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- Laminations, May, 1981
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AN ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN PUBLICATION
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UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
STAFF: John David Powers, editor
Randy Williamson Tim Leong Mohammad Mowlavi Said Mahboubi Richard Bernsteih Kristan Pritz Gary Devin Mark Jacobs Peter Levar Kunle Taiwo Willie Chiang David Friedman David Wager
Special thanks to:
Gary Long Lamoine Eiler Mike Collins Dolores Hasseman
The Deezine Club
American Institute of Architects College of Environmental Design
Cover illustration: Lamoine Eiler
Mailing address: Laminations c/o College of Environmental Design 1100 14th Street Denver, Colorado 80202
"Richard Crowther has concern for effective innovation, for assisting us to an improved state of living, and for stimulating us to thought about the future."
Written by Kathy Noble
Richard Crowther has been practicing architecture since 1932, working with solar since 1943. For the last six years all of his work, has been exclusively solar design.
His design philosophy evolves from a "holistic" energy approach. Strongly directed by site conditions, he also integrates all landscaping and interior design with practical solar requirements.
When asked how much of a limiting or determining factor energy considerations are in overall design, he replied, "100%, on the heating, cooling and personal level."
Intrigued by and experimenting with technological innovations that may allow our buildings to truely become machines (more climatically self-regulating), he also expressed a fascination with exploring the subtle shaping of space to personal energy. Designing spaces that recognize and respond to energy - all energy.
Crowther believes that this approach defines its own aesthetic. "Ornament, concern for texture and transitional areas should not be regarded for their aesthetic satisfaction alone, but also in how they reflect and respond to a holistic concept." he explained. "A building is a 40 year commitment; there is a certain responsibility that goes beyond aesthetics."
Describing his design process in intuitive, analytical and quantative terms, he stated, "Guided by common sense and appropriativeness. Initially evaluating options. In the process of defining it is important not to lose the holistic relationship to what we're doing. Use intuition but rigorously evaluate it by analytical means."
His residence in Cherry Greek features 140 interior solar and energy conserving features as well as many site and exterior methods. When asked about particularly successful or unsuccessful methods, he replied,
"Rather than concentrating on a particular method-I design a series of natural energy subsystems which are tailored to the purpose and needs of the individual spaces."
ais recent work has expanded from residential to a office building located in Englewood. Designed for the Hotsy Corp., the architecture and interior design were directed toward the optimization of work functions as well as energy conservation. It is a significant current example of larger scale solar application with different user requirements.
"Commercial and office building solar applications should not mimic what is used in residential,"he explained. Guided by many of the same site considerations, there is a greater volume and different heating and cooling requirements.
The profession is becoming increasingly concerned with energy/design issues. The new A.I.A. president recently stated,"Potentially, the energy crisis can create a new design vocabulary and is far more revolutionary than anything that has happened since the Renaissance."
Crowther's response to this statement illustrates his beliefs. "I strongly agree with this statement," he states. "Our society does not have the time to do things .gradually, the only salvation is to view things in ah interrelated way."
"We are in a state of revolution. A very rapid state of revolution. Our society is hanging by a thread."
CHERRY CREEK HOUSE AND RESEARCH FACILITY
Located at 4th and Madison. To provide research experience and capabilities in a "live-in" solar habitat. Designed for testing, monitoring of solar and other natural energy sub-systems.
Two explorations for this house that have had a large influence on the resulting form,are, first, the large solar-heated gallery space adjacent to the entry serves as a primary heat "accumulator" for the house; second, the cellular nature of the plan enables parts of the house to be thermally isolated.
For more information see: Progressive Architecture, April 1980
Director ot Architecture
The College of Environmental Design, UCD, announces a new second professional degree program, Master of Architecture - Energy/Design, to begin fall of 1981.
The U.S. need for design professionals skilled in new building energy systems design, knowledgeable in old building energy rehabilitation, and sensitive to the impact of energy scarcity on our society can readily be demonstrated.
Colorado, Denver, UCD, and the College of Environmental Design are together the ideal location for a program specializing in the education of such designers. The faculty resources have been secured. The opportunity is clear. An outstanding energy/ design program can be inaugurated in the fall of 1981.
The Program will join key engineers and architects already identified and willing who are recognized nationally and internationally with existing expertise in the College to form a faculty indeed impressive. The course of study will be open to holders of the first professional degree in Architecture, Landscape Architecture, and Interior Design, and will require a minimum of one year of residence. The Program will include as well a lecture program for the community and workshops for the practicing professional.
The support required of the University of Colorado is the assignment to the Division of Architecture of 1 1/2 new FTE faculty in 1981-82, and an additional 1/2 FTE faculty in each of the years 1982-83 and 1983-84. This proposal projects the mature program in place in 1984 with 24 students and 2 1/2 FTE faculty.
The curriculum in architecture now gives introduction to energy in architecture in the required environmental controls course, and encourages further exploration in the design studios and in an elective course in solar technology. But the Division expertise and offerings are limited. Additional offerings and faculty are needed to serve
elective needs from other divisions, to serve the continuing educational needs of the profession, and to serve the needs of those architects who wish to return to school for a second professional degree in energy management and quantification, and for energy systems design.
THE PAST AND THE FUTURE
The goal of the Division of Architecture at Colorado continues unchanged into the next decade:
The Professional education of men and women who wish to design the buildings in which we live, work, and play. Three key societal issues, have, however, radically influenced in the recent past the direction of architectural education in the pursuit of this goal.
The recognition that architectural education must be firmly based in the humanities and social sciences as well as the physical sciences.
The recognition that professional design education must address environmental problems of the disadvantaged and of society as a whole as well as the traditional building problems of public and private patrons.
The realization of the scarcity of resources, especially of fossil fuels, and of the importance of energy as a key determinant for architectural design.
The first two issues have helped shape the form and substance of the College in the last decade. The last issue, energy, must inevitably help shape the direction of the 80's.
With respect to the first issue: In 1969, with the reorganization of the School of Architecture into the College of Environmental Design, the University of Colorado wisely extended the education requisite for the design professionals. The traditional five year curriculum in architecture was reorganized into a more broadly based undergraduate experience followed by a professional
program of choice. The College in 1980 is a mature system offering the four-year Bachelor of Environmental Design degree in Boulder, and two year masters programs in Architecture, Landscape Architecture, Interior Architecture and Space Planning, Planning and Community Development, and Urban Design, all at Denver.
Manv other architectural schools made the same change: 36 of the 87 accredited schools of archi-
tecture had by 1979 the 4-2 program. About half of the students in the two year program in architecture at Denver come from Boulder, the other half come from these other schools with parallel programs. It is reasonable to assume this pattern through the 80's.
In addition, the College recognized the desire of many men and women holding the Bachelor of Arts or Sciences in other than design fields to seek professional education in architecture. The Division has offered since 1971 the three year program leading to the Master of Architecture for this group of applicants. This program is attracting excellent students and will continue in equality with the two-year program through the next decade. 22 of the 87 accredited architecture schools offer similar programs: this approach to architectural education appears to be growing in the United States.
And with respect to the second issue: As a part of an awakening of social and urban consciousness in the turmoil of the 1960's, the term urban design was added to the professional lexicon, and a program of this title was initiated in Denver in 1969. Just two years before, in 1967, the Community Services Department had been established, later to become the Center for Community Development and Design. This Center is the tie of education to community, and provides planning and design services to institutions, non-profit groups, towns and neighborhoods throughout Colorado. Students work on studio projects through the Center for academic credit in a unique program of service.
Architectural education in Colorado has profited greatly from these sometimes revolutionary changes in expectation and direction. Students in architecture are imbued today with a respect for context, for the building user, and for service - all as a responsible framework for traditional concerns for aesthetics and technology.
Douglas Balcomb. Engineer. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Los Alamos.
Fred Dubin. Engineer. Dubin Bloome Associates. New York.
Greg Franta. Architect. Solar Energy Research Institute. Golden.
Gary Long. Architect. Director of Architecture UCD. Denver.
Edward Mazria. Architect. Edward Mazria Associates . Albuquerque.
Donald Woolard. Architect. Associate Professor UCD. Denver.
Peggy Wren. Administrator. Colorado Energy Conservation Office. Denver.
Community Center for Development and Design Visiting Professor. Denver.
SAMPLE'COURSE OF STUDY
Mazria, staff Problems in building design.
Passive and active solar applications .
Balcomb, Woolard Computer processes and applications . Thermodynamics and building materials. Models for design and energy usage. Economic models.
DESIGN STRATEGIES: NEW BUILDINGS
Woolard, Mazria Human comfort. Climate. Land form and vegetation. Thermal and lighting balances. Building and landscape materials. Solar design procedures. IIVACsystems optimization and control. Case studies.
DESIGN STRATEGIES: OLD BUILDINGS
Dubin, Long Energy audits. Conservation
opportunities. Embodied energy. Preservation and energy aesthetics. Existing HVAC systems modifications. Economic evaluation Energy management programs.
Mazria, staff Independent study: thesis se-
lection and development.
