language and culture. They too, should learn that Spanish can be used as a teaching language in the education process in order to a void conflicting attitudes in dealing with MexicanAmerican students. So, why don't teachers learn a little Spanish ? Why can't they encourage the speaking of this language ? As of yet, there has been no complete comprehensive published study of the various dialects of the Spanish spoken here. Undoubtedly such studies exist in other states on a limited basis . Many Chicanos are now speaking their own language and are proud of it. Many are using it for oral and written communication and many are studying it in institutions of higher learning, Metropolitan State College serving as a model in this region. Language means more to a Chicano than just conversing. Spanish is also a symbol to them of their existence as a community of people with a proud language, history and culture. In conclusion, it would suffice to say that Chicano Spanish , dialect of the Southwest, is here to stay. Scho-ol systems and institutions of higher learning should provide meaningful courses and experiences 'lo allow the Chicano students to use their own language. Curriculum of schools should be modified to include a vocabulary of Chicano Spanish in written form, a language that has been used over one hundred years. .............. 43

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44 CARTER ENTERPRISES of DENVER DISTRIBUTOR OF ?wtkd4 IDII • • rnrnrnvm&vrn • The very best in vacuum cleaners. GRASS MATS MATTING 3436 SO. BROADWAY ENGLEWOOD, COLORADO 80110 789-4479 ....... '-."' :-::...,L l ...... "' ---' _J ...... ....... '" ' " MARCELA TRUJILLO, can't Journal for National C oncilio, Chicano Studies Executive Board member, Colorado Committee Mass Media for the Spanish Sur-named Executive Board member, Grandfalloon Denver Educational Broadcasting Co. Board member, Channel 9 Force, KBTV, Denver, Colorado Literary Editor, Totinem Publishing Company, Denver, Colorado Co-Producer of ''.Feliz Navidad," written for and shown on Channel 9, KB7V, December 1971 and December 1972. Director and Judge for first Colorado Chicano Drama Contest Was designated grantee from Colorado Council on Arts and Humanities Member , IMAGE (Inc. Mexican American Government Employees) Mrs. Trujillo has also given many speeches on the "Chicano movement" in the last three years . These professional engagements included the following: canismo," principal speaker, Chicano Unity Conference, SCSC, Pueblo , Colorado , Spring , 1970 C oorinator for the first Chicano Conference ever held in Colorado State Peniteniary, September , 1972. Conference was called 11 Concilio de Uunidad". "Chicano Literature" NCT E Las Vegas, 1971 ''Approaches to teaching Chicano Utah State University, 1972 "Chicano Studies, " Chicano Mobile Institutes, Fort Collins, Colorado, 1970 "Labyrinth of Solitude " ' C.S.U ., Fort Collins, Colo-rado, 1970 "Colorado SpanishH Seminar on Chicano Studies, Mexico City, Mexico, 1972 "The role of the loca l dialect and its relationship to

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world standard Spanish" Bilingualism Symposiym, Uni versity of California, Santa Barbara, November 11, 1972 Literature" Southwest Regional Conference on English, March, 1973, Tulsa, Oklahoma Education and the Chicano" Conference for Education, Flint, Michigan, April 13, 1973 Since becoming the Editor of The Cardinal, at Annunciation High while at that shcool, Mrs. Trujillo developed a very impressive and high literary background. The following is a list of the work she has written and! or published: EDITOR, The Cardinal, Annunciation High School Denver Post Student Editor of, cfl School W eek.9' (a student Columnist for The Denver Post while In high school. Book reviewer for T' Akra, Loretto Heights Quarterly Poetry in Foorhills, a Uni 'lersity of Denver quarterly Colorado University of Boulder, 1962 Poetry in National Anthology of College Poetry, 1959 Poetry in Penny Poetry, C.U. Boulder, 1962 1 d "' o ora o a poem in Spanish, published in El Tiempo 1962 11What does Chicano mean?" Perspective Section, The Denver Post, January, 1970 411Guidelines for Employment in ChiGano Studies," EPOCA, March , 1972 Americans In School: A . history of Educational Neglect, .9, Book Review in N EA Journal, November , 1971 is New Under the Sun: Chicano Writers and Poets , .9.9 to be published in LA LUZ, March, 1973 UNICO SALES CORPORATION 51 00 Fox Street Denver, Colo. 80216 Phone (303) 534-4642 ''Barrio Spanish: Key to Unwritten History of the Southwest, u Perspective Section, The Denver Post, January 7, 1973 Identity through the Spanish Language, Unpublished, 1973. In an exclusive interview with the editor and in discussing the status of the '"'Chicano movement" with Mrs . Trujillo, she stated that, "at first we experienced an idealistic feeling. At first we had a lot to fight for, somehow people have lost sight of what the is all about, which to me is El Plan Espiritual de Atzlan. El Plan Espiritual de Atzlan is the concept of all Chicanos working for the betterment of each other socially, economically, educationally, and spir.itually." Mrs. Marcela Trujillo goes on to say that, uwe must regroup and unite now that we are 11 aware'' and have developed a positive selfimage. It is very important that we $80.00 F. 0. B. DENVER* In Mexico bicycling means transportation. That's only one reason why the Bimex is a quality racing bike. Some features inclued: Quick-release racing hubs, racing leather saddle, special touring angles for a comfortable ride. Almost every component is made of alloy. This means a light but extremely durable bike! Weighs approximately.26 lbs. • *in the carton 45

