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Laminations, March, 1980

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Title:
Laminations, March, 1980
Series Title:
Laminations
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University of Colorado Denver
Filkins, John
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Denver, CO
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University of Colorado Denver
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English

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Auraria Library
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Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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UNIVERSITY OF COLOR AT DENVER
i ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN STUDENT PUBLICATION MAflCH 1981


2
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
uwiiiMocnaNS
THANKS TO:
Elizabeth Bravo Jeanne Cabral Mike Fuller editor Bill Green Crandon Gustafson Paul Miles Fran Mishler Bob Perkins Marce Teas John Villa
Mailing address: u
Laminations ®
c/o College of ^
Environmental Design 1100 14th Street js
Denver, Colorado 80202 ^
A new element is being added to the ever changing scene of this "Energy Capital". After years of studies, proposals, political bickering, power struggles and money woes, construction began last month on the 16th St. Mall. Work had been underway only two weeks when the project experienced its first delay: a dispute between RTD and the Water Department over who pays to replace cross street valve connections. An auspicious start, but somehow characteristic of the process that brought it about. We hope that more cooperation and insight are displayed in dealing with other problems facing Denver, such as air pollution, revitalization of the urban core into something other than an office park, light rail transportation, etc.
So join us as LAMINATIONS takes a look at...The Mall.
Articles and letters must be signed and accompanied by a mailing address. Materials are subject to group editing for reasons of clarity and space.
Opinions expressed are not necessarily those of anyone other than the writer. The newspaper office is located in Room 303 of the Bromley Building.
OMISSION:
Last month's cover photo of the Milan Galleria was taken by Bill Green.
Jeanne Cabral


AH EDITORIAL:
Councilman Crider's proposed amendment to the Landmark Ordinance effectively emasculates the Landmark Commission and jeopardizes the fruits of 13 years of conscientious effort to preserve our historic heritage.
In effect, the proposed amendment states that the Denver Landmark Commission should be disallowed the right to recommend any structure or district to the City Council for designation as a Denver Landmark without written consent from the owner or all owners in the case of a district. The premise is that such action is a taking of personal property rights and a further erosion of individual rights. Although most people support strengthening these rights, the proposed amendment is ill conceived and has potentially tragic ramifications. The real loss of rights will accrue to the community.
Our heritage is our right. Yet, the unique structures which help to make Denver into Denver are the very things threatened. Our Landmark Ordinance, as it exists, is loaded with reviews to protect personal property rights. Two public hearings are mandatory before a landmark can be designated - allowing ample opportunity for dissenting views to be voiced.
After designation, Denver asks very little. Any alteration to the exterior of a struct ture requiring a building permit, or a proposed demolition, is brought to the Landmark Commission for review. A maximum delay of 90 days is provided. During this time, an equitable and sympathetic solution to the proposed construction is sought. However, after the 90 days, the owner can do whatever he wants - including demolition of our Landmark. Obviously, even Our current law is a very weak attempt at preservation.
Certain restriction of individual freedoms are in the interest of the community as is the case with Solar Easements, Building Codes, Environmental Protection.Acts, and Land Zoning. Owner approval has never been
required for a land zoning change. There is no difference between this and Historic Designation except that designation is less restrictive.
Of the 3000 structures listed in the Denver Inventory of potentially qualified structures, only 119 individual buildings and 11 districts have been designated in the past 13 years. Had this amendment existed all along, nine of our districts could not have even been considered in view of the fact that at least one owner spoke in opposition. The same logic that supports the amendment also jeopardizes all existing landmarks. Any owner could declare his opposition, and council would have to retract the designation .
To my knowledge, no other civic effort does as much to foster neighborhood pride and promote economic development as does preservation - certainly not at such minimal cost.
Historic preservation is not only a public need, but a necessity. It is important to know where we've been in order to clearly see where we are going. I strongly urge you to contact your council person before next Monday (Mar. 3).
In light of the Council 8-5 vote on first reading of the proposed amendment, I fear that an ill-conceived supposition could easily become a harsh reality.
James C. Morgan, AIA 3707 Cherry Creek Dr, North Denver, Colorado
Editor's Note: As Laminations went to press, the March 3 City Council vote had not been taken. Should the amendment be adopted, the only way to alter the decision is by the veto power of the mayor.
Should the amendment be adopted, we urge all concerned environmental designers to voice your opinion to "Hizzoner Da Mayor." Just think: the next building to get the royal shaft could be YOURS!


16 TH ST MALL
SIB
Bob Perkins
As anyone who has ventured near downtown Denver recent months knows,"The Mall Is Coming." Indeed, if projections of the RTD construction schedule are correct, by December, 1981 the Mall will have arrived, with downtown Denver and most paticularly 16th St. never to be the same. Effects must be evaluated for everyone from the individual store owner to the metro Denver resident. Within this wide range of issues are those the most dear to the designer—what physical (re)structuring of the environment is taking place and from whence did the concepts behind this structure originate? The avowed purpose of this article is to examine just the issues of the physical space of the Mall, and how we got there. This presupposes many important planning and transportation issues, seeking rather a concise examination of micro-scale achitectural elements and their implementation.
Recent history of the plan soon to be constructed on 16th dates back to 1971, when Downtown Denver Incorporated (DDI) and the Denver Planning Office (DPO) performed studies for a pedestrian mall . DDI retained C.F. Murphy in 1973 to further expand on the concept, and the resultant proposal established many of the important qualitative issues addressed in the current

Mall design. These include creation of a people oriented environment which would stimulate commercial activity and create a sense of place or identity for the downtown area. Unfortunately, many transportation issues were unresolved, forcing backers to regroup. RTD took the lead in 1977 by coordinating with merchants and an interagency task force to secure federal mass transit funding. At this time the office of I.M. Pei wasenlisted for design consultation, and a plan evolved which Mr. Jack Fahnestock, RTD’s Director of Planning and Design, calls "the kernal of the idea." This is essentially the design we know today, a 14 block shuttle and pedestrian mall with transfer terminals at either end. Before describing the scheme further, it is interesting to note some of the influences provided by other downtown mall projects. According to Mr. Fahnestock, the RTD-Pei design team considered such designs as State St., Chicago, Nicollet Mall, Minneapolis, Portland (Ore.) Mall, and even some European examples.
The Nicollet and Portland Malls were particularly influential by their synthesis of commercial and transport efficiency within a pleasant shopping environment.
The physical boundaries of the Pei plan are Blake St. to Broadway, along 16th.
Two tram lanes run the length of the Mall, placed symmetrically to street center from Tremont to Arapahoe Streets, and asymmetrically in the blocks approaching the terminals. In the symmetrical section sidewalks are widened to 19 feet, tram lanes occupy ten feet each adjacent to the sidewalk, and a 22 foot wide promenade area is created in the center. In the asymmetrical sections the tram lanes are paired together on one side of the street, with the promenade area displaced toward the opposite sidewalk. This distinction recognizes the differing urban character of the street along its length. In its central portions 16th is much more narrow and canyonlike , while towards the Civic Center and Skyline terminals it is much more open and already contains many private mall spaces.
Within this framework the physical makeup of the Mall may be divided into four components. They are surfacing, landscape, lighting and street furniture, and terminal facilities. Each will be considered in turn although the effect of each depends very much upon its complementariness to the others.
Surfacing along the Mall will consist of red and gray grnaite pavers set in a formal diamond pattern. Two aspects of the paving pattern are worth noting. First is the diagonal


orientation which directs pedestrian flow from one side of the street to the other as well as down the length of the Mall. The pattern also intensifies in strength toward the promenade area to emphasize the importance of the space and hopefully to foster its utilization. Treatment of cubing details was also a major issue in surfacing. The present arrangement provides four inch curbing only at the sidewalk (building) edges of the tramways so that tram and promenade are on one level, with storefront sidewalks at the higher level. This represents a trade off of freer pedestrian circulation with restraint and guideway requirements for the trams.
Landscape works within the formal paving pattern to reinforce the image of urban street. Major tree planting are double rows of Honey Locust in the symmetrical section, and a single row of Red Oaks in the asymmetrical.
Special planting cages have been designed to protect and encourage the root balls while simultaneously protecting vulnerable nearby utility lines. The trees will be located in what was the center section of 16th in order to avoid conflicts with storefronts and the above men-ioned utility lines. Planters within each block ill be located to provide color and define activity centers. Inflection points along the Mall will be marked by "soft” human-scale fountains.
Lighting and street furniture schemes also emphasize human scale. The principal light fixtures are only 11 feet high, not competing with merchant lighting but rather accebting and augmenting the Mall atmosphere. The fixtures, placed formally and in sequence to plantings perform three lighting functions in one unit.
Up lighting emphasizes the tree canopy above and thereby the pedestrian scale of the Mall.
A ring of twinkle lights provides accent to each fixture for the twilight and evening hours. Finally, mercury-vapor security lights can be activiated to illuminate storefronts during late night off-peak hours. Secondary aspects of lighting include small blue runway lights laid within the tramway to define the tram lanes and restate the longitudnial vistas of the Mall. Any alleys or other illumination "holes" opening off 16th will be corrected by general purpose floodlighting. Street furniture, described by Fahnestock as "basic but not austere" will be clustered in the promenade area as vet another incentive to enhanced use. Tram shelters will be located at each intersection.
Perhaps the least well-defined element of the Mall design is the configuration of terminal complexes. Their prime function is to transfer riders from tram to local and express bus lines. Jurisdiction of the Pei plan ends at the transfer level of each terminal , so each site above and below that level is subject to development by private sources coordinated through RTD. The Civic Center terminal, located at 16th and Broadway, is much further along in concept and currently includes provisions for a hotel and office complex. Architects involved in this scheme are HOK of St. Louis. The Skyline terminal, bounded by Blake, Market, 16th, and 17th Streets will tentatively contain relocated RTD offices along with some maintenance facilities.
Thus is the physical package described, some $57 million in improvements. Certainly, all evidence indicates the even in
he most divergent elements, a central theme of amenity for people, commerce, and transportation persists. It will be up to us, as participants in the Mall experiment, to evaluate how well the physical reality of the Mall relates to the lofty goals of its constructorso
NOTE: We wish to thank the RTD and Mr. Fahnestock for their courteous assistance.