The final issue, that of energy in architecture, is the newest of the shaping forces on architectural education, and provides both challenge and opportunity for the direction of the Division and of the College in this coming decade.
Energy has always been an important aspect of design, but with the exponential rise in the cost of fuels, and with serious question as to the availability of fossil fuels, the control of energy flows in new and old buildings has assumed a new imperative. It is a serious issue to be addressed.
Mazria, staff QUANTIFICATION 2
Balcomb, Woolard Continuation of Quantification 1.
ENERGY, GOVERNMENT, LAW, AND FUTURES Franta, Wrenn Public and private organizations related to energy. Commercialization status. Federal and state involvement. Tax law. Codes and energy. Energy futures and the construction industry.
A NEW PERSPECTIVE
An Interview With Donald Stafford Woolard By Peter A. Levar
LEVAR: WHAT WAS YOUR BACKGROUND? INTERESTS?
EDUCATION? ...WHAT GOT YOU STARTED IN
WHAT YOU'RE DOING NOW?
WOOLARD: Let me run through my background history and I think it will explain why I am where I am at. I did my undergraduate work in two places. I started at the University of New South Wales in Sydney where I was born. I went on a holiday to New Zealand part way through that course and ended up getting my Architectural professional degree at the University of Auckland in New Zealand.
I practised in Auckland for several years; I was employed with a large firm and I later practised on my own in partnership with a builder â€” in a design/construct team. (Which I believe is a very appropriate way for the profession to go).
I built a yacht and I went sailing and I spent about a year cruising around the Pacific and the Pacific Islands.
The trip had an incredible effect on what I thought about Architecture.
First of all I had never realized how super efficient that traditional building was in many ways, particularly climatic considerations. Secondly, I landed in a position as Senior Architect for the British government in the Solomon Islands.
Rather lucky for me circumstances followed â€” another architect resigned or disappeared, and I ended up in a very responsible position very quickly and so I stayed there and signed a long term contract and made a fairly close study of the traditional housing forms. For me this is where- climate and architecture really started to integrate together.
I was designing primarily housing; but other buildings such as the governors residence, a police station, many office buildings and central government facilities; and some private non-government commissions, such as the Solomon Island Community Centre I did (which was about a 5 acre development of swimming pool, playing fields, centre, etc.); and the Solomon Island Museum were all other experiences I had there.
When I finished my first contract I went to the University of Hawaii and studied for my Master's Degree - which was sponsored by the British government.
I was lucky I sort of resigned and they said if you're interested in coming back we'll pay for your courses.
So I ended up returning to Solomon Islands and started the Solomon Housing Authority as Manager and Architect. I was responsible only to a board of governors. It was appointed by the British Government in London and they only met about twice a year. So I just built houses and developed land, and set up office and accounting systems. It was a small time operation in money terms because the aim was to build cheap houses.
Not the sort of house you'd build here â€” it had slotted floors - selfcleaning; rice, sand, etc., all fell through the slots in the floor, (modeled on the low-cost principles that I derived from traditional housing). Very cool air was drawn up through the slotted floor and (it was) very climatically
acceptable. So I had a lot of success that way â€” but success led to conflict so eventually I left to take up teaching.
When I moved into teaching at the University of Queensland, in 1973, it was obvious that I should continue the study of traditional buildings â€” which I did for several years. And during this period, I was employed as a consultant to some of the island governments throughout the Pacific (Nauru, New Hebrides,
Solomon Islands and Fiji). Everytime there was a university break I headed out for the islands.
So my bent at the moment has come through this traditional design â€” I still have this very great respect for traditional design and architecture. Its grown from that to try and understand how it came about and quantify why its so good.
You may be familiar with James Fitch -"Primitive Architecture" - he wrote the article (published in Scientific American 1960) and it says alot to me. (It studies why an igloo is efficient and why a grass hut is suitable, etc.) I've gone from there into trying to quantify why they're efficient; and I've studied the three aspects as I look at them: l)the climatic aspects, 2)the human aspects, and 3)the shelter aspects. You'll find there is alot of literature in these three areas now. (Man, Climate and Architecture; Housing, Climate and Comfort; etc.)
LEVAR: WHAT BROUGHT YOU TO COLORADO?
WOOLARD: I was here for other reasons â€” I did a tour of the States for the Austrailian government in 1976 and I really came then to Boulder to visit friends that I'd met at Solomon Islands (Peace Corp Volinteers). I came back in 1980 for a similar sort of trip, again following up energy and computing applications -which is a teaching area I cover in Australia. I visited the school, was introduced to Gary Long, and one thing led to another.
LEVAR: WHAT COURSES ARE YOU TEACHING?
WOOLARD: I am teaching at the moment Design 601, which has a special emphasis on climate; and a course in Architecture and Energy I (meaning there will be an Architecture and Energy II one day).
LEVAR: WHAT DO YOU TRY TO GET YOUR STUDENTS TO DO? HOW DO YOU FIND THE STUDENT/ FACULTY RELATIONSHIP AT UCD?
WOOLARD: I like an inquisitive student
and an enthusiastic student. I am really excited by the quality of the student motivation that I find here. I found no need at all to stimulate or encourage students to undertake work. I just seem to mention something and references are followed up and I really find it exciting.
It may be just because its a graduate school but I really think it goes deeper than that â€” a great respect for each other and faculty and students. I find
it (the student/faculty relationship at UCD) really positive - a real good quality relationship.
LEVAR: WHAT DO YOU THINK IS THE IDEAL SCHOOL SITUATION?
WOOLARD: Let me say that my background is from a very different educational institution than from here, and my teaching experience is similarly different.
Although my experience at the University of Hawaii showed me that the American system is far superior than the one I've come through. Not saying that we don't have equivalent end products, but we don't have as broad an Education I feel.
For instance, the normal Architecture Education in Austrailia, New Zealand and Britain is six years full time â€” where you enter Architecture, you do Architecture and you come out Architecture. You go in with say 40 to 60 students, and come out with the 20 or 30 that are left.
So we never get any electives.
Here again, I think thats one of the nice things about this place â€” that we've got scientists, we've got artists, we've got engineers, coming together for the single purpose of becoming Architects.
Another good point â€” the fact that we see our main purposes as training Architects - not any side issues on the way through. We're here for a single purpose and that's a positive thing. So far as the ideal goes I think we've got here the basis administratively for an excellent school.
What we are lacking (at UCD) are certainly facilities â€” and I don't mean spaces â€” I prefer old spaces anyday, and very flexible ones, like in the studio, where you can move walls around. We're inadequate in terms of lecture space and seminar space/round-table space.
I would like to see alot more laboratory space.
LEVAR: CAN YOU ELABORATE ON WHAT TYPE OF LABORATORY SPACE?
WOOLARD: Laboratory space in environmental science and architectural techno^ logy type spaces, that is, looking at the doing side of architecture. That goes from experimenting â€” to researching â€” to experiencing the different things of Architecture.
The things I'd like to spend my efforts developing would be: environmental features, such as, facilities to let people feel different temperatures, humidities, thermal comfort conditions.
In other words, an environmental chamber would be one; a wind tunnel would be another; light-box type facilities (where effect of different artificial light types could be experienced and evaluated, tested and checked out); and perhaps even an artificial sky/solar-scope type equipment where we could build models and check out solar penetrations and quantities, etc.
Along with that goes computing facilities. I have done quite alot. of work in computer graphics, but its not where at the moment, where I believe, the future of computing in Architecture is. (It
may be the future but not the present).
I believe that every student graduating should have a knowledge of computers.
They are here. They have been in most other disciplines for many, many years and for any university graduate to go out without knowing about computers, and what they can do, is poor â€” so that would be my greatest criticism.
I don't mean by that - that everyone has to use them, but I believe that to know what their capabilities are; to know how they can help and where they can help is essential. (I always think of you guys' practicing well into the next century and who knows where the computer will be then â€” so you need the introduction at this level).
The rest of the situation here, I think, is excellent. Our relationship with the profession is obviously good â€” our location geographically is excellent, and links with outfits like SERI, NCAR,
NOAA, etc. - seem really strong - I would hope to develop those in the future.
LEVAR: HOW COULD THE STUDENT BODY CONTRIBUTE TO YOUR GOALS AND THE GOALS OF THE SCHOOL?
WOOLARD: By being good students â€” I really enjoy working with motivated, enthusiastic and inquisitive students.
Ones that will go out (I'm experiencing this already), I came with very little local data; and people - particularly from the energy class - have come back with alot of data that I didn't know where to find. They sort it out and got me copies and references, etc.
The other thing that I think I would encourage in students, which is sort of a personal encouragement, would be to pick up some of the things from research, that are useful to Architects. Architectural research is a very low-key, trial and correction type approach and it needs alot more science. In encourage a professional approach to the papers I request.
I feel students should learn to use bibliographies, references, libraries and computers - as tools and aids in their own work. I hope that my interaction with students would encourage some of them to be interested in Architectural Research â€” as a future and that would help my goals â€” because I have one hundred and one things that I'd like to do.
