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Laminations, May, 1978

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Laminations, May, 1978
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Laminations
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University of Colorado Denver
Filkins, John
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Denver, CO
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University of Colorado Denver
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English

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Auraria Library
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College of Environmental Design University of Colorado 1100 14th Street Denver. Colorado 80202 (303) 629-3397
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Denver, Colorado Permit No. 185
LAMINATIONS NEEDS BREAD
Yes, you heard it right: This bastion of journalistic expertise needs your support. We are conducting a fund-raising drive to raise $2,000 for next year's publication. In an effort to minimize advertising, guarantee a quarterly publication, and assure quality, you should send your checks, TODAY, to: College of Environmental Design, 1100 Fourteenth Street, Denver, Colorado 80202.
LOOK FOR YOUR NEXT ISSUE IN FALL 1978


2
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
LAMIIMOCnaiMS
May 1978
LAMINATIONS: A College of Environmental Design Publication, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado 80202, (303) 629-3397.
STAFF
Editor in Chief Editors
Design and Production Photographers
Faculty Advisor
Guest Editorial Guest Writers
Staff Writers
John Filkins John Villa Paul Glassman Pat Happel Andrew Anderson Dana Reingold David Brown Chester Nagel
Eugene Sternberg Joslyn Green Herb Smith Geoffrey Drake Crandon Gustafson Katy Liske Mike Fuller Joel May Ann McCurdy
Opinions expressed are not necessarily those of anyone other than the writer. The newspaper office is located in room 303 of the Bromley Building. Mailing address "Laminations," c/o College c' Environmental Design. 1100 14th Street. Denver, Colo. 80202. Letters to the Editor must be signed and accompanied by a mailing address. Letters will be subject to editing for reasons of clarity and space.
contents
COVER:
Detail from the Gargoyle House -Mike Fuller
2
Guest Editorial: To the Graduating Architects of 1978 -Eugene Sternberg
3
Community Planning- Who Needs It? -Herb Smith
4
Super Block or Super Block Blocked?
-Joslyn Green Report Recommends Relocating Campus •Mike Fuller Announcements
5
Glenwood Canyon- Preliminary Plan -Ann McCurdy MLTW Revisited -Geoffrey Drake
6
New Arcosanti Designs=
Social Changes -Joel May Announcements
7
Art, Science, and Architecture -Crandon Gustafson
Guest Editorial:
To the Graduating Architects of 1978
By Eugene D. Sternberg
The profession I have loved with passion, and which has structured my life, is passing from my generation to yours. What kind of an inheritance are you getting? What sort of life will it lead you into?
I must be direct, since that is my nature. To me an architect is not a draftsman but a talented, deeply committed professional, a creative and original individual. For such an architect, practice is often pure hell. It is no life for the timid, the insecure, or the nine to five mentality.
You will find yourself working with clients who don't place any value on beauty or quality. With educators whose sole concern is to hang on to their jobs, wanting from you only a design that cannot offend anyone. With a doctor so uninterested in the planning of his clinic that his only requirement is that you make the wash basins high enough for him to urinate into. You will battle with a contractor on your client's behalf, only to find your client has more in common with the contractor than with you. You fight continually against outdated and stupid bureaucratic regulations, and often find yourself at the mercy of arrogant and insensitive officials. You will come to resent desperately that values of a society that thinks your work—the entire spectrum from preliminary design through a ten-year responsibility for the safe construction of the building—is worth no more than the effort of any realtor who sells it.
To the extent that you are an architect—an imaginative, able advocate of fine design and honest purpose in any project you are involved in—you are destined to a life that will, inevitably, contain much frustration, anger and sadness.
My involvement with architecture began with demanding university studies in Prague, and has continued through eight years of study and work in England and more than thirty years of practice in this country. Along the way, I had had my full share of defeats and disappointments. And still I say with deep conviction that the rewards and pleasures of architecture have so far outweighed the adversities, that I feel it has been a privilege to spend my life in this magnificent profession. I cannot imagine any other way of life that would have been as rich. I think you should know some of the rewards you can expect.
What other profession, besides perhaps great acting, gives you the opportunity and the obligation to enter into so many different worlds, and become a part of them? Mine has been a general practice, though I'm proud to characterize most of it as architecture with a social purpose. I had to become a bleeding accident victim carried through the corridors of the old Denver General Hospital to understand how vital even one extra step is to the design of an emergency department. I met with teachers, talked with students, sat in classrooms, to get a feel of what I, as an architect, could contribute to the learning process. When I was designing housing and community facilities for the low-income population of Denver, I was working for the City and its Housing Authority, but the real clients were the people who had no voice.
There is a deep and abiding satisfaction that comes from helping individuals and groups to fulfill their dreams. I remember a group of farmers from Nebraska who came to me with this problem: they had plenty of time, physical strength, they had no money and they needed a church. I drove round the countryside with them, and found an old boarded-up brick schoolhouse which they bought for $1.00. They tore it down carefully, salvaged, cleaned and listed all the materials, and then I designed their church using the materials available. I think of the group of black leaders who wanted to build a center for their neighborhood that would keep it healthy and active, prevent its deteriorating into a slum. I worked with them for more than
five years. It was the first time I had the opportunity to get involved with black people, as individuals and as a community. Recently I attended a twenty-fifth anniversary celebration of the first cooperative housing community in Denver, which I designed and lived in for 12 years. It was an experiment in many areas—site planning, economical design, financing and community management. It's still functioning well and valued by those who live in it.
You can be a true citizen of the world if you are an architect with an open mind, constantly interested in learning. You read, you travel, the whole world is your library. You participate in competitions of all kinds in order to grow professionally and to be part of the architectural community of the rest of the world. In this profession, ideas know no borders. Any one of you who visits Eastern Europe can see the disastrous results of trying to impose limits on creative work.
An architect is never an ordinary tourist. You travel with open eyes. You have a key to understanding and appreciating both history and contemporary culture through the layout of towns and villages and the buildings that compose them.
If I had to summarize what I have learned through all these years of involvement with architecture, I would tell you:
—Be proud of your profession. Architecture has a long and glorious history, and can contribute immeasurably to human happiness and fulfillment.
—See yourself always as a missionary for architecture. Help as many people as you can to experience the joy of "seeing" their environment and appreciating the beauty that man can create. It is only as we build a sensitive, appreciative, discriminating public taste that we can have the clients we need in order to produce good architecture.
—Be in charge, and be interested in every detail of the buildings you design. Don't, for example, let the electrical engineer tell you which light fixtures to select and where to put them. You, not he, have the talent and training to create architectural character and mood.
—Fight for what you believe. You won't always win, and you won't always be liked. But you will be respected and
Continued on page 8
AIA Scholarships & Awards
Scholarships:
AIA/AIA Foundation National Scholarships:
1. Cynthia Hoover
2. Lynn Paxson
3. Linda Stansen
4. Joseph Simonetta
Dana Giffin Soper Scholarships:
(Tuition and Fees)
James M. Mitcshrich
Monarch Tile Scholarship, $600: Lamoine W. Eiler
Denver Chapter Producer's Council Scholarship, $600: Glen F. Peterson
C. Gordon Sweet Scholarship, $750: Lee A. Knight
Robert K. Fuller Graduate Scholarship, $1500: J. Luke Sheridan
Alpha Rho Chi Award: John W. Filkins
Arthur A. and Florence G. Fisher AIA School Medal:
Travelling Scholarship: Jennifer T. Moulton
1. $1800 Maurice Grant Barr AIA School Medal Mention:
2. $1200 Peter Orleans David S. Hammel
Colorado Society AIA Design Awards: Certificates:
Reynolds Aluminum School Prize:
James P. Nordlie
College of Environmental Design Faculty Award:
Undergraduate: Robert Beblavi Graduate: 1. Rodney o. Hirata 2. Mark H. Krone
Martin Luther King Jr. Prize:
Lynn Paxson
1st year Architecture:
Bartlett Baker, Jr.
2nd year Architecture;
Thomas David Lee
3rd year Architecture:
Joseph Scopino 2nd year Urban Design:
Elizabeth A. Hennessey 3rd year Urban Design:
Gerald W. Olson


3
Community Planning- Who Needs It?
Denver finally gets a skyline and you can't see it.. .
The question posed in the title of this article is one on which I find myself reflecting even after having spent five years in state planning, nineteen years in private consulting work, a year as a Planning Director in a major city, two years as City Manager of that city, and the last several years in the field of planning education. Through all this, while seeing untold changes and the use of the term 'planning' advance from an almost unknown phrase to an 'in' word, I find myself constantly fighting a sense of frustration. This frustration, while hard to pinpoint and express definitely, seems to be around the question of what all this so-called planning has accomplished for the betterment of our communities and society. Are we better off in terms of the quality of life, community structuring, environment and ecology, housing, transportation, etc., than we would have been without government involvment in what has now become known as the planning process? This, obviously, is an enigmatic question to pose as there is no way that anyone could ever supply a supported answer.
W can not go back through the years and determine just where decisions have been made based on knowledge and information available as a result of a community planning endeavor for which, if such had not existed, the results would have been a far worse blot on the landscape than the final product turned out to be. At the same time, we can not determine where, under the guise of planning and the cloak of legitimacy, the bottom line decision has been based upon graft, political influence, power utilization, or just plain favoritism. No, there is no way to assess realistically where we would be in the United States today had there been no Burnhams, Olmsteads, Bassetts, WhitnalIs, Pomeroys, and the thousands of persons carrying the title of planner who followed them.
^)n the other hand, if we approach the situation from another standpoint, can we point with pride to the American city, the suburbs, the open landscape, and unequivocally exclaim that we have had the foresight to realize the importance of action to avoid mistakes, rather than the expensive, often fruitless philosophy of trying to erase and correct the horrors permitted under the rallying cry of "progress"? The answer to this question comes much more easily. We in the United States have the feeling that our cities are a shame we must abide, our suburbs are the private hunting preserves of exploiters, and our rural areas will take care of themselves—they always have and they always will. As individuals, while we may gripe about the way 'they' do things, we have narrowed our already myopic
world to encompass only that bungalow on that mythical quarter acre and what the kids' school is like, when 'they' will fix the chuckholes in the street out front, and how we can make sure that we don't have to pay any more taxes. On top of a growing mistrust of government we have found little ability to interest ourselves in the importance of diminishing natural resources, loss of open space and amenities by the spread of wall-to-wall urbanization, the continuing planting of the seeds of blight by the creeping cancer of strip commercialism, or the failure of elected and appointed representatives to represent properly all of the people instead of a vested interest, a select few, or personal motivation. There are, no doubt, many reasons for this, from which we can take satisfaction in finding adequate rationalization and justification to placate our conscience. We have been fortunate in the past in not having to worry too much about the dwindling resources of land and minerals. We have been occupied with the All-American dream of making it big in the land of plenty. In pursuit of this we have become too busy, complacent, and self-centered—and easy prey for the patient politiician and speculator. Our educational system has failed us completely by being concerned only with developing a form of education pleasing to and protective of educators and failing to adjust to the need for preparing individuals to be concerned about a changing world and how to meet the needs of that change.
^\nd change there has been and always will be. No longer can we say, "Why should I worry because I won't be around when the crisis some pureyor of doom and gloom is always predicting comes?” The crisis is here now, and we who are alive today, much less through the next ten or twenty years are going to have to face up to it, as well as live with our sins of the past, whether we like it or not. The only important question is whether we can wake up or be awakened to this soon enough. The world situation is a crisis.
We, in our land of plenty, are being bullied by the oil producing nations, bled by the coffee growing countries, and hated and despised by the ever-awakening Third World. No longer can we look to the rest of the world, even outside the Soviet bloc, as a place the great American know-how and wealth will allow us to use, abuse and exploit. Whether we are ready to accept it or not, we are going to have to bargain, share resources, and hopefully, learn to live in a peaceful cooperative way as equal people sharing mutual problems. Within our own country we cannot ignore that central cities are bankrupt and continuing to decay.
unrest and unemployment are rampant, energy in all forms is in short supply, the air is polluted to the point of being a danger to health, and our institutions seem to be totally incapable or unwilling to respond. Yet, we seem unable to accept reality as a people, preferring to live in a dream world centered on an electronic tube which has succeeded, not in educating and informing, but only in turning life into a spectator sport with the opiate of escapism. What do we care and why should we be bothered if millions of people are underfed, underhoused, undereducated, and underinvolved in determining their future and that of generations to come? Why should we be concerned if the power structure is self-perpetuating for the sole purpose of exploiting people and resources for the benefit of only a few? After all, isn't this the great American way and who are we to try to change it?
Therein lies the heart of my frustration as best I can determine. It is that we do have something great in the American • way, but somehow we seem to have allowed ourselves to be conned into a concept of this "American way" which is as phoney as a nine dollar bill (inflation being what it is). Where, in all our history, has anyone ever said that a system of public subsidy in which personal enrichment is for those clever enough to take full advantage of the opportunity, is the system sanctioned, made sacred, and not to be questioned in a democratic society? Where can it be found in constitutions, laws, or • precedents that a collective group of people as a society have to accept placidly the idea that resources and land, regardless of ownership carry with them the "right" of speculation and enrichment not withstanding the effect of that action which may be taken upon a genuine public interest? Yet, this is what the Madison Avenue pitch-persons, the Chamber of Commerce "progress" at any cost spellbinders, and those who have successfully taken from the land and never given, would have us believe. The unfortunate part is that they seem to have been totally successful in achieving their objective.
If you don't believe this is so, just try opposing a public expenditure for a new sewer plant on the grounds of its being adverse to planning based upon desirable land use patterns and being detrimental to the environment, and see how quickly sensible, logical argument is made to look foolish and ignored after just one statement about how many new jobs can be created by the result of the increased capacity of the new facility. Seldom do we stop to ask whether economic growth is really a benefit worth the frequency submerged public cost—
both from tangible financial costs and intangible despoilation of environment. Philosophy and theory, even when supported by history and vivid examples of the extreme of man's inhumanity against fellow man, are poor weapons in competing with the capitalistic idea that growth and expansion, regardless of the kind, the cost or the effect, are synonymous with prosperity, progress, and the only way that we can survive.
To realize that this does not always have the ring of truth about it, all we really need to do is open our eyes and with seeing and comprehending vision look about us. We cannot seriously believe that those ticky-tacky subdivisions, that misplaced high-rise apartment structure, that fast-food plagued commercial strip, that dense pall of smog hanging over downtown and the entire valley, and the lack of adequate open space, developed parks, or cultural facilities is the best that American ingenuity, imagination, and ability could have done. For those who might say it is the system and these things have been happening only because the system has failed us, the question immediately arises of why we haven't changed that system to make it more effective and responsive. Why have we refused to admit that we have an 18th century government structure attempting to deal with 20th, even 21st, century problems, and that it is failing miserably? What have we done to insist that outmoded state legislatures, county fiefdoms, and local politically ridden governments be held up to the light of public scrutiny and revised to enable us to deal efficiently with these problems? Raising such a question in no way intends to advocate an uprising, an overthrow of government, or a swith to more autocracy or totalitarianism. Instead, it is to advocate that we stop paying only lip-service to democratic government, that we recognize that the sands of time are running low for us unless we return to true democracy where all of the people have an opportunity to have a say in their present and their future, and that meaningful, effective, and somewhat selfless community planning is the one last hope we have of making a participatory system work. Who needs community planning—community planning that is more than just a catch phrase to be turned off and on like a water faucet for the convenient use of politicians? We all do, now more than ever before.
(Editor's note: Mr. Smith is the director for the graduate programs of Planning/ Community Development, College of Environmental Design.)