PHLOEM AHD XYLEM OV 16th STREET
Liz Bravo
As the Mall emerges into reality, some questions arise as to the vigor of the physical design on this long-planned projecto In other words, there is some good news and some bad news on the subject of creativity.,
A four season wind and sun/shade study was conducted, however, the plan for plant material placement fails to reflect any of the insights that may have been gathered from that inquiry.
Two symmetrical rows of Moraine honey locust centered down the middle of the five blocks will reinforce the existing canyon-like vertically while valuable natural amenities such as mountain glimpse-views will be blocked by some 42 red oaks (Quercus borealis) located off-center at either end of the proposed mall.
And after Dutch Elm disease cleaned out Central Denver of thousands of treasured shade trees, how can the near monoculture of 122 honey locusts and 84 red oaks be planned for this modern mall? It seems that the Design Development was done by an East Coast ally of I.Mo Pei’s and transcribed to our climate.
However, much care was taken on construction detailing. Trees will be protected from service line digging by a below grade tree-pit which is a concrete box open on three sides and solid on one side to direct root growth away from possible disturbance zones.
The Mall’s rose and grey granite paving pattern is intended to establish the character of the mall and seems to work well to emphasize the pedestrian walkways while scattered water features alleviate some of the bus noise for mall users. These fountains have all the waterworks below grade. Water emerges through decorative grates that are flush with the paving. It is a good control against vandalism and when the water is off, there are no standing pools to create lawsuits.
Buses will airport-style low boys - as big as any RTD on the road and run by diesel fuel. Basically, this is a transit mall. One questions how the shoppers will feel with those monsters wheeling by one either side of the central pedestrian corridor. The system is designed so that it can be converted to light rail should the monies pass this way again. According to one source, no American firm was willing to front the R&D cost for developing a small-scale electric powered bus which would have made the Denver Mall a precedent setter.
Unlike the praise received by the Denver Center for the Performing Arts (Time Magazine, 1/14/80) for learning from the mistakes of other cities, Denver’s unbuilt mall simply seems to be following the footsteps of fashion rather than creating an indigenous, site-specific design.
The opportunity to do something innovative has been lost.


Crandon Gustafson
The Mall is Coming!
The Mall is Coming!
A number of RTD buses around town can be seen sporting the above slogan these days. It expresses something of the anticipatory spirit displayed by children at the impending arrival of Christmas, with its accompanying visit by the jolly man in the red suit.
Obviously, the buses are very pleased about the prospect of having a granite-paved 16th Street all to themselves, vehicularly speaking. One can picture them happily bustling up and down the mall at 90-second intervals, unobstructed by cars, trucks, or bicycles.
But what of RTD's future co-tenants on the mall? We have yet to see any pedestrians traveling about with script-lettered slogans on their backs proclaiming the arrival of the mall. But then, the urbane pedestrian is by nature more doubting, and will probably withhold judgement until the thing can actually be tried out with a good brisk stroll.
Conflict or Coexistence?
The official name of the 16th Street project, "Transitway / Mall", suggest a possible conflict between two unreproachable virtues: improved mass transit and pedestrianism. Will a glut of absentminded, wandering walkers prevent the buses from swiftly delivering transit commuters up and down the mall? On the other hand, will the presence of the buses interfere with the desired freedom to ramble on foot?
It could be argued that 16th Street is going to become a mall for buses. After all, the sidewalk area on either side will not be increased all that much; one has to traverse a bus lane to get to the central landscaped portion, or cross two bus lanes (and risk an unfortunate encounter with a bus twice every 90 seconds) to reach the other side of the street.
But RTD and the designers of the mall are not incognizant of this potential conflict. Nicollet Mall in Minneapolis and the new mall in Portland, Oregon were studied as examples of pedestrian / bus malls. In Denver’s mall they have sought to minimize the presence of the buses over that found in Minneapolis and Portland. Designer I. M. Pei has conceived of the project as an "Urban Street" as opposed to a "Bus Mall." And RTD is still holding out hope of future funding for quiet, non-polluting vehicles that will purr contentedly up and down the mall.
Neither has the pedestrian been slighted in the design of the mall. All aspects of lighting, paving, and street furniture have been admirably worked out, with a greater degree of comprehensivity than is usuallv found in projects of this sort.
Confluence
Perhaps by the joining of two flows of movement - bus and pedestrianism - each can benefit from the other. Most obviously, buses can vitalize the mall by providing fresh injections
of pedestrian talent at strategic points along its length. And in general, the mall can only be made more stimulating by the juxtaposition of the two movement systems, each with its own speed, size, and rhythm. The flux and flow of life along the mall will seem richer, fuller, and more dynamic; one pictures a symphonic interplay of walkers, riders, and vehicles, with the Rocky Mountain sun glistening on the foliage of the honey locusts in an impressionistic display of light and color.
Comedy
Indeed, without the buses, pedestrian life on the mall might be a little stale, and altogether too predictable. The philosopher Henri Bergson uses a pedestrian incident to illustrate his theory of comedy; when things become too predictable, comedy steps in effortlessly to show us that we must respond to changes in our environment. Bergson relates an incident in which a man stumbles and falls in the street, to the laughter of passersbv:
"Perhaps there was a stone on the road. He should have altered his pace or avoided the obstacle. Instead of that, through lack of elasticity, through absentmindedness and a kind of physical obstinacy, as a result, in fact, of rigidity or of momentum, the muscles continued to perform the same movement when the circumstances of the case called for something else. That is the reason of the man's fall, and also of the people's laughter."
The bus / pedestrian combination on 16th Street provides an environment that demands awareness and response. There is a sort of yin-yang wholeness provided by the contrast between the buses, making a beeline up and down the mall, and the pedestrians, wandering like butterflies from one thing to the next. A more recefit philosopher expressed well this need for flexibility between two opposites when he said "Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee."
In conclusion, the 16th Street Transitway / Mall may work out just fine. Any successful organism, whether it be a mall, a protozoa, or a prizefighter, must display variety and diversity if it is to be vital and survive.


C_J>
HAILS TO JUCHSS
Frances Mishler
The recent building boom in downtown Denver has sparked interest in the older sections of downtown Denver. The area bounded by Speer Boulevard, the railyards, 20th Street, and Market Street is known as Lower Downtown. This area was once the heart of the commercial/warehouse district that grew up adjacent to the railyards. During those early years the railroad was Denver’s connection to the outside world and pumped life blood into the fast growing city.
Slowly Denver diversified and grew away from its roots, and the Lower Downtown area began to deteriorate.
A dramatic separation came in the sixties when a swath of buildings between Larimer and Arapahoe Streets was leveledT The area went downhill even faster and was almost completely abandoned, becoming merely a service area for the city. In the seventies skyscrapers began sprouting in the downtown parking lots, and attention once again turned to Lower Downtown.
In recent years interest has also grown in preserving the historical character of Lower Downtown. The development of Larimer Square increased interest in renovation and recycling of the historic structures located in the area.
Pride in our cities past and renewed interest in historic preservation led some forward looking individuals to perceive the potential in the Lower Downtown0 In addition, the creation of the Denver Urban Renewal Authority and the development of the Skyline Urban Renewal Project focused attention on the direction building would be taking. Although the project brought capital investment back into the area bringing with it greater employment and economic activity, it also brought into focus the dichotomy growing between the two contiguous areas. The Skyline Urban Renewal Project reflected the demand for greater intensification and exploitation in the high-rise commercial development, while Lower Downtown, through its proponents, attempted to preserve its character and appearance.
"This district is intended to provide for and encourage the preservation and vitality of older areas that are significant because of their architectural, historical and economic value• A variety of land uses will be permitted in order to facilitate the reuse of existing structures without jeopardizing or reducing zoning standards promoting the public safety, convenience, health, general welfare, and the preservation of the Comprehensive Plan, To preserve the additional scale of buildings in the areas, the floor area ratio is minimized. Premiums for additional floor area are provided to encourage new buildings to conform to the style and character of the area." Further, in 1976, recognizing that modern code requirements applied to structures -built in the previous century would make renovation and reuse of these structures frequently too costly, the Denver Building Code was likewise revised and a Rehabilitation Advisory Board created, Under these stipulations, the the Denver Building Department can grant exceptions to the Code under some conditions. Lower Downtown was thus put in a position to meet some of the threats to the retaining of its scale and historic character.
In response to the threat posed to Lower Downtown and in recognition of its unique character, the City Council in 1974 adopted a newly created B-7 zone. Originally zoned exclusively for industrial uses only, the new zoning permitted mixed usage, usage. The following description of the district, taken from the code presents an excellent statement regarding its purposes and goals:
A study done by the Denver Urban Observatory in 1979 further addressed the needs to encourage housing in the downtown area. Recognizing that a viable and economically diversified population residing within the core city would help create a more vital city center, encourage and stabilize business, help reduce the need for commuting into the city and provide an atmosphere where cultural activities would flourish, ways were sought to encourage both private and public investment in housing. Recommendations such as systems of tax abatements to exempt new housing developments of five or more units from property taxes for a period of five years, tax moratoriums on residential rehabilitation improvements for five or ten years and the establishment of a Downtown Development Authority to develop housing followed. Other improvements such as the development of greenways and parks, the improvement of streets and the development of Union