And whether I get to do them or not will depend on facilities, but primarily on others interested.
LEVAR: GARY LONG MENTIONED A CHARRETTE THAT'S GOING TO PHILADELPHIA â€”
COULD YOU CLARIFY ON WHAT WILL BE HAPPENING?
WOOLARD: There's the ACSA in conjunction with the I.SES annual conference (International Solar Energy Society Conference) in Philadelphia in May. They are putting on a four day design cherrette and they are sponsoring five teams that are going to be selected nationally. Each team consisting of a team leader (Edward Mazria) a faculty observor (myself), and four students (Terry Carpenter, Richard Bernstein, James Smotherman, Randy Williamson).
Our application, with all the required documentation, was put together by Gary Long and Gary Crowell last week and sent off.
Our first objective is to be one of the five schools selected. Once that happens, then the six of us go over for four days and work in what they call a 'fish bowl' type atmosphere â€” with public watch and television coverage.
Working for a solar type development, for two city blocks, in Philadelphia.
That would be fully published, and presented to the City Council and Architectural Planning Representatives while we're there. I think that's a fantastic opportunity â€” just hope we get there!!
by Lamoine Eiler Edited by Kristan Pritz
What is reasonable and possible in the near and mid-term (20 years) future for energy? Conventional sources of energy (oil, natural gas, coal, and nuclear) can provide only one-third to one-half of the countryâ€™s additional energy needs in the next 20 years. On the other hand, unconventional sources of energy could be the major alternative to imported oil as well as provide an alternative to declining domestic production of oil and natural gas. What will follow will be a review of conservation and solar energy and their potentials to meet future energy demands.
Conservation, despite some opinions, is no less an alternative source of energy than is oil, natural gas, coal, or nuclear. In fact with a serious commitment, a 30 to 40% reduction in consumption could be realized with little or no impact on U.S. standards of living. This is the equivalent of all of the oil imported into the U.S.!
There are many barriers present in the U.S. to conservation but few of these are technological. Conservation is an alternative which is technologically prepared to meet the challenge today. The barriers to be faced by conservation are institutional, social, and political. Consequently the U.S. needs a strong government policy backing conservation. This policy must give conservation an equal chance in the marketplace. Afterall conservation may be the cheapest, safest, and the most productive of all the alternatives. Also conservation creates little pollution and no radioactive wastes. But in order to maximize its use conservation must overcome many barriers.
The first barrier lies in the very nature of conservation. It is a highly fragmented alternative with very few of its elements being glamorous. The conservation solutions must literally reach millions to be effective. Conservation is not the "technological big fix" that many feel will save us. Conservation is a bunch of simple, not so glamorous steps and practices.
Another barrier focuses on the energy industry. Since their livelihood depends on the build-up of conventional energy sources, few in the industry want to see the decentralization of energy sources through conservation. Also these same industries are enjoying pricing regulations which reduces the competitive edge of conservation in the marketplace.
Another barrier is the belief in the "iron link" between energy use and the gross national product. Because of this belief many people insist that conservation could stagnate the economy or even bring on a recession. This belief has been disproved with greater enthusiasm of late and it would appear that the iron link between energy use and the gross national product is actually quite elastic.
The following chart shows the major energy consuming sectors separately:
U.S. ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY SECTOR, 1978
Sector Consumption (mbd) (oil equivalent, mbd) % of Total Consumption
Commercial 14.0 38
Industrial 13.3 36
Transportation 9.7 26
TOTAL 37.0 100
The transportation sector has great possibilities for conservation in that the industry is made up of a limited number of decision makers. Consequently policy can be made quickly and then enacted with guaranteed success of reaching all those involved in the production of automobiles. The importance of keying on car production is that the car uses one-half of all the U.S. transportation sector's energy. That is the equivalent of one-ninth of all of the world's oil consumption. Another factor is that the technological fixes in the car are quickly noticed in the total stock of the country. This is due to a 50% turn over in stock over 5 years. Also it should be noted that increases in efficiency have no adverse effect on the life styles of the owners. All of this adds up to savings of over 20 billion barrels of oil between 1975-2000 if the fuel economy standards, established in The Energy Policy And Conservation Act of 1975 are met.
The industrial sector typically responds to an issue primarily due to financial incentive. Consequently industry has made great inroads in conservation realizing the potential savings present.
Industrial energy conservation falls into three categories: improved housekeeping, recovery of waste, and technological innovation. Improved housekeeping involves small maintenance fixes which require little or no investment and which can bring substantial savings. Recovery of waste entails such things as waste heat recovery, cogeneration and recycling, all of which'use technologies which are readily available. Technological innovation places its emphasis on redesign of production processes to reflect increased efficiencies.
These categories represent varying degrees of capital investment and savings but it is obvious, simply by industries current involvement in conservation, that conservation can greatly reduce energy use in industrial production.
The residential/commercial sector makes up the largest use of energy of all the sectors, with space heating and hot water heating being the prime users within the sector.
The problem in the buildings sector is actually two-fold: new buildings and retrofits. Faced by rising energy prices architects are responding with "energy-conscious design." These buildings have made substantial reductions in their energy use. Such innovations are also being encouraged through changing building codes. Building codes are just now reflecting the need to make new construction more energy efficient. Coupled with that is an increased awareness in life-cycle costing. This method of costing includes all cost of a structure over the life of the building including energy. In this way the higher initial costs of an energy efficient structure are more than balanced against future energy savings.
The problem with innovations in new construction is that it takes such a long time to effect the total stock due to slow turnover in the housing stock. This then calls for a retrofit approach for the present housing stock. The steps involved in retrofit approaches could have major impacts. Simply to insulate the 20 million homes in the U.S. that are poorly insulated could cut residential use by 25%.
To speed up retrofit, utility companies could become involved in the retrofits themselves. In this way the companies are then tied to the industry which would also cut consumption of energy. Consequently the utilities would not fight moves to conservation. They would also be able to do energy audits, supervise subcontractors, guarantee work done, and provide loans for the retrofits. Their stake in conservation is then quite high.
Conservation appears to be the "energy source that calls for the greatest emphasis in the short and middle term, since it is often the cheapest, most accessible and least disruptive." Conservation is an alternative which can displace the dependency on imported oil.
Solar energy, given the proper incentives, could provide one-fifth to one-fourth of the nation's energy. In fact the technology is already available to provide a 20% contribution. Again as with conservation barriers must be reduced and in order to extend the contribution beyond 20%, extensive research must be done.
Solar has two basic aspects, one involving onsite applications, the other centralized application. Currently it is the on-site technologies which are ready to make a 20% contribution to the nation's energy. The following four technologies are reviewed for their potential in energy contribution: solar heating, biomass, power towers and photovoltaics.
The basic premise behind solar heating is first to conserve energy then the home is solar heated. This heating can be accomplished with either active or passive systems. Passive systems, by and large, are most appropriate on new structures so their impact is fairly limited due to the slow turnover in housing stock. Thus in the next 10 years it will be active heating systems, especially water heating systems, which will make the most contribution to the nation's energy. But more importantly, it should be noted that "active and passive solar heating is a here-and-now alternative to imported oil. The potential for solar heating is vast, because it is well suited to most new residential and commercial buildings and to about one-third of the nation's 55 million existing dwellings. By 2000, active and passive solar heating could replace 3 million barrels daily of oil equivalent."
Biomass, the organic matter from plants and animals could also provide 3 million barrels daily, from the use of wood from U.S. forests and solid, liquid and animal wastes. This biomass could be used in the forest products industry itself, in the heating of homes with wood burning stoves, and in boilers which are now coal-fired. Again, biomass is an energy source which is readily available and which technology exists for its use.
The power tower concept involves the use of a large furnace which produces steam by having the sun focused on it by the use of an elaborate array of mirrors. Power towers represent the technological fix associated with centralized power production, but as yet they are uneconomical. The advantage of such a system is that
it could be tied into the present utility system and operated by the utility themselves thus reducing a major social change brought on by decentralization. But at best power towers are an uncertain long-term solution.
Photovoltaics, like the power tower, is dependent on major technological breakthroughs. Unlike the power tower it seems that photovoltaics have applications which are appropriate for onsite use as-well as centralized use. But again it is an alternative for the long-term.
Solar energy can be summed up in the following two charts, the first a look at several studies and their findings, the second the authors' estimates on the total contribution by solar.
An approach which will balance our energy use, reduce our importation of oil, and reduce the risks involved in energy decisions in the future is needed. Conservation and solar energy should be given a fair chance to contribute to the nation's energy needs. The development of a strong policy directed towards this balanced energy program and ways to guide such a transition in energy use are important steps which need to be taken.
*Figures and quotations are taken from the book, Energy Future edited by Robert Stobaugh and Daniel Yergin. Written by I.C. Bupp, Mel Hor-witch, Sergio Koreisha, Modesto Madique, and Frank Schulles.
Most students seem intent on eventually becoming licensed, and in a recent poll of CU students, published in the March issue of Laminations, only 3% denied an interest in registration. The procedure for becoming licensed was understood by 77%, leaving 23% in the dark about registration and NCARB. The intent of this article is to familiarize the future graduate with the steps leading to registration.