4
By Joslyn Green
Super Block or Super Block Blocked?
Preliminary scheme subject to change
Courtesy of Wallace D. Palmer Associates
Announcements
Library Staffed
In a fdllow-up to the last issue, the Joint Budget Committee has approved money for one full-time professional libraria, and one full-time library technician to staff the proposed College of Environmental Design library. Inquiries should be made to the Director of the Auraria Libraries.
Five thousand volumes are expected to be transferred from the main Auraria library to Bromley in September. The College is also accepting book contributions for the new facility under the subject headings of Architecture, Landscape Architecture, Interior Design, Urban Design, Urban and Regional Planning, and Public Affairs. It is the goal of the College to have the library serve as a resource center for design professionals in the area, as well as students.
Reappointments
The architecture faculty meeting of April 14 considered three faculty reappointments. The faculty has recommended to Dean Dwayne Nuzum for further consideration the reappointment of Gary Long and Alvaro Malo for additional two-year contracts and Eugene Benda for tenure.
William Turnbull May 5th
William Turnbull, founding partner of Moore, Lyndon, Turnbull, Whitaker; and Director of MLTW/Turnbull Associates, San Francisco will speak at 7:30 Friday, May 5, 1978.
The work of the MLTW has been extensively published throughout the world, highlights of which are: Sea Ranch Condominium I, Kresge College, UC Santa Cruz, UC Santa Barbara Faculty Club and numerous celebrated single family residences. Mr. Turnbull is also the immediate past chairman of the National Honor Awards Jury, American Institute of Architects, from 1967-77.
The lecture is scheduled for the 2nd floor of the Bromley Building, 13th and Lawrence Streets, Denver. Student projects will be on display and a wine reception will follow. Professionals are welcome. ________________________
New Director
As of June 1, 1978, Chalmers G. "Gary" Long will assume the position of Director of Architecture of the College of Environmental Design, University of Colorado. Bob Utzinger is stepping down after six years as the Director.
Gary holds the Bachelor of Arts and the Bachelor of Architecture degrees from Rice University and the Master of Architecture degree from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has been a member of the faculty of architecture at Rice University and an Associate Architect with Caudill Rowlett Scott of Houston. He is completing his second year on the faculty of UCD.
Through the efforts of Dean Dwayne Nuzum, Assistant Dean John Prossor, Utzinger, and Martin Moody of UCD, the College of Environmental Design is now stable in size, location, and program; the first class of architecture graduates from the Denver campus will be graduated this spring. Long sees the important task ahead to be the continuing development and enrichment of the program. Throughout the summer Gary plans to acquaint himself with the professional community in order to identify local resources that may be of value to the school.
T^ie Good, the Bad, and the Ugly— they're uncomfortably close neighbors in most cities, and Boulder is no exception. In spite of major renovation and new construction in the last several years, in spite of the attractive new Mall, in spite of the competence of city planners and the concern of citizens, downtown Boulder still has far too few Clint Eastwoods.
Candidate For Redevelopment
A major site in Boulder that clearly needs attention is what the Chamber of Commerce has designated as "Super Block," in hopes that a glorious future will replace its undeniably drab present. The "block," which actually runs from 11th Street to 9th Street and from Canyon Boulevard to Walnut Street, is described by City Planner Nolan Rosall as "underutilized," which is putting it mildly. The southwest corner, owned by Burlington Northern, is overrun with billboards and cars that seem to overflow from the city parking lot to the north. An old brick food locker stands vacant, its major contribution to urban amenities another parking lot that a dozen stray cats call home. A lumberyard occupies the northeast corner of the site, its high yellow walls unwelcoming and in need of repair. South from the lumberyard across yet another parking lot is the recently enlarged and remodelled Canyon Inn. Completing the rather dreary circle is the headquarters of the Chamber of Com-merse and its parking lot.
Unquestionably, "Super Block" is a prime candidate for redevelopment. But prime candidates age less well than prime beef, and it's been three years since the Chamber of Commerce initiated dis-
By Mike Fuller
A firestorm of criticism has been touched off by the recently completed Life Cycle Study by More, Combs and Burch which recommends that the buildings on the east side of Cherry Creek be abandoned and replaced by newly built space on the west bank.
The report, which was commissioned by Auraria at a cost of $30,000, was required by the state in order to obtain federal funding for scheduled remodeling of the "UCD campus," i.e., the Tower Building, Bromley and the East Classroom (formerly the Tramway Building which was recently placed on the National Historic Register of Historic Places).
In addition to the remodeling of UCD which is required to complete the Program plan for the Auraria campus, the
continued on page 8
cussion of developing a multi-use complex for Super Block that would include a hotel and conference/convention center. Much committee work and many meetings later, there are no definite results. The reported outcome of the most recent (closed) meeting: "Let's meet again in three weeks."
What's Happening?
A similar sense of impending change seems to prevail among many of the parties interested in Super Block. But the most anyone can—or will—say at the moment is, "I don't know what's going to happen."
Architect Wally Palmer, for example, volunteered preliminary work on a master plan last fall and up until recently felt he had a fair grasp of the situation. "Now," he says, "I know something's going on, but I don't know exactly what—and I don't know what's happening with the plan." (Speculation is rampant that the City of Boulder is once again negotiating to bring a major department store to Boulder with Super Block as a possible site, which introduces a factor not present when Mr. Palmer drew up his plan.)
The purchasers of the old food locker have a building permit in the window and a reputed construction date of mid-June, so they do know what's happening with their segment of Super Block. But they're not telling.
The Burlington Northern has submitted what has been described as "a standard-package Holiday Inn" for conceptual review by the City. (The fate of the package is as yet unknown, but the response in a number of quarters has been less than enthusiastic.)
Bill Brady of the Boulder Lumber Company admits he will be moving within the year. But as for where, or why—no comment. Hank Bittner of the Lashley-Parsons Investment group does know where—oddly enough since he says he "may or may not be a member" of a group that "may or may not purchase" the lumberyard site. (An arrangement is under contract, says Mr. Bittner, but there are various contingencies and there has been on closing.)
As for the City's negotiations with a department store—is mum the word? You guessed it.
If there's skulduggery afoot, it would certainly be impossible to prove, because the basic facts are difficult to come by.
Good Reasons for Caution
Then, too, there are no doubt good reasons for caution. No one wants to prejudice his plans by revealing them prematurely. Nor does anyone want to stir up the winds of controversy that so often sweep through Boulder, destroying many a project less fragile, less complex, and less important than Super Block.
In all fairness, the difficulties of accomplishing effective urban renewal on the Super Block site are immense. The land belongs to a miItiplicity of owners, and with land prices currently running $10-$15 a square foot, a single owner may be hard to find. (Speculation also becomes pretty irresistable.) Perhaps the most feasible single developer would be the City of Boulder. Legislation is on the books establishing an urban redevlopment authority, but that authority has not yet been exercised and, even if it were, major financing problems would remain. One possibility under consideration, according to Nolan Rosall, is that of "tax increment financing," a new procedure whose legality is currently being tested in Colorado but which cannot yet be undertaken.
Meanwhile, the owner of an individual parcel of land may jump the gun, leaving everyone who wants to work for integrated and coordinated development of the site poised at the starting gate. The longer the wait for a concerted effort, the greater the risk that someone may decide to bolt.
Problems of Context
Since no man, and no Super Block, is an island, there are also large problems of context to be solved. High density development of a Super Block would
Continued on page 8
Report Recommends Relocating Campus
Photo by Dana Reingold


5
Glenwood Canyon - Preliminary Plan
By Anne McCurdy
"Ihe preliminary design for approximately 12.5 miles of interstate highway through scenic Glenwood Canyon is another triumph for the Colorado Department of Highways, with its sound environmental planning and design concepts.
The preliminary design, which was recently approved at a public hearing in Glenwood Springs, is based on a sum of information gathered over the past ten years. The expansion of the existing U.S. Highway 6 into a four lane limited access highway has been a controversial issue for years. In response to strong environmental opponents, the Colorado Division of Highways together with the Federal Highway Administration undertook a comprehensive design study. During the past two years a most intensive public involvement work program has been under way including the formation of a three level interdisciplinary team consisting of a citizen's advisory committee, a technical review group, and a design team. A detailed environmental assessment was produced during the first phase of the work program, with the preliminary design being the product of the second phase.
Alignment
The primary objective of the design effort was to design a highway that would be sensitive to the environment of the canyon. With the existing conditions of canyon imposing severe limitations, highway alignment was regarded as the most crucial activity affecting the level of impact. The most viable design direction involves the treatment of the eastbound and westbound .roadways separately.. This approach results in a natural separation, fitting the roadway to the canyon and creating a diversity of views. This separation of roadways also breaks up the plane of the four-lane roadway, reducing the apparent mass, and creates a parkway effect with the viewer seeing only two lanes.
In the narrow v-shaped formation of the western section from No-Name Creek to the Shoshone Dam, the highway is sited along the existing scarred corridor. The westbound lanes are placed higher and closer to the canyon wall to cover up the old scars and the eastbound lanes will be terraced below them. In the shallow u-shaped configuration east of the Shoshone Dam to Gypsum, the westbound lanes are elevated on viaducts with the eastbound lanes utilizing the existing grades.
Continued on page 8
Drawings courtesy of DeLeuw Cather
By Geoffrey Drake date: 13 April 1978 time: 3 p.m.
place: Sheldon Art Gallery, University of Nebraska, Lincoln
I am the lone Colorado representative in an auditorium filled with Nebraskans slightly diluted by a contingent from Kansas State University. We are all awaiting the arrival of Charles Moore, Donlyn Lyndon, William Turnbull, and Richard Whitaker known collectively in the '60s as MLTW. This is the first time in many years that they have been together.
Beyond the significance of the gathering is the fact that the work of MLTW and the individual workd and philosophies of the partners is now gaining wide recognition and acceptance as contributing to the art of architecture now that the fatter is emerging from beneath
the constraints of the Modern Movement.
Charles Moore begins by speaking on Space: servant-served; and historical perspective and contemporaty development. His use of the aedicula or "4-poster space" receives initial attention. Moore views space as the location where the "cares, energies, enthusiasms of the inhabitants occur." Spaces have to have "tops, bottoms, fronts, and a way of knowing when you're home." Finally, Moore makes reference to a "Delicatessen Order of Architecture" that I interpreted as meaning a wide choice is available but of a higher quality than one finds in our current supermarket order.
Don Lyndon deals with "Habiting or person-oriented architecture." He makes a delightful reference to the boundlessness of a child's existence being stuffed into the adult cube-shaped cell
meant to define us as grown-up; i.e. stackable boxes. The aim of person-centered architecture is to "alter the ways by which things may be seen by moving beyond 'civilizing' borders and utilizing the energies of the mind." Lyndon perceives a tension between our society's rigid geometry and the necessary distortion of same due to the particularities of circumstances—distorted edges around a conventional core.
Bill Turnbull covers the topic of Site, Landscape, and PLACE by first defining Site as a measure of man's territoriality; staking out/laying claim. Moving on, he describes his Kresge College at U.C. Santa Cruz: "a street in a European, sense with beginnings and ends, where the street is the metaphor and movement along it establishes PLACE." Alcoves, alleys, green areas off the street allow the
traveler to pause and enjoy new perspectives. The ADDITIVE EXPERIENCE OF SPACE is his central point. PLACE may be achieved by surrounding; mergin; confronting/enfronting; or infusing with landscaping.
Richard Whitaker's talk, while more philosophical than the other three, best expresses the MLTW attitude of "place." Place as an opportunity for something to happen. Place as a point of identification. Race as shared images; the builder; the user; the passer-by. Place making: a sense of being inside; here and thereness; knowing where you are. Place and the layering effect; progression into, out of, between spaces. Dick encourages us, when dealing with spaces, to try giving in to the idea that the users will, given a chance, participate.


