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Laminations, March, 1982

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Title:
Laminations, March, 1982
Series Title:
Laminations
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University of Colorado Denver
Filkins, John
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Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
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English

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newspaper ( sobekcm )

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Auraria Library
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UNIVERSITY OF 'COLORADO AT DENVER
r*' H
AN ENVIRONME
MTAL DESIGN STUDENT PUBLICATION
MARCH 1982


UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
LAMIIMOOTONS
EDITOR:
Peter Levar STAFF:
Dave Evans Nils Hjerman Nicholas Antonopoulos Chris Gallagher Paul Hopper Siulina Mega Melanie Ancin Dick Hansen Dan Jansenson
Special thanks to:
Dolores Hasseman
Funding:
The Deezine Club
American Institute of Architects College of Environmental Design
Cover Illustration:
Nils Hjerman
Mailing Address:
Laminations
c/o College of Environmnetal
Mailing address:
Laminations
c/o College of Design and Planning 1100 14th Street Denver, Colorado 80202
STUDENTS: Mike Martin, Resident Dean in Boulder reported there are 10 TA positions needed in Boulder for Fall Graphic Problem Solving, meeting on Tuesday and Thursday afternoons. Please submit a statement on why you would like to be a TA, and a portfolio of your work. Send these to Mike Martin in Boulder. You may bring them to the office and we will mail through the shuttle to Boulder for you.
LECTURE: Talk and Discussion - Brown bag lunch, 12:00 noon, March 30, Third Floor Studio, with MR. DOUGLAS COSTLE, Former Head Administrator, The Environmental Protection Agency, Washington Office, under the Carter Administration. TOPIC:
The American Environmental Revolution:
An Attempt at Some Perspective.
Sponsored by the Planning/CD Division.
STUDENTS: Students need to make a con-
cious effort to keep the studios and facilities (Laminations office, darkroom, blueprint area, shop, etc.) NEAT and CLEAN. Please pick up after yourselves! Lack of AHEC housecleaning is due in part to their perception of the College as a disaster area that the students are unwilling to take care of. Help yourselves improve our image.
Due to misuse of equipment, we remind you that you are responsible for facilities and equipment you use, including damage and loss. Lack of equipment only hurts other students.
1982 STUDENT AWARDS BANQUET
On April 9, 1982, the College of Design and Planning will present our Awards Banquet to include all the divisions (Boulder and Denver). It will be held at the Brown Palace Hotel, with cocktails (cash bar) at 6:00 pm; 7:00 pm dinner; and 8:00 pm awards. The cost for students and their guests is $9.75 each. Any student who will receive an award will attend the dinner as a guest of their particular division. These students will be notified. Cost for the dinner/ tax/gratuity is $17.75. Please make reservations, with Dolores or Donna by Tuesday, April 6, at 5:00 pm.
We are also pleased to announce that the main speaker for this Awards Banquet will be Paul Goldberger, who is the Architecture Critic for the NEW YORK TIMES.
His expenses are being paid by the generosity of Eugene Sternberg.
We urge everyone to attend this festive occasion with professionals from the community. If you have any questions regarding the banquet or the awards, please let the office know. We are all excited about this event for the College.
POINTS OF INTEREST
We are pleased to announce that as of February 18, 1982, the name of the College of Environmental Design has been officially changed to:
COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING The sub-unit at Boulder be designated the Environmental design Divisions, Boulder Campus. The sub-unit at Denver be designated Graduate Divisions of Design and Planning, Denver Campus.
STUDENTS: If you are planning to graduate this Spring 1982, please obtain your diploma card from the office and return directly to the office - Dolores or Donna. Also, please check with your respective division to be sure you have fulfilled all requirements .
STUDENTS: We urge you to Mail-In-Register for summer courses. You will be receiving instructions in the mail and materials will be due back by April 9. Please let us know if you did not receive information for admissions .