The National Council of Architectural Registration Board, known as NCARB, requires that the applicant hold a professional degree in Architecture from a school accredited by the NAAB (National Architectural Accredidation Board) for NCARB certification. It is possible to become licensed without a professional degree in architecture on the basis of having a combination of education and/or of at least eight years of experience and passing* the' NCARB Qualifying Exam before being allowed to take the NCARB Professional Examination. However, having the NCARB certification allows one to be eligible for reciprocity in other states. Most states will grant reciprocity only through NCARB certification. Reciprocity is not automatic but must be applied for at each state's NCARB, however, the chances are good that reciprocity will be granted in most cases. This opportunity does not exist for licensed architects without a professional degree. They must repeat the entire process in any other state they wish to be licensed in.
The NCARB Prfessional Examination is standardized in all states, with the Site Planning and Design Test and written exam being identical each year in each state. For this reason, reciprocity is more easily granted. In the event one takes the design test in Colorado, and then moves to another state, he or she need not retake that test before proceeding to the next part of the exam.
To be certified, one must take and pass two tests. The first is a twelve hour site planning and design test. To be eligible for this test, one must have graduated prior to registering to take the exam. In Colorado, April 10 is the last day to register for the test in June. Graduation, being in May, automatically requires one to wait one year to take the design test. Approximately thirty days prior to the exam, all candidates receive written notice of acceptance and are informed of the building type and site to be used.on the test without specifically outlining the exact program. This allows the participants to research the problem prior to the test.
Nationally, about 36% of all participants pass the design portion of the exam. This percentage does not break down the various categories of people taking the test for the first or tenth time nor does it account for age or experience differences. Prior to the decision several years ago to allow recent graduates take the design exam, the pass rate hovered around 50%. Now the pass rate has dropped dramatically, suggesting incompetency ~ or the attitude that the test is taken only for the experience and not necessarily with the purpose of passing. Many states are reconsidering bringing back the three year experience requirement in light of these findings. Incidentally, in this years graduating design class, nine of thirty^six participating students passed last years NCARB design test in a mock attempt.
Three years of experience is required to participate in the written exam. At least two of the three years of the required experience can be aquired prior to graduation, leaving a minimum of one year of experience working for a registered architect after graduation. Time spent working on the intern program does not count. However, summer jobs and part time work for pay during college can count for up to one year of the required experience.
To get credit for this experience, one must show evidence to the NCARB through an affidavit signed by your employer verifying the amount of work experience. If it is part time work, the hours are required as the state board then divide the hours by 173 to arrive at a monthly equivalent of your experience.
These affidavits are not required until certifi--cat'ion is desired. However, if you are moving to another state, it would be wise to have your employer sign the affidavit at the completion of your employment to avoid any problems later.
Firms do break up, partners switch firms, move away or even die, making it difficult to track down the evidence years after the fact. The best practice is to have these affidavits In your possesion to avoid any last minute problems. It is especially important to obtain these affidavits immediately if one works for VISTA or the Peace Corps as overseas documentation problems are compounded.
The second part of the exam is broken into four parts taken over a two day period. The items covered are are environmental or site analysis, programming, design and theory and construction and administration. This part of the exam ie based on a real building, in fact, the Heritage Center in Denver was the subject of an exam several years ago. The exam uses the actual site, program and working drawings to devise questions around a specific building. The exam is multiple choice with four possible answers to each question. About one fourth to one third of the questions involve calculations such as beam and foundation design and the correct answer must be selected from four possible solutions.
The success rate for the written part of the exam is about 75%, clearly suggesting that experience is a key factor in the improved rate of success over the design test results.
Colorado does not have any limit to the number of times one can take the exam, however there is a $20 application fee. Only one grade, pass or fail is given.
Affidavits or test information can be obtained at the office of the State of Colorado Board of Examiners of Architects at 110 State Services Building 1525 Sherman Street, Denver, Colorado, 80203.
Thanks go to Robert Kindig, Professor of Architecture at the University of Colorado for his contribution to this article. He has been a member of the Colorado Board of State Examiners for fifteen years and is the chairman of the NCARB Design Committee which sets up the design portion of the Professional Examination.
Just of Highway 82 by way of the Old Snowmass Creek Road, the Windstar Foundation is planning a major passive solar research and learning center. Funded primarily by singer, John Denver, the building will function much like a Benedictine Monastery. There are areas designed for sustenance, health, living quarters, community gathering, education, creative work, communication and meditation. The complex will be the physical expression of the Wind-star Philosophy which is "Harmony and holism at all levels - from the mind and heart of the individual, to the group, to the mutually supportive integration of humans with the natural world."
Noteable Windstar members include R. Buckminster Fuller who last year donated a geodesic dome to the Foundation and Werner Erhard of EST.
Of Windstar's 950 acre site approximately 80% or ;760 acres will be maintained as a wildlife preserve. Most of the remaining land will be devoted to agriculture and aquaculture. Winter grains, fruit trees, grasses, vegetables, and fish will be grown to provide food for the community. This comes from the desire for "balance with the local environment rather than a notion of self-sufficiency, interdependence being a basic ecological principle."
The Building Program
The program calls for some 5500 sq. ft. of wqrk-shop space including photo, video, recording and broadcasting studios as well as metal,.wood shop, ceramics and crafts spaces. Guestrooms totalling 8000 sq. ft.. will be provided and public spaces including kitchen, dining, living, meeting, library, greenhouse, health facilities, theatre and dance space totalling 10,000 sq.ft, will be constructed.
The energy concepts for the Windstar Foundation Building include direct gain passive solar heating, domestic hot water collectors, a solar pond with a rankine engine and windmills. The facility has been designed to be flexible enough so that now and in the future, it will be a place where many different approaches to the use of renewable energy can be tested and demonstrated. Recording instruments constantly monitoring the energy life and functioning of the building will be on display inside the building.
The facility will be built as much as possible from local materials and should need no fossil fuels to operate. Students, including those from architectural schools will be involved in all phases of the construction. Upon conpletion of the complex, a permanent community of 20 people will run and manage the land, building and other programs. Long-term research students will live and interact with visiting artists and thinkers. People from the local Aspen community and from around the world will attend shorter-term workshops, think tanks and meetings.
BUILDING SECTION gmÂ« h
RLAKl i- Al*.
CULTURAL DETERM NANTS
This article is an attempt to trace briefly the cultural, social, climatic and environmental response of ancient Nigerian architecture.
Nigeria is divided into two major climatic zones. The hot and dry Northern Region and the warm and humid Southern Region.
The diverse cultural dlffemece between the North and the South is responsible for the difference in planning of family compounds and cities In the South and family compounds hamlets and village settlements of the North.
The Northern Region, predominantly Muslim, was influenced by the Arab states. Education was not of primary importance. The only form of formal educational instructions was administered by the Imams (Islamic clergy.)
These sessions were solely based on the teachings of the Holy Koran (the Muslim Bible). The South, on the other hand, was more evenly mixed in religious beliefs. There are Christians influenced by the missionary settlers, musllms and atheists, but basically, the Nigerian culture is that of communial interdependance on one another. The term "family" does not limit itself to the Western implication of
father, mother, and children. Nigeria "family" is the whole of oneâ€™s blood-ties. This in consequently why most Nigerians lived in family compounds and no single family homes were identifiable at that time. The Northern settlements were scattered around grazing land in villages or hamlets while the South had well developed cities based on cash crop economics and industries like goldsmith, wood furniture and leather factories.
CLIMATIC FACTORS & BLDG. RESPONSE THE SOUTHERN REGION
Humidity : Rainfall :
Average daytime temperature is about 85 F. There is only a small difference in night and day temperatures.
Heavy between April and September
Cool sea breeze from the coast
There is only a small difference between night and day temperature, hence the outdoor temperature can be assumed to be fairly constant* To keep Indoor temperature within the comfort cone, the architecture of this region dlctetee building orientation in the southwest direction to facilitate cross ventilation to the extent that temoerature build-up in interior spaces is minimized. Large fenestrations are used on the southwest walls as prevailing wind direction
is southwest. The walls are shaded from the intense solar radiation by deep roof overhands to reduce solar heat gains. The ground treatment is generally with green vegetation. The purpose was not only for environmental beauty hut as a device used to absorb the solar heat into the ground and thereby reduce the diffused radiation that will be available for absorbtlon by the walls. The roofs are pitched because of the heavy rains that occur in this region.
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THE NORTHERN REGION
Humidity : Rainfall : Winds :
High daytime temperature and low night temperature
Occasional high winds Savanna/Sub-Saharan desert
The architecture of this region is not dependent on building orientation. The major architectural elements used here as a response to the climate are the wall construction, which is similar to the trombe walls in modern day architecture, but without grazing, and the flat roof.
Building construction is usually in adobe.