6
Announcements
Faculty / Student Curriculum Report
Of interest to architecture students is the recommended outline of the design sequence in the 2- and 3-year Master of Architecture programs. The first semester of the 2-year program and the first three semesters of the 3-year program will be team taught and will foHow an outline written by the Curriculum Committee and a lead critic appointed to each studio. During the next two semesters students will select freely from a variety of special interest offerings which might include solar energy design, land development and real estate, historic preservation, industrial building types, and others of interest to both faculty and students. In the fall of the senior year there will be a two-hour preparatory class for problem identification, data gathering, and analysis prior to thesis in the final semester.
The sequence of structures classes will be reorganized to give students a broader view of building systems from the beginning and to correlate structures and construction methods studies more closely to their architectural applications.
These and other recommendations are contained in the 10-page report. Faculty and staff have copies for inspection.
Interior Design Curriculum Approved
Thursday, April 13, Vice Chancellor,. Richard Dillon, Dean Bob Rogers of the UCD Graduate School and Robert Utzin-ger, head of the department of architecture appeared before the hearing of the Colorado Commission on Higher: Education and Received approval for the Interior Design curriculum within the College of Environmental Design. A department head is currently being sought; anyone interested in the job description or content should contact Robert Utzinger. Students are currently being accepted for next Fall.
Solar Design Competition
In recognition of the national observance of SUN DAY on May 3, 1978, Colorado Governor Richard D. Lamm is sponsoring a solar design competition open to Colorado residents and students at Colorado institutions. The building under consideration is a highway weigh station. Lamm cites the remote locations of these stations as ideally suited to solar applications and their high visibility as a valuable promotional opportunity.
Many UCD students are entering the competition, which will be judged by Richard L. Crowther, Dr. George Lof, and John D. Anderson. Prizes of $1000, $500, and $200 will be awarded on SUN DAY.
Thesis Presentations
Candidates of the Master of Architecture degree will be presenting theses Monday May 15, 1978 through Friday May I9, 1978 location will be announced later All of these presentations are open to the public and practicing profesionals are urged to participate.
AldoGiurgolato Speak May 15 th
Mr. and Mrs. Aldo Giurgola will be the guests of the Central Chapter of the Colorado Society of Architects on Monday, May 15. A meeting for students to meet Mr. Girgola is also being arranged. Location and time will be announced at a later date.
New Arcosanti Designs =
Social Changes
By Joel May
Crafts III Building at Arcosanti
A model of Soleri
Since its inception in 1970, Arcosanti and its designer, Paolo Soleri, have been the subject of much sensationalism, curiousity, and ridicule. As the prototype arcology (architecture + ecology), Arcosanti has been exploited on a superficial level for its denunciation of suburban sprawl, for its isolationism, and for the urban counterculture it appears to foster as a support group for Soleri's philosophies. These reviews have characterized the neophyte city as a symbol, imposing a static mold on a changing experiment. By looking more analytically at the evolution of Arcosanti, some direction may be found in the overriding design concepts.
Arcosanti is an outgrowth of the Mesa City Plan developed by Soleri between 1959-1964. This plan called for a linear city of two million people stretched along a man-made waterway. Housing was broken down into village clusters of three thousand people and spaced so that shopping and government units would be shared by five adjoining clusters. On the south end of the city was a center for the advanced student of biophysics and biochemistry which was balanced conceptually by a theological complex on the north end. Ground-level roadways were to be used by pedestrians and bicycles, and underground roads would serve auto traffic.
's newest arcology
eight-hundred and sixty acres. Formwise, the apse was chosen as the unit microstructure to reflect the shape of and relationship of the sun. As the new city would have the potential of capturing its own energy, the apse would be well-suited to shielding from the sun during summer and embracing it during the winter months. The macrostructure was designed to enclose the entire city so that south-facing glass would allow some artificial control of climate.
Construction on the mesa began in 1971, using concrete to its full plastic potential to create both precast and pou red-in-pi ace variations of the apse. The present structures integrate work and living spaces and, within the interiors, frescoed graphics, relief sculpturing, and silt casting transform the concrete into a finish material. During this early period, the social environment began to form and change. Initially, the means to social goals were not explored, as it was Soleri's belief that a utopian society could not be built with Arcosanti began to see itself as an entity separate from Soleri's design. Another important source of input was Arcology Circle, a San Francisco-based group which began its study of the social problems of arcologies in early 1976.
The preliminary designs for Two Suns arcology, presented as an abstract project in early 1975, have become the basis for a the design of Arcosanti. The diversity of form found in the original design has
simpler indicates a conscious decentralization of control from the designer, Soleri, toward the user and the construction process. Is this allocation a conscious design specification or a concession to realistic problems? For such a strong designer and philosopher as Soleri these changes represent a strong de parture from an earlier philosophy of complexification/miniaturization.
In the Arcosanti evolution one sees a slow melt of design theory and scale into structural feasibility and greater self-determination. Unfortunately, an evaluation of architecture's success in moulding the aesthetic is made impossible by the fact that so little of the city is actually built (Presently, however, there is a definite push to attract artists and artisans to the site in hopes that their presence will add a diversity of activity.) By concessions in the design, however, the city has become more feasible both as a place to be constructed and a place for divergent ideas. To me, it seems that some shaky steps are being taken in the right direction.
(Editor's note: David Mease, a 1975 graduate of the Environmental Design program, Boulder, was the project coordinator for the latest arcology model. This model was on exhibit at the Cow Palace in San Francisco in October, 1977.)
been simplified into more linear, horizontal components. The apses have been abondoned as passive collectors and instead, the greenhouses below the city have been enlarged to funnel heat into the macrostructure. As construction of these reounded forms required specialized formwork and poured-in-place casting by hand, the apses had been replaced in the plan by rectilinear buildings such as Crafts III (shown in the photo). Other structural changes included a series of giant trusses angled at about 45 degrees to the South, which supported platforms and levels within their webs. The new model also implies more standard systems and, possibly, a more technologyintensive construction process. On a smaller scale, housing is planned as a series of owner-built partition walls connecting into the macrostructure. The fact that owners will have complete control over their individual spaces and that the macrostructure is isgnificantly
Some overwhelming ideas of the Mesa City Plan have carried through Soleri's work. For example, the mesa site was chosen because of the view afforded and because building on the infertile mesa left the fertile valley unscathed. In the Mesa City Plan, Soleri also attacks functionalism as being self-defeating and irreverent of the object created. Witness, for example, the planned obsolescence of most downtown buildings with “design life expentancies." By allowing aesthetics to precede functionalism in importance, the built environment will be of greater material quality and more adaptable to numerous uses.
In 1963, the present mesa site near Cordes Junction, Arizona and Prescott National Forest was purchased for the construction of Arcosanti. (Cosanti, referring to Soleri's compound in Paradise Valley, means "before things." Arcosanti was thus named to indicate a prototype arcology). In the adaptation of the Mesa City Plan to the site, some previously-held design concepts were brought into question. Clustering was seen to have much greater potential when dealt with three-dimensionally than it had on the horizontal plane. Soleri utilized the terms "complexity" and "miniaturization" to describe these objectives for clustering. Like the human body, the arcology was to concentrate itself in the smallest possible area for well-being while performing the complex, specialized functions which ensure stability. By specifying high density for this town of three thousand people, Soleri allocated ten acres for building out of the site's