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learn to reinforce each other as brothers and sisters and specifically as Chicanos." At this point, Mrs. Trujillo pointed out that we must understand that, issues (as related to the Chicano) are diverse and somewhat scattered. There has been no synthesis of things that count. You have to understand from the outset that Chicano philosophy is still being developed. We are a complex people. mestizoness' 'us makes it difficult to solidify the process of our philosophy." Mrs. Trujillo feels that two Chicano philosophers, Tomas Martinez in his work, Chicanismo, and Elihu Carranza, in his work Pensamientos, point to the fact that in order to reach the Chicano ethic, Chicano philosophy, we need to find common denominators beyond conor, religion, or even the ability to speak the Spanish language, One of the common denominators is Atzlan, a bonding factor for all Chicanos. This notion is similar to the fact that Jewish people relate to Israel and Moslems look toward and honor Mecca, and Catholics (at least Italians) respond to Rome. This concept is the mother idea of returning to the mythical and ! or real place of origin. Yet , Mrs. Trujillo emphasizes that many people get "hung up" on the mistake of thinking of Atzlan as a physical, geographic area rather than a psychological and ! or philosophical symbol of unity. According to Paz, a Mexican philosopher, there is need for cau-ijackers an the rear AIR SHOCKS COMPLETE .... 46 tion as one can easily become frustrated by the complexity of ourselves. There is no answer to the quest'i.on of what is a 41 Mejicano?" The fact that the Chicano is living in an Anglo environment simply compounds the problem. Because the Mestizo has always been at odds with himself, the European, Spanish, and Indio blood has never really synthesized. He tends to always be alone, alienated from all others, almost by his own design and desire. The Mestizo is suspi-cious of foreigners because the foreigner has always been the conqueror. The seeds of solitary life lie in the Mexican's history, he is afraid to trust. Perhaps this is ex by some Spanish philosophers who have prophesized, "that the mortal sin of Spaniards is envy." However, Mrs. Trujillo declares we must break the cycle of mistrust. We must becom e aware of trust and perpetuate trust as a common denominator to produce the needed unity for our people . This in turn will result in a higher level of educational, social, and economical status for all Chicanos. On the question of where does La Chicana fit into the ment," Mrs. Trujillo related these thoughts, "The place of La Chicana is beside her man, not in fran t or behind. She must learn to realize her own potential so that she may be a creative individual and contributor to her people. This must be beyond the mere necessity of child bearing. On the other hand , the Chicano must realize that La Chicana is not competing with men, but she llas the right to aspire to any level." @ •••••••••••••• ESTRILO AMERICANO, can't. llena de infierno el pobre americana sale para comer. La hora del almuerzo debe ser una hora de descanso; pero, C: C6mo puede serlo cuando hay dos mil personas tratando de comer a la misma vez? Por lo general, las otras mil novecientas noventa y nueva personas / / . estan !rente de el y cuando llega al comedor solamente le quedan algunos perros calientes y todo lo / / demas y esta agotado. En fin, despues de todo, el pobre tiene que regresar a su trabajo sin honor y a su amo dictador. Cuando sale en el lio del transito tiene que volver a luchar por la vida derrotada. Pero , ha ganado -al estilo americano su dinero que le hace parte de la vida americana. Lo que cuenta es el Mr. Dollar. Author's Note: I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Professor Arthur Campa .for his comments and criticisms. ... ........ . By one measure , federal governmen t really isn't that big. In 1946, more than 50 per cent of all governmen t employees were federal. By 1972, the percentage had declined to less than 19 per cent, as the number and volume of state and local employe es dramtaically increased. Gabrie "V"V'V riclert up front 3WA'f "D\JUSTA6LE

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. 1973 y COLORADO STATE CONVENTION 25th, 26th, and 27th of May o Albany Hotel Colorado THEME El Ano del Manifiesto de Nuestro Destino Economico This is the Year of Our Economic Destiny The How and Where of Business, Education , and Employment Opportunity will be The WORK SHOP to be held on Saturday, the 26th of M ay1 starting at 10:00 are as follows: ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT . .... EDUCATION and CULTURAL ARTS EMPLOYMENT and CAREERS (INDUSTRY and FEDERAL GOVERNMENT) REVENUE SHARING Including over 20 Booths offering Information and Literature Cost: Registration .... " ... " ....... $3. 00* Luncheon ... _ . . . . . _ _ . " . . " " $5.00 Ban que t _ _ _ " _ . " _ . _ . . . . " . " . . $ 6 . . 0 0 Dance .... __ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4.00 or the entire package for $15 _ 00 *You can personally benefit for more than the cost of registration _ 47

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LTC (RET) MARTINEZ, can't. honeymoon in New Mexico, was ordered off to the war in Central Europe. After returning home in April 1946, from the Phillipines, he volunteered to remain on active duty in the Transportation Corps. He served in all major U.S. Ports of New Orleans, San Francisco, Seattle, and New York. Overseas he worked in transportation port services in LeRhorn, Italy, Austria, Pusan and Inchon, Korea. In 1957, he was assigned to Fort Carson, Colorado. Martinez joined Divine Redeemer Parish and became active in Scout work as an Institutional Representative, Troop Committeeman, and Neighborhood Commissioner for a period of five years. He was elected to the Parish Council and has been more than involved in ushering, lecturing, and assisting his parish in all religious and educational endeavors for fitteen years. In 1962. he retired from the U. S. Army after suffering a myocardial heart infraction at Killeen Base, Texas. After hospitalization and recovery he returned to his native Colorado and settled in the city