The walls are very thick, about â€12" or more, with 2" air space between them. This serves as a mass that absorbes solar radiation during the day. By the time the sun sets, the outdoor temperature falls drastically and the "trombe" wall now uses the absorbed heat to keep interior spaces warm. The time-lag of the "trombe" walls is critical. It is amazing how these people have been able to determine the thickness of their walls to create enough time-lag. The roofs are usually flat, with huge space between the ceiling and the roof slab. This is technically ingenious because.the dead space in-between the roof and ceiling serves as a heat trap which is dissipated into the interior room when needed at night.
In conclusion, one would realize that available literature on traditional African architecture, has to a large extent, been partisan. Most of them written by foreigners who have shown lack of understanding of the political and social concerns of the region they wrote about. It is my opinion that modern architects have alot to learn from ancient African architecture, much as they learned from Rome, Venice, etc.
Seduced by the mystique of the new, not to mention additional dollars, Colorado's housing developers have been quick to add solar options to their basic single and multi- family tract home package. Boulder realtors are busy pushing the well advertised Solar Tour of Homes. According to them, no Porsche in the garage is complete without solar panels on the roof. Local solar scuttlebutt even has it that fake collectors are in existence in Albuquerque (Keeping up with the fcoleris). But as the initial rush
subsides, and the facts and figures of the efficiency of these systems becomes available, the need for solar site planning and engineering from beginning stages of development is obvious. More often than not, today's tract home builder fails to realize the importance of solar easements, proper orientation, 'tight' envelopes, etc. The underlying goal in going solar, energy.effi-ciency and self-reliance is lost. The solar conversion fails to go beyond the custom option, a status symbol of a 'concerned' family.
We Americans have geared ourselves to a two temperature environment- inside and out. Constant ranges have always been maintained throughout our dwellings. But we are now seeing electrical and mechanical systems that provide for the complete shutdowns of unused, or rarely used,,areas. The 'warm -heart' concept carries this idea further- put the thermal mass where it is needed, near the inhabitants. The kitchen, living and dining rooms are clustered around this mass. The numerous possible configurations lend itself ideally to condominium and townhouse design- small areas can be opened up horizontally and vertically to give an added feeling of spaciousness. Common walls between units become desirable, in terms of energy savings, as well as cost reduction in materials. The greenhouse, as part of the solar heating system is unnecessary. The large, slow-moving air spaces it creates are undesirable in a totally engineered envelope- thin, quick moving air ducts are far more efficient.
The â€™warm-heartâ€™ principle is an architect's ideal situation however. What do we do with what we already have?- Acre after acre of split-level subdivision box, hopelessly tied to Public* Service. The greenhouse offers possible relief to our existing predicament. When added for the primary purpose of solar heating, and not solely as an attempt to gain extra floor space, the greenhouse yields impressive results.
One such greenhouse, designed by Dave Barrett of Sunflower Architects, and constructed in the Gunbarrel Subdivision of Boulder two years ago, has since been closely monitored. Fuel costs were cut 63% the first winter of operation. During the particularly cold winter of 1979-80, heating was cut by 70%. In addition, approximately $850 worth of vegetables were grown those same two seasons.
The first step in the greenhouse conversion was the addition of insulation to the existing 2400 sq, ft. home, making it 'tight' enough to benefit from the passive heating. The greenhouse was designed to stretch along the entire southern exposure(40 ft. long X 10 ft. wide). Two tons of thermal mass, brick pavers, concrete, and ten 2 ft. diameter X 10 ft. high Kalwall water columns, were added. ( Tar-lined corrugated metal pipe is a-nother possibility for storing a water mass.)
By using a wide variety of masses, heat loss under all climatic conditions is minimized. The upstairs master bedroom and bath were located on the south wall of the building ( Get the people near the mass). The lowest temperature ever reached was 43 degrees in Febuary 1980 after four consecutive days of cloud cover. Interestingly enough, the high temperature of 100 was achieved later that same month. Heat distribution is controlled by the existing first floor sliding glass doors and windows.
By building the structure himself, the home-owner ended up paying $20 per sq. ft., considerably less than a contractor would have charged.
He expects to be totally paid back in seven years, from fuel savings alone. Food is a bonus.
In fact, the homeowner is so enthusiastic about his success, that the neighbors are catching on. Greenhouses are sprouting up all around him, including the one across the street, on the north side of the house. The real challenge to today's architect is no longer convincing-builders in going solar, but rather in accepting their 'why nots', and designing truly efficient systems that realize the potential of solar energy.
Thefts are occurring again, please take care of your personal belongings! Even minor thefts should be reported to Public Safety.
Students, Faculty,AHEC and Physical Plant pers sonnel met recently to discuss Room 23 and the problems we are having with temperature fluc-uations. dust and dirt accumulations in the room. All present at that meeting felt that everthing possible was being done to make that room tolerable, and from later reports there have been improvements. All of the instructors who use that room have elected to remain. AHEC will make every effort to ,find another room for any class that wishes to move, should conditions again become intolerable. There are various rea-
sons for the problems associated with Room 23 as well as the Bromley Building. If further problems should develope please report them to the office so that we can prepare a formal complaint. If there is a problem after hours, please call Public Safety(629-3274 and ask them to contact Van Harper on his beeper about the problem. We appreciate everyone's patience and cooperation with this very frustrating problem.
THURSDAY, 8: 30la. ra.
9:30a.m. 10:30a.m. 1:00p.m. 2:00p.m. 3:00p.m.
APRIL 30. ROOM 254-256
Andy Kenny Randy Falk Neil Reynolds David Powers David Madeira David Lay
Arapahoe Airport llotel/Ccnvention Center Industrial Park Convention Center UCD Graduate School of Design & Planning Light-rail Station for Boulder Lakewood Municipal Center
CANDIDATES for the master of architecture DEGREE WILL BE PRESENTING THESES THURSDAY, APRIL 30, 1981 THROUGH FRIDAY, MAY 8, 1981 LOCATION: STUDENT CENTER, ROOMS NOTED BELOW
FRIDAY, MAY.1, ROOM 151 8: 30.am. Richard tlamai 9:30a.m. Jerry Gloss 10:30a.m. Mike Collins 1:00p.m. Mike Rodriguez 2:00p.m. Ed Samuel 3:00p.m. Tom Harry
Mixed-use Project for Downtown Denver Housing for CU, Boulder
Re-use of Tivoli, Graduate School of Design & Planning Metro-rail Station, Miami, Florida Church School
Mixed-use Complex for Downtown Denver
MONDAY, HAY 4, ROOM 254-256 8:30a.m. Tim Leong 9:30a.m. Pete GiLstad 10:30a.m. Greg Hepp 1:00p.m.. Brian Brazee 2:00p.m. Jon Talgo 3:00p.ra. Dan Englebrecht 4:00p.m. Mike Lcsoing
Denver Concert Hall
Urban Shopping Place, Downtown Denver Aurora Central Library
High Rise/Comtnercial Center Airport Terminal Urban Housing
TUESDAY, HAY5, ROOM 254-256 8:30a.m. Terry Carpenter 9:30a.m. Jim Wright 10:30a.m. Bernie DeCosse 1:00p.m. Derk Buttjes 2:00p.m. Jim Smolherman 3:00p.m. Randy McMillan
Theater Complex, Denver Center Middle Income Housing Planetarium, Canada
Joint thesis project-Mixed-use
UCD Graduate School of Design &
for the Intergration of the Arts
WEDNESDAY, , MAY 6>, ROOM 254 -256
8:30a.m. Marga Friberg Morrison Shopette
9:30a.m. John Allison Northglen City Hall
10:30a.m. Chris Williams "Southside" Mixed-use Development
1:00p.m. John O'Dowd High Rise Condos
2:00p.m. Richard Bernstei n Mixed-use Complex
3:00p.m. David Freedman Psychiatric Hospital
THURSDAY, MAY 7, ROOM 254- 256
8:30a.m. Tom Da r ne r Mixed-use project
9:30a.m. Tom Beck Hotel, Steamboat
10:30a.m. Bill Nardin Housing
1:00p.m. Willie Chiang UCD Graduate School of Design & Flann
2: OOp .in. Carl Newmark Hotel
3:00p .in. Dean Foreman CU Art Museum, Boulder
4:00p.m. Maliammad Mowlavi Suburban Development
FRIDAY, MAY 8, ROOM 254-256
8* 30a.m. 9: 30a. rn. 10:30a.m. 1:00p.m. 2:00p.m. 3:00p. r.i.
Dave Thomas Randy Williamson Paul Pierce Peter Becker Mark Ward Rich ard r a r i s
Mixed-use Development, Steamboat Village Square Leisure Center Piazza D'Gillespie, El Jcbel, Co. Continual Education Center, Boulder Comparetivc* lio*usinÂ£ Stcdv
(click) hello there living, person !