By Crandon Gustafson
"We watch two search parties at work. They are both looking for the solution of the same problem, but from two different points of departure, and they never quite meet. One party starts out from the arts. It notes that painting and sculpture languish in isolation. We are told that artists should be more aware of what the community needs. The issues of our time should reverberate in their works more perceptibly; also the public should be trained to appreciate the arts, and government should take better care of them. We nod and took in the ether direction.
One Percent for Art
Not one to nod and look away, the General Assembly of the state of Colorado has passed a bill providing for the allocation of a percentage of construction costs of state buildings and other public facilities for the purchase of works of art to be placed in those facilities. The bill specifies an allocation of not less than one percent of the total cost.
Photo by Crandon Gustafson
The Assembly must be commended for its recognition of the importance of the arts to a quality environment. The bill even says that: "The general assembly hereby finds, determines, and declares that this act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, and safety."2 This is pretty heady stuff!
The bill was signed by Governor Lamm and was scheduled to go into effect July 1, I978. A number of obstacles, however, stand in the way of its implementation. A detailed account of the bill's difficulties can be found in the Straight Creek Journal of March 23, 1978; one of the problems mentioned is the bill's wording: it calls for "each capital construction appropriation" to include an allocation for works of art. This would ostensibly include such projects in the state's capital construction budget as electrical rewiring.
Legislative and bureaucratic foibles aside, the passage of the bill raises some interesting questions about the nature of art and its relationship to architecture. Although the bill's definition of "art" is written in broad, open-ended terms, the idea of architectural space as having the attributes of a work of art is not mentioned. In fact, the bill specifically exludes the architect of a public project from its definition of the artist who is to create the one percent of the project which is "art."
' The three quotes are from Rudolf Arnheim's "Art as an Attribute, not a Noun" in Arts in Society, vol. 9:1, published by the University of Wisconsin.
^ Title 24, Article 80.5, Colorado Revised Statutes of 1973.
7
Art, Science, and Architecture
Didn't someone once call architecture the "Mother Art?" Perhaps the architectural profession itself has partly relinquished this distinction, due to recent efforts on its part to be more "scientific" (witness the attempted use of sociological and behavioral information in the design process that received so much attention in the late sixties and early seventies).
Another interesting perspective on the nature of art is the bill's quantification of its role: one percent. Why not three percent, or half a percent? The implication is that art is something that can be hung in a frame or stuck in a niche in the wall.
"The other party starts out from the needs of the community. We are reminded that the world in which we live is ravaged by poverty, overcrowding, and chemical and physical destruction. It would be frivolous indeed to divert any substantial part of our resources to the beautification of walls and streets, especially since the inhabitants themselves would not know the difference. Some of our architecture students and those among their elders who wear the wig of youth talk this way. Instead of merely supplementing their principal task by the study of sociology, psychology, politics, and economics, they spend their time playing the amateur expert in these disciplines and pretend that design is something that can be done without."
Score One for Science
The need to rationalize and quantify things is very strong everywhere in today's society, including the design professions. Rightly or wrongly, many designers suffer from what could almost be called a distrust of their own opinions. Decisions are more comfortable for them if they are based on empirical data, on something that's been "proven."
One manifestation of this need is the Environmental Design Reseach Association (EDRA), a scholarly organization based on the disciplines of environmental psychology and the behavioral sciences. A major premise of the organization is that responsible design of the built environment must take into account the way people relate to their environment. Implicit in the EDRA approach is the belief that these man-environment relations should be studied in an objective and quantifiable way in order to create a valid information base for the making of design decisions.
EDRA, as the principal facilitator of the exchange of information on the subject, has not been without problems. One of these problems was formally stated as the theme of the seventh annual EDRA conference in 1976, held in Vancouver, B.C. The theme was "Beyond the Applicability Gap," and it reflected the concern that the information the organization was dealing in was not presented in a way to be of great utility to design practitioners. At that conference, a workshop addressing the problem of applicability was organized by undergraduate environmental design students from three schools: Students from the University of Colorado-Boulder. University of Wisconsin-Green Bay, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology presented their versions of a creative design process that incorporated information from the study of man-environment relations.
The following year EDRA 8 was held at the University of Illinois in Cham-paign-Urbana. The theme was different, and the applicability of social science
data to the practice of architecture became lost once again. Very few architecture students from the University of Illinois participated in the proceedings.
EDRA 9 was held recently, April 8-11, at the University of Arizona at Tucson, with the theme "New Directions in Environmental Design Research." In the future, a greater participation by architects and architecture students would probably be beneficial to both EDRA and the profession of architecture.
"The narrowness of both perspectives is due, / believe, to a common cause. Both parties still think that art is a noun, not an attribute. They are possessed by the narrow traditional notion that certain objects are art, dedicated to the pursuit of beauty, whereas most objects are not. Art is some kind of special substance owned by certain shapes, but not by others; most shapes are without art. There are still debates on whether architecture, pottery, interior design are art or not. And if they are, what about jewelry, dressmaking, automobile styles? We are told that good art is art, but bad art is not; that handmade things are art, but those made by machine are not; that only the shapes of man can be art, not those of nature. Every one of these foolish dichotomies cuts across a vital connection, needed to make a sense of our environmental problem."
100 Percent For Art:
Out of the Niche
We should raffirm the notion of architecture as art. The process of architecture, even more than its product, till all the attributes of art. For architectural design is nothing more than a decision-making process. The decisions are based on sets of criteria that the final product must meet. Information from environmental psychology can constitute one of the sets of criteria. Building codes, economics, ecological systems, and programming requirements are other possible criteria.
But it is important to view architectural design as the creative use of these information sets. The danger exists that designers who don't have a facility with the design processes and creative methods will produce architecture that is simpiy the ill-fitting sum of its parts, rather than innovative designs which combine the criteria in ways to achieve a result that is more than the sum of its parts. This is why it is important to conceptualize architecture as an art; it is also the reason why many architectural schools have been emphasizing the design process in their curricula.
The fine artist goes through a very similar decision-making process; he or she merely uses different criteria than the architect. Many times the fine artist is not fully conscious of the criteria he or she is applying to a project, and doesn't wish to be.
In the case of "environmental art," the parameters of art are increasingly overlapping with those of architecture. Environmental art is a rather broad category, but it can be generalized as art which has enlarged the scope of its concerns to include parameters of an environmental scale.
A recent exhibit at the St. Charles on Wazee gallery featured an environmental piece by Vaida Daukantas, a Boulder sculptor whose educational background includes a Bachelor of Architecture degree. The piece occupied the entire third floor of the gallery and dealt with the psychology of space, including explorations of the concepts of the post and the corner. Daukantas' media included glass, mirrors, and light, but more important than the physical materials were the concepts of space and spatial definition acheived throught their use.
One of the most striking illustrations of the broad definition of art as an attribute rather than a noun occured a few years ago in nearby Rifle, Colorado. Christo's "Valley Curtain" project was much more than the highly visible orange fabric draped across Rifle Gap. Artist Christo Javacheff considers all aspects of a project to be art, including technical problems and legal hassles. Public forums, the design of the cable anchors, the arrangements for leasing the land, the ecological systems of the site, even negotiations with the highway department over whose road the cutain was to be draped, were all a part of the art, a part of the process that Christo had initiated, and were duly documented. Thus, Christo did not consider the project a failure when the curtain was ripped to shreds by high winds a few hours after it
Photo by John Villa
was finally hung in place, but rather an inevitable part of the process, and therefore of the art.
The temporal nature of the actual art object does not disqualify Christo's work as art. Commenting on Christo's "Running Fence," a Marin County housewife explained that she had cooked many meals which she considered works of art, but which were also soon gone without a trace.
The notion of environmental art as a. process involving many different contributions, each one of significance to the total, is a good example for the architectural profession. And who knows? Maybe even electrical rewiring projects whould qualify for their one percent for art.


8
Relocating Campus
continued from page 4
State Office of Planning and Budget strongly suggested that the question of the continued operation of the UCD buildings be answered at the outset.
The scope of the report was therefore expanded from a Life Cycle Study of the buildings themselves over a 30-year "life" to include a comparison of the UCD buildings with a new building to replace it. In addition a new high-rise Advanced Studies Building is to be built as part of the Program Plan for the Auraria campus and this was included in two of the alternatives in order to consolidate the functions.
The Four Alternatives Considered:
1. Upgrade existing UCD buildings: Initial Cost (LG.), 7,808,000* Annual Owning and Operating Cost (AOOC.),
1.368.000
2: Replace existing building with new buildings west of Cherry Creek: I.C., 11,123,000; AOOC., 1,592,000
3. Upgrade existing UCD buildings and construct new Advanced Studies Building east of Cherry Creek: I.C., 19,658,000; AOOC., 3,011,000
4. Construct a single new building west of Cherry Creek to replace existing UCD buildings and to provide for advanced studies needs: I.C., 20,722,000; AOOC.,
2.945.000
The current market value ($4,187,750) of the UCD buildings is included in Alternatives No. 1 and No. 3. The cost of "upgrading" the UCD buildings is $2,979,628 and would include: (1) bringing the building into compliance with current building codes (265,212);
(2) site improvement required by Skyline Urban Renewal ($171,244); (3) compliance with ASHRAE standard 90-75 for energy efficiency ($1,466*606);3 (4) refurbishing and replacement ($479,520); (5) program remodel work ($762,436). The report also examined alternatives for Speer Blvd.
1 j Overpass' with elevators, ramps and snow/ice melting equipment: I.C., 692,000; AOOC*, 97,000
2. Underpass with elevators, ramps., and snow/ice melting equipment: I.C., 1,57,000; AOOC., 147*000
3. Single controlled on-grade crossing midway between Lawrence and Arapahoe Sts.: I.C., 156,000; AOOC., 22,000
4. On-grade crossing at both Lavyrence and Arapahoe Sts.: I.C., 210,000; AOOC., 31,000
In recommending alternative no. 4 the report concludes that it would have lower annual owning and operating costs, would reduce the crossing hazard at Speer Blvd., reduce student, faculty and staff travel time and would provide the most efficient functional space.
The report comes under criticism generally in two areas:
For stepping out of the bounds of a normal Life Cycle Cost analysis into the area of planning and for not placing more emphasis upon the "institutional identity" which the UCD campus provides as a strong identifiable link with the urban community. John Prossor, associate professor of Architecture at UCD, believes that "This is the one place where the campus is interrelated with downtown. By moving to the other side of Speer
makes Speer a boundary." The validity of making a comparison between an old and new building Prossor also questions. "There is no way an older building can compete with a new building; the volumes are larger, the windows are larger, the materials are different; all these things make the building more costly to maintain," Prossor states. "If a life cycle analysis were done on the Capitol," Prossor points out, "it would show that it should be torn down and replaced with a new building."
The annual operating costs of proposals (No. 1 vs. No. 3 and No. 2 vs. No. 4) are relatively close, and the decision will be based on other considerations such as urban orientation and institutional identity.
The report addresses this issue by considering "those intangibles which touch on such things as quality and trends in education, service to the handicapped, safety, security, . . . and institutional identity." The report admits that "These items are difficult if not impossible to quantify."
By assigning 10 intangible components a mathematical weight, an attempt was made, however, to tabulate how well the various proposals meet these intangible needs. While the attempt to compute the relative value of intangibles is appreciated, the wisdom of actually making such a study is questionable. These factors simply do not lend themselves to a mathematical tabulation. There are invariably challenges to the emphasis of one factor over another or whether too few or too many factors were considered. A more salient criticism is that a Life Cycle study format does not take into
account the changes that these (intangible) factors can have over time. In a building the cost of initial construction, maintenance, etc., can be amortized over a period of years and examined using the dollar value as a common denominator. With "intangibles" the value may not depreciate on a straight line basis over the next 30 years, but may fluctuate over time, and not necessarily at a constant rate. Perhaps a factor such as institutional identity may have a completely different meaning in 30 years.
As the Auraria campus begins to expand, and with the encroachment of the rest of downtown Denver on its borders, space upon which to build will be at a premium. It would not be difficult to imagine future circumstances in which Auraria would ask for money to buy back the buildings (at a suitably inflated price).
(Editor's comment: In light of the recent Life Cycle study concerning the UCD buildings, Gary Long, instructor in mechanical systems, had these remarks:
"The Auraria maintenance people have their hands full. They have no budget for work—they don't have budget to do routine maintenance for the new buildings of Auraria, much less to fix the control system of the UCD plant. Bromley routinely operates at 80 degrees F. or above all winter—day and night. Apparently due to budget pressures the second, third and fourth floors don't have a light switch. The lights on those floors are controlled from panel boxes accessible only through self-locking doors. With minimal capital cost for the control of lighting and HVAC systems, operating costs could be cut 30-40percent.")
Glenwood Canyon
continued from page 5
Structures
The structures in the design will be used carefully, in order to minimize their impact along and adjacent to the roadway. The structures are generally
clean linear elements, simple in form and well proportioned. Care has been taken to maintain continuity yet prevent the structures from dominating the canyon scenery.
Several efforts have been made to reduce the width of the highway. Roadside barriers are incorporated to
reduce the width from 150-180 feet to 70-80 feet by eliminating the need for a median and highway shoulders.
A structural solution of recessing retaining walls under the roadway deck further conserves valuable space between opposite lanes for new planting, and between the roadway and the river for the pedestrian path/bikeway.
Landscape Treatments
The first priority of the landscape design was to preserve or restore natural conditions in the canyon. Guidelines stress environmental and visual objectives
Super Block
continued from page 4
aggravate problems of circulation and parking that already exist. Tying the block in with the Mall seems highly desirable, but developing the intervening land is as fraught with complexity as developing the block itself. Some sort of meaningful relationship needs to be established with Canyon Pointe, a very dense mixed-use Planned Unit Development already under way west of 9th Street which, when complete, will make an undeveloped Super Block seem even more of a wasteland.
One thing seems certain: the development of Super Block will conspicuously lack the clarity of a Kevin Lynch
thesis. At this point, one can only hope that hard work, sincere cooperation, and enlightened self interest will fortuitously combine with the same kind of magic that produced the Mall so that Super Block will live up to its name—and happily ever after?
EDITOR'S NOTE: Dr. Green is principal in the writing and research firm of Green & Morgan. The firm has served as consultant to several architectural firms in Boulder.
for landforms, vegetation and water resources.
Existing talus slopes will be restored to their natural angle of repose and revegetated. This will reduce rock fall activity and the visual impact of the scars.
The proposed design also creates new edges along the riverbank. The existing unnnatural gravel and rock fill will be re-contoured and the barren slopes will be revegetated.
Existing vegetation will be preserved whenever possible. In areas where revegetation will occur, plants native to the canyon will be used. A test plot is being run this summer to determine the most
efficient transplanting and seeding methods.
The preliminary design approved on March 20 at a public hearing has been sent to the Federal Highway Commission for concurrence. Some opposition is anticipated from both the Council on Environmental Quality and the Department of the Interior. Both have voiced concerns that the design process in some specific sections has not been thorough enough.
If the preliminary plan is approved the final design will begin in the fall of 1978 with construction commencing in the summer of 1979.
Guest
Editorial
continued from page 2
you will respect yourself. With experience, you will find yourself winning on many important issues. One of the architect's greatest assets is his wealth of original ideas.
Like everything that is worthwhile in life, architecture is a paradox. If you go into it expecting to be offered its rewards without much effort, it will give you very little. But if you are prepared to give it hard work, commitment and total involvement; if you go into it expecting nothing but giving everything you have, then it will yield you incomparable returns. You will be one of those fortunate people whose life has meaning and purpose.