Station into the equivalent of Boston’s Quincy Market were assessed. To date, there has been little movement in any of these directions. The movement, if any, has been backward, and to a degree the picture is very gloomy, A few bright spots, however, do stand out.
William Saslow, a Denver architect, took an interest in Lower Downtown in the early 70*s.
After helping write the new zoning, he undertook to renovate a building now known as the Blake Street Bath and Racquet Club. As a cooperative, the owner of each townhouse unit profits from the rented commercial office space on the first floor. A pool and tennis court in the back complete the facility. Saslow sees the Skyline Urban Renewal Project as a lost opportunity since high density development was permitted dowri to the edge of Larimer Square.
Such a wall of high-rise development jeopardizes the neighborhood character of Lower Downtown. Speculation pressure has already been noted in the area. Empty lots are being utilized as parking lots as means of holding on to the land until prices rise still further and zoning changes and variances permit resale and development into more high-rise commercial space.
One method of combatting this pressure, according to Saslow, would be the Transfer of Development Rights. Under this program areas would be designated where high-rise development can take place. Each property owner would be entitled to sell his rights to another developer. Since the land in Lower Downtown is now frequently worth more without buildings on it than with, economic pressure justifies the tearing down of buildings. Transfer of Development Rights, on the other hand, is a sophisticated planning approach which would eliminate the incentive to buy
land for speculation instead of renovation and would still provide finanical rewards to the property owner. Likewise would a tax structure which taxed vacant land at a higher rate than land with buildings and productive space,
Without these tools or others like them, the picture does indeed look bleak. Land speculation has driven the prices up in Lower Downtown so that it is no longer profitable to buy small buildings for renovation especially into housing units. Economic pressures and the lack of government leadership and planning have allowed an opportunity to be almost lost. Whereas the greatest potential in Lower Downtown depends on retaining the unique character of the area, pressures are developing to the contrary. Although commercial establishments such as restaurants, galleries, and retail space have been successful, less than one dozen housing units exist in Lower Downtown. Recognizing that housing is vital to growth and revitalization of the central city, the fact that the number of housing units has not changed over the last ten or twenty years presents a pessimistic picture. On the edge of the area, the Larimer Place Condominiums and the Writer’s Square units will add some population, but the trend in Lower Downtown is still towards commercial space.
The future of Lower Downtown is still undecided. Some immediate options for improvement include street and sidewalk renovation and establishment of green areas.
The impact of the 16th Street Mall has not yet been felt. Whether it will be positive or negative has yet to be seen. Among the urban pioneers moving back into Lower Downtown, Joanne and Emmanuel Salzman are renovating a warehouse on Wynkoop Street across from the Union Station. Office space on the first three floors and two apartments on the top floor are being constructed. Over the development of their project they have watched warehouse facilities moving out of the area and rents increasing. With a sense of optimism about the future, they are looking forward to their new life in the city and to the gradual restoration of the area that was once the hub of the small but growing city of Denver. We hope they represent the wave of the future, but the outlook is as yet undecided.


REQUIEM
FOR DISCO CITY
John David Powers
As a horde of bulldozers readies in formation for their attack on 16th Street, city planners are busy preparing "preliminary design guidelines," architects and historians are engaging in genteel debates, and city councilmembers are weighting the political outcome of the Crider Amendment.
Funny thing, the bulldozers seem to be more powerful than all these well-meaning professionals and all their well-meaning jargon. As a reflective mirrored and neon "disco-city" emerges from a Victorian past, perhaps an eulogy is in order for those remaining structures that gave Denver its unique heritage.
A proposal to create a 16th Street Historic District is currently "doing time" on a bookshelf, primarily due to objections of local businessmen. State Historic Preservation Officer Arthur Townsend said he would hold off on sending nominations to Washington for a year to see if a task force could come up with a draft that would appropriately maintain and protect the traditional flavor of downtown Denver (and presumably satisfy the traditional objections of downtown developers).
The proposed 16th Street Historic District, reaching from the Daniels and Fisher Tower at Arapahoe Street to Cleveland Place is nine blocks. It includes 32 buildings, twenty of which merited attention on the historic inventory.
Two buildings in the area are already included on the Denver Hit List. Slated for demolition, are the Republic Building and the Denver Theatre.
Those already listed on the National Register are the Daniels and Fisher Tower, the Univer-


sity Building, the Denver Dry Goods Co., the Masonic Temple, and the Kittredge Building. While they share the minimal protection of the National Register, they are included with others in the area as potential nominees for the boomtown Hit List.
With fond memory we recall the 1860's, when Denver 's commercial center was Larimer and Sixteenth Streets, the setting for Denver's mythology of cowboys, bandits, and prostitutes. In the 1880's, with the excitement of the arrival of the railroad and new settlers flooding the city, Denver attempted to change its cowtown image for one of a civic ideology of justice, republican government, and municipal order. The Courthouse, Capitol and City Hall, located near one another at the southeastern end of Sixteenth Street, embodied this new image.
By the 1880’s, buildings in Denver were almost always designed by architects within the city. Denver absorbed the structural system of the Chicago skyscraper, but the workmanship and design of the buildings have been conditioned by Denver architectural traditions.
Thus, the buildings in the District illustrate a diversity of commercial styles popular in more than one era. The structures which predate 1893, the year of the economic panic, are from two to seven stories high, and their facades respond to the Italianate and Romanesque styles popular at the time. Generally massive and horizontal in effect, they have active surfaces composed of brick, incised and rusticated stone, terra cotta, and cast-iron relief. Those built with the resumption of construction after 1900 are as high as eight stories, but represent a new aesthetic char-
acterized by regular, larger, generally rectangular windows, discreet amounts of ornamentation, steel frame construction and, later, Sulivanes-que compositions. The latest group of buildings, which date from the end of World War I, range from two to twelve stories high. They represent vigorous applications of the Modernistic style as well as of Gothic, Georgian, and Renaissance revivals
Short eulogies follow:
Republic Building: Conceived as a bastion of elitism, the Republic Building was the tallest office building in Denver when it was built. The upper stories were allegedly devoted to exclusive use by the members of the Medical and Dental Association of Denver.
Denver Theater building: William N. Bowman, architect, 1927; Bowman combined two scales with Renaissance ornament to describe the separate functions the building encloses; terra cotta segmental arches frame the window bays of the six stories of offices, and an unbroken brick wall, its main decoration a simple terra cotta border, indicates the theater.
Daniels and Fisher Tower: F.G. Sterner, designer, 1911; This tower was designed in the Italian Renaissance style. It was patterned after the Campanile of St. Mark's in Venice. Built as part of the May D&F Dry Goods complex, the tower was the third tallest structure in the United States when it was finished. The tower's Seth-Thomas clock, which is 16 feet in diameter, was one of the largest in the world when it was installed. Should it survive renovation attempts, it will be converted into offices and a restaurant.
Masonic Temple Building: Frank E. Edbrooke, architect, 1889-90; The five-story commercial building was designed by one of Denver's greatest architects. Its massing, materials, and detail show it to be part of the Richardsonian Romanesque Revival, and possibly derived from Venetian prototypes portrayed in Ruskin's Stones of Venice. The building design program that Edbrooke had to deal with involved the integration of a large ceremonial volume, whose spaces were rigidly determined by Masonic ritual, with a large open commercial area.
The corner tower device used, was his way of uniting both functions while expressing them both.
The Kittredge Building: A. Morris Stuckert, arch-itect,1889-91; In designing this building, Stuckert used the Richardsonian style in a manner comparable to Burnham and Root's Rookery in Chi— cago. Although the erection of the "sky-scraper" was hailed by many as an outstanding work of architecture, it became the object of a scandal before its 1891 completion. The Rocky Mountain News(Oct, 1889), in its infinite good judgement, charged that the columns supporting the building were not strong enough to support its seven stories. Incensed by such allegations, Stuckert and Kittredge, the owner, submitted rebuttals to the other local newspapers as well as issuing a statement from the building inspector verifying the strength and safety of the columns, Praise be, Dr, Holder! The building still stands to this day,
The Denver Dry Goods Company: Frank Edbrooke, alleged architect, 1888-89; This building was constructed of brick and limestone in the Victorian Commercial style. In general , it has a feeling of horizontality, even though the windows are organized between vertical bands.
AMEN,


John 0*Dowd
I started to write an article concerning the impact of the 16th Street Mall on new downtown construction and how the mall would unite the different sectors of the downtown and finally provide amenities to Denver*s forgotten pedestrians
In my analysis, I identified a strong force working against these ends under the guise of a pedestrian amenity. Denver Urban Renewal Authority* s skyway bridge system (+ 15 level) is a requirement of building designs within the DURA domain. The concept of installing physical links between buildings over the street to allow easier pedestrian movement at first sounds appealing. People do not have to bother waiting at crosswalks or weaving through the street level hustle and bustle. In cities like Minneapolis and St. Paul, (where the skyway bridge system is very successful) the bridges are enclosed to provide comfortable pedestrian environments through the long and bitter cold Midwestern winters. In Denver, the bridges are not enclosed. Therefore, one of the most important functions provided by the Minneapolis and St. Paul skyway systems- that of climatic protection- is not provided here.
The problem is even more basic than that of not providing climatic protection. The logic of the skyway system does not work in Denver. It separates the pedestrian from the primary circulation path at street level. Advocates of the skyway system say that it encourages retail growth, but in Denver the pedestrian volume does not warrant a secondary level of circulation.
Sven the most densely populated city in the country, New York, operates its retail on the principle of bringing people in from street level alone and then to other levels. If I understand the DURA skyway system correctly, some people could cross 6 or 7 blocks without returning to street level, and this is what is fundamentally wrong with the system.
The street is the hub; the place where most of the excitement is. The skyway system is also elitist as it is proposed in Denver because there is only control in the projects under DURA's hand. How can DURA claim downtown unity as a goal for the bridge system when it tends to isolate Lower Downtown as a separate entity?
Finally, another problem with the skyway concept is financial in nature. Money spent by developers on skyway bridges and all the necessary support facilities (24 hour security, additional lobbies, etc.) is money diverted from the street level enhancement. Instead of two levels of tightly budgeted design, I'd rather see the one level as the result of quality design.
In conclusion, I am all for experimenting with new concepts in building programming and design, but Denver's street level sidewalks still lack the amenities of a great city (fountains, plantscaping, noted sculpture, etc.), so why should we continue this lack of pedestrian attention at another level? True, the 16th Street Mall will fill a void that has existed in Denver for years, but the ideas will never be manifest as physical improvement on other streets in the city if money allocated is diverted to a competing concept.