BEFORE YOU G.O , DON'T MISS .MICHAEL'S GRAVES' NEWEST ITEM 1 SOLAR, TALKING TOMBSTONES . NOW YOU CAN HAVE
THE LAST WORD)
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Making The News This Week remainder of Alatorre's term, WW\je 1 Hernandez for the regular primary (also June G) ! t d determm'l f 'Party nominees for November's election. Hernandez lost narrowly to Polanco in April ... Arizona state Sen. Luis Gonzales says he'll oppose U .S. Rep . Morris The na . tional award jury of the Freedom Foundation chooses San Antonio Mayor Henry Cisneros as a winner of its 1986 Freedom Leadership Award for "his constructive and responsible leadership" ... The San Francisco Board of Education names San Jose School Superintendent Ram6n Cortines as its new superintendent replacing the ousted Robert Alioto ... At a regional meeting in Los Angeles, members of the Mexican American Political Association endorse RiChard Polanco (winner of the April8 special Democratic primary to fill the 55th District state Assembly seat formerly held by Los Angeles City Councilor Richard Alatorre) for the June 3 special election to fill the Udall for the Democratic n ' omination in the 2nd Congressional District and challenges Udall to limit campaign spending to $150,000 ... Edgardo Delgado, a spokesman for the Puerto Rico Justice Depart ment, says 91 -not 200-to-500 persons as has been reported in the . media-died in the October rock and mud slide in Mameyes. He says 40 bodies have . been recovered and 51 are still buried ... The American Institute of Arts and Letters names writers Barry L6pez and Cecile Pineda among 17 winners of 1986 awards for"work of distinction" ... The United States Sports Academy names golfer Nancy L6pez its Professional Sportswoman of the Year . . . HISPANIC LINK WEEKLy REPORT I May5,1986 Hispanics Getting More Set-Asides Hispanic federal contract procurement in creased 19% from $700 million in 19-84 to $831 million in 1985, according to an audit released April22 by the National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials. The increase for Hispanics accompanied a slight overall decrease in procurement for minorities through the Small Business Ad ministration's 18-year-old 8 (a) program-the federal governmenfs primary tool in setting aside federal contracts for minorities. Adjusting for inflation, total minority procurement fell from $2.71 billion in fiscal year 1984 to$2.65 billion for the 1985 fiscal year. The third annual audit of the SBA's 8 (a) program by NALEO also showed a substantial FEDERAL PROCUREMENT TO HISPANIC 8 (a) FIRMS 1984 (top states) Calif. Texas N.Y. Colo . Ariz . N.J. N.M. Fla. (in thousands) 1984 1985 $209,762 $173,071 86,737 1-05,468 67,042 114,077 32,01_ 3 52,981 21 ,469 18,209 16,677 22,231 14,145 1 6,460 2,544 5,426 Change 21 o/o + 22o/o + 70o/o + 65o/o 18o/o + 33o/o + 16o/o +113o/o Source: NALEO, Small Business Administration increase in procurement contracts by Hispanics from 1983 to 1984. It surged from $378. million in 1983 to the $700 million 1984 level an increase of 120% . Roberto Cervera-Rojas, executive director of the National Hispanic Association of Con struction Enterprises, said of the growth: "Hispan ics have become more aware of the existence and potential of the contracts through the efforts of groups such as the national chamber (U.S. Hispanic Chamber of Commerce) and ourselves . " Hispanics accounted for 1.5% of set-aside contracts in 1985 and 0 . 5% of all federal contracts awarded last year, noted the NALEO report. continued on page 2 Gil Pompa at 54 1973 and was instrumental in working out the C\greement that ended waifare between members of the American lndi. an Movement and federal law enforcement agencies. Gilbert G . Pompa, Asst U.S. Attorney General and director of the U.S. Just ice Department's Community Relations Service who began working with that agency in 1967 as a field representative in San Antonio, died at his home in Fairfax , Va., April 28 of a heart attack. He was 54. "Gil was a valued member of our manage ment team;" Attorney General Edwin Meese Ill said "His leadership bene fited the country in numer ous He will be greatly missed." Working for and ap pointed by both Democrat and Republican presidents (Carter and Reagan), Pompa had the ability to adjust to different administrations "while not forgetting where he came from," a friend of 17 years told Weekly Report . "He was always concerned that there were not enough visible Hispanics in the adminis tration," Gil Chavez, a senior staff member with the Federal Interagency Committee on Education, said. "There were not many like Gil that came into government and stayed that long because it gets to be a lonely battle." As head of the federal governmenfs elite corps of conflict troubleshooters and peace makers, Pompa was responsible for 10 regional offices that mediate to help resolve community problems and confrontations. He served as mediator during the 90-day siege at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, in $7.9 Miilion for Injury A Mexican man's claim that his former employer and its insurance carrier conspired to keep him from seeking legal help following a 1976 work accident has resulted in a $7 . 9 million award in damages from a Compton, Calif., Superior Court jury. Raul Rodriguez, Who had worked for Western Dyeing & Finishing Co. for four years, was pulled into a carpet-rolling machine . An arm and leg were mangled and his testicles and penis were torn from his body, his lawyer said. Pompa was instrumental in heading conciliation efforts in the nationally publicized dispute in 1974 between the United Farm Workers and Teamster's Union in California's San Joaquin Valley. He also directed the Justice Depart menfs response to 1980 racial riots in Miami . Born in Devine, Texas, Pompa attended St. Mary's University in San Antonio, receiving a degree in law from that school in 1958. Following two years of private law practice he headed the San Antonio Municipal Courfs prosecution division and later became chief of the misde meanor division of the Bexar County. District Attorney's office in Texas . . In 1969 Pompa was appointed CRS assistant director of Field Services, associate director for National Service in 1970 and CRS deputy director in 1976. PresidentJimmyCarter nomi nated Pompa to head the agency in 1978 and President Ronald Reagan reappointed him in 1981. . He is survived by his wife, Hermelinda, daughters Janiece Pompa of Salt Lake City and Darlene OToole of Fairfax, and son Gilbert Russell, also of Fairfax. Other survivors include his mother, Manuela Pompa, three sisters and a brother. . -:-Carlos Morales Gutierrez Beats Torres Luis Gutierrez defeated Manuel Torres in the April29 runoff for Chicago's 26th Ward aldermanic seat. Gutierrez won 53% of the votes, or 7,429, compared with 47%, or 6,549 ballots, for Torres. The victory by Gutierrez, an aWy of Mayor: Harold Washington, and that of Marlene Carter, also a Washington candidate, in the runoff for the 15th Ward, gives the mayor a 25 split in the City Council. Washington, whose appointments and programs had been thwarted by 1Oth Ward Alderman Edward Vrdolyak up to now, possesses the tie breaking vote. Botti Gutierrez and Carter will be in to the council on May 14.