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2 UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER UWIII\JUlCI\IS May 1978 LAMINATIONS: A College of Environ mental Design Publication, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado 80202, (303) 629-3397. STAFF Editor in Chief Editors John Filkins John Villa Paul Glassman Pat Happel Andrew Anderson Dana Reingold David Brown Chester Nagel Design and Production Photographers Faculty Advisor Guest Editorial Guest Writers Staff Writers Eugene Sternberg Joslyn Green Herb Smith Geoffrey Crandon Gustafson Katy Liske Mike Fuller Joel May Ann McCurdy Opinions expressed are not necessarily those of anyone other than the writer. The newspaper office is located in room 303 of the Bromley Building. Mailing addres, "Laminations," c / o College (..'' Environmental Design. 1100 14th Street. Denver, Colo. 80202 . Letters to the Editor must be signed and accompanied by a mailing address. Letters will be subject t o editing lor reasons of clarity and space. contents COVER: Detail from the Gargoyle House -Mike Fuller 2 Guest Editorial: To the Graduating Architects of 1978 -Eugene Sternberg 3 Community PlanningWho Needs It? -Herb Smith 4 Super Block or Super Block Blocked? -Joslyn Green Report Recommends Relocating Carr.pus -Mike Fuller Announcements 5 Glenwood CanyonPreliminary Plan -Ann McCurdy ML TW Revisited -Geoffrey Drake 6 New Arcosanti Designs= Social Changes _ -Joel May Announcements 7 Art, Science, and Architecture -Crandon Gustafson Guest Editorial To the Graduating Architects of 1978 • • By Eugene D. Sternberg profession I have loved with passion, and which has structured my life, is passing from my generation to yours. What kind of an inheritance are you getting? What sort of life will it lead you into? I must be direct, since that is my nature. To me an architect is not a draftsman but a talented, deeply com mitted professional, a creative and orig inal individual. For such an architect, practice is often pure hell. It is no I ife for the timid, the insecure, or the nine to five mentality. You will find yourself working with clients who don't place any value on beauty or quality. With educators whose sole concern is to hang on to their jobs, wanting from you only a design that cannot offend anyone. With a doctor so uninterested in the planning of his clinic that his only requirement is that you make the wash basins high enough for him to urinate into. You will battle with a contractor on your client's behalf, only to find your client has more in common with the contractor than with you. You fi9ht continually against outdated and stupid bureaucratic regulations, and often find yourself at the mercy of arrogant and insensitive officials . You will come to resent desperate! y that values of a society that thinks your work-the entire spec trum from preliminary design through a ten-year responsi bi I ity for the safe con struction of the building-is worth no more than the effort of any realtor who sells it . To the extent that you are an architect-an imaginative , able advocate of fine design and honest purpose in any project you are involved in-you are destined to a life that will, inevitably , contain much frustration, anger and sadness. My involvement with architecture began with demanding university studies in Prague, and has continued through eight years of study and work in England and more than thirty years of practice in this country. Along the way, I had had my full share of defeats and disappoint ments. And still I say with deep conviction that the rewards and pleasures of architecture have so far outweighed the adversities , that I feel it has been a privilege to spend my life in this magnificent profession. I cannot imagine any other way of life that would have been as rich. I think you should know some of the rewards you can expect. What other profession, besides perhaps great acting, gives you the opportunity and the obligation to enter into so many different worlds , and become a part of them? Mine has been a general practice, though I'm proud to characterize most of it as architecture with a social purpose. I had to beco' me a bleeding accident victim carried through the corridors of the old Denver General Hospital to understand how vital even one extra step is to the design of an emergency department. I met with teachers, talked with students, sat in classrooms, to get a feel of what I, as an architect, could contribute to the learning process. When I was designing housing and community facilities for the low-income population of Denver, I was working for the City and its Housing Authority, but the real clients were the people who had no voice. .' I I \ ' It, pat \n)"f"E: heThere is a deep arid abiding satisfaction that comes from helping ind i viduals and groups to fulfill their dreams. I remember a group of farmers from Nebraska who came to me with this problem: they had plenty of time, physical strength, they had no money and they needed a church. I drove round the countryside with them, and found an old boarded-up brick schoolhouse which they bought for $1.00. They tore it down carefully, salvaged, cleaned and listed all the materials, and then I designed their church using the materials available . I think of the group of black leaders who wanted to build a center for their neighborhood that would keep it healthy and active, prevent its deteriorating into a slum. I worked with them for more than five years. It was the first time I had the opportunity to get involved with black people, as individuals and as a com munity. Recently I attended a twenty fifth anniversary celebration of the first cooperative housing community in Den ver, which I designed and lived in for 12 years. It was an experiment in many areas-site planning, economical design, financing and community management. It's still functioning well and valued by those who live in it. You can be a true citizen of the world if you are an architect with an open mind, constantly interested in learning. You read, you travel, the whole world is your library . You participate in compe titions of all kinds in order to grow professionally and to be part of the architectural community of the rest of the world. In this profession, ideas know no borders. Any one of you who visits Eastern Europe can see the disastrous results of trying to impose limits on creative work. An architect is never an ordinary tourist. You travel with open eyes. You have a key to understanding and appre ciating both history and contemporary culture through the layout of towns and villages and the buildings that compose them. If I had to summarize what I have learned through all these years of involvement with architecture, I would tell you: -Be proud of your profession. Archi tecture has a long and glorious history , and can contribute immeasurably to human happiness and fulfillment. -See yourself always as a missionary for architecture. Help as many people as you can to experience the joy of "seeing" their environment and appre. ciating the beauty that man can create. It is only as we build a sensitive, appreciative, discrim inating public taste that we can have the clients we need in order to produce good architecture. -Be in charge, and be interested in every detail of the buildings you design. Don't, for example, let the electrical tell you which light fixtures to select and where to put them. You, not he, have the talent and training to create architectural character and mood. -Fight for what you believe. You won't always win, and you won't always be liked. But you will be respected and Continued on page 8 AlA Scholarships & Awards Scholarships: AlA/AlA Foundation Scholarships: 1 . Cynthia Hoover 2. Lynn Paxson 3. Linda Stansen 4 . Joseph Simonetta Dana Giffin Soper Scholarships: (Tuition and Fees) James M. Mitcshrich National Monarch Tile Scholarshi p, $600: Lamoine W. Eiler Denver Chapter Producer's Council Scholarship, $600: Glen F. Peterson C. Gordon Sweet Scholarship, $750: Lee A. Knight Robert K. Fuller Graduate Scholarship, $1500: J. Luke Sheridan Arthur A . and Florence G. Fisher Travelling Scholarship: 1 . $1800 Maurice Grant Barr 2.$1200 Peter Orleans Alpha Rho Chi Award : John W. Filkins AlA School Medal : Jennifer T. Moulton AlA School Medal Mention : DavidS. Hammel Awards: Reynolds Aluminum School Prize: Colorado Certificates: 1st Society AlA Design year Architecture: James P . Nordlie College of Environmental Design Faculty Award: Undergraduate: Robert Beblavi Graduate: 1 . Rodney o . Hirata 2. Mark H . Krone Martin Luther King Jr. Prize: Lynn Paxson Bartlett Baker , Jr. 2nd year Architecture: Thomas David 3rd year Architecture: Joseph Scopino 2nd year Urban Design : Lee Elizabeth A. Hennessey 3rd year Urban Design : Gerald W . Olson

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3 Community Planning-Who Needs It? Tr,e question posed in the title of this article is one on which I find myself reflecting even after having spent five years in state planning, nineteen years in private consulting work, a year as a Planning Director in a major city, two years as C ity Manager of that city, and the last several years in the field of planning education. Through all this, while seeing untold changes and the use of the term 'planning' advance from an almost unknown phrase to an 'in' word, I find myself constantly fighting a sense of frustration. This frustration, while hard to pinpoint and express definitely, seems to be around the question of what all this so-called planning has accomplished for the betterment of our communities and society. Are we better off in terms of the quality of life, community structuring, environment and ecology, housing, trans portation, etc. , than we would have been without government involvment in what has now become known as the planning process? This , obviously, is an enigmatic question to pose as there is no way that anyone could ever supply a supported answer. We can not go back through the ye ars a n d determine just where decisions have been made based on knowledge and information available as a result of a community planning endeavor for which, if such had not existed, the results would have been a far worse blot on the landscape than the final product turned out to be . At the same t i me, we can not determine where, under the guise of planning and the cloak of legitimacy, the bottom line decision has been based upon graft, political influence, power util ization, or just plain favoritism . No, there is no way to assess realistically where we wou ld be in the United States today had there been no Burnhams, 01 msteads, Bassetts, Whitnalls, Pomeroys, and the thousands of persons carrying the title of p lann e r who followed them. On the other hand, if we approach the situation from another standpoint, can we point with pride to the American city, the suburbs, the open landscape, and unequivocally exclaim that we have had the foresi ght to rea lize the importance of action t o avoid mistakes, rather than the expensive , often fruitless philosophy of trying to erase and correct the horrors permitte d under the rallying cry of "progress"? The answer to this question comes much more easily. We in the United States have the feeling that our cities are a shame we must abide, our suburbs are the private hunting preserves of exploiters, and our rural areas will take care of themselves-they always have and they always will. As individuals, while we may gripe about the way 'they' do things, we have narrowed our already myopic Denver finally gets a skyline and you can't see it. . . world to encompass only that bungalow on that mythical quarter acre and what the kids' school is like, when 'they' will fix the chuckholes in the street out front, and how we can make sure that we don't have to pay any more taxes. On top of a growing mistrust of government we have found little ability to interest ourselves in the importance of diminishing natural resources, loss of open space and amenities by the spread of wall-to-wall urbanization, the continuing planting of the seeds of blight by the creeping cancer of strip commercialism, or the failure of elected and appointed representatives to represent properly all of the people instead of a vested interest, a select few, or personal motivation. There are, no doubt, many reasons for this, from which we can take satisfaction in finding adequate rationalization and justification to placate our conscience. We have been fortunate in the past in not having to worry too much about the dwindling resources of land and minerals. We have been occupied with the All -American dream of making it big in the land of plenty. In pursuit of this we have become too busy, complacent, and self-cen tered-and easy prey for the patient pol itiician and speculator. Our educational system has failed us com pletely by being concerned only with developing a form of education pleasing to and protective of educators and failing to adjust to the need for preparing individuals to be concerned about a changing world and how to meet the needs of that change. And change there has been and alway s will be . No longer can we say, "W hy should I worr y because I won't be around when the crisis some pureyor of doom and gloom is always predicting comes?" The crisis is here now, and we w ho are alive today, much less through the next ten or twenty years are going to have to fac e up to it , as well as live w ith our sins of the past, whether we I ike it or not. The only important question is whether we can wake up or b e awakened to this soon enough. The world situation is a crisis . We, i n our land of plenty, are b e ing bullied by the oil producing nations, bled by the coffee growing countries, and hated and despis e d by the e ver-awakening Third World . No longer can we look to the rest of the world, even outside the Soviet bloc, as a place the great American know-how and wealth will allow us to use , abuse and exploit. Whether we are ready to accept it or not, we are going to have to bargain, share resources, and hopefully, learn to live in a peaceful cooperative way as equal people sharing mutual problems. Within our own coun try we cannot ignore that central cities are bankrupt and continuing to decay, unrest and unemployment are rampant. energy in all forms is i n short supply, the air is polluted to the point of being a danger to health, and our institutions seem to be totally incapable or unwilling to respond. Yet, we seem unable to accept reality as a people, preferring to live in a dream world centered on an electronic tube which has succeeded, not in educating and informing, but only in turning I ife into a spectator sport with the opiate of escapism . What do we care and why should we be bothered if millions of people are underfed, under housed, undereducated, and under involved in determining their future and that of generations to come? Why should we be concerned if the power structure is self-perpetuating for the sole purpose of exploiting people and resources for the benefit of only a few? After all, isn't this the great American way and who are we to try to change it? lies the heart of my frustration as best I can determine. It is that we do have something great in the American way, but somehow we seem to have allowed ourselves to be conned into a concept of this "American way" which is as phoney as a nine dollar bill (inflation being what it is). Where, in all our history, has anyone ever said that a system of public subsidy in which personal enrichment is for those clever enough to take full adva . ntage of the opportunity, is the system sanctioned, made sacred, and not to be questioned in a democratic society? Where can it be found in constitutions, laws , or pre cedents that a collective group of people as a society have to accept placidly the idea that resources and land, regardless of ownership carry with them the "right" of speculation and enrichment not with standing the effect of that action which may be taken upon a genuine public interest7 Yet, this is what the Madison Avenue pitch-persons, the Chamber of Commerce "progress" at any cost spell binders, and those who have successfully taken from the land and never given, would have us believe . The unfortunate part is that they seem to have been totally successful in achieving their objec t ive. I f you don't believe this is so, just try opposing a public expenditure for a new sewer plant on the grounds of its being adverse to planning based upon desirable land use patterns and being detrimental to the environment, and see how quickly sensible, logical argument is made to look foolish and ignored after just one statement about how many new jobs can be created by the result of the increased capacity of the new faci I ity. Seldom do we stop to ask whether economic growth is really a benefit worth the frequency submerged public cost-both from tangible financial costs and intangible despoilation of environment. Philosophy and theory, even when supported by history and vivid examples of the extreme of man's inhumanity against fellow man, are poor weapons in competing with the capitalistic idea that growth and expansion, regardless of the kind, the cost or the effect, are synonymous with prosperity, progress, and the only way that we can survive . To realize that this does not always have the ring of truth about it, all we really need to do is open our eyes and with seeing and comprehending vision look about us . We cannot seriously believe that those ticky-tacky subdivis ions , that misplaced high-rise apartment structure, that fast-food plagued com mercial strip, that dense pall of smog hanging over downtown and the entire valley, and the lack of adequate open space, developed parks, or cultural facilities is the best that American ingenuity, imagination, and ability could have done. For those who might say it is the system and these things have been happening only because the system has failed us, the question immediately arises of why we haven't changed that system to make it more effective and responsive. Why have we refused to admit that we have an 18th century government struc ture attempting to deal with 20th, even 21st, century problems, and that it is failing miserably? What have we done to insist that outmoded state legislatures, county fiefdoms, and local politically ridden governments be held up to the light of public scrutiny and revised to enable us to deal efficiently with these problems? Raising such a question in no way intends to advocate an uprising, an overthrow of government, or a swith to more autocracy or totalitarianism. In stead, it is to advocate that we stop paying only lip-service to democratic government, that we recognize that the sands of time are running low for us unless we return to true democracy where all of the people have an opportunity to have a say in their present and their future, and that meaningful, effective, and somewhat selfless community plan ning is the one last hope we have of making a participatory system work. Who needs community planning-community planning that is more than just a catch phrase to be turned off and on like a water faucet for the convenient use of politicians? We all do, now more than ever before. (Editor's note: Mr. Smith is the director for the graduate programs of Planning/ Community Development, College of Environmental Design.)