the
brown
palace
You walk more than three blocks downtown and you feel parched, as if you’re crossing a desert. The steel and glass towers and the many construction sites create a disturbing atmosphere of hard work, industry, optimism, and it is only when you reach the old Brown Palace Hotel, at Broadway and 17th, that you can rest and re-create.
It's the single most interesting building in Denver. The Palace is an intensely urban, urbane place; it is pleasant to be near it and interesting to walk through it, and it offers one of the few civilizing experiences in the city.
The interior lobby is the best interior public space in Denver. There is a grand lobby rising ten stories to a stained-glass ceiling, surrounded by a nineteenth-century extravaganza of balconies and columns, and walls clad in imported onyx. At the turn of the century,
Lizzie the housecat fell from one of the balconies, plunging nine stories to the lobby.
The horrified staff saw the cat revive and walk away.
On the upper floors, in the hallways, the palazzo-like atmosphere of the lobby is replaced by a well-maintained nineteenth-century Western aura. With striped wallpaper and patterned carpets, there is a strange moment of deja-vu, in those hallways, and you can almost hear the tinkling of silver behind closed doors.
It is easy, in those spaces, to imagine the tunnel that once linked the hotel with the Navarre. Wealthy gentlement guests would sit in tiny railroad cars and be towed, underground, to visit the ladies of the evening across the street.
The building was designed by a Chicago architect, Frank E. Edbrooke, and was completed in 1893 at a cost of two-million dollars. You could, at that time, obtain a room with a fire-
place, facing the street, "equipped," as the original brochure said, "with a system of sanitation the most perfect in existence, and furnished and decorated in exquisite and elaborate taste."
Up on the seventh floor there is an elegant suite, once occupied by a wealthy fox terrier.
The dog became, in 1896, the sole heir of a $50,000 estate, and spent the rest of its life surrounded by plush comfort * fine food, and a maid to look after it. Then it died of consumption.
There were turkish baths in the hotel, billiard rooms, a bowling alley, a fine library, two-story-high dining halls on the top floor and, of course, the tunnel, and all for three-dollars a day.
The outside of the building is clad in Arizona Sandstone and Colorado red granite, and is designed in the style of the Italian Renaissance. Bizarre stone medallions with animal figures were placed between windows on the seventh floor. The onyx on the ground floor, from Coahuila, Mexico, was so expensive that when a ground-floor staircase was replaced in 1937 by an elevator shaft, the onyx there was detached, re-cut and reapplied at great expense (the Art-Deco Westinghouse elevators give a terrific ride). The outside of the building has been terribly defaced by modifications.
The addition of bars and restaurants with strange facades, and the second-floor bridge to the new addition across the street, all reveal the machinations of a criminal mind at work.
The interior has been well-maintained, although lately intimations of shabbiness have crept in, along the corners. The coffee in the San Marco Room is a disaster. But in the end, what matters coffee’s taste, when one reposes in the great Brown Palace?
by D.J.


David Evans
This is a time of great questioning, value appraisal and soul-searching in American society. Our aspirations to be "one nation under God" were shaken by racial unrest, social and cultural alienation culminating in the violence and hatred of the late 1960's Vietnam era. America's foreign affairs in disarray, its cities smoking from rioting, its people fragmented and worn. The resignation of an American President over corruption and the Arab oil embargo added further to evidence that the American dream had ended.
Meanwhile, over at Architecture and Planning Inc. (API) there was new business to be done.
It was business as usual in the best tradition of Heroic Period Modernism. Lyndon Johnson's "Great Society" and The Model Cities Act of 1966 had mandated huge funding of slum clearance, megastructural housing redevelopment and planning of heroic scale. The well meaning Modern movement types had pronounced what was well and good for the masses and then gave to it form.
They were intent, as were the Modern masters of the 1920's, on transformation and establishing the great unity so vital to the democracy.
Kahn's 1953 addition to the Collegiate Gothic Yale Art Gallery. Kahn asked the administrators,
"You don't see that the string courses express the floor lines. They will reveal the structure." Honesty and truth are triumphant.
It was—-mere window dressing. Their forms, ill sited and ill-suited to the users needs became monuments of crime and neglect. The clods (low income almost exclusively) it seems had never been educated as to their benefits. The prism* of light, space and air became their prison; its streets in the air became their battleground. And yet the architect heard himself say (and still says), "The fault lies not in our forms but in ourselves" (meaning the clods—not God forbid, the architects). Yamasaki and Pruitt-Igoe were held blameless—their solution and thoughts were pure—according to the code. But even they,
The Pure, knew the reports of dynamite would mean a slight readjustment in their formal ideas, if not their view toward the great collective populace. They persisted in designing for the middle-middles at the very time the middle-middles were becoming extinct.