elixir in stock. Sin pelos en Ia lengua COME HOME, EDDIE, YOU NEED US: EddieOimoswassucha nice young man when he lived in laid-back Southern California, before he started hanging around with that Miami Vice crowd. At the Miami media conference, Olmos kept some40 reporters and others spellbound as he re-re-re-recounted his purse-snatch heroism . The chase scene alone lasted longer than any I ' ve ever seen on JV. Then he stepped out of h i s depth. He plunged into a soliloquy about his post-earthquake mercy missions into Mexico. But, now, after listening to him try to outdo Geraldo Rivera at the Hispanic media conference in Miami , I ' m worried . Suntanned and sockless, Eddie showed up just a few days after every newspaper and television station in the country recounted his tale of rescuing a lady's purse outside a Miami shopping center by screaming, "Miami Vice . Freeze!" Now remember, nearly every U.S. paper which covered the earthquake turned its Latino reporters loose on the story . At the Miami conference , there had to be 40 or 50 of them who scrambled with the rest of the world press for exclusives . Even though he didn't catch the hoodlums, 1 believe the incident really happened. I really do. I do, I do. But remember, I'm the one who some years ago in Mexico believed it FOUR times in a row when press agents for U.S. cowboy actors filming features there planted stories with the Mexico C ity w i res about how their client-cowboy stars saved the life of an Indian boy. But they all missed the real story, Eddie told them. Instead of 10,000 people killed by the quake , the toll was really in six figures , he whispered, asking the roomful of journalists not to reveal their source -or his life would be i n jeopardy. The Mexican government was covering up. Then, based on things he saw in Mexico, he told the room (again requesting anonymity) that a new Mexican revolution was at hand and it would dwarf anything ever witnessed on this planet. Indian boys, I guess. By coincidence, in the space of just a few months, an Indian boy watching each make a movie on location was b i tten by a vicious, deadly snake (or, for variety, scorpion or tarantu Ia). 1 n each case, the star swept the Ind i an boy into h i s arms and galloped 10 m i les at full speed to a doctor who happenj'ld to have the propel But the biggest expose came later on , revealed by yet another speaker, actor Luis Avalos. "Want t o know what was really in AI Capone ' s vault that Gera l do was poking around in? " he asked us. "The roast beef they served us ton i ght. " Set-Asides Increase continu e d from pa g e 1 Pres ident Reagan's budget proposal calls for slashing SBA's budget from $885 million in fiscal year 1986 to $95. 3 million in 1987. Ultimately, SBA would be abolished and its 8 (a) program transferred to the Minority Business Development Administrat i on of the Commerce Department NALEOs r eport argued that the move would reduce the program ' s effectiveness as an advocate for minorities because it would put it under the purview of the smaller and less powerful MBDA. The report found that 63% of all federal contracts obtained by minorities in 1984 came through the 8 (a) program. The Depart ment rtf Education awarded all of its contracts to minorities through the program . -Felix Perez Low Puerto Rican Scores Puerto Rican college students in the state of New York had the highest failure rate among those who took that state ' s teacher certification tests in October, found a study released April 18. The report, prepared by the State Department of Education , revealed that Puerto Ricans had a passing rate of between 36 and 50 percent Black students' passing rate ranged from 42 to 60 percent ; white students, more than 80 percent. Angelo Gonzfilez, executive director of Aspira of New York, questioned the validity of the tests which he called " irrelevanf ' in measu r ing the skills of teachers . The three-part test cons i sts of communications skills , general knowledge and professional knowledge . FEDERAL AGENCY SPENDING AND PROCUREMENT TO HISPANIC 8 (a) FIRMS 1985 (in thousands) Total TotaiB (a) Hisp. 8 (a) H i sp . H isp. % Total ::ontracts Contracts Contra c ts 8 (a)% Contracts Agriculture $1,376,673 $53,342 $24,938 46.8% 1.8% Veterans Admin. 1 ,552, 011 7 9 ,223 34, 451 43.5% 2.2% Justice 359,905 16,959 6 ,702 39.5o/o 1.9% Commerce 370,358 11,163 3,622 32.4% 1.0% Defense 150,593,138 1,834,914 591,519 32.2% 0.4% Gen. Serv. Admin. 1 ,398, 111 61,662 18,632 30.2% 1.3% Interior 407,614 63,669 19,008 29.9% 4.7% Energy 13,099,058 ' 110,717 32,338 29.2% 0.3% Transportation 1 ,560,433 169,846 46,214 27.2% 3.0% NASA 7,426,643 102,110 26,677 26.1 o/o 0.4% Labor 540,296 3 ,710 962 25.9% 0 .2% HUD 57,847 13,174 2 ,565 19.5% 4.4% State 239,196 42,904 7 ,930 18.5% 3.3% Educaticn 155,845 7 ,356 1,245 16.9% 0.8% Health.and Human Serv. 1,060,954 56,545 8 ,320 14.7% 0.8% EPA 558,695 14,129 1 ,732 12.3% 0.3% Treasury 397,087 9 ,526 958 10.1 o/o 0.2% Other Exec. Agencies 1,449,692 94,346 3,592 3.8% 0.2% Total 182,603,556 2 ,745,295 831,405 30.3% 0 .5% Sou r ce : NALE O , The S m all Bu s i ness Adminis trat i on and th e Offic e o f M a n ag ement and Budget. 2 ' -Kay Barbaro Jorge Hernandez Dies Jorge Hernandez, executive director of Boston's /nquilinos Boricuas en Acci6n, died April 1 0 of r espiratory complications. Hernandez, 35,.was widely known through out the nation for his stewardship of the Emergen. cy Tenants Corporation, a community organizat ion formed in 1 968 to fight the displacement of 2,000 Puerto Ricans in the city's South End . ETC planned, funded and manages a hous i ng complex named Villa Victoria , with nearly900 units. Hernandez was born in Arecibo , Puerto Rico , on Jan. 18 , 1951 . He received his bacca laureate in mathematics from Cornell Univers i ty in 1971 and his master's from Harva r d in city planning in 1973. He was recognized and honored with several awards , i ncluding a 1985 special recogn i t i on award from t he Nat i onal Urban League . Hernandez was also on the board of directors of the National Puerto Rican Coalition in Washington, D . C . Hernandez is survived by his parents , Jose Hernandez and Carmen Martinez de Hernandez, and two brothers, Wilfredo and Ivan His family lives in San Juan, Puerto Rico , and has established the Jorge N . Hernandez Cultural Center Trust Fund , c/o IBA, 405 Shawmut Ave., Boston , Mass . 0211 8. FCC Probes Texas Station A June 16 Federal Communications Com mission hearing will determine if U . S . Rep . Albert Bustamante (D-Texas) and two of his political backers misrepresented the financial equity of a TV station to obtain its operating l icense in November 1984. The hearing was requested March 27 by Nueva Vista Productions, Inc., one of seven applicant groups then competing for the license 'of Channel60, a low-power television station in San Antonio. Charges filed with FCC Adm i nistrative Judge Edward J . Kuhlmann said that they falsely certified that reasonable financial backing assurance existed from all the investors. Hispanic Link Weekly Report
THE GOOD NEWS FLORIDA FARM WORKERS: The 150-page report "The Hands that Feed Us" depicts the poor living and working conditions of undocumented, primarily Hispanic, farm workers in southern Florida. Send a $5 prepaid order to: American Civil Liberties Union, 122 Maryland Ave. NE, Washington, D . C. 20002 (202\ 544. GUIDE TO MINORITY GROUPS: The 378-page 198586 edition of "Guide to Multicultural Resources" contains addresses and tele phone numbers of business, media, civil rights and other minority organizations. It includes 51 pages on Latino groups. Price: $24.95 plus $2.50 shipping. Contact: National Minority Campus Chronicle, P.O . Box 9869, Madison, Wis. 53715 (608) 251. CAMB/0 FOR LATINAS: Fifteen $1,000 awards will be given to those Hispanic women who want to change to a business-related career or education. Applicants should have graduated from high school at least five years ago. Applications must be postmarked by May 12. Contact: Liz Montoya, Project Cambio , National Image, 2162 Candelera, Santa Fe , N . M . 87501 (505) 473. DOUBLE LIVES FOR M EXICANAS: A 31-page study found that Mexican American women shuttling between Mexico and the United States convert from submissive to assertive roles in the family. For a copy, send $1.40 to: Prof. Sylvia Guendelman, Maternal and Child Health Program, of Public Health, 306 Earl Warren Hall, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. 94720 (415) 642. CUBANS IN FLORIDA: The 53-page "Cuban Immigration and Immigrants in Florida and the United States: Implications for lm migration Policy" analyzes the impact of Cubans on Miami and surrounding areas. Send $9 (plus 5% tax for Florida residents) to: Bureau of Economic and Business Research, 221 Matherly Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla . 32611 (904) 392. FREEDOM OF SPEECH IN CUBA: A 59-page book reports the experiences of intellectuals imprisoned by the Cuban government For a copy of" Harnessing the Intellectuals: Censoring Writers and Artists in Today's Cuba," send $3 to: Cuban American National Foundation, 1000 Thomas Jefferson St. NW, Suite 601, Washington, D . C . 20007 (202) 265. CORPORATE CLASSIFIEDS PERSONNEL MANAGERS: Let Hispanic Link help you in your search for executives and professionals. Mail or phone your corporate classified ads to: Hispanic link, 1420 N St N.W. , Washington, D.C. 20005. Phone (202) 234. Ad copy received by 5 p . m. (El) Tuesday will be carried in Weekly Reports mailed Friday of the same week Rates: 75 cents oer word Display rates: $35 per column tnch. DISABLED PERSONS OFFICE COORDINATOR $23,177$26,572 Ann . No . 16186ADI-iS Professional wor k coordinating th e r e view. modificatio n and implementation of all count y fa c iliti es, progra m s ar.d services to ensure inclusi o n of disabled persons. Employee i s responsible for ensuring oompliance with secti o n 504 of the Rehab A c t o f 1973 and providing technical as sistance to a wide range of county employees, c itiztms and bu s ines se s in providing ac commodation f o r the disabled. Requires B . S . and on e year e x peri e nce i n related field. Preferenc e may b e give n to applicants with experience in: Aj sect i o n SECRETARIAL POSITION 504 of the Rehab Act including analysis and elimination of barriers; B) Working with a wide v ariety o f disabilities; C ) com munity groups, c it i zens and agencies and D) i n administra t i v e work. budgeting/plan n i ng , etc. Official Arlington County application form r e quired . To requ e st application mat eria l please call (703) 5582167 weekda y s between 8 :00 am.