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4 Announcements Library Staffed In a follow-up to the last issue, the Joint Budget Committee has approved money for one full-time professional libraria, and one full-time library technician to staff the proposed College of Environmental Design library. Inquiries c;hould be made to the Director of the Auraria Libraries . Five thousand volumes are expected to bs transferred from the main Aurana library to Bromley in September. The College is also accepting book contributions for the new facility under the subject headings of Architecture, Lands cape Architecture, Interior Design, Urban Design, Urban and Regional Planning, and Public Affairs. It is the goal of the Colleg e to have the library serve as a resource center for design professionals in the area , as well as students. Reappointments The architecture faculty meeting of April 14 considered three faculty reappointments. The faculty has recom mended to Dean Dwayne Nuzum for further consideration the reappointment of Gary Long and Alvaro Malo for additional two-year contracts and Eugene Benda for tenure. William Turnbull May 5th William Turnbull, founding partner of Moore, Lyndon, Turnbull, Whitaker; and Director of M L TW/Turnbull Associates, San Francisco will speak at 7:30 Friday, May 5, 1978. The work of the ML TW has been extensively published throughout the world, highlights of which are : Sea Ranch Condominium I , Kresge College , UC Santa Cruz, UC Santa Barbara Faculty Club and numerous c elebrated singl e family residences . Mr. Turnbull is also the immediate past chairman of the National Honor Awards Jury, Am e rican Institute of Architects, from 196777. The lecture is schedule d for the 2nd floor of the Bromley Building, 13th and Lawrence Streets, Denver . Student pro jects will be on d i splay and a win e reception will follow. Professionals are welcome. New Director As of June 1, 1978, Chalmers G. "Gary" Long will assume the position of Director of Architecture of the College of Environmental Design, University of Colorado. Bob Utzinger is stepping down after six years as the Director. Gary holds the Bachelor of Arts and the Bachelor of Architecture degrees from Rice University and the Master of Architecture degree from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has been a member of the faculty of architecture at Rice University and an Associate Archi tect with Caudill Rowlett Scott of Houston. He is completing his second year on the faculty of UCD. Through the efforts of Dean Dwayne Nuzum, Assistant Dean John Prossor, Utzinger, and Martin Moody of UCD, the College of f:nvironmental Design is now stable in size, location, and program; the first class of architecture graduates from the Denver campus will be graduated this spring. Long sees the important task ahead to be the continuing development ahd enrichment of the program. Throughout the summer Gary plans to acquaint himself with the professional community in order to identify local resources that may be of value to the schooL By Joslyn Green Super Block or Super Block Blocked? Preliminary scheme subject to change he Good, the Bad, and the Ugly they're uncomfortably close neighbors in most cities, and Boulder is no exception. In spite of major renovation and n e w construction in the last several years, in spite of the attractive new Mall, in spit e of the competence of city planners and the concern of citizens, downtown Boulder still has far too few Clint Eastwoods. Candidate For Redevelopment A major site in Boulder that clearly needs attention is what the Chamber of Commerce has designated as "Super Block," in hopes that a glorious future will replace its undeniably drab present. The "block," which actually runs from 11th Street to 9th Street and from Canyon Boulevard to Walnut Street, is described by City Planner Nolan Rosall as "underutilized," which is putting it mildly. The southwest corner, owned by Burlington Northern, is overrun w ith billboards and cars that seem to overflow from the city parking lot to the north. An old brick food locker stands vacant, its major contribution to urban ame nities another parking lot that a dozen stray -cats call home . A lumberyard occupies the northeast corner of the site , its high yellow walls unwelcoming and in need of repair. South from the lumberyard across yet anothe r parking lot is the r e c ently enlarged and remodelled Canyon Inn . Completing the rather dreary circl e is the headquarters of the Chamber of Com merse and its parking lot. Unquestionably, "Super Block" is a prime candidate for redevelopment. But prime candidates age less well than prime beef, and it's been three years sinc e the Chamber of Commerce initiated dis-By Mike Fuller A firestorm of cnt1c1sm has b e en touched off by the recently completed Life Cycle Study by More, Combs and Burch which recommends that the buildings on the east side of Cherry Creek be abandoned and replaced by newly built space on the west bank. The report, which was commissioned by Auraria at a cost of $30,000, was required by the state in order to obtain federal funding for scheduled remodeling of the " UCD campus," i.e . , the Tower Building, Bromley and the East Class room (formerly the Tramway Building which was recently placed on the National Historic Register of Historic Places) . In addition to the remodeling of UCD which is required to complete the Program plan for the Auraria campus, the continued on page 8 Courtesy of Wallace D . Palmer Associates cussion of developing a multi-us e com plex for Super Block that would includ e a hotel and conference/convention center. Much committee work and many meet ings later, there are no definite results . The reported outcome of the most recent (closed) meeting: "Let's meet again in three weeks . " What's Happening? A similar sense of impending change seems to prevail among many of the partie s interested in Super Block . But the most anyone can-or will-say at the moment is, "I don' t know what's going to happen. " Architect Wally Palmer, for example, volunteered preliminary work on a master plan last fall and up until recently felt had a fair grasp of the situation. "Now," he says , "I know something's going on, but I don't know exactly what-and I don't know what's happening with the plan. " (Speculation is rampant that the City of Boulder is once again negotiating to bring a majo r department store to Boulder with Super Block as a possible sit e , which introduces a factor not pres ent when Mr. Palmer drew up his plan.) The purchas ers of the old food locke r have a building permit in the window and a repute d construction date of mid-June, so they do know what's happening w ith their segm ent of Supe r Block. But they're not telling . The Burlington Northern has sub mitted what has been described as "a standard-package Holiday Inn" for conceptual review by the City . (The fate of the package is as yet unknown, but the response in a number of quarters has been less than enthusiastic.) '3ill Brady of the Boulder Lumber Company admits he will be moving within the year. But as for where , or why-no comment. Hank Bittner of the Lashle y Parsons Investment group does know where-oddly e nough s i nce he say s h e "may o r may not be a member " of a group that " may or may not purchase" the lumberyard site . (An arrangement i s under contract, says Mr. Bittner , but there are various contingencies and there has been on clos i ng . ) As for the City's negotiations with a department store-is mum the word? You guessed it . If there's skulduggery afoot, it would certainly be impossible to prove , b e cause the basic facts are diff icult to come by . Good Reasons for Caution Then, too, there are no doubt good reasons for caution. No one wants to prejudice his plans by revealing them prematurely. Nor does anyone want to stir up the winds of controversy that so often sweep through Boulder, destr oying many a project less fragile, less complex, and less important than Super Block . In all fairness, the difficulties of accomplishing effective urban renewal on the Super Block site are immense. The land belongs to a miltiplicity of owners, and with land prices currently running $10-$15 a square foot, a single owner may be hard to find. (Speculation also becomes pretty irresistable.) Perhaps the most feasible single developer would be the City of Boulder. Legislation is on the books establishing an urban redevlopment authority. but that authority has not yet been exercised and, even if it were, major financing problerps . wo..u.ld. .. r:.e.mai n J ' One possibility under consideration, according to Nolan Rosall, is that of "tax increment financing," a new procedure whose legality is currently being tested in Colorado but which cannot yet be undertaken. Meanwhile, the owner of an individual parcel of land may jump the gun, leaving everyone who wants to work for integrated and coordinated development of the sit e poised at the starting gat e. The longer the wait for a concerted effort, the greater the risk that someone may decide to bolt. Problems of Context Sinc e no man, and no Super Block, i s an island, there are also large problems of context to be solved . High density development of a Super Block would Continued on page 8 Report Recommends Relocating Campus "C g, = 0> a: "' c: 0 .. 0 f.

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t 5 Glenwood Canyon -Preliminary Plan By Anne McCurdy pr e liminary d e sign for approx imatel y 12. 5 miles of interstate highway through scenic Glenwood Canyon is an o ther triumph for the Colorado Depart m e nt of Highway s , with its sound e nvironm e ntal plann ing and des ign con cepts . The pr e lim i nary design, which was r e cently approved at a public hearing in Glenwood Springs , i s based on a sum of information gathered over the past t e n y ears . The expansion of the existing U .S. H i ghway 6 into a four lane limited access highway has been a controversial issue for years. In response to strong environ mental opponents, the Colorado Division of Highways together with the Federal Highway Administration undertook a comprehensive design study. During the past two years a most intensive public involvement work program has been under way including the formation of a three level interdisciplinary team consist ing of a citizen's advisory committee, a technical review group, and a design team . A detailed environoTiental assess ment was produced during the first phase of the work program, with the prelim inary design being the product of the second phase . Alignment The primary objective of the design effort was to design a highway that would be sensitive to the environment of the canyon. With the existing conditions ot canyon imposing severe limitations, high way alignment was regarded as the most crucial activity affecting the level of i mpact. The most viable design direction involves the treatment of the eastbound and westbound . c.oadway . s separately . . This approach results in a natural separation, fitting the roadway to the canyon and creating a diversity of views . This separation of roadways also breaks up the plane of the four-lane roadway, reducing the apparent mass, and creates a parkway effect with the viewer seeing only two lanes . In the narrow v-shaped formation of th e western section from No-Name Creek to the Shoshone Dam, the highway is s ited along the existing scarred corridor. The westbound lanes are placed higher and closer to the canyon wall to cover up the old scars and the eastbound lanes will be terraced below them. In the shallow u shaped configuration east of the Sho shone Dam to Gypsum, the westbound lanes are elevated on viaducts with the eastbound lanes uti I izing the existing grades. Continued on page 8 By Geoffrey Drake date: 13 April1978 time: 3 p . m . place : Sheldon Art Gallery, University of Nebraska, Lincoln I am the lone Colorado representative in an auditorium filled with Nebraskans slightly diluted by a contingent from Kansas State Univers . ity. We are all awaiting the arrival of Charles Moore, Donlyn Lyndon, William Turnbull, and Richard Whitaker known collectively in the '60s as ML TW. This is the first time in . many years that they have been to9ether. Beyond the significance of the gath ering is the fact that the work of M L TW and the individual workd and philos ophies of the partners is now gaining wide recognition and acceptance as con tributing to the art of architecture now that the latter is emerging from beneath .'-"\ ... VJil\ be inltt""taHf -\-b ur 1\7 . \ ) Drawings courtesy of Deleuw Cather / ( ML TW Revisited the constraints of the Modern Movement. Charles Moore begins by speaking on Space : servant-served ; and historical per spective and contemporaty development. His use of the aedicula or "4-poster space" receives initial attention. Moore views space as the location where the "cares, energies, enthusiasms of the inhabitants occur. " Spaces have to have "tops, bottoms, fronts, and a way of knowing when you're home." Finally, Moore makes reference to a "Delicatessen Order of Architecture" that I interpreted as meaning a wide choice is available but of a higher quality than one finds in our current supermarket order. Don Lyndon deals with "Habiting or person-oriented architecture." He makes a deli!tltful reference to the bound lessness of a child's existence being stuffed into the adult cube-shaped cell meant to define us as grown-up; i . e. stackable boxes. The aim of person centered architecture is to "alter the ways by which things may be seen by moving beyond 'civilizing' borders and utilizing the energies of the mind." Lyndon perceives a tension between our society's rigid geometry and the necessary distor tion of same due to the particularities of circumstances-distorted edges around a conventional core. Bill Turnbull covers the topic of Site, Landscape, and PLACE by first defining Site as a measure of man's territoriality; staking out/laying claim. Moving on, he describes his Kresge College at U.C. Santa Cruz: "a street in a European. sense with beginnings and ends, where the street is the metaphor and movement along it establishes PLACE . " Alcoves, alleys, green areas off the street allow the traveler to pause and enjoy new perspec tives. The ADDITIVE EXPERIENCE OF SPACE is his central point. PLACE may be achieved by surrounding; mergin; confroriting/enfronting; or infusing with landscaping. Richard Whitaker's talk, while more philosophical than the other three, best expresses the ML TW attitude of "place." Place as an opportunity for to happen. Place as a point of identification. Place as shared images; the builder; the user; the passer by. Place making: a sense of being inside; here and thereness; knowing where you are. Place and the layering effect; progression into, out of, between spaces . Dick encourages us, when dealing with spaces, to try giving in to the idea that the users will, given a chance, participate.