Meanwhile, over at Popular American Society Unincorporated (PASU), the business of getting by was being attended to—and the gulf between PASU and API widened. The multitudinous failures at the governmental/bureaucratic/insti-tutional levels had deflated the collective balloon. The consistent, almost systematic thwarting of the majority's will at every level from national representation and the executive branch down through local issues had and has still left a disillusioned, cynical, and unresponsive collective. The vacuum of collective abandonment has been filled by the individual, one who acts not for the collective but for himself. The ascension of the "Me Generation" (actually in progress since the passing of FDR) is both symptomatic and predictive of present and future changes in the American (and world) scene. One of the foremost manifestations of this change is the fragmentation and secularization of people and groups. There is here an inherent breakdown of consensus—of collective unanimity. This process only makes more irrelevant the predisposition of the architect toward universalities, generalizations and ultimate truths in order and form; toward grand plans "total design" concepts, and megastructural solutions. This same process actually makes more relevant the speculative building venture wherein the five year payback overrides any questions of urban or social responsibility, amenities, or decoration except those that may affect the balance sheet.
The architect is caught in the middle. For him the desire to produce quality is weighed against the costs of his office. The urban and social responsibility issues are put off by the avaricious developer. The amenity and style he wishes to give may not be those the user would like to see. There are symbolism, ornament, semiolo-gical, spatial*associational and many issues for which there may be no ground rules or guidelines.
He is beset from all sides. With all this going on, it is no surprise that reductivist prisms abound—that buildings outnumber architectural products by hundreds to one.
If the architect is to halt the erosion in his credibility, he must clearly design for economic conditions but not let them become a basis for his decisions. He must include the social and user parameters rather than exclude.
He must recognize that in a pluralistic society such as ours (i.e. a common society in which factions or groups seek to further special interests) fragmentation and factionalism are inevitable, and absolute truths and processes meaningless. He must develop a critical consciousness versed in historical/cultural parameters and how these operate. Above all he must be relevant to the socio-cultural inputs of his time, not engaged in some insular professionalist diatribe with others of similar bent.
Mies' Farnsworth House of 1945 &
Venturi's Tucker House-1975.
Mies planarity, elemental forms, purity— high espressionism. Venturi—the child's conception qf "house"
There is new hope on the architectural scene. This is broadly labeled Post-Modernism. It is at its base an inclusive mode in which meaning is implied, and associational and symbolic elements used. In short it seeks to embody the whole range of human experience. This enterprise is somewhat like rediscovery of the known world—that its premises, precepts or directions are mostly unknown or ill-defined should not surprise you. What should impress you is that this is the most appropriate response to the pluralistic society. A world as complex and paradoxical as the present, and likely the future, needs a vehicle with this diversity for expression.
The changes evident in modern living must carry over into architecture. Socially speaking the architect is a low priority commodity. He is not so much a form-giver as a receiver of social and cultural parameters within which he must work. His forms, manifestos and plans have never "engineered" society—quite the reverse has always been true. High-minded professional elitism must come to this realization, and return to architectural solutions as a process toward, but not necessarily realizing final resolution. Whether architecture can realize a significant impact on society is doubtful. But society will surely have a major impact on us.


Denver Architecture is pretty boring.
Except what is down-right ugly.
Unless of course, you happen to live on Capitol Hill.
Between Cherry Creek, Colfax and S. Colorado Blvd. this image is beautyfully restored and everything done downtown the last 15 years is forgiven.
Down on 4th behind meticulously manicured hedges and carpet-like lawns we find small neat half-timbered Tudor hide-aways and a handful of scaled-down French 12th C. castles.
All with steep roofs, rustic towers, mullioned dormer-windows and ogee door-heads.
Add a moat and a draw-bridge, drop the Cadillac and the barbecue-stand and you are back in the 12th C. Rhone-valley.
On the Hill you have the entire History of Architecture - worldwide - within a mile radius;
Here Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Byzantine, German & French Romanesque, Dutch & English Medieval, Italian & Spanish Renaissance and even Saracenic blend together.
Opposite my own place on 10th a Seljuk Turkish apartment-building happily coexists with a German Schwarzwald-barn and a 15th Century Flemish Hanseatic Canal-house.
My own place is Spanish Revival.
If you find the old styles too 'cute1, picturesquely bourgeois, a load of anachronistic pretence out of time and place, then you missed the point; This, folks - is serious Architecture. Real efforts by (real) people trying to evoke a sense of identity and continuity in a new land.
/v»