-5:00 p . m . EDT, Applications must be received into the P ersonnel Department no laterthan5 :00 p .m. o n May S . 1986. Interested persorisshould submit resume to .\lational Public Radi o . Personnel. 2025 M St. Professional_ association _in the Dupont Circle NW. Washington. D . C . 20036 (202) 822 a rea of Washmgton. D.C .. I S seekmg a capable. , 2000_ m ature individual for s ec retarial pos i ti o n . Excellent typing skills e s sential. Contact: PRINCEGEORGE'SCOU..,.IY, MARYLAND, Mrs. Gray (202) 83341 o . g o vernment offic e of personnel has a JOB h o t line (301) 952. ASSOCIATE EDITOR, Washington Bureau news and information programs. Candidate e d i t s program materials; initiates. plans and PROFESSIONAL SERVICES produces program materials for broadcast; direct s live program broadcasts, when assigned GLOMB, HANTEN & BACA LAW FIRM: 1m B . A . or equivalent e xperience and 2 years migration-civillitigation-commerciallaw e x peri ence in b roadcasting journalism. with employmentlaw-federalagencypractice 1815 demonstrated ability to organize and d isseminate . H St. NW. Suite ! 000. Washingto n . D .C. information and to coordinate daily news. 20006 (202) 4 66250 Calendar migration and Drug Probiems . " Lil)da Ximenes (512) 222 HISPANIC EDUCATION CONFERENCE Lansing, Mich . May9,10 THIS WEEK CINCO DE MAYO Arlington, Va. May 5 The Republican Hispanic Assembly of Texas will have U . S . Sen. Phil Gramm (R Texas) keynote its 1st menudo breakfast where the significance of Mexico's independence from France will be discussed. Vince Villa (202) 291 FEDERAL PROCUREMENT New Yo r k May 6 The Street Chapter of Image will co-sponsor a seminar to discuss contract opportunities with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development . Luisa Bras (202) 426 CONGRESSMAN GONZALEZ TRIBUTE Washington , D . C . May 6 There will be a fete in honor of U . S . Rep . Henry B . Gonzalez (DTexas), who celebrates his 7oth birthday . Christine Ochoa (202) 225 HISPANIC POLICE OFFICERS CONFERENCE San Antonio May 8 The Mex ican American Police Command Officers ' Association will conduct its annual conference titied " Hispanic Officers as Resources for National 1mHispanic Link Weekly Report FILM FESTIVAL Washington , D . C . May 8 In celebration of the Cinco de Mayo Mexican holiday, the Mexican American Women ' s National Association in Washington, D.C., will hold a film festival. Pauline Nunez Morales (202) 6381706 HISPANIC WOMEN'S RELATIONSHIPS Rockville , Md . May 8 Titled "Mujeres Hispanas : Ayudense-Relaciones HombreMuier." this seminar, sponsored by the Women ' s Commission of Montgomery County, will look at how the Hispanic culture affects Hispanas ' relationships . Joan Ury (301) 279 CHICANO/LATINO YOUTH DAY Pomona, Calif . May 9 California State Polytechnic State University will sponsor its 1st conference geared toward Hispanic high school sophomores and juniors on leadership skills . Ricardo Diaz (714) 869 HISPANIC COMMERCE San Antonio May 9 The U.S. Hispanic Chamber of Commerce will conduct its first of five regional conferences this year to address issues faced by Hispanic business . Cindy Hall (816) 842 The state ' s Department of Education will sponsor its 6th annual conference to address iSl!!JeS such a_ the Laiino dropout rate and U.S. movement. Vita (517) 373 COMING SOON HISPANIC SUBSTANCE ABUSE Andromeda Hispano Mental Health Center Washington, D . C . May 13 Clotilde Benitez (202) 4838548 COMMUNITY LEADERS AWARDS AND FUND RAISER Committee for Hispanic Ch i ldren and Families Brooklyn , N . Y . May 14 Helene Carr (718) 596 SPOTLIGHT PUERTO RICO'S ECONOMY: The U.S. House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will conduct hearings in Washington, D . C . , on May 20 and 22 to discuss how federal policy impacts the island's troubled economy, esoeciallv unemployment. For further information contact Gail Mukaihata at (202) .225. 3
Arts & Entertainment dig at the Copan site in Honduras will be among three television courses created with $4.5 million from The Annenberg-CPB project. Funding was announced April 15 for New Directions in Archeology, an eight-part series to be produced by Pennsylvania State University with WQED in Pittsburgh. RECENTLY ANNOUNCED GRANTS WILL GIVE ADDED ex posure . to Hispanic artists and train Latinos working in public television and radio stations. A SCHEDULING COMPROMISE HAS ENDED THE controversy over the airing in Colombia of the hit show Miami Vice, accused locally of stereotyping Colombians as drug dealers. Winners of the 1986 Metropolitan Life Foundation Museum Grants for Minority Visual Arts were announced in New York April1 . Two of the seven winners will share a total of $100,000 in gifts and use the grants to display art by Hispanics. They are San Francisco's Mexican Museum, with a $50,000 grant to purchase works by contemporary Mexican Americans for its permanent collection, and Buffalo , N.Y.'s Burchfic.ld Art Center, to receive $10,000 for an exhibition and lecture series on five local Latinos. Colombia's Consejo Nacional de Television approved April 25 the airing of the program , moving it from the proposed 5 :30p.m. time slot to a 10:30 p.m. spot. In approving the airing , the country's Minister of Communications Nohemi San in said, "The series does in effect give Colombia a bad international image , but after it has been widely broadcast to the rest of the world it doesn't make sense (to censor it) in this country. " The Corporation for Public Broadcasting announced the awarding of 16 grants April? to train minorities and women at public radio and television entities across the country. Included among the winners are Gabriel Martinez, a broadcast engineer at KDNA-FM in Granger, Washington ; Cassandra Ortega, a broadcast technician at KUACTV in Fairbanks, Alaska;.and Marta Patino, a producer at KRCBTV in Rohnert Park, Calif. â€¢ ONE LINERS: The hit Broadway show Tango Argentina opened in Miami May 4 ... Jose Tamayo's Antologia de Ia Zarzuela plays at Pasadena , Calif.'s Ambassador Auditorium May 8 ... Works by Brazilian composer Marlos Mobreand Puerto Rican Roberto Sierra . will be performed by the Quintet of the Americas and the American Trio May 10, continuing the 16th lnteramerican Music Festival at the nation's capital... -Antonio Mejias-Rentas In a related item, an archeology course that will focus on the Mayan Media Report MEDIA CONFERENCE HIGHUGHlS: The fourth National Hispanic Media Conference, held April 23-27 in Miami, attracted more than 1,100 participants, nearly double the number drawn to last year's event in Tucson . Alfredo Corchado, a student at the University of Texas, El Paso , won the National Association of Hispanic Journalists' first Guillermo Martinez-Marquez award of $1,000 for his series, " Migrants, the Invisible Workers," pub lished in August by Utah's Ogden Standard Examiner. The 24year-old former migranl wrote the series while working as an intern there last summer. He completes his studies this spring. The competition was open to television and radio entries. More than 40 Hispanic journalists participated. Winners of the first NAHJ national high school essay competition were Martha Torres, HISPANIC LINK WEEKLY REPORT A national publication of Hispanic Link News Service Inc. 1420 'N' Street NW Washington, D.C. 20005 (202) 234-0280 or 234.0737 Publisher. Hector Ericksen Mendoza Editor. Carlos Morales Reporting : Dora Delgado, Felix Perez. Charli<> Ericksen, Antonio Mej i as-Rentas . No portion of Hispanic Link Weekly Report may be reproduced ; or broadcast in any form without advance permission Annual subscription (52 Issues) $98. 'Trial subscription (13 Issues) $28. CONFERENCE COORDINATORS : Include the latest edition of Hispanic Link Weekly Report in participants ' packets at your next conference or convention . For details, ' contact Hector EricksenMendoza (202) 234 . 4 Mark Keppel High School , Alhambra, Calif. (English); Soledad Arguelles, South Miami High School, Miami (Spimish); and Poli Corella, Pueblo High School, Tucson, Ariz . (published news story). Winners from nine regional con tests participated . ELECTION RESULTS: Election of officers and board for the National Association of Hispanic Journalists was staged at the Miami conference, with the following individuals voted in for 1986-1987 terms : Manuel Galvan, reporter, Chicago Tribune; first v.p. , Julio Moran, reporter, Los Angeles Times; second v.p., Maria Elena Salinas, reporter/anChor , KMEX TV, Los Angeles; secretary, Elaine Rivera, reporter, Washington Times; treasurer , Jesus Rangel, reporter, New York Times; delegates-at-large: Evelyn Hernandez, reporter, Miami Herald; Mario Villafuerte, photographer, Austin AmericanStatesman; Steve Padilla, reporter , San Diego Union. Elections for regional representatives are to be completed within 45 days following the conference. . OTHER NAHJ BOARD ACTIONS: The NAHJ board formalized its decision to holo the 1987 conference in Los Angeles and voted to stage the 1988 conference in Texas . A number of Texas cities indicated interest in hosting the event. The board also set Washington, D.C. , as the location for its next meeting, probably in June or July . It chose Philadelphia as the probable location for its fall meeting, which will be conducted in conjunction with the board meet ing of the National Association of Black Journalists. BULLETIN BOARD: The New York Times used the occasion of its Miami conference luncheon to announce that reporter Lydia Chavez, now covering Latin America for the paper , would be assigned as its and the nation ' s first U.S. Hispanic affairs reporter ... With: board approval, NAHJ Executive Director Frank Newton will begin development of a job referral service for the Midwest and East similar to that operated by the California Chicano News Media Association ... Ericksen FIRST AWARD: Alfredo Corchado (third from left), receives congratulations as winner of the first Guillermo Martinez-Marquez professional journalism award from Martinez-Marquez, 85-year-old international columnist based in Miami. Looking on are Guillermo Martinez, retiring president of the National Association of Hispanic Journalists (left) and incoming President Manuel Galvan (seated). Hispanic Link Weekly Report