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6 Announcements Faculty I Student Curriculum Report Of interest to architecture students is the recommended outline of the design sequence i n the 2-and 3-year Master of Architecture programs. The first semester of the 2-year program and the first three semesters of the 3-year program wi II be team taught and will foHow an outline written by the Curriculum Committee and a lead critic appointed to eac h studio. During the next two semesters students will select freely from a variety o f special interest offerings which might includ e solar energy design, land d evelopmen t and real estate, historic prese rvation, industrial building types, and others of interest to both faculty and students. In the fall of the senior year there will be a two-hour preparatory class for problem identification, data gathering, and analy sis prior to thesis in the final semester. The sequence of structures classes will be reorganized to give students a broader view of building systems from the beginning and to correlate structures and construction methods studies more close ly to their architectural applications. These and other recommendations are contained in the 1 0-page report. Faculty and staff have copies for inspection. Interior Design Curriculum Approved Thursday, April 13, Vice Chancellor . . Rithard Dillon, Dean Bob Rogers of the' UCD Graduate School and Robert Utzin ger, head of the department of arch itecture appeared before the hearing of the Colorado Commission on Higher: Education and Received approval for the Interior Design curriculum within the College of Environmental Design . A department head is currently being sought; anyone interested in the job description or content should contact Robert Utzinger. Students are currently beinQ accepted for next Fall. Solar Design Competition In recognition of the national obser vance of SUN DAY on May 3, 1978, Colorado Governor Richard D . Lamm is sponsoring a solar design competition open to Colorado residents and students at Colorado institutions. The building under consideration is a highway weigh station. Lamm cites the remote locations of these stations as ideally suite d to solar applications and their high visibility as a valuable promotional opportunity. Many UCD students are entering the competition, which will be judged by Richard L. Crowther, Dr. George Lot, and John D. Anderson. Prizes of $1000, $500, and $200 will be awarded on SUN DAY . Thesis Presentations Candidates of the Master of Architecture degree will be presenting theses Monday May 15, 1978 through Friday May 19, 1978 location will be announced later All of these presentations are open to the public and practicing profesionals are urged to participate. Aldo Giurgola to Speak May 15th Mr. and Mrs. Aldo Giurgola will bethe guests of the Central Chapter of the Colorado Society of Architects on Monday, May 15. A meeting for students to meet Mr. Girgola is also being arranged. . Location and time will be announced at a later date. New Arcosanti Designs = Social Changes By Joel May A model of Soleri's newest arcology been simplified into more linear, hori zontal components. The apses have b ee n abandoned as passive collectors and instea d , the greenhouses below the city have been enlarged to funne l heat into the macrostructure. As construction of these reounded forms required spec iali zed formwork and poured-i n-plac e casting by hand, the apses had been replaced in the plan by rectilinear buildings such as Crafts II I (shown in the photo). Oth er structural changes included a series of giant trusses angled at about 45 degrees to the South, w h ich supported platforms and lev els wit hin their webs . The new model also implies more standard s ystems and, poss ibly, a more technology intensiv e construction process. O n a s mall er scale, housing is p l an n ed as a series of owner-bu i It partition walls connecting into the macrostructure. Th e fact that owners will have complete control over their individual spaces and that the macrostructure is isgnificantly Since its inception in 1970, Arcosan ti and its designer, Paolo Soleri, hav e been the subject of much sensational i s m , curiousity, and ridicule. As the prototype arcology (architecture + ecology), Arco santi has been exploited on a superficial level for its denunciation of suburban sprawl, for its isolationism, and for the urban counterculture it appears to foster as a support group for Soleri's phil osophies. These reviews have charac terized the neophyte city as a symbol, imposing a static mold on a changing experiment. By looking more analytically at the evolution of Arcosanti, some direction may be found in the overriding design concepts. Arcosanti is an outgrowth of the Mesa City Plan developed by Soleri between 1959-1964. This plan called for a linear city of two million people stretched along a man-made waterway. Housing was broken down into village clusters of three thousand people and spaced so that shopping and government units would be shared by five adjoining clusters. On the south end of the city was a center for the advanced student of biophysics and biochemistry which was balanced conceptually by a theological complex on the north end. Ground-level roadways were to be used by pedestrians and bicycles, and underground roads would serve auto traffic. Some overwhelming ideas of the Mesa City Plan have carried through Soleri 's work. For example, the mesa site was chosen because of the view afforded and because building on the infertile mesa left the fertile valley unscathed. In the Mesa City Plan, Soleri also attacks func tionalism as being self-defeating and irreverent of the object created. Witness , for example, the planned obsolescence of most downtown buildings with "design life expentancies." By allowing aesthetics to precede functionalism in importance, the built environment will be of greater material quality and more adaptable to numerous uses . In 1963, the present mesa site near Cordes Junction, Ar izo na and Prescott National Forest was purchased for th e construction of Arcosanti. (Cosanti , re ferring to Soleri's compound in Paradis e Valley, means "before things." Arcosanti was thus named to indicate a prototype arcology). In the adaptation of the Mesa City Plan to the site, some pre viously-held design concepts were brought into question. Clustering wa s seen to have much greater potential when dealt with three-dimensionally than it had on the horizontal plane. Soleri utilized the terms "complexity" and "miniaturization" to describe these objectives for clustering. Like the human body, the arcology was to concentrate itself in the smallest possible area for well-being while performing the complex, specialized functions which ensure stability. By specifying high density for this town of three thousand people, Soleri allocated ten acres for building out of the site's eight-hundred and six t y acres . Formwise, the apse w as chosen as the unit microstructure to reflect the shape of and relationship of the sun. As the new city would have the potential of capturing its own energy, the apse would be well suited to shielding from the sun during summer and embracing it during the winter months. The macrostructure was designed to enclose the entire city so that south-facing glass would allow some artificial control of climate. Construction on the mesa began in 1971, using concrete to its full plastic potential to create both precast and poured-in-place variations of the apse. The present structures integrate work and living spaces and, •JVithin the interiors, frescoed graphics, relief sculpturing, and silt casting transform the concrete into a finish material. During this early period, the social environment began to form and change. Initially, the means to social goals were not explored, as it was Soleri's belief that a utopian society could not be built with Arcosanti began to see itself as an entity separate from Soleri 's design. Another important source of input was Arcology Circle, a San Francisco-based group which began its study of the social problems of arcologies in early 1976. The preliminary designs for Two Suns arcology, presented as an abstract project in early 1975, have become the basis for a the design of Arcosanti. The diversity of form found in the original design has simpler indicates a conscious decentral ization of control from the designer, Soleri, toward the user and the con struction process. Is this allocation a conscious design specification or a con cession to realistic problems? For such a strong designer and philosopher as Soleri these changes represent a strong de parture from an earlier philosophy of complexification/miniaturization. In the Arcosanti evolution one sees a slow melt of design theory and scale into structural feasibility and greater self determination. Unfortunately, an eval uation of architecture's success in mould ing the aesthetic is made impossible by the fact that so little of the city is actually built (Presently, however, there is a definite push to attract artists and artisans to the site in hopes that their presence will add a diversity of activity. ) By concessions in the design, however, the city has become more feasible both as a place to be constructed and a place for divergent ideas. To me, it seems that some shaky steps are being taken in the right direction. (Editor's note: David Mease, a 1975 graduate of the Environmental Design program, Boulder, was the project coor dinator for the latest arcology model. This model vvas on exhibit at the Cow Palace in San Francisco in October, 1977.) Crafts Ill Building at Arcosanti