American Eclecticism at its best is especially well represented.
The community is loaded with close-to-perfect Greek cornices and capitals and richly ornamented ovolos and friezes from your great stylistic Revivals.
Pretty Romanesque oriel-windows are abundant, as well as great Renaissance facades with fine stonework and handsomely carved pilasters.
Compared to present downtown-area with its crude sterility and profound lack of sensitivity and real innovation, then Capitol Hill is Heaven on Eartho Not even a 16th StG Mall can fix this cheapness and coldness (rather than coolness) of downtowno
If you think todays Architecture has come a long way up and forward from the dark ignorance of History towards a better understanding of human needs and aspirations - then I*m afraid you are wrong again.
Never did we have more materials, architects, schools and knowledge, as well as architectural poverty. And most of the latter.
To copy old times is not the answer, but our over-confident self-image (not just in architecture) needs shaking now and then.
This College now offers Historic Preservation in form of an Independant Study, much due to Gary Longs interest and belief in the subject. And that is good; We can’t live on Energy-related Design only. You’ll find your future clients will agree with you.
So - leave your Apple Computer behind for a while (it won't mind - the poor thing needs a rest) and head for 6th East and use your eyes.
And expect to meet a (Tom) Wolfe around every corner, admiring the innovative detaining and craftmanship our profession found unnecessary a long time ago.
PS: According to Rocky Mnt. News list of IN and OUT things to do in Colorado - then Capitol Hill is definitely IN.
Make a visit to Denvers hottest after-hours spot - King Soopers on 9th and Corona, and you will see what they mean.
Nils Hjermann


HISTORY AND ARCHITE CTURE OF INDONESIA
By Siulina Mega
One of the earliest stage of human evolution discovered in Indonesia was the fossil remains of Pithecanthropus Erectus or the "Java Man. "
The Java Man lived some 500, 000 years ago.. Following this period, a series of migrations from mainland Asia began. Melanesians and Negritos absorbed the descendents of the Java Man.
Around 8,000 B„C„, the arrival of the Malays from Indochina drove the Negritos into the mountainuous interior regions of Indonesia. The result of assimilation between the two races was the ancestor of the present day "Native Indone-sianso" No one knows exactly when they stopped being nomads, and started to build more permanent shelters from available materials. Huts were erected on stilts mainly for protection from will' animals and occasional floods. The space underneath was useful as storage, work space, shelter for living stock, and disposal of human waste.
Background Information.
Geography
Population
Climate
Archipelago of 13,677 islands of which 6,044 are inhabited. Total land area is 735,865 sq. miles.
143 millions,
Tropical.
Average temperature 70—95* F all year round, There are 2 seasons: Rainy (Nov -April) and Dry season (May-Oc.tc) Days and nights are equal length, Sunrise at 6:00 AM, and sunset at 6:00 P„M..
Section.
A house in North Sumatera.
In the Second Century A.D., commercial trade among China, India, and Indonesia increased tremendously. There was a decline in trade between India and The Roman Empire. Brick and stone were introduced into architecture by foreign influences. These materials were used in larger structures. Hinduism and Buddhism became two predominant religions in addition to the existing strong animism belief in Indonesia.
Buddhist and Hindu Kingdoms flourished and died Hindu temple
leaving behind some magnificent monuments and temples. The most well known Buddhist place of
worship is "Borobudur", an immense stone struc- *n Central Java,
ture in Central of Java. It is considered as one of the wonders of the world.
Borobudur - plan.
Borobudur - Details