of Colorado Springs. He and his wife have reared a family of tour boys and two girls, and have been dee ply engaged in the community life of their adopted city, the State of Colorado, and the Nation. In between times during his service career and community involvement, Martinez garnered a two year college equivalent educational status in 1957 at Fort Carson, Colorado. Three of his older boys have attended colleRes in Colorado, Arizona, aDd in Pueblo, Mexico; two have graduated, and one boy shou-ld a-chieve his degree in 1973. The other three younger children are now attending high school and junior high, but eventually will obtain a good education if they desire. Since 1963, Mr. Martinez has lived in Colorado Springs and pretty we 11 recovered from his heart ailment. Here he undertook the monumental task of proving his famous slogan which has prevailed during his busy life: "IT'S BETTER TO WEAR OUT 48 THAN 70 RUST Our." He volunteered to help the Heart Fund of El Paso County for two consecutive years in the Publicity Committee in their fund-raising campaigns. Thomas has served as Department of Colorado Reserve Officers Association President ( 1964), and was busliy engaged in struggling to save the U.S. Army Reserve from being eliminated by the former Sec retary of Defense, Mr. Robert Me Namara. Through the Department of Colorado and other National ROA 's magnificent efforts on a nationwide basis, the battle for the Reserves was won, thereby assuring that the national defense and secutiry of the United States was maintained by an available and stable Reserve. Today he is still active as an ROA Minuteman of the Volunteer Brigade which will always fight and defend the cause of liberty, freedom, justice, and an adequate military posture for the United States second to none. From 1964, through the present date, Martinez has been a com, munity leader in Colorado Springs. Known for his outspoken and aggresive participation in humanitarian causes, he has taken part in several military and veteran associations. He has been named to work and assist in the Veteran Memorial Park Association, a member of the Mayor's Civic P Janning Committee on Urban Renewal, and the G./, Forum's member on the Jobs for Veterans Task Force in Colorado and in the Pikes Peak Region. From 1965 through 1967, Martinez aided in organizing and revitalizing the Society of St. Vincent de Paul to help the poor and underprivileged in the Pikes Peak REgion's nine parishes. He served as Secretary and President and with his fellow workers, established the marginal income people'.s economy store which operates at 520 South Tejon Street, in Colorado Springs. In 1968, Thomas joined the Big Brother's Program to help boys in fatherless families in El Paso County. He served as an actual Big Brother to the Maes family, and also, on the Board of Directors for three years. For his voluntary work and efforts in this humanitarian program, he was nominated by the Colorado Springs c hapter of Big Brothers to compete against thirty-four other contestants throughout America for the 1971 National Big B rother of the Year Award. Even though a New York representative received the top honor, the people of Colorado Springs were proud to have Martinez's work as a Big Brother recognized in Colorado and the Nation. In 1970, LTC (Ret.) Martinez was e lee ted Chairman of the Veterans and Military. Council, and was deeply involved in veteran community activiteis and programs honoring the American soldiers, sailors, airmen and marines which make up our regular and reserve forces. Since 1969, Martinez and his wife, Eralia, and his family members have been involved in the new Chicano movement in various capacties. They strive to obtain and achieve equal employment, education, housing, and justice for all the native born naturalized citizens of the Spanish surnamed communities . His major aim and direction has been to materially improve the socioeconomis and political status of all Spanish surnamed Americans to taste and participate in the ideal American way of life. However, in no way losing the great culture, heritage, a nd history of their Indio-Hispanic background in America. To encourage, aid, and advise our youth to be-become productive and useful citizens of their communities , and to openly compete in all phases of urban and rural life in America, on the same level, as all races and groups that make up the citizenary of the United States of America. During the past four years, Colonel Martinez has given his time and effort to many charitable and educational causes in Colorado, and principally, in the job of Executive Secretary of the Colorado Springs Chapter of the Latin American Edu cational Foundation. Inc. Since 1968, Mr. Martinez and the officers and members . of LAEF have worked

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numerous hours to help over 137 Spanish surnamed students to get started in college and various vocationa l trade schools in Colorado. He has commuted between Denver and Colorado Springs to represent h i s chapter in the Denver LAEF p arent o rganization board, regardless of t he weather conditions and other obstacles encountered Now in 1973, Mr. Martinez was elected to the chairmanship of the Colorado Springs American G.l. Forum. In view of his many endeavors , he has regretfully tendered his resignation as Secretary of LAEF in Colorado Springs to give more time to his added responsiblities. He will, however, remain as a member of the Board of Directors in Colorado Springs, to aid, advise, and guide his successor in LAEF's Im portant work LTC (Ret.) Thomas H. Martinez won the Community Leader Service Award given by the Latin Educational Foundation Inc. for his outstanding work on behalf of his people, of his community, and of his country. Congratulations Mr. Martinez! •••••••••••••••• THEATINE PRIEST, can't. to 33, which includes the motto of the T heatine pilests: ''Seek first the kingdom of God and His justice . .. " The Theatines have had an inspiring history and have always worked tirelessly for the poor. Pope Pius XII said of the group of men: "Through four centuries, this order has served the Church so well, especially as molder of worthy and holy priests, that we hope with good reason that it will continue this glorious tradition." The fifty years of T heatine labors in North America seem to be without a doubt a continuance of that tradition of which the Pope spoke. Father Larry Gallegos was born • to Julian and Eloisa Gallegos in Antonchico, New Mexico, on April 9, 1939. In 1944, the family moved to Denver. He attended Sacred Heart Elementary, Annunciation High, and graduated from Regis College with a B.A. Degree. Father Larry then went on to four years more of college to receive his M.A. Degree in Theology from St. Thomas Diocesan Seminary in Denver. Father Larry was ordained into the priesthood in 1969. In March of 1971, he became the rector of St. Andrew's Seminary where he had been a student and teacher since 1959. The basic purpose of St . Andrew Seminary and the work of Father Larry Gallegos is to develop the formation of students for the priesthood. According to Father Larry, the influences of modern day have had its definite effects on the work of the T heatine priests and the establishment of vocations for the priesthood as a whole. Today's young man must deal with a lot more problems in comparison to times a decade or two ago. Students must have a desire to carry on the work of the Theatine priests to suceed in the program. Any student regardless of income of family finances will be taken into the seminary if he wants to dedicate himself to "serve the spiritual needs of people and to serve the poor through socia l movements and involvement." St. Andrew Semin a r y had its beginning in 1952 when the residence WESTMINSTER PAINT HEADQUARTERS TOP QUALITY PAINT for only $2.99 gal. RENTAL UNITS ON AU EQUIPMENT building was built. Its aim was always been to give young men who believe they have a vocation to the priesthood the opportunity to realize this no matter what their background might be. Due to the fact that the Seminary did not have its own school, the students attended Regis High School, living in the community at St. Andrew's. These birth pangs which would be of immense value to other young men 1n the future, lasted for twelve years. In 1964, a new high school building was erected, and this truly put St. Andrew's on a footing as a full fledged seminary, although the college and theology students yet attend classes at St. Thomas Seminary. Now in its walking stage, St. TED T. SAMANO RET AIL -WHOLESALE IANdllliiiCAitD 428-6632 427-33as 7302 FEDERAL BLVD. 49

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.. :::' .. , . . , : . < .... . . Andrew's is still hobbled by the fact that it is little known, resulting in lack of material and financial support. The buildings lack the necessary repairs. The cleaning an d repairs that are done, ate done by the priests, brothers, and students. The tuition paid barely suffices t.o pay the salaries of the lay teachers and the cooks; the religious teachers receive no salary w hatsoever. The 450 dollar per year tuition charged is about half of what a normal boarding school charges. rAt the present, about ten students a re not able to meet this; nevertheless, they are allowed to continue i f their desire in a vocation persists. The support from th e Prov i nce does not cover the expens es of the essential necessities, s uch as utilities, telephone, e t c. T he Province cannot supply mor e because it is paying the debt of the h igh s chool. The rest of the expenses are met by income from _ donations, fund raising events , and ministerial work on wee kends. S omehow ends are met. Could it be God provides because it i s such a worthwhile cause? At the present, the school consists of six lay teache rs, five religious teachers, and thirty s tudents. Six students a ttend St. Thomas. The school is college pr ep offering twenty-nine uni ts in f our years. Father Larry Gallegos is dedi-c a ted to his committment . H e is Rector , Administrator, tea che r, maintenance man, and in gen eral , guardian of St. Andrew Seminary. His mission is not an easy one but he is convinced that through God's help and only with your support and good will, his work will continue , that young men will come for t h to meet the needs of the people . Father Larry stated, "It's worth i t t o COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY at FORT COLLINS , COLORADO actively recuriting 50 CAN OS -CHICANAS for FACULTY-ADMINISTRATIONPROFESSIONAL POSITIONS The University has established an AFFIRMATIVE PLAN th. at maintains an open up to date listing of all position openings o Address all inquires to: MR. CLIFF ROMERO, Human Relations Affirmative Action Officer ? Room 200-A Student Center Colorado State University Fto Collins ? Colorado 80521 303 491-5836 me if we can get our students to the point where they will up' ' like a real man and think things t hrough and go ahead and do the right thing.'' Father Larry's prayer is tha t he ca n get St . Andrew's to the point where he won't have to be Rector, Administrator, teacher, counselor, f und raiser, and public relations man all by himself, but rather that he will be given the opportu nity to deal more directly with his work and the people he wants to . serve. May the Good Lord Bless Father Larry and make it possible for him to meet his miss ion . ........... PROJECT GO, con ' t. jective evaluations. Senor Lucero s tated that, in fact, several student s are enrolled in the program without a high school diploma , but they do hav e the equivilance of such a degree. Senor Lucero also stated, that in many instantces, high school performance of minorities, may or may not indicate college success. FINANCIAL-ASSISTANCE Financial-Aid awarded to recipients is based on documented need (parents income and number o f dependents) as determined by federa l and university regulations. Every attempt will be made to provide the necessary financial support to Project Go students. SUPPORT SERVICE The most important aspect of our program, once a student enrolls, is our supportive service program . Our primary responsibility is to help the student acclimate to the university setting. UNIVERSITY LEARNING LAB LAB The learning lab program is designed to help individuals with academic problems, by providi n g instructors with special skills in various academic fields. This is accomplished through small group s, individual instructions, and the us e of teaching aids. Through the le arn ing lab, we hope to identify a nd correct any academic deficiencies. In addition, tutorial service a re available. UNDERGRADUATE ASSISTA NCE One of the most importan t ser-