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By Crandon Gustafson "We watch two search parties at work . They are both looking for the solution of the same problem , but from two different points of departure, and they never quite meet. One party starts out from the arts. It notes that painting and sculpture languish in isolation. We are told that artists should be more aware of what the community needs. The issues of our time should reverberate in their works more perceptibly ; also the public should be trained to appreciate the arts, and government should take better care of them. We nod and look in the ether direction. "1 One Percent for Art Not one to nod and look away, the General Assembly of the state of Colorado has passed a bill providing for the allocation of a percentage of constru ction costs of state buildings and other public facilities for the purchase of works of art to be placed in those facilities. The bill specifies an allocation of not less than one percent of the total cost. Photo by Crandon Gustafson The Assembly must be commended for its recognition of the importance of the arts to a quality environment. The bill even says that: "The general assembly hereby finds , determines, and declares that this act is necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, and safety."2 This is pretty heady stuff! The bill was signed by Governor Lamm and was scheduled to go into effect July 1, 1978. A number of obstacles, however, stand in the way of its implementation. A detailed account of the bill's difficulties can be found in the Straight Creek Journal of March 23, 1978; one of the problems mentioned i s the bill's wording: it calls for "each capital construction appropriation" to include an allocation for works of art. This would ostensibly include such projects in the state's capital construction budget as electrical rewiring . Legislativ e and bureaucratic foibles aside , the passage of the bill rai ses som e interesting questions about the nature of art and its relationship to architecture. Although the bill's definition of "art" is writte n in broad, open-ended terms, the idea of architectural space as having the attribute s of a work of art is not mentioned. In fact, the bill specifically exludes the architect of a public project from its definition of the artist who is to create the one percent of the project which is "art." 1 The three quotes are from Rudolf Arnheim's "Art as an Attribute, not a Noun " in Arts in Society, vol. 9 :1, published by the University of Wisconsin . 2 T i tle 24, Article 80.5, Colorado Revised Statutes of 1973. Art ' 7 Science , and Architecture Didn ' t someone once call arch itecture the "Mother Art?" Perhaps the arch itectural profession itself has partly relinquished this distinction , due to recent efforts on its part to be more " scientific" (witness the attempted use of sociological and behavioral information in the design process that received so much attention in the late sixties and early seventies) . Another interesting perspective on the nature of art is the bill's quantification of its role: one percent. Why not three percent, or half a percent? The impli cation is that art is something that can be hung in a frame or stuck in a niche in the wall . "The other party starts out from the needs of the community. We are remin ded that the world in which we live is ravaged by poverty , overcrowding , and chemical and physical destruction. It would be frivolous indeed to divert any substantial part of our resources to the beautification of walls and streets , especi ally since the inhabitants themselves would not know the difference . Some of our architecture students and those among their elders who wear the wig of youth talk this way . Instead of merely supplementing their principal task by the study of sociology, psychology, politics , and economics , they spend their time playing the amateur expert in these disciplines and pretend that design is something that can be done without." Score One for Science The need to rationalize and quantify things is very strong everywhere in today's society, including the design professions. Rightly or wrongly, many / designers suffer from what could almost be called a distrust of their own opinions. Decisions are more comfortable for them if they are based on empirical data, on something that's been "proven." One manifestation of this need is the Environmental Design Reseach Associ ation ( EDRA), a scholarly organization based on the disciplines of environmental psychology and the behavioral sciences. A major premise of the organization is that responsible design of the built environ ment must take into account the way people relate to their environment. Implicit in the EDRA approach is the belief that these man-environment re lations should be studied in an objective and quantifiable way in order to create a valid information base for the making of design decisions . EDRA, as the principal facilitator of the exchange of information on the subject, has not been without problems. On e of these problems was formally stated as the theme of the sev enth annual EDRA confere nc e in 1976 , held in Vancouv er , B . C . Th e theme was "Beyond t he Applic a bility Gap, " and it reflected the conce rn that the information the :>rganizatio n was d e aling in was not p resented in a way to be of great uti I ity to design practitione rs. At that confer e nce , a workshop address i ng the problem o f applicability was organiz e d by under graduate environmental design students from three schools : Students from the University of Colorado-Boulder. Univer sity of Wisconsin-Gr e en Bay, and Massa chusetts Institute of Technology presen ted thei r versions of a creative design process that incorporated information from the study of man-environment relations . The following year EDRA 8 was held at the Univers ity of Illinois in Cham paign Urbana. The theme was different, and the applicability of social science data to the practice of architecture became lost once again. Very few architecture students from the University of Illinois participated in the proceedings. EDRA 9 was held recently, April 8 11, at the University of Arizona at Tucson, with the theme "New Directions in Environmental Design Research." In the future, a greater participation by archi tects and architecture students would probably be beneficial to both EDRA and the profession of architecture. "The narrowness of. both perspectives is due , I believe, to a common cause. Both parties still think that art is a noun , not an attribute. They are possessed by the narrow traditional notion that certain objects are art, dedicated to the pursuit of beauty, whereas most objects are not. Art is some kind of special substance owned by certain shapes , but not by others ; most shapes are without art. There are still debates on whether architecture, pottery, interior design are art or not. And if they are, what about jewelry, dressmaking, automobile styles? We are told that good art is art, but bad art is not; that handmade things are art, but those made by machine are not; that only the shapes of man can be art, not those of nature . Every one of these foolish dichotomies cuts across a vital connection, needed to make a sense of our environmental problem." 100 Percent For Art : Out of the Niche We should raffirm the notion of a rchitecture as art. The process of architecture, even mor e than its product, all the attribute s of art. For architectural design is nothing more than a decision-making process . The decisions are based on sets of criteria that the final product must meet. Information from environmental psychology can constitute one of the sets of criteria. Building codes, economics, ecological systems, and programming requirements are other possible criteria . But i t is important to view architec tural des ign as the creative use of these information sets . The danger exists that designers who don't have a facility with the design processes and creative methods will produce architecture that is simpiy the i ll-fitting sum of its parts, rather than innovative designs which combine the criteria in ways to achieve a result that is more than the sum of its parts. This is why it is important to conceptualize architecture as an art; it is also the reason why many architectural schools have been emphasizing the design process in their curri cu Ia. The fine artist goes through a very similar decision-making process; he or she merely uses different criteria than the architect. Many times the fine artist is not fully conscious of the criteria he or she is applying to a project; and doesn't wish to be. In the case of "environmental art," the parameters of art are increasingly overlap ping with those of architecture. Environ mental art is a rather broad category, but it can be generalized as art which has enlarged the scope of its concerns to include parameters of an environmental scale. A recent exhibit at the St. Charles on Wazee gallery featured an environmental piece by Vaida Daukantas, a Boulder sculptor whose educational background includes a Bachelor of Architecture degree . The piece occupied the entire third floor of the gallery and dealt with the psychology of space , including explorations of the concepts of the post and the corner. Daukantas' media inclu ded glass, mirrors, and light, but more important than the physical materials were the concepts of space and spatial definition acheived throught their use. One of the most striking illustrations of the broad definition of art as an attribute rather than a noun occured a few years ago in nearby Rifle, Colorado. Christo's "Valley Curtain" project was much more than the highly visible orange fabric draped across Rifle Gap. Artist Christo Javacheff considers all aspects of a project to be art, including technical problems and legal hassles . Public forums, the design of the cable anchors, the arrangements for leasing the land , the ecological systems of the site, even negotiations with the highway depart ment over whose road the cutain was to be draped, were all a part of the art, a part of the process that Christo had initiated, and were duly documented. Thus, Christo did not consider the project a failure when the curtain was ripped to shreds by high winds a few hours after it Photo by John V illa was finally hung in place, but rather a n inevitable part of the process , and therefore of the art. The temporal nature of the actual art object does not disqualify Christo ' s wor k as art. Commenting on Christo's "Run ning Fence, " a Marin County housewif e explained that she had cooked ma ny meals which she considered works of art, but which were also soon gone withou t a trace. The notion of environmental art a . s a. process involving many different contri butions, each one of significance to the total, is a good example for the architectural profession. And who knows? Maybe even electrical rew i rin g projects whould qualify for their o n e . percent for art.

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8 Relocating Campus continued from page 4 State Office of Planning and Budget strongly suggested that the question of the continued operation of the UCD buildings be answered at the outset. The scope of the report was therefore expanded from a Life Cycle Study of the bUildings . themselves over a 30-year "life" toinclude a comparison of the UCD buildings with a new building to replace it. In addition a new high-rise Advanced Studies Building is to be built as part of the Program Plan for the Auraria campus and this was included in two of the alternatives in order to consolidate the functions. The Four Alternatives Considered: 1. Upgrade ex1stmg UCD buildings: Initial Cost (I.C . ), 7,808,000; Annual Owning and Operating Cost (AOOC.), 1,368,000 2.Replace existing building with new buildings west of Cherry Creek: I.C., 11,123,000; AOOC., 1,592,000 3. Upgrade existing UCD buildings and construct new Advanced Studies Building east of Cherry Creek : I. C., 19,658,000; AOOC., 3,011,000 4. Construct a single new building west of Cherry Creek to replace existing UCD buildings and to prov i de for advanced studies needs: I.C. , 20, 722,000; AOOC., 2,945,000 The current market value ($4,187 ,750) of the UCD buildings is included in Alternatives No. 1 and No . 3 . The cost of "upgrading" the UCD buildings is $2,979,628 and would include : (1) bringing the building into compliance with current building codes (265,212) ; (2) sit improvement required by Skyline Urban Renewal ($171,244); (3) com pliance with ASH RAE standard 90-75 for energy efficiency ($1.46&.600) ; "<(4) re furbishing and replacement ($479,520); (5) program r e mo(le l work ($762 . ,436) . The report aLso examined alternatives for Speer Blvd . 1,.1 . 1 , Overpass • with ele vators, ramps and snow/ice melting equipment: I . C., 692,000; AOQC , , 91,000 2. Underpass with elevator-s, ramps., and Slilow/ice . melting equipment: , I . C., 1,57,000; .. '"' 3. Single controlled on-grade cross ing midway between Lawrence and Arapahoe Sts.: I. C ., 156,000; AOOC., 22,000 4 . On-grade crossing at. both Lawrence and Arapahoe Sts ' . :'''Lc .• 210,000; AOOC., 3(000 In recommending alternative no . 4 the report concludes that it would have lower annual owning and operating costs, would . reduce the crossing hazard at Speer Blvd. , reduce student, faculty and staff travel time and would provide the most efficient functional space . The report comes under criticism generally in two areas: For stepping out of the bounds of a normal Life Cycle Cost analysis into the area of planning and for not placing more emphasis upon the "institutional iden tity" which the UCD campus provides as a strong identifiable link with the urban community. John Prosser, associate pro fessor of Architecture at UCD, believes that "This is the one place where the campus is interrelated with downtown. By moving to the other side of Speer Glenwood Canyon continued from page 5 Structures The structures in the design will be used carefully , in order to minimize their impact along and adjacent to the roadway . The structures are generally clean linear elements, simple in form and well proportioned. Care has been taken to maintain . continuity yet prevent the structures from dominating the canyon scenery. Several efforts have been made to reduce the width of the highway . Roadside barriers are incorporated to reduce the width from 150-180 feet to 70-80 feet by eliminating the need for a median and highway shoulders. A structural solut ion of recessing retaining walls under the roadway deck further conserves valuable space between opposite lanes for new planting, and between the roadway and the river for the pedestrian path/bikeway. Landscape Treatments The first priority of the landscape design was to preserve or restore natural conditions in the canyon. Guidelines stress environmental and visual . objectives Super Block continued from page 4 aggravate problems of circulation and parking that already exist. Tying the block in with the Mall seems highly desirable, but developing the intervening land is as fraught with complexity as developing the block itself. Some sort of meaningful relationship needs to be established with Canyon Pointe, a very dense mixed-use Planned Unit Devel opment already under way west of 9th Street which, when complete, will make an undeveloped Super Block seem even more of a wasteland . One thing seems certain: the devel opment of Super Bl9ck will conspic uously lack the clarity of a Kevin Lynch thesis. At this point, one can only hope that hard work, sincere cooperation, and enlightened self interest will fortuitously combine with the same kind of magic that produced the Mall so that Super Block will live up to its name-and happily ever after? EDITOR'S NOTE: Dr. Green is principal in the writing and research firm of Green & Morgan. The firm has served as consultant to several architectural firms in Boulder. makes Speer a boundary." The validity of making a comparison between an old and new building Pressor also questions . "There is no way an older building can compete with a new building; the volumes are larger, the windows are larger, the materials are different; all these things make the building more costly to maintain," Pressor states. "If a life cycle analysis were don. e on the Capitol," Prosser points out, "it would show that it should be torn down and replaced with a new building." The annual operating costs of pro posals (No. 1 vs. No. 3 and No. 2 vs. No. 4) are rei atively close, and the decision will be based on other considerations such as urban orientation and instituti onal identity. The report addresses this issue by considering "those intangibles which touch on such things as quality and trends in education, service to the handicapped, safety, security, ... and institutional identity." The report admits that "These items are difficult if not impossible to quantify." By assigning 10 intangible components a mathematical weight, an attempt was made, however, to tabulate how well the various proposals meet these intangible needs. While the attempt to compute the relative value of intangibles is apprec iated, the wisdom of actually making such a study is questionable. These factors simply do not lend themselves to a mathematical tabulation. There are invariably challenges to the emphasis of one factor over another or whether too few or too many factors were considered. A more salient criticism is that a Life Cycle study format does not take into for landforms, vegetation and water resources. Existing talus slopes will be restored to their natural angle of repose and reveg etated. This will reduce rock fall activity and the visual impact of the scars. The proposed design also creates new edges along the riverbank. The existing unnnatural gravel and rock fill will be re -contoured and the barren slopes wi II be revegetated. Existing vegetation will be preserved whenever possible . In areas where revege tation will occur, plants native to the canyon will be used . A test plot is being run this summer to determine the most account the changes that these (intang ible) factors can have over time. In a building the cost of initial construction, maintenance, etc., can be amortized over a period of years and examined using the dollar value as a common denominator. With "intangibles" the value may not depreciate on a straight line basis over the next 30 years, but may fluctuate over time, and not necessarily at a constant rate. Perhaps a factor such as institutional identity may have a completely different meaning in 30 years. As the .L\uraria campus begins to expand, and with the encroachment of the rest of downtown Denver on its borders, space upon which to build will be at a premium . . lt would not be difficult to imagine future circumstances in which Auraria would ask for money to buy back the buildings (at a suitably inflated price). (Editor's comment: In light of the recent Life Cycle study concerning the UCD buildings , Gary Long, instructor in mechanical systems, had these remarks: "The Auraria maintenance people have their hands full. They have no budget for vvork-they don't have budget to do routine maintenance for the new build ings of Auraria, much less to fix the control system of the UCD plant. Bromley routinely operates at 80 degrees F. or above all winter-day and night. Apparently due to budget pressures the second, third and fourth floors don't have a light switch. The lights on those floors are controlled from panel boxes access ible only through self-locking doors. With minimal capital cost for the control of lighting and HVAC systems, operating costs could be cut 30-40 percent.") efficient transplanting and seeding meth ods. The preliminary design approved on March 20 at a public hearing has been sent to the Federal Highway Commission for concurrence. Some opposition is anticipated from both the Council on Environmental Quality and the Depart ment of the Interior . Both have voiced concerns that the design process in some specific sections has not been thorough enough. If the preliminary plan is approved the final design will begin in the fall of 1978 with construction commencing in the summer of 1979. Guest Editorial continued from page 2 you will respect yourself. With exper ience, you will find yourself winning on many important issues. One of the architect's greatest assets is his wealth of original ideas . Like everything that is worthwhile in life, architecture is a paradox. If you go into it expecting to be offered its rewards without much effort, it will give you very little . But if you are prepared to give it hard work, commitment and total involvement; if you go into it expecting nothing but giving everything you have, then it will yield you incomparable returns . You will be one of those fortunate people whose life has meaning and purpose.