â– 9
The Moslem religion was brought to Indonesia by traders from Persia. By the 151** Century almost all Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms had disappeard. Some temples were transformed into mosques. The Moslem/Persian style was becoming an influence in Indonesian architecture„ Not long after this, Indonesians had to face a second power that of the Western World. Portugese, Spanish, English, French, and Dutch ships came looking for valuable spices. As the Dutch involvement grew, their trading area developed into a colonial empire.
For the next 350 years, Dutchmen occupied "Netherlands East Indies." Dutch influence upon every aspect of Indonesian culture was inevitable.
During the tumultuous years of World War II, Indonesia fell into the hand of the Japanese.
The Indonesian Nationalists were able to organize themselves. They issued a Declaration of Independence in 1945 when Japan surrendered to Allied Forces. As an independent country, Indonesia tried hard to catch up with the rest of the world In the first 10 years, economy was the main focus of the Nation.
A Mosque in Borneo.
A typical 1930’s house in Java.
lira
Methodist church in Jakarta.
The following 15 years, rapid progression in cities created more damage than good. There was no master plan, and yet building construction was booming. To accomodate increasing vehicular traffic, streets were widened, and building fronts were cut back. Following the latest style in architecture, people covered their buildings with false facades. The lack of local experts, as well as not wanting to be categorized as an underdeveloped country,led the government to decide to hire foreign consultants. It did not matter whether the building designs would fit the surroundings or not, as long as they were contemporary, they were put up. Given the chance of becoming the host of the Asean Games IV in 1962, triggered the trend evenmore. Despite the poor economy, Indonesia built the largest sport stadium and the largest mosque in Southeast Asia. They built international hotels,National monuments, and more governmental buildings. The building extravaganza did not last very long, because of economic and political instability, as well as communist infiltration, the whole government system collapsed in 1965. It was a of national chaos and emergency.
Jakarta street scene.
" Monumeti Nasional."
The largest mosque in Southeast Asia Jakarta.
Although the standard of living is still low, now Indonesia is back on its feet. New construction both in commercial and residential area can be seen everywhere. Presently the most popular style for luxurious residences is what people call the "Spanish House." It is a mixture of every possible Western classical style one could think of making an incoherent style on its own. In commercial areas, aluminum clad low rise and "Shoe Box" midrise buildings are still the most typical; there are a few exceptions. The lack of sensitivity and respect to the existing structures and tradition are still the major drawback in architecture in Indonesian cities.


AND THE GRAMMAR OF ARCHITECTURE
NICHOLAS ANTONOPOULOS
Sullivan: "Outward appearances resemble inner purposes."
Le Corbusier: "The plan proceeds from within to
without; the exterior is the result of an interior."
More than three quarters of our time is spent under the overt, or more often indirect influence of our immediate environment, interior space. While it would appear that our psychological and physical well-being depends heavilly on the success of interiors in providing optimum conditions for living and functioning, little more than perfunctory notice and treatment is given them by most architects, and superficial attention at best by decorators.
Interiors, rather than being recognized as a discipline with inherent value, has instead become polarized between those who would view it as merely incidental to structure, and therefore worthy of an afterthought, and those who see it as central to what invariably amounts to a dubious expression of good taste. Clearly the distinction here is false, Vhile the term "structure" is shorn of all but its most literal significance. The primary issue behind interior design does not concern adornment.
This loaded distinction between architecture as the exponent of structural purity, and interiors as drnamental frivolity* ultimately leads to a narrower definition of what architecture itself is- especially in the United States, due to the overwhelming influence of technology and a short cultural history. If structure is taken to mean no more than what is necessary to make a building stand up, then architecture begins and ends with the empty shell, a shell that encloses but does not disclose. Yet the shell is a product of other things, is itself embraced by a context beyond
itself, and must, in other words, stand up semiologically as well as literally. As such, the shell becomes a presupposition of what is inside, and not just one more isolated, self-contained fragment to the whole.
It is not enough to think of the shell* in terms only of constituent to whole. This may be scientifically sound, but it nevertheless predisposes the designer to attribute primary emphasis to one component at the expense of the rest, which in turn rejects the notion that the whole structure is greater than the sum of its parts. Here structure is used metaphorically to invoke the meaning of whole environment.
From the perspective of a totality of design, architecture and interiors are not only complementary, but one and the same. Certainly their ends were never far removed in the first place. If we accept the premise that the multiplicity of man's environmental needs and his corresponding abilities to comfortably cope with those needs are legitimate human factors in design, it is apparent that both architecture and interiors would address this question squarely, however different their articulation.
Both in the vernacular tradition of building, and in the work of a few great architects such as Wright, there is an understanding of the diversity of elements that comprise a whole environment (their