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vices they perform is the establishment and maintenance of peer group relations through informal counseling, tutoring, and any general service that is supportive to students. ACADEMIC ADVISORY Project Go, in cooperation with the various departments on campus, has acquired the services of a number of faculty members who have volunteered to work specifically with students in the program . In-service training-sessions are held with the volunteer Academic Advisors to familiarize them with problems that confrom many students from low-income families and minority groups. COUNSELING Counseling Project Go participants is primarily assumed by the Go staff and Senor Mario Rodriquez, a member of the University Counseling Center. In addition, student administrative assitsants and faculty advisors are involved in a great deal of individual counseling. CONCLUSION The biggest problem encountered in these types of programs, according to Senor Lucero, is perhaps a lack of communication between special service programs and the university's population which invariably leads to a lack of understanding and many misconceptions about Project Go. The most rewarding aspect of directing a special servjce program is the fact that we are part of a team providing educational opportunities, tor many who never had this chance before. ••••••••••• QUO VADIS, CHICANO?, con't. joint effort of the Bureau of Educational Personnel Development, tJle Office of Spanish Speaking Affairs and the Department of HEW, to identify and discuss a number of problems and critical issues affecting the education of Mexican Americans. We directed our attention to such programs as: Early Childhood Development, Teacher Training, Community Institutions, Bilingual Education, and Community Participation in School Affairs. We attempt to involve the people of the Chicano community when we serve via training institutes in cities where pro-blems in education are serious and where heavy concentration of la raza are found. By the time of this writing, conferences have already been held in places like Albuquerque, Denver, San Antonio, and Los Angeles. As members of this national organization, we serve as consultants to make need assessments of commu-TIM CORREA Proprietor (Formerly the Santa Fe Theatre) 974 Santa Fe Drive Phone 573-0188 The ATZLAN THEATRE is newly repaired, comfortably heated, and has a delightful concession strand for your eating pleasure. Organizations and individuals are welcome to rent' the theatre on days not listed below. ' AlTLAN 1liEATRE'S NEW SCHEDULE: EN;GLISH SPEAKING FILMSr(1bursday frc Doors Open 6:30 Show Time 7:00PM MEXICAN FILMS: (Saturdays & Sundays . ) D()Ors Open 4:30 • Show Time 5:00PM mGUSH SPEAKING MATINEE: (Sunday Only). Doors II :30 • S_how t.2 :tJOPM nities arid providing resources . for the purpose of providing a higher . quality instructional program for Chicano children. Also, we serve in an advisory capacity to the U.S. Office of Education and other state and regional educational agencies. Within the last year, Colorado became a member of the Regional Task Force de La Raza, as the National Education Task Force members thought that better service could . be provided if we operated within a region. Also, each state could expand its membership. As an example, Manuel Andrade, Coordinator for the Denver Public Schools, and myself, were the two original members from Colorado to serve on the National Task Force as it origiqated in Newport in 1970. Recently, the Regional members met and decided to expand the Colorado membership to six. At present, the Colorado members of the Regional Task Force are: Manuel Andrade, Arlene Vigil de Sution, LarryGomez, Sal Carpio, Ernest Andrade, and myself as Chairman. Each of these members have submitted mini-proposals to the national office for funds to be used in implementing projects in the various geographical areas of Colorado as represented by them. That is, Gomez in the Valle de San Luis, Sutton in the Arkansas Valley, Andrade and Carpio in the Metro area of Denver, and Andrade and myself in northern Colorado. In conclusion, the multifacted activities of these two organizations have given me the opportunity to talk to, advise, and train many Mexican Americans of all ages and professional backgrounds, thus allowing for increased and improved educational opportunities for them. In speaking with these people, one thing was forcefully clear--we haven't got the time for the type of rhetoric which demeans and destroys unity among members of la raza. We must get on with the task at hand--that of helping ourselves to make the future of our . children a brighter one than that of our parents and grandparents. 51