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A - Prudential Plaza and Tower B - Skyline Park Apartments (Le Bistro Rest.)
C - Tabor Center (Hotel, Retail, Parking)
D - Sakura Square (Housing, Retail, Parking)
E - Sunset Park Housing Project (V. of A.)
F - Park Central Building G - Mountain Bell Building
H - One Denver Place (Office, Housing, Retail, and Parking)
I - Larimer Place Condominiums J - Denver Fires Station #4 (existing)
K - M.L. Fosse Industrial Equip, and Supplies (existing)
L - Firestone Service Center (existing)
M - Dravo Building (existing: Office, Retail, Parking)
N - Writer Square (Office, Retail, Housing, Parking)
0 - The Denver City Cable Railway Building (existing: Office, Retail) LANDMARK P - Financial Center Building (existing)
Q - United Distributing Company (existing)
R - Sachs-Lawlor Building (existing)
S - DCPA Parking Garage T - Bus Termianl
U - Sunset Tower (Housing, Parking)
V - Barclay Tower Condominiums W - Parking Company of America X - Windsor Place Condominiums
Y - Denver National Bank Plaza (Office, Res-
taurant, Parking)
Z - Seventeenth Street Plaza (Office, Parking) aa - Parking Company of America


1
M. Teas
As far back as 1957 interest has been shown for 16th St. becoming a mall. Since then anticipation has steadily grown: excellent suggestions have been made, impressive designs presented and the news media has something enduring to talk about.
In regards to planning the Mall had the potential of either becoming an abysmal failure or a happy alternative to Urban Renewal projects of the past in rejuvenating the Downtown area. Leave it to say we have yet to see the results of the proposal.
In large part the outcome of the Mall rests on the significant fact that "money talks". Due to the failure in 1976 of creating a Special District for 16th St. in order to procure local funding for the Mall, federal monies were an inevitable prerequisite. The agency was RTD whose justification for spending government funds relied on the Mall coinciding with a new public transportation scheme. Basically,the Mall would be the axis for two RTD terminals to be constructed, one on the intersection of 16th and Market and the other at the crossing of Broadway and Colfax. The resulting circulation would be pedestrian and a shuttle bus service passing every 90 seconds. Arguements ja.s to the viability of mixing buses and pedestrians notwithstanding, it is difficult to ignore the practical realities of financing. But the
Mall seems to be moving down a very narrow track or bus route as it were. One wonders about other groups effected by the project, in particular the Denver Planning Office and the business community.
Downton Denver Inc. since its formation has been of great importance to the successful outcome of the Mall for several reasons. The organization was the strongest supporter of private interests for the Mall’s proposal while becoming actively involved in defining what form 16th St. would take. Their vote of confidence was not without impact; projections set the ammount of workers in Downtown Denver at 90,000 by 1985, and D.D.I. as a primary representative of those numbers had been a substancial voice. D.D.I. as well could, through its being a unified group of business, communicate its interests to the Denver Planning Office and create an adequate field for negotiations between the two parties. Since the death of its director in 1979 however, the organization has not replaced him and the consequences have been more than unfortunate. The Denver Planning Office with its assorted and sundry powers and limitations needs a cooperative relationship with the business community. The failure of the downtown community to provide a representative has made

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it difficult to say the least for D.P.O. to produce an equitable and effective ordinance for improving street appearances in regards to the buildings and take into acount the interests of private owners. In the same vein, a great deal of doubt has been cast on the Mall increasing retail sales sufficiently to override cost incurred by building improvements and increased taxation of commercial property. Although studies such as the Gladstone and Assoc, report have indicated that business would significantly rise, persuasion of its validity lean heavily on strong relations between the city government and business.
Another unresolved issue reflecting the problem of communications is the reluctance shown by the business community to adopt new hours which would run over the regular working day in a schedule similar to Larimar Square.. Though some smaller shops appear agreeable, the change depends on the initiative of larger stores in the area which have been unresponsive. Under the leadership of an effectual organization this problem might be facilitated .
The overall consequence of these problems is that both the business community and the Denver Planning
Office will suffer for getting a Mall which is unsatistactory to the stores along 16th St. and Denver Planning Office being able to do little about it. Yet there are indications that the two parties who by all rights have a stake in the Mall may help to reverse the trend of 16th St. becoming a project that reaches "just to the curb." Doug Goedert of the Planning Office has prepared a rough draft of an ordinance which would draw the buildings on 16th St. into a more comprehensive planning endeavor. Although still in ttye works and has yet to be accepted, the special zoning would require street level shops to remove siding from buildings, place uniform backing on 2nd story windows and theoretically "aid in producing a more substancial appearance" on 16th St. Another encouraging sign has developed in the organization of the Downtown Denver Retail Council which has such people as Dana Crawford, owner of Larimar Square and the president of Joslins involved. It is hoped that the formation of this Countil will help fill gap in communications with city government. Until then it appears that the Mall will be a fairly cut and dry formula of RTD providing an abundance of access with little else.


THE KEYSTONE*CAPER
Jeanne Cabral
Among the after effects of the new 16th Street Mall will be the change in the face of retailing on the downtown area. As has been shown by the incorporation of malls in downtown areas of other major cities, this change of use brings about a corresponding change in the size, type and number of retail outlets.
There is a marked increase in full service restaurants and fast food eateries as well as a decrease in service stores such as shoe repair shops and dry cleaners. These small businesses that cannot survive the incorporation of a mall due to a loss of business and spiraling rents are forced to move to the outer fringes of the downtown area or go out of business altogether.
A plethora of boutiques catering to the well-heeled tourist abound in mall situations. This has occurred on the Pearl Street Mall in Boulder where a majority of the businesses are small and expensive in nature.
There are hopes among the Downtown Denver retailers that the 16th Street Mall will increase the dollar volume of sales and services. There are already drawbacks to the idea of increased sales in downtown stores. One is the notable lack of easy and inexpensive parking. In Denver today, suburban shopping malls abound with free and accessible parking. The average shopper today will tend to go to a suburban mall rather than fight downtown Denver traffic. Another area of concern is the establishment of higher quality suburban malls such as Marina Square and Tamarac Square which have already pulled a tremendous amount of dollars out of the Downtown Denver retailing area.
Several setbacks have already occurred. Joseph Magnin’s, a San Francisco based chain, has closed its doors on 16th Street and has put the building on the real estate market. Skaggs Drug Center, in reality a mini-department store, has closed.
The Denver Dry Goods Store has plans of converting a portion of their 6 story store to rentable commercial space in order to increase the profitiablitv of-sales per square foot figures.
*"Keystone" is a term used in retailing that means doubling the wholesale cost of an item to determine the retail price.
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However, the onset of mall construction brings, to some people’s minds, great opportunities for retail business success. Small retail businesses and restaurants have a high failure rate. Approximately 50% of retail stores fail by the end of the first year of business. By the fifth year only 10% of those surviving the first year of business are left. But, in spite of these awesome statistics, each year many people make the leap in to the retailing industry and a few succeed in their ventures. As far as the 16th Street Mall is concerned, the next few years will bring radical changes to the face of retailing in the whole city of Denver.
ANNOUNCEMENTS
MARCH 29: "REPRO-UPDATE"
A seminar on the latest developments in reproduction techniques will be offered by the Department of Landscape Architecture and the Division of Continuing Education.
MARCH 30 - APRIL 1: "DESIGN FOR THE COMMUNITY
DEVELOPMENT PROCESS" is the theme for the annual conference sponsered by the Colorado Chapter of ASLA in Aspen. $60.00 fee for students.
WASHINGTON’S BIRTHDAY MEMORIALIZED
In spite of the fact that half the nation was on holiday pay, the departments of Interior Architecture and Landscape Architecture donated time to a mad collaboration on a Joint Sketch Problem. A residential site in South Central Denver had somehow existed in its 3+ acre entirety and was under dire pressure for subdivision or other design options by its developer/ownero With the Interior Architects acting as clients, the LA’s examined this property for design development alternatives.
In the 4 hour time frame allotted to the problem, solutions which emerged ranged from Perl-Mack type subdivisions to ringing the site with an alligator-infested moat. As this precedent-setting project was considered a success, additional forays into the relative unknown of interdepartmental sketch problems are envisioned by the powers that be0


r
ranG DGii-mancH xnooo
Sponsored by The Deezine Club and Student Affairs
College of Environmental Design University of Colorado at Denver
at The Market in Larimer Square • Live Swing • Bootleg Your Own Booze 0 O'clock Tickets $3.00 in Advance at the School or A.I.A. Office
✓




Full Text

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AN ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN STUDENT PUBLICATION