complexity and ambiguity), where context is seen not only to extend to, but in great part to derive from the real issues that interiors pose. Vernacular solutions are arrived at unselfconsciously, while Wright advocated designing from the inside out, allowing the interior to naturally articulate its shell, a far cry from the tendency to impose a rigid geometry on a structure and expect the interior to succeed by conforming.
Of course the two can conflict if each poses seperate values. The case where an intolerable environment outside is made livable by posing opposite values within is just one example.
The point is not to obliterate the distinctions between spaces through indiscriminate continuity, or contrived homogeneity, but to achieve the "difficult whole," as Venturi would have it, where the dynamic of transition and a sense of passage and threshold create a dialogue between inside and out.
The language of architecture becomes impoverished without taking into account interiors as a legitimate discourse. Yet there is a characteristic chauvanism that continues to stubbornly manifest itself concerning interiors: interiors is often dismissed on the absurd grounds that it is not properly a "man's" discipline. The word itself carries with it primordial associations with the womb, and the dark and intractable recesses of the mind, yet interiors is common to everyone's experience, and not some sort of mystical domain reserved for the eternal feminine.
This dismissal by way of mystification brings about another misconstrued reference, that interiors is solely concerned with private or personal space, the assumption being that this is space you do not consider because it is a purely subjective problem. Privacy is an important issue appropriate to interiors, but insofar as "a building is a harboring place," as Kahn intimates, then it is not a foreign issue to architecture either. Privacy is but one element in a wide gamut of psychological and physical factors which all contribute to a more complete understanding of an environment so much a part of us, so inextricably bound to our fundamental existence, that we paradoxically obliterate it from consciousness.
Venturi: "Designing from the outside in, as well as
the inside out, creates necessary tensions, which help make architecture. Since the inside is different from the outside, the the wall- the point of change- becomes an architectural event. Architecture occurs at the meeting of interior and exterior forces pf use and space. These interior and environmental forces are both general and particular, generic and circumstantial. Architecture as the wall between the inside and the outside becomes the spatial record of this resolution and its drama."


IZ
Peoplewatching
with William Whyte
For the last ten years William Whyte has been looking at city spaces - taking photographs and time-lapse films, talking to people, gaking notes, trying to discover why some urban spaces work for people and some don't. As director of the Street Life Project in New York City, he initiated a program of small urban space analysis that did not involve question-aires, polls, or economic profiles but rather direct observation. From miles of time-lapse film and exhaustive charting of daily user patterns in 16 plazas and 3 small parks in New York City, Whyte made some surprising discoveries.
Last November William Whyte shared some of his insights with members of the Colorado Chapter/ ASLA while leading a walking tour of downtown Denver and as keynote speaker for the Chapter's annual conference. His appearance at the conference and the showing of his film (generously loaned by Robert Yeager of the Civic Design Team, Denver Partnership) gave the landscape architecture students present some new perspectives on urban open space design.
When he started looking at plazas in the center of New York Whyte realized that the tremendous density of people at certain "choke points"- subway stations in particular- strongly infleunced our perception of the city. This image of the city has affected researcher's and designer's attitudes also. Having been conditioned to see crowding and lack of space because of strong experiences at certain high density areas, we fail to see the empty and little used spaces that are actually all around. The amount of open space had been increasing in New* York City since 1961 due to some innovative zoning that offered incentive bonuses to builders who provided plazas. Some of these plazas attracted people but most did not. The whole idea of trade-offs with builders was to insure''places for people yet most of the spaces were scarcely used. Whyte and his research team set out to discern why in hopes of setting up better zoning guidelines.
The results of his research did enable New York to enact stiffer and more productive zoning regulations. But zoning is not the best way to accomplish good design. Design should be done for its own sake and often is- yet many well intended designs fail because assumptions about people's needs and activities are sometimes not actually valid.
The following are just a few of the lessons learned from Whyte's peoplewatching. Sometimes surprising, sometimes obvious, they are points that designers should bear in mind when dealing with city open space.
(1) What attracts people most is other people.
Many urban spaces are designed as though the opposite were true. When people respond to questionaires they use words like "oasis, retreat, escape" so naturally designing in privacy and seperate spaces seemslike the solution. But what people actually do, according to Whyte's observations, reveals a different priority.
(2) The most popular places had the largest amount of sittable space.
The favorite plazas were not the visually pleasing ones, nor was it a matter of proportion, placement, or location but simply seats.