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MESTIZO DANCERS, can't. Members of our Lady of Guadalupe Mestizo Dancers (Intermediate Level) performed one of their favorite dances for parents and the public during the last Christmas season at the Parish Half. CONQUISTADORES, can ' t . El valse de los dias, ,, El barillito," and many others we r e en-joyed by many. The violin and guitar were the primary .instruments. Many of the songs composed told stories of .past experiences and of past heroes and heroines. Singing u alabados" in the churches , moradas , and other meeting places wete accomplished without the use of an instrument to accompany the singers . Families lived close togethe r and had a close-knit comradeship. They played jokes on one another and seldom lost their temper. The story is told about an old Indian who had resigned himself to live with the Spanish in the little community of San Acacia rather than follow his own nomadic tribe. One day one of the settlers , was killing a hog and all of his neighbors came by to offer advice and to help as much as they could. The old Indian tended the fire to heat the water for cleaning the carcass and thus expected to get a small share of the meat. The gentleman who owned the hog asked the Indian what portion of the meat he preferred. The, Indian answered 52 that he would take the hea d but that he wanted to cut it himself. The owner agreed to this, s o whe n t he carcass was clean and r e ady fo r quartering, the owner handed a knife to the Indian and a s ked him t o cu t the head off the carcass. The Indian took the knife and proceeded to cut the head off almost immed i ately in front of the animal's fore legs. This meant that he would take about one-fourth of t h e hog . The owner's face r eddened but he did not say a word. The other people there turned their he a ds and lau g hed silently. The owner of the ho g knew that he would have to back" at the Indian some day in about t he same manner the Indian had gotten to him. Matching wits with one another was part of the game . Don Cacaguate y Dona Seboya were characters used to exemplify many jokes and these two names were known by all. Some of the woids in the vocabulary used in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado are different from those used in Mexico for some items. A hoe is known as a u cabador" in New Mexico and as an asadon" in Mexico. A turkey is called a ganso" in one place and as a 11Wihalo" in the other. The northern New Mexican derived many of his words from the English language for new words were added to their vocabulary as things were invented. Examples of this are the use of the word 11 bas'' for bus in the Southwest, while Mexicans use the word tt camion". Bananas were not known in the inland communities for a long time and were forgotten until they were transported into stores in the early 1900's so the southern Colorado people called them instead of platanos." Generally the language is identical--dialectical differences sometimes occur--but then , this is also true of the tt nortenio" in Mexico when we compare his d ialect with that of the southern Mexican. Texans and New Englander's also speak in different ways. The people from northern New Mexico and southern Colorado led and still lead a proud but very gentle way of life. The old are re spected highly and there is hardly a case where an older person is ever placed in an folks' home." El Senor Paco Sanchez, well know n radio station owner from Denve r, Colorado, tells about the time that he set up a home for the 11Viejitas y viejitos" who did not have anyo ne t o care for them. He went broke within six months on that ven t u re because he didn't get any ten a n t s . A lecture about these people would not be complete withou t m entioning the land grants th a t we re given by Spain and its governments in the New World, to individuals who agreed to establish settlements and otherwise make use of the land. In 1841 Guadupe Miranda and Carlos Beaubian applied for .and were given a huge portion of the Sangre de Cristo mountain range in s outhe r n Colorado and northern New Mexico. The vast quantities of land that were available in the southwest caused the Spanish settlers to acquire an attitude that is best expressed in Spanish. tl Pa t odo s ay mientras no arebaten." Translated this means, tl There is enou gh for everyone as long as you don't start grabbing." When Miranda and Beaubian receJ.ved their gran t they promised other people a share in the

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grant if they helped them to settle eventually be put out of business. it. For the most part, many of the The beginning of the end for these settlers had never really small land owners came at the out-property: they just built a home and set of World War II when so many of lived in an area of their choice be-their young boys went out to serve cause they liked the location. They the United States against the Nazi did not have to legally file for owner-and Japanese agressors. Others went ship. This was true regarding the to the big city to work in shipyards land acquired under the land grants. and other government installations. When the United States When it was time to transfer from government took over the south-wartime to peacetime occuaptions western lands after the treaty of many of these people were the first Guadalupe Hidalgo it set up its own fired. Their lack of education anrl governmental bodies and established the tact that they had held on to their the present county government native language were the two main system that we have today. Many of reasons that they suffered discrimi-the Spanish settlers in the Southwest nation in the placement in American did not realize that they had to file Society. claim for ownership of the land they At the present time there is had lived on for so long. Anglo land a movement by both federal and speculators came in and filed for state governments to better the soon resolve an awakening that will have a great effect on the people of the entire Southwest. Bilingual programs in the United States are set up only in the Spanish and! or I n dian languages along with English. This is a legacy which I am proud and glad my forefathers handed on to us. The cries of 11Viva la Raza" and reply uQue viva" are evidence of the fact that the "Mejicano" has come of age in