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UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER THANKS TO: Elizabeth Bravo Jeanne Cabral I INS Mike Fuller editor Bill Green Crandon Gustafson Paul Miles Fran Hishler Bob Perkins l1arce Teas John Villa Mailing address: Laminations c/o College of Environmental Design 1100 14th Street Denver, Colorado 80202 Articles and letters must be signed and accompanied by a mailing address. Materials are subject to group editing for reasons of clarity and space. Opinions expressed are not necessarily those of anyone other than the writer. The newspaper office is located in Room 303 of the Bromley Building. OMISSION: Last month's cover photo of the Milan Galleria was taken by Bill Green. A new element is being added to the ever changing scene of thfs "Energy Capital". After years of studies, proposals, political bickering, power struggles and money woes, construction began last month on the 16th St. Mall. Work had been underway only two weeks when the project experienced its first delay: a dispute between RTD and the Water Department over who pays to replace cross street valve connections. An auspicious start, but somehow characteristic of the process that brought it about. We hope that more cooperation and insight are rlisplayed in dealing with other pro b l ems facing_Denver, such as air pollution, revitalization of the urban core into something other than an office park, light rail transportation, etc. So join us as LAMINATIONS takes a look at ••• The Mall. .-. . )

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.All Councilman Crider's proposed amendment to the Landmark Ordinance effectively emasculates the Landmark Commission and jeopardizes the fruits of 13 years of conscientious effort to preserve our historic heritage. In effect, the proposed amendment states that the Denver Landmark Commission should be disallowed the right to recommend any structure or district to the City Council for designation as a Denver Landmark without written consent from the owner or all owners in the case of a district. The premise is that such action is a taking of personal property rights and a further erosion of individual rights. Although most people support strengthening these rights, the proposed amendment is ill conceived and has potentially tragic ramifications. The real loss of rights will accrue to the community. Our heritage is our right. Yet, the unique structures which help to make Denver into Denver are the very things threatened. Our Landmark Ordinance, as it exists, is loaded with reviews to protect personal property rights. Two public hearings are mandatory before a landmark can be designated -allowing ample opportunity for dissenting views to be voiced. After designation, Denver asks very little. Any alteration to the exterior of a ture requiring a building permit, or a proposed demolition, is brought to the Landmark Commission for review. A maximum delay of 90 days is provided. During this time, an equitable and sympathetic solution to the proposed construction is sought. However, after the 90 days, the owner can do whatever he wants -including demolition of our Landmark. Obviously, even our current law is a very weak attempt at preservation. Certain restriction of individual freedoms are in the interest of the community as is the case with Solar Easements, Building Codes, Environmental Protection.Acts, and Land Zoning. Owner approval has never been required for a land zoning change. There is no difference between this and Historic Designation except that designation is less restrictive. Of the 3000 structures listed in the Denver Inventory of potentially qualified structures, only 119 individual buildings and 11 districts have been designated in the past 13 years. Had this amendment existed all along, nine of our districts could not have even been considered in view of the fact that at least one owner spoke in opposition. The same logic that' supports the amendment also jeopardizes all existing landmarks. Any owner could declare his opposition, and council would have to retract the designation . To my knowledge, no other civic effort does as much to foster neighborhood pride and promote economic development as does preservation -certainly not at such minimal cost. Historic preservation is not only a public need, but a necessity. It is important to know where we've been in order to clearly see where we are going. I strongly urge you to contact your council person before next Monday (Mar. 3). In light of the Council 8-5 vote on first reading of the proposed amendment, I fear that an ill-conceived supposition could easily become a harsh reality. James C. Morgan, AlA 3707 Cherry Creek Dr. North Denver, Colorado Editor's Note: As Laminations went to press, the March 3 City Council vote had not been taken. Should the amendment be adopted, the only way to alter the decisio. n is by the veto power of the mayor. Should the amendment be adopted, we urge all concerned environmental designers to voice your opinion to "Hizzoner Da Mayor." Just think; the next building to get the royal shaft could be YOURS!

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4 Bob Perkins As anyone who has ventured near down town Denver recent months knows,"The Hall Is Coming." Indeed, if projections of the RTD construction schedule are correct, by December, 1981 the Mall will have arrived, with downtown Denver and most paticularly 16th St. never to be the same. Effects must be evaluated for everyone from the individual store owner to the metro Denver resident. Within this wide range of issues are those the most dear to the designer--what physical (re)structuring of the environment is taking place and from whence did the concepts behind this structure originate1 The avowed purpose of this article is to examine just the issues of the physical space of the Mall, and how we got thereo This presupposes many important planning and transportation issues, seeking rather a concise examination of micro-scale achitectural elements and their implementation. Recent history of the plan soon to be constructed on 16th dates back to 1971, when Downtown Denver Incorporated (DDI) and the Denver Planning Office (DPO) performed studies for a pedestrian mall • DDI retained C.F. Murphy in 1973 to further expand on the concept, and the resultant proposal established many of the important qualitative issues addressed in the current Mall design. These include creation of a people oriented environment which would stimulate commercial activity and create a sense of place or identity for the downtown area. Unfortunately, many transportation issues were unresolved, forcing backers to regroup. RTD took the lead in 1977 by coordinating with merchants and an interagency task force to secure federal mass transit funding. At this time the office of I.M. Pei wasenlisted for design consultation, and a plan evolved which Mr. Jack Fahnestock, RTD's Director of Planning and Design, calls "the kernal of the idea." This is essentially the design we know today, a 14 block shuttle and pedestrian mall with transfer terminals at either end. Before describing the further, it is interesting to note some of the influences provided by other downtown mall projects. According to Mr. Fahnestock, the RTD-Pei design team considered such designs as State St., Chicago, Nicollet Mall, Minneapolis, Portland (Ore.) Mall, and even some European examples. The Nicollet and Portland Malls were particularly influential by their synthesis of commercial and transport efficiency within a pleasant shopping environment. The physical boundaries of the Pei plan are Blake St. to Broadway, along 16th. Two tram lanes run the length of the Mall, placed symmetrically to street center from Tremont to Arapahoe Streets, and asymmetrically in the blocks approaching the In the symmetrical section sidewalks are widened to 19 feet, tram lanes occupy ten feet each adjacent to the sidewalk, and a 22 foot wide promenade area is created in the center. In the asymmetrical sections the tram lanes are paired together on one side of the street, with the promenade area displaced toward the opposite sidewalk. This distinction recognizes the differing urban character of the street along its length. In its central portions 16th is much more narrow and canyonlike , while towards the Civic Center and Skyline terminals it is much more open and already contains many private mall spaces. Within this framework the physical makeup of the Mall may be divided into four components. They are surfacing, landscape, lighting and street furniture, and terminal facilities. Each will be considered in turn although the effect of each depends very much upon its complementariness to the others. Surfacing along the Mall will consist of red and gray grnaite pavers set in a formal diamond pattern. Two aspects of the paving pattern are worth noting. First is the diagonal

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orientation which directs pedestrian flow from one side of the street to the other as well as down the length of the Mall. The pattern also intensifies in strength toward the promenade area to emphasize the importance of the space and hopefully to foster its utilization. Treatment of cubing details was also a major issue in surfacing. The present arrangement provides four inch curbing only at the sidewalk (building) edges of the tramways so that tram and promenade are on one level, with storefront sidewalks at the higher level. This represents a trade off of freer pedestrian circulation with restraint and guideway requirements for the trams. Landscape works within the formal paving pattern to reinforce the image of urban street. Major tree planting are double rows of Honey Locust in the symmetrical section, and a single row of Red Oaks in the asymmetrical. Special planting cages have been designed to protect and encourage the root balls while simultaneously protecting vulnerable nearby utility lines. The trees will be located in what was the center section of 16th in order to avoid conflicts with storefronts and the above menioned utility lines. Planters within each block ill be located to provide color and define activity centers. Inflection points along the Mall will be marked by "soft" human-scale fountains. Lighting and street furniture schemes also emphasize human scale. The principal light fixtures are only 11 feet high, not competing with merchant lighting but rather accebting and augmenting the Mall atmosphere. The fixtures, placed formally and in sequence to plantings perform three lighting functions in one unit. Up lighting emphasizes the tree canopy above and thereby the pedestrian scale of the Mall. A ring of twinkle lights provides accent to each fixture for the twilight and evening hours. Finally, mercury-vapor security lights can be activiated to illuminate storefronts during late night off-peak hours. Secondary aspects of lighting include small blue runway lights laid within the tramway to define the tram lanes and restate the longitudnial vistas of the Mall. Any alleys or other illumination "holes" opening off 16th will be corrected by general purpose floodlighting. Street furniture, described by Fahnestock as "basic but not austere" will be clustered in the promenade area as yet another incentive to enhanced use. Tram shelters will be located at each intersection. Perhaps the least well-defined element of the Mall design is the configuration of terminal complexes. Their prime function is to transfer riders from tram to local and express bus lines. Jurisdiction of the Pei plan ends at the transfer level of each terminal , so each site above below that level is subject to development by private sources coordinated through RTD. The Civic Center terminal, located at 16th and Broadway, is much further along in concept and currently includes provisions for a hotel and office complex. Architects involved in this scheme are HOK of St. Louis. The Skyline terminal, bounded by Blake, Market, 16th, and 17th Streets will tentatively contain relocated RTD offices along with some maintenance facilities. Thus is the physical package described, some $57 million in improvements. Certainly, all evidence indicates the even in he most divergent elements, a central theme of amenity for people, commerce, and transportation persists. It will be up to us, as participants in the Mall experiment, to evaluate how well the physical reality of the Mall relates to the lofty goals of its constructors a NOTE: We wish to thank the RTD and Mr. Fahnestock for their courteous assistance. 5