(3) Benches are primarily used to punctuate architectural photographs.
They are not good for sitting, being generally too small, too few and not placed well.
(4) Moveable chairs are an important element in any urban space.
Their big asset is moveability. People have a choice to move into the sun, out of it, to make room for a group, or to move away from it. The individual has a part in the actual "design" of the space.
(5) The key space for a plaza is not in the plaza. It is the street.
Surprisingly, proximity to the street is the critical design factor. But often a
designer's first thought is how to screen the street activity from the space. Ideally Whyte feels that the transition from street to plaza should be made so that it is hard to tell where one ends and the other begins.
Architects, planners, and landscape architects have much to learn from Whyte's work (and from similar studies, i.e. Fred Kent's Project for Public Spaces ). Whyte's book,
The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces, is a valuable tool for anyone involved in urban space design decisions. In a broader context the methods utilized- first hand observation and analysis, thorough and unprejudiced- have application whereever we hope to have design that truly meets human needs.
— Dick Hansen
CALENDAR
MARCH
17 7:00 am, Urban Design Committee Meeting,
1459 Pennsylvania, Carriage House
17 12:15 pm, Lebanon Lecture, Robert Kindig
Room 202, UCD
17 7:30 pm, Interior Architecture Lecture, John Saladino, Paramount Theatre, $5.
18 7:15 am, Denver AIA Continuing Ed. Prog., "Building Codes", 3 hr. seminar, $15.
18 Gene Ernst (Kansas State),"Generic Housing:Designers in the Great Shelter Game"
19 5:30 pm, Associates Network Party,
1459 Pennsylvania, Carriage House, free.
19 5:30 pm,"International Conservation of
Historic Buildings-A Comparison of Theories & Practices".Dr. Feilden,
Science Bldg, UCD, $2, Reception after.
23 11:30-5:30, Urban Design Symposium,
"Developers and Urban Design", Scott Ditch, Fairmont Hotel, Students-$15 w/lunch, $5 afternoon only
25-27 US Institute for Theatre Technology Annual Convention, Denver Hilton,
AIA members welcome, Contact AIA office- 831-6185
26 5:00-7:00, Architectural Firm Open
House, Engelke Architects, 6950 E. Bellview, wine,cheese,no charge.
30 11:30-5:30, Urban Design Symposium,
"An Overview of Urban Design Strategies for Denver", John Pastier, Raquel Ramati, Brown Palace. Student $15 w/ lunch, $5w/o
30 Mr. Douglas Costier, 12:00, 3rd fl.studio "The American Environmental Revolution:
An Attempt at Some Perspective"
31 All School Student/Faculty Meeting 12:15, Room 23, UCD.
APRIL
3-7 ASCA Annual Conference in Quebec
9 Student Awards Banquet, Paul Goldberger,
Brown Palace Hotel, 6:00
10 "Polyester and Plastic," Deezine Club's
Annual Spring Bash at the Children's Museum with "the Pink".
14 Indonesia Architecture Lecture, Suilina Mega, 12:15, Room 202, UCD
15 "Zion on the Frontier: Mormon Town Planning in the Settlement of the American West", John Reps(Cornell), Boulder Campus
18 United Bank Center Architects Sunday,
17th a d Broadway
18 Interfaith Center, "Creating a Human Environment. in a Growing City", Sam Brown. 3:00-5:00
19-23 Mini-Festival "Film on Design"
20 AIA's 125th Anniversary
22 J.B.Jackson (Santa Fe), "The Memory of Wood:American Vernacular Architecture" Boulder Campus
26,27 DCPA Cinema, 7:30 nightly.
25 NCAR Architects Sunday (Northern Colorado Chapter, Jack Brokow)
29 Constance Perin (MIT) "Suburbia: Symbol & Fact". Boulder.
30 5:00-7:00 pm, Architectural Firm Open Ho House, HWH (Dan Havekost), 1121 Grant, wine and cheese, no charge.
MAY
2 RTD Headquarters Open House Architects
Sunday, (Dominick/RTD/Mall)
9 Hilton/May D&F Architects Sunday
(Denver Chapter AIA)
15 Graduation 2:00 pm, UCD
Honorary Degree-Ieoh Ming Pei
15 7:00-12:00 pm, 16th Street Mall Celebra-
tion Block Party.
28 5:00-7:00, Architectural Firm Open House
Dominick Associates, 1543 19th Street (Wazee Building).
STUDENTS: If you plan to attend Summer School, please sign-up in the office. We are trying to get an idea of enrollment for summer.