the United States. You will be hearing from us from now on. •••••••••••• TERICIO VALLEY, con't. and she she sat finally when she thought that could not dance another step, sat down exhausetd. As she she looked down at the floor many choice plots of land. The plight of the minority groups. The so that just in case someone should Spanish surnamed inhabitants did not Mexican American, Chicano, Spanask her to dance she could pretend realize at the time that the American ish American, Spanish Surnamed not to see him. She never really enterprise system as we know it minority group is known by many understood why she finally did look today was emerging. They did not titles or labels. u The Sleeping up, but when she did the stranger know that all small farmers would Giant" is making moves that will was standing there. He didn't say u LULAC CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION JOIN NOW1 KNOW WHERE IT'S AT1 Meetings: Second and fourth Thursday of the month 1108 Champa St. PRES. Paul Alarid FOR INFORMATION CALL n VICE PRES. Alex Salazer 573-9025 n u SEC. Mel Tanguma U fi 53

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a word or even make a motion. At first their eyes just met and nothing else was real for them. Finally he held out his hand to her. As he held her hand in his, Angela felt more love than she had ever known before. From that moment on, they danced only with each other. The only thing that existed for Angela was this handsome man. Nothing was real except the two of them dancing. They weren't even aware of all of the talking being done about them or of all the good wishes as well as bad wishes being wished for them. They never saw all of the happiness in the eyes of the Tericio's and Father Salez. They didn't even know that the end of the night was drawing near. All they knew was the love they had for each other. For some reason, General Tericio looked at his watch at midnight. As he looked at his watch. he was suddenly aware that some-thing As he looked u his eyes fell on his beautiful daughter and the stranger. Suddenly , everyone s eyes were on them. Everyone stood quiet, just watching and waiting. What they were waiting for nobody knew. As Father Salez's eyes fell on the stranger's feet they began to take the shape of goat's hooves. As the Father's eyes rose he saw a tail fall out of the stranger's jacket, then the Devil's horns appeared and everyone knew exactly who the stranger was. The Devil began to claw at Angela's face. After he' vanished, the trance was broken. The Father was the first to reach the now slumped body of Angela. Something which startled him the most was a strange look in Angela's eyes. It lasted only an instant, but the priest read the look as though it were a book. The look said that this man who captured her heart a few hours earlier, she knew, was the Devil, and also the only reason that this ha ed to her was because the I SHUTTO'S SUPER e Better Service 54 e Higher Quality e Lower Prices Devil was jealous of the love Angela had for God. But most of all the expression in her eyes said that no matter what, she still loved this man, and that she wasn't afraid of him or God. The Father then carried Angela to her room. By this time she was already unconscious. She was to remain this way for a year, and nothing would bring to an end the unrestful sleep which engulfed her. As the time passed, the scars never faded. Angela never repoened her eyes. But the Tericio's and Father Salez never gave up hope. Beside her bed one of them usually was to be found. They nursed her, but she gave no response to their efforts. On the same day, exactly a _}ear later, her mother noticed a smile on Angela's face. And later that day the scars began to fade. They decided to deep a constant guard on Angela just in case she might regai11 A sk for JOE SHUTT O 1930 WEST 46TH A VE. 433-8791

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That night while General Tericio was sitting beside Angela's bedside an uneasy fee ling began to t ake hold within the General. He was suddenly very tired. Finally he fell asleep. As he slept he had an awful dream. When the General awakened it was to find Angela standing at an open window. As she turned, she spoke, Father, I love you so much , but you must understand I love him more. He will come for me and when he does, I will leave with him . Please try to forgive me." And with that she slumped over. As her father lifted her back into bed , a rosary fell out of her hund. He picked it up , kissed it, and returned it to a closed fist. He then walked over to close the window and he saw a man and a woman ride off across the valley. As he turned back around, his daughter was dead, and he understood exaclty what she meant. He reached down for her rosary so that he might some say prayers for her, but her rosary was gone. Later when the General was talking to Father Salez, the priest gave out a little laugh. When asked to explain what this bit of merriment was all about, he explained that the Devil thought that he h ad won out over God, but instead when God let Angela go it was with a rosary. She would always be protected by God no matter what. And that is how the legend of Tericio came into being. Even > to this day, in Tericio, Colorado, lives this legend. If one is lucky, one might see a beautiful girl and a handsome man riding on a white horse into the middle of the night (especially in May)! •••••••••••• LOS CONQUISTADORES Mission