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8 Liz Bravo As the Mall emerges into reality, some questions arise as to the vigor of the physical design on this long-planned projecto In other words, there is some good news and some bad news on the subject of creativityo A four season wind and sun/shade study was conducted, however, the plan for plant material placement fails to reflect any of the insights that may have been gathered from that inquiry. Two symmetrical rows of Moraine honey locust centered down the middle of the five blocks will reinforce the existing canyon-like verticality while valuable natural amenities such as mountain glimpse-views will be blocked by some 42 red oaks (Quercus borealis) located off-center at either end of the proposed mallo And after Dutch Elm disease cleaned out Central Denver of thousands of treasured shade trees, how can the near monoculture of 122 honey locusts and 84 red oaks be p+anned for this modern mall? It seems that the Design Development was done by an East Coast ally of IoMo Pei's and transcribed to our climate. However, much care was taken on construction detailingo Trees will be protected from service line digging by a below grade tree-pit which is a concrete box open on three sides and solid on one side to direct root growth away from possible disturbance zoneso The Mall's rose and grey granite paving pattern is intended to establish the character of the mall and seems to work well to emphasize the pedestrian walkways while scattered water features alleviate some of the bus noise for mall usersv These fountains have all the waterworks below grade. Water emerges through decorative grates that are flush with the paving. It is a good control against vandalism and when the water is off, there are no standing pools to create lawsuits. ;._: -:.. . , , , . ,(.>' Buses will airport-style low boys -as big as any RTD on the road and run by diesel fuelo Basically, this is a transit mall. One questions how the shoppers will feel with those monsters wheeling by one either side of the central pedestrian corridoro The system is designed so that it can be converted to light rail should the monies pass this way again. According to one source, no American firm was willing to front the R&D cost for developing a small-scale electric powered bus which would have made the Denver Hall a precedent setter. Unlike the praise received by the Denver Center for the Performing Arts (Time Magazine, 1/14/80) for learning from the mistakes of other cities, Denver's unbuilt mall simply seems to be following the footsteps of fashion rather than creating an indigenous, site-specific design. The opportunity to do something innovative has been lost.

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Crandon Gustafson The Mall is Coming! The Mall is Coming! A number of RTD buses around town can be seen sporting the above slogan these days. It expresses something of the anticipatory spirit displayed by children at the impending arrival of Christmas, with its accompanying visit by the jolly man in the red suit. -Obviously, the buses are very pleased about the prospect of having a granite-paved 16th Street all to themselves, vehicularly speaking. One can picture them happily bustlin8 up and down the mall at 90-second intervals, unobstructed by cars, trucks, or bicycles. But what of RTD's future on the mall? We have yet to see any pedestrians traveling about with script-lettered slogans on their backs proclaiming the arrival of the mall. But then, the urbane pedestrian is by nature more doubting, and will probably withhold judgement until the thing can actually be tried out with a good brisk stroll. Conflict or Coexistence? The official name of the 16th Street project, "Transitway I Mall", suggest a possible conflict between two unreproachable virtues: improved mass transit and pedestrianism. Will a glut of absentminded, wandering walkers prevent the buses from swiftly delivering transit commuters up and down the mall? On the other hand, will the presence of the buses interfere with the desired freedom to ramble on foot? It could be argued that 16th Street is going to become a mall for buses. After all, the sidewalk area on either side will not be increased all that much; one has to traverse a bus lane to get to the central landscaped portion, or cross two bus lanes (and risk an unfortunate encounter with a bus twice every 90 seconds) to reach the other side of the street. But RTD and the designers of the mall are not incognizant of this potential conflict. Nicollet Mall in Minneapolis and the new mall in Portland, Oregon were studied as examples of pedestrian I bus malls. In Denver's mall they have sought to minimize the presence of the buses over that found in Minneapolis and Portland. Designer I. M. Pei has conceived of the project as an "Urban Street" as opposed to a "Bus Hall." And RTD is still holding out hope of future funding for quiet, non-polluting vehicles that will purr contentedly up and down the mall. Neither has the pedestrian been slighted in the design of the mall. All aspects of lighting, paving, and street furniture have been admirably worked out, with a greater degree of comprehensivitv than is usuallv found in projects of this sort. Confluence Perhaps by the joining of two flows of movement -bus and pedestrianism -each can benefit from the other. Most obviously, buses can vitalize the mall by providing fresh injections of pedestrian talent at strategic points along its length. And in general, the mall can only be made more stimulating b y the juxtaposition of the two movement systems, each with its own speed, size, and rhvthm. The flux and flow of life along the mall will seem richer, fuller, and more dynamic; one pictures a svmphonic interplay of walkers, riders, and vehicles, with the Rocky Mountain sun glistening on the foliage of the honey locusts in an impressionistic display of light and color. Comedy Indeed, without the buses, pedestrian life on the mall might be a little stale, and altogether too predictable . The philosopher Henri Bergson uses a pedestrian incident to illustrate his theory of comedy ; when thing s become too predictable, comedy steps in effortlessly to show us that we must respond to changes in our environment. Bergson relates a n incident in which a man stumbles and falls in the street, to the laughter of passersby: "Perhaps there was a stone on the road. He should have altered his pace or avoided the obstacle. Instead of that, throug h lack of elasticity, through absentmindedness and a kind of physical obstinacy, as a result, in fact, of rigidity or of momentum, the muscles continued to perform the same movement when the circumstances of the case called for something else. That is the reason of the man's fall, and also of the people's laughter." The bus I pedestrian combination on 16th Street provides an environment that demands awareness and response. There is a sort of yin-yang wholeness provided by the contrast between the buses, making a beeline up and down the mall, and the pedestrians, wander-ing like butterflies from one thing to the next. A more recent philosopher expressed well this need for flexibility between two opposites when he said "Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee." In conclusion, the 16th Street Transitway I Hall may work out just fine. Any successful organism, whether it be a mall, a protozoa, or a prizefighter, must display variety and diversity if it is to be vital and survive. 7

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8 Jl.&ILS JU Frances Mishler The recent building boom in downtown Denver has sparked interest in the older sections of downtown Denver. The area bounded by Speer Boulevard, the railyards, 20th Street, and Market Street is known as Lower Downtown. This area was once the heart of the commercial/warehouse district that grew up adjacent to the railyards. During those early years the railroad was Denver's connection to the outside world and pumped life blood into the fast growing city. Slowly Denver diversified and grew away from its roots, and the Lower Downtown area began to deteriorate. A dramatic separation came in the sixties when a swath of buildings between Larimer and Arapahoe Streets was leveled! The area went downhill even faster and was almost completely abandoned, becoming merely a service area for the city. In the seventies skyscrapers began sprouting in the downtown parking lots, and attention once again turned to Lower Downtown. In recent years interest has also grown in preserving the historical character of Lower Downtown. The development of Larimer Square increased interest in renovation and recycling of the historic structures located in the area. Pride in our cities past and renewed interest in historic preservation led some forward looking individuals to perceive the potential in the Lower Downtown o In addition, the creation of the Denver Urban Renewal Authority and the development of the Skyline Urban Renewal Project focused attention on the direction building would be taking. Although the project brought capital investment back into the area bringing with it greater employment and economic activity, it also brought into focus the dichotomy growing between the two contiguous areas. The Skyline Urban Renewal Project reflected the demand for greater intensification and exploitation in the high-rise commercial development, while Lower Downtown, through its proponents, attempted to preserve its character and appearance. In response to the threat posed to Lower Downtown and in recognition of its unique character, the City Council in 1974 adopted a newly created B-7 Originally zoned exclusively for industrial uses only, the new zoning permitted mixed usage. usage. The following description of the district, taken from the code presents an excellent state-ment regarding. its purposes and goals: C/) 0 H 0 ::c "This district is intended to provide for and encourage the preservation and vitality of older areas that are significant because of their architectural, historical and economic value. A variety of land uses will be permitted in order to facilitate the reuse of existing structures without jeopardizing or reducing zoning standards promoting the public safety, convenience, health, general welfare, and the preservation of the Comprehensive Plan. To preserve the additional scale of buildings in the areas, the floor area ratio is minimized$ Premiums for additional floor area are provided to encourage new buildings to conform to the style and character of the areao " Further, in 1976, recognizing that modern code requirements applied to structuresbuilt in the previous century make renovation and reuse of these structures frequently too costly, the Denver Building Code was likewise revised and a Rehabilitation Advisory Board createdo Under these stipulations, the the Denver Building Department can grant exceptions to the Code under some conditions. Lower Downtown was thus put in a position to meet some of the threats to the retaining of its scale and historic character. A study done by the Denver Urban Observatory in 1979 further addressed the needs to encourage housing in the downtown area. Recognizing that a viable and economically diversified population residing within the core city would help create a more vital city center, encourage and stabilize business, help reduce the need for commuting into the city and provide an atmosphere where cultural activities would flourish, ways were sought to encourage both private and public investment in housing. Recommendations such as systems of tax abatements to exempt new housing developments of five or more units from property taxes for a period of five years, tax morator-iums on residential rehabilitation improvements for five or ten years and the establishment of a Downtown Development Authority to develop housing followed. Other improvements such as the development of greenways and parks, the improvement of streets and the development of Union

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Station into the equivalent of Boston's Quincy Market were assessed, To date, there has been little movement in any of these directionso The movement, if any, has been backward, and to a degree the picture is very gloomyv A few bright spots, however, do stand out. William Saslow, a Denver architect, took an interest in Lower Downtown in the early 70's. After helping write the new zoning, he undertook to renovate a building now known as the Blake Street Bath and Racquet Club. As a cooperative, the owner of each townhouse unit profits from the rented commercial office space on the first floor. A pool and tennis court in the back complete the facility. Saslow sees the Skyline Urban Renewal Project as a lost opportunity since high density development was permitted dowrt to the edg e of Larimer Such a wall of high-rise development jeopardizes the neighborhood character of Lower Downtown. Speculation pressure has already been noted in the area. Empty lots are being utilized as parking lots as means of holding on to the land until prices rise still further and zoning changes and variances permit resale and development into more high-rise commercial spacev One method of combatting this pressure, according to Saslow, would be the Transfer of Development Rights. Under this program areas would be designated where high-rise development can take place. Each property owner would be entitled to sell his rights to another developer. Since the land in Lower Downtown is now frequently worth more without buildings on it than with, economic pressure justifies the tearing down of buildingsJ Transfer of DevelopQent Rights, on the other hand, is a sophisticated planning approach which would eliminate the incentive to buy land for speculation instead of renovation and would still provide finanical rewards to the property owner. Likewise would a tax structure which taxed vacant land at a higher rate than land with buildings and productive spaceJ Without these tools or others like them, the picture does indeed look bleak. Land speculation has driven the prices up in Lower Downtown so that it is no longer profitable to buy small buildings for renovation especially into housing units. Economic pressures and the lack of government leadership and planning have allowed an opportunity to be almost lost. Whereas the greatest potential in Lower Downtown depends on retaining the unique character of the area, pressures are developing to the contrary. Although commercial establishments such as restaurants, galleries, and retail space have been successful, less than one dozen housing units exist in Lower Downtown. Recognizing that housing is vital to growth and revitalization of the central city, the fact that the number of housing units has not changed the last ten or twenty years presents a pessimistic picture. On the edge of the area, the Larimer Place Condominiums and the Writer's Square units will add some population, but the trend in Lower Downtown is still towards commercial space. The future of Lower Downtown is still undecided. Some immediate options for improvement include street and sidewalk renovation and establishment of green areas. The impact of the 16th Street Mall has not yet been felt. Whether it will be positive or negative has yet to be seeno Among the urban pioneers moving back into Lower Downtown, Joanne and Emmanuel Salzman are renovating a warehouse on Wynkoop Street across from the Union Station. Office space on the first three floors and two apartments on the top floor are being constructed. Over the development of their project they have watched warehouse facilities moving out of the area and rents increasing. With a sense of optimism about the future, they are looking forward to their new life in the city and to the gradual restoration of the area that was once the hub of the small hut growing city of Denver. We hope they represent the wave of the future, but the outlook is as yet undecided. .. 9

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10 As a horde of bulldozers readies in formation for their attack on 16th Street, city planners are busy preparing "preliminary design guidelines," architects and historians are engaging in genteel debates, and city councilmembers are weighting the political outcome of the Crider Amendment. Funny thing, the bulldozers seem to be more powerful than all these well-meaning profession-als and all their well-meaning jargon. As a reflective mirrored and neon "disco-city" emerges from a Victorian past, perhaps an eulogy is in order for those remaining structures that gave Denver its unique heritage. A proposal to create a 16th Street Historic District is currently "doing time" on a bookshelf, primarily due to objections of local businessmen. State Historic Preservation Of ficer Arthur Townsend said he would hold off on sending nominations to Washington for a year to see if a task force could come up with a draft that would appropriately maintain and protect the traditional flavor of downtown Denver presumably satisfy the traditional objections of downtown developers). The proposed 16th Street Historic District, reaching from the Daniels and Fisher Tower at Arapahoe Street to Cleveland Place is nine blocks. It includes 32 buildings, twenty of which merited attention on the historic inventory. Two buildings in the area are already included on the Denver Hit List. Slated for demolition, are the Republic Building and the Denver Theatre. Those already listed on the National Register are the Daniels and Fisher Tower, the UniverFOR DISCO CIT'Y John David Powers J , .... .. $ : ..-.-;-: .-.......-:.:v ..... .. , . :

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si ty Building, the Denver Dry Goods Co. , the !'1a sonic Temple, and the Kittredge Building. While they share the minimal protection of the National Register, they are included with others in the area as potential nominees for the boomtown Hit List. With fond memory we recall the 1860's, when Denver's commercial center was Larimer and Sixteenth Streets, the setting for Denver's mythology of cowboys, bandits, and prostitutes. In the 1880's, with the excitement of the arrival of the railroad and new settlers flooding the city, Denver attempted to change its cowtown image for one of a civic ideology of justice, republican government, and municipal order. The Courthouse, Capitol and City Hall, located near one another at the southeastern end of Sixteenth Street, embodied this new image. By the 1880's, buildings in Denver were almost always designed by architects within the city. Denver absorbed the structural system of the Chicago skyscraper, but the workmanship and design of the buildings have been conditioned by Denver architectural traditions. Thus, the buildings in the District illustrate a diversity of commercial styles popular in more than one era. The structures which predate 1893, the year of the economic panic, are from two to seven stories high, and their facades respond to the Italianate and Romanesque styles popular at the time. Generally massive and horizontal in effect, they have active surfaces composed of brick, incised and rusticated stone, terra cotta, and cast-iron relief. Those built with the resump of construction after 1900 are as high as eight stories, but represent a new aesthetic char-acterized by regular, larger, generally rectangular windows, discreet amounts of ornamentation, steel frame construction and, later, Sulivanesque compositions. The latest group of buildings, which date from the end of World War I, range from two to twelve stories high. They represent vigorous applications of the Modernistic style as well as of Gothic, Georgian, and Renaissance revivals Short eulogies follow: Republic Building: Conceived as a bastion of elitism the Republic Building was the tallest office building in Denver when it was built. The upper stories were aliegedly devoted to exclusive use by the members of the Medical and Dental Association of Denver. Theater building: William N. Bowman, architect, 1927; Bowman combined two scales with Renaissance ornament to describe the separate functions the building encloses; terra cotta segmental arches frame the window bays of the six stories of offices and an unbroken brick wall, its ' . main decoration a simple terra cotta border, 1n-dicates the theater. Daniels and Fisher Tower: F.G. Sterner, designer, 1911; This tower was designed in the Italian Renaissance style. It was patterned after the Campanile of St. Mark's in Venice. Built as part of the May D&F Dry Goods complex, the tower was the third tallest structure in the United States when it was finished. The tower's Seth-Thomas clock, which is 16 feet in diameter, was one of the largest in the world when it was installed. Should it survive renovation attempts, it will be converted into offices and a restaurant. Masonic Temple Building: Frank E. Edbrooke, architect, 1889-90; The five-story commercial building was designed by one of Denver's greatest architects. Its massing. materials, and detail show it to be part of the Richardsonian Romanesque Revival, and possibly derived from Venetian prototypes portrayed in Ruskin's Stones of Venice. The building design program that Edbrooke had to deal with involved the integration of a large ceremonial volume, whose spaces were rigidly determined by Masonic ritual, with a large open commercial area. The corner tower device used, was his way of uniting both functions while expressing them both. The Kittredge Building: A. Morris Stuckert, itect,1889-91; In designing this Stuckert used the Richardsonian style in a manner comparable to Burnham and Root's Rookery in . f h ,, k ,, cago. Although the erect1on o t e s y-scraper was hailed by many as an outstanding work of architecture, it became the object of a scandal .before its 1891 completion. The Rocky Mountain News(Oct. 1889), in its infinite good judgement, charged that the columns supporting the building were not strong enough to support its seven stories. Incensed by such allegations, Stuckert and Kittredge, the owner, submitted rebuttals to the other local newspapers as well as a statement from the building inspector verifying the and safety of the columns, Praise be, Dr. Holder! The building still stands to this day, The Denver Dry Goods Company; Frank Edbrooke, alleged This building was structed of brick and limestone in the Victorian Commercial style. In general , it has a feeling of horizontality, even though the windows are organized between vertical bands. AMEN, 11

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12 John O'Dowd I started to write an article concerning the impact of the 16th Street Nall on nev1 downtown construction and how the mall would unite the different sectors of the downtown and finally provide amenities to Denver's forgotten pedestrians In my analysis, I identified a strong force working against these ends under the guise of a pedestrian amenity. Denver Urban Renewal Authority's skyway bridge system (+ 15 level) is a requirement of building designs .the DURA domain. The concept of installinp, physical links between buildings over the street to allow easier pedestrian movement at first sounds appealing. People do not have to bother waiting at crosswalks or weaving through the street level hustle and bustle. In cities like apolis and St. Paul, (where the skyway bridge system is very successful) the bridges are enclosed to provide c6mfortable pedestrian environments through the long and bitter cold Midwestern winters. In Denver, the bridges are not enclosed. Therefore, one of the most important functions provided by the Hinneapolis and St. Paul skyway systems-that of climatic protection-is not provided here. The problem is even more basic than that of not providing climatic protection. The logic of the system does not work in Denver. It separates the pedestrian from the primary circulation path at street level. Advocates of the skyway system say that it encourages retail growth, but in Denver the pedestrian volume does not warrant a secondary level of circulation. Zven the most densely populated city in the country, New York, operates its retail on the principle of bringing people in from street level alone and then to other levels. If I understand the DURA system correctly, some people could cross 6 or 7 blocks without returning to street level, and this is what is fundamentally wrong with the system. The street is the hub; the place most of the excitement is. The skyway system is also elitist as it is proposed in Denver hecause there is only control in the under DURA's hand. How can DUR.-\ clai•:t dm.vntown unity as a goal for the bridge system when it tends to isolate LovJer Downtown as a separate entity? Finally, another problem with the skyway concept is financial in nature. Money spent by developers on skyway bridges and all the necessary support facilities (24 hour security, additional lobbies, etc.) is money diverted from the street level enhancement. Instead of two levels of tightly budgeted design, I'd rather see the one level as the result of quality design. In conclusion, I am all for experimenting with new concepts in building programming and design, but Denver's street level sidewalks still lack the amenities of a great city (fountains, plantscaping, noted sculpture, etc.), so why should we continue this lack of pedestrian attention at another level? True, the 16th Street Mall will fill a void that has existed in Denver for years, but the ideas will never be manifest as physical improvement on other streets in the city if money allocated is diverted to a competing concept.