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mission church as a symbol of their dedication and religious faith in Lady of. Visitation." The people of the parish are proud of their little 11 box-car church." •••••••••••• PINTO PROJECT ON THE MOVE DENVER--The Colorado Pinto Project, an effort ot help Chicano ex-offenders "make it on the out side" is losing no time in establishing a track record. has helped the project is the staff's determination to place people immediately after they contact the . project," said Dave Cano, Labor Department Manpower Development specialist who is coordinating the six-month-old project for the Department. The purposes of the Denverbased Pinto Proje<..:t, Cano summarizes' are to attack recidivism (exoffenders 'return to prison) and to assits the ex-offender 1n his transition to a productive life. preliminary findings strongly show that the project is successfully accomplishing its ob jectives," Cano observed. He pointed to results reported since it was funded July 15, 1972: 136 ex-offenders have found jobs through the program; A total of 343 ex-offenders have been provided with some Pinto service; 19 have been successfully placed in vocational training; 285 have been referred to the job development component; 37 have been helped to continue their education; 28 are now -enrolled 1n college or university programs; and Since its last July and after only litt'le more than three months of full-time operation, no parolee enrolled in the program has been returned to the State Penetentiary. they've followed up on so tar, 88 indicate they are still employed, and five are still enrolled in vocational training. Charles Vigil, Chicano program liaison officer for Manpowet Administration; notes that one of the most 56 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICE OF INFO.RMATION, DENVER, COLORADO ISSUED BY: Ernie Sanchez 16408 Federal Office Building, Denver, Colorado 80202 important elements in their initial success is that there is compre-the boss to help them in adjusting to working with each other. W hat else does the mostly Marcella Trujillo, assistant Chicano staff do to achieve success? it Follow up!" declares Project Director Pat Vigil, himself an exconvict. He said that of the 109 clients hensive counseling" --a counseling that points out problems of exconvicts and tries to give them direction. Sometimes that counseling extends to the employer of potential employer, says Eddie Garcia, Pinto employment corrdinator. He ubeats the bushes" every day looking for his clients and trying to break down fears and stereo-types of employers. Garcia, an ex-prizefighter and ex-Pinto, stresses that he knows he has to follow up on the Pinto and Director-U MAS-EOP: Joe Franco Asst. Director-UMAS-EOP: Paul Acosta Director-E.A.P. Robert Corrales Main Office Phone 443-2211 -Ext. 8316 Counselor Coordinator: Sam Gallegos director, is enthusiastic about tne proJect's success, and notes that there have been some services provided to female ed-cons. But she points to a great need to develop a stronger program for working with women ex-offenders. The Pinto Project was the product of a Chicano self-help inmate group at the State Penitentiary at Canon City known as The Latin American Development Society ( LDAS). Sixty per cent of the Pinto's are ed-offenders, and 14 of 15 staff members are Chicano. The project is open, however, to any ex-offender. Funded with $336,000 in Manpower Administration funds, the project will continue another year . Tutorial Pool Coordinatot: Joey Henderson ' J ('--English Coordinator: Mary Ann Shea LOST TO OUR LAND EDUCATION IS OUR STAND. Office Manager: Celso Baca "Chicano teachers needed for summer program in the area of .Math? English? and Readingo For further information: call the main office" 0 UNIVERSITY of COLORADO at BOULDER

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Meeting Your Meat Budget By Virginia Knauer Special Assistant to the President and Director Office of Consumer Affairs (Reprinted from: Noticias De La Semana , U. S. Department of Labor. March , 1.973 J According to President Nixon's recent report on the economy, the impact of brisk demand on food supplies will probably cause food prices to rise until mid-year. That's when the President's new food supply measures will begin to take full effect. It's during these next few months, then, that II shopping harder" at the supermarket will be important. A good place to start stretching your food dollart is at the meat counter, where approximately onethird of all the money you spend on food goes. To take advantage of the best buys at the meat counter, you need to be aware of the many cuts of meat available and how to use them in meals. Another important point to remember is that the economy of a cut depends on the amount of cooked lean meat it provides as well as its price per pound. Often the lowest price per pound is not the best buy. A more expensive cut with little or no waste may be more economical per serving than a low-priced cut with a lot of bone and fat. Determining the cost per serving is another important consideration at the meat counter. According to the Agriculture Department, three ounces of meat is equal to one serving. Using this .figure, you can compare meat costs by dividing the price per pound of various cuts by the number of servings it will provide once the waste (fat and bone) is removed. In addition to these shopping guides, there are other steps you can take to save money on meats: Experiment with meat grades. Using beef as an example, you can choose from three retail cuts-prime, choice or good. Although not as tender as prime or choice, the good grade with proper cooking can result in a tasty and nutritious meal. Along this same line, learn the different cuts of meat and how to identify them. Cut some of the meat yourself. Even if you're not a butcher's wife, there are several kinds of meat that lend themselves to easy cutting. A good example i s round. It contains three natural sections: Top round makes a good roast, bottom round a pot roast and eye round a tender steak. Read up on new ways to prepare meat and new ideas in planning meals. Agriculture Department publishes several booklets that could help you , including: Family Food Budgeting ( 15 ), Money-Saving Main Dishes (30), Your Money's Worth in Foods (25), Beef and Veal in Family Meals (20), (a l so l amb a nd poultry (20
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