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[it \;@@ '[til j & pfuQl *@ m JWrmWl.fo LOWER DOWNTOWN DENVER MAP KEY A -Prudential Plaza and Tower BSkyline Park Apartments (Le Bistro Rest.) C -Tabor Center (Hotel, Retail, Parking) D Sakura Square (Housing, Retail, Parking) E Sunset Park Housing Project (V. of A.) F -Park Central Building G -Mountain Bell H One Denver Place (Office, Housing, Retail, and Parking) I -Larimer Place Condominiums J -Denver Fires Station #4 (existing) K M.L. Fosse Industrial Equip. and Supplies (existing) L -Firestone Service Center (existing) M Dravo Building (existing: Office, Retail, Parking) N -Writer Square (Office, Retail, Housing, Parking) 0 The Denver City Cable Railway Building (existing: Office, Retail) LANDMARK P -Financial Center Building (existing) Q United Distributing Company (existing) R -Sachs-Lawlor Building (existing) S DCPA Parking Garage T Bus Termianl U Sunset Tower (Housing, Parking) V -Barclay Tower Condominiums W -Parking Company of America X Windsor Place Condominiums I F NANCIAL ---13.

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tl p M. Teas As far back as 1957 interest has been shown for 16th St. becoming a mall. Since then anticipation has steadily grown: excellent suggestions have been made, impressive designs presented and the news media has something enduring to talk about. In regards to planning the Mall had the potential of either becoming an abysmal failure or a happy alternative to Urban Renewal projects of the past in rejuvenating the Downtown area. Leave it to say we have yet to see the results of the proposal. In large part the outcome of the Mall on the significant fact that "money talks". Due to the failure in 1976 of creating a Special District for 16th St. in order to procure local funding for the Mall, federal monies were an inevitable prerequisite. The agency was RTD whose justification for spending government funds relied on the Hall coinciding with a new public transportation scheme. Basically,the Mall would be the axis for two RTD terminals to be constructed, one on the intersection of 16th and Market and the other at the crossing of Broadway and Colfax. The resulting circulation would be pedestrian and a shuttle service passing every 90 seconds. Arguements to the viability of mixing buses and pedestrians notwithstanding, it is difficult to ignore the practical realities of financing. But the Mall seems to be moving down a very narrow track or bus route as it were. One wonders about other groups effected by the project, in particular the Denver Planning Office and the business community. Downton Denver Inc. since its formation has been of 8reat importance to the successful outcome of the Mall.for several reasons. The organization was the strongest supporter of private interests for the Mall's proposal while becoming actively involved in defining what form 16th St. would take. Their vote of confidence was not without impact; projections set the ammount of workers in Downtown Denver at 90,000 by 1985, and D.D.I. as a primary representative of those numbers had been a substancial voice. D.D.I. as well could, through its being a unified group of business, communicate its interests to the Denver Planning Office and create an adequate field for negotiations between the two parties. Since the death of its director in 1979 however, the organization has not replaced him and the consequences have been more than unfortunate. The Denver Planning Office with its assorted and sundry powers and limitations needs a cooperative relationship with the business community. The failure of the downtown rommunity to provide a representative has made I r:::::ij l _____ LJ_j l'-:---_j l J l J J l 17th '----------' ' ( 1 I I s_ """ as :::E '---...,..----J 15'th o D D D D i iil.tiif. .. ;;-;-...... ( . r I I D .r-I n i I i I I Tl=:1 I ! I ; i ! I J I ; I D D . 1---i i I I . I , Lc: Lr 8 I fr:ll l WffiLD 1 f-----..r r l I II r--1 LJ ___ I I 11 I ..._I ___.I D]l -

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I l it difficult to say the least for D.P.O. to produce an equitable and effective ordinance for im street appearances in regards to the buildings and take into acount the interests of pri owners. In the same vein, a great deal of doubt has been cast on the Mall increasing retail sales sufficiently to override cost incurred by building improvements and increased taxation of cpmmercial property. Although studies such as the Gladstone and Assoc. report have indicated that would significantly rise, persuasion of its validity lean heavily on strong relations between the city government and business. Another unresolved issue reflecting the problem of communications is the reluctance shown by the business community to adopt new hours which would run over the regular working day in a schedule similar to Larimar Square. Though some smaller shops appear agreeable, the change depends on the initiative of larger stores in the area which have been unresponsive. Under the leadership of an effectual organization this problem might be facilitated. The overall consequence of these problems is that both the business community and the Denver Planning LJ 0::-:: t-="F= -. r::.IJC:: [[]] B . . .:. 0 0 J 'Eo :,-c I .... ti[ ,S l ' O ____ r-l ---,-, .... . . . _) ---0 t:: ::::J 0 0 0 I 1 I "tJ 0 c:: co G) > Q) 0 Office will suffer for getting a Mall which is unsatistactory to the stores along 16th St. and Denver Planning Office being able to do little about it. Yet there are indications that the two parties who by all rights have a stake in the Mall may help to reverse the trend of 16th St. becoming a project that reaches "just to the aurb." Doug Goedert of the Planning Office has a rough draft of an ordinance which would draw the buildings on 16th St. into a more com planning endeavor. Although still in works and has yet to be accepted, the special zoning would require street level shops to remove siding from buildings, place uniform backing on 2nd story windows and theoretically "aid in producing a more substancial appearance" on 16th St. Another encouraging sign has developed in the oroanization of the Downtown Denver Retail Council 0 which has such people as Dana Crawford, owner of Larimar Square and the president of Joslins involved. It is hoped that the formation of this will help fill gap in communications with city government. Until then it appears that the Mall will be a fairly cut and dry formula of RTD providing an abundance of access with li.ttle else. • ••
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THE KEYSTOIWE*CAPilll Jeanne Cabral Among the after effects of the new 16th Street Mall will be the change in the face of retailing on the downtown area. As has been shown by the incorporation of malls in downtown areas of other major cities, this change of use brings about a corresponding change in the size, type and number of retail outlets. There is a marked increase in full service restaurants and fast food eateries as well as a decrease in service stores such as shoe repair shops and dry cleaners. These small businesses that cannot survive the incorporation of a mall due to a loss of business and spiraling rents are forced to to the outer fringes of the downtown area or go out of business altogether. A pl-ethora of boutiques catering to the w ellheeled tourist abound in mall situations. This has occurre d on the Pearl Street :lall in Boulder where a majority of the businesses are small and expensive in nature. There are hopes among the Downtov.m Denver retailers that the 16th Street Mall will increase the dollar volume of sales and services. There are alreadv drawbacks to the idea of increased sales in dm.vnto-vm stores. One is the notable lack of easy and inexpensive parking . In Denver today, suburban shopping malls abound with free and accessible parking. The average shopper today \vill tend to go to a suburban mall rather than fight do\vntmvn Denver traffic. Another area of concern is the establishment of higher quality suburban malls such as Harina Square and Tamarac Square which have already pulled a tremendous amount of dollars out of the Downtov.m Denver area. Several setbacks have already occurred. Joseph Magnin's, a San Francisco based chain, has closed its doors on 16th Street and has put the building on the real estate m arket. Skaggs Drug Center, in reality a mini-department store, has closed. The Denver Dry Goods Store has plans of converting a portion of their 6 story store to rentable commercial space in order to increase the profitiablity of sales per square foot figures. ANNOUNCEMENTS MARCH 29: "REPRO-UPDATE" A seminar on the latest developments in reproduction techniques will be offered by the Department of Landscape Architecture and the Division of Continuing Education. MARCH 30 -APRIL 1: "DESIGN FOR THE COMHUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS" is the theme for the annual conference sponsered by the Colorado Chapter of ASLA in Aspen. $60.00 for students. *"Keystone" is a term used in retailing that means doubling the wholesale cost of an item to determine the retail price. However, the onset of mall construction brings, to some people's minds, great opportunities for retail business success. Small retail businesses and restaurants have a high failure rate. Approximately 50% of retail stores fail by the end of the first year of business. By the fifth year only 10% of those surviving the first year of business are left. But, in spite of these awesome statistics, each year many people make the leap in to the retailing industry and a few succeed in their ventures. As far as the 16th Street Mall is concerned, the next few years will bring radical changes to the face of retailing in the whole city of Denver. \.JASHINGTON' S BIRTHDAY MEMORIALIZED In spite of the fact that half the nation was on holiday pay, the departments of Interior Architecture and Landscape Architecture donated time to a mad collaboration on a Joint Sketch Problem. A residential site in South Central Denver had somehow existed in its 3+ acre entirety and was under dire pressure for subdivision or other design options by its developer/ownero With the Interior Architects acting as clients, the LA's examined this property for design development alternatives. In the 4 hour time frame allotted to the problem, solutions which emerged ranged from Perl-Mack type subdivisions to ringing the site with an alligator-infested moat. As this precedent-setting project was considered a success, additional forays into the relative unknown of interdepartmental sketch problems are envisioned by the powers that

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• . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . Sponsored by The Deezine Club and Student . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............. 'j . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 0 . • • . . • • . • • • • • i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Affairs College of Environmental Design University of Colorado at Denver Own Booze or A.I.A. Office at The Market in Larimer Square Live Swing . Bootleg Your 9 Oclock Tickets $3.00 in Advance at the School

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SUNDAY MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY fi\...M 1'?4-t!!bl -sYMpl>SIA. , 0 . ...,. 0 •• THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY f't--1 M