14_______
AIA NEWS
AIA NEWS_______________________________________
Coming Up: The Big Event, the 1982 AIA Convention in Honolulu, Hawaii on June 6th - 9th. This years theme will be "A Quest in Time", exploring the areas of innerspace, outerspace, and the world just ahead.
The Hawaii Society/AIA, and students at the University of Hawaii are planning an outstanding welcome, and many special student events.
For information on lodging, means of transportation, and organization of students from U.C.D., see Scott Grady and Lina Mega.
Thesis
Students: We all know that the fun doesn't
end with graduation! You still have apprenticeship and the necessary exams for registration ahead of you. But there is a bright side- each of you will be eligible to become part of an ambitious support group of the AIA - The Associate Members/Denver AIA. This chapter headed by Kevin Mills organizes activities aimed toward your career and registration goals, involvement with the Denver AIA, as well as a few parties here and there.
Interested grads can contact Kevin at 825-^5598, or better yet, meet everyone at their first party on Friday evening, March 19, 5:30-7:30 pm, at the AIA office 1459 Pennsylvania St. (carriage house).
Any questions regarding the Denver/AIA and it's
activities can be directed to:
Brian Bartholomew- third floor Scott Grady- fourth floor.
CELEBRATION!
A Denver Design Celebration in April and May!
The film festival is a fund raising benefit for Larry Atkinson (Series tickets: Patron $100, Regular $50, or $3.50 each to students 15 minutes before performance. Tax deductible.) Superb titles on landscape, urban design, architecture, interior design include "Lewis Mumford: Toward Human Architecture," "An Ames Celebration: Several Worlds of Charles and Ray Ames," "The Writing on the Wall: Architecture and Crime," "Conversation with Frank Lloyd Wright," "Pattern of Beauty: The World of Islam," and many, many more. Sponsored by Denver Partnership, Denver AIA, CSA, and the College of Design and Planning. Contact Ann Tait (831-6185) for tickets and Francine Haber (629-3382/2877), UCD, for program information.
ACRONYMS
A.I.A.- American Institute of Architects (National Level)
A.C.S.A.- Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture
A.S.C./A.I.A.- Association of Student Chapters/ American Institute of Architects
C. S.A.- Colorado Society of Architects
(State Level)
D. D.I.- Downtown Denver, Inc.
Denver Chapter/A.I.A.- Denver Chapter/American Institute of Architects (Local Level)
I.D.P.- Intern-Architect Development: Program
N.A.A.B.- National Architects' Accrediting Board
N.C.A.R.B.- National Council of Architectural Registration Boards
U.I.A.- International Union of Architects (International Level)
Association of Architecture Students
Newly elected board members:
Co-chairpersons
Martha Carlson Dave Anderson
Class Representatives
Deborah Andrews (500)
Chris Liddle (500)
Nan Weidmann (500)
Connie Brace (600)
Bruna Pedrelli (600)
Anne Bain (700)
Emmy Jenson (700)
CSA Educational Committee Rep George Thompson
CSA Board Rep
Melanie Ancin
AIA Board Reps
Brian Bartholomew Scott Grady
ASC/AIA Rep
Lindy Weller
Associates Rep
GRADUATION: May 15, 1982 - 2:00 pm. You will receive a letter from Admissions with instructions for ordering cap and gown if you plan to graduate and have turned in your diploma card.
We wish to announce that I.M.Pei will receive an Honorary Degree, Doctor of Humane Letters, at Commencement on May 15, at 2:00 pm. This is a very significant event for the College.


NAAB review
Christopher G. Gallagher
The presentation is over, the jury has had its say, and the architecture school can now— exhale. Along with the first of the semester came the review team for the National Architectural Accrediting Board. Through three days, January 31 to February 2, the review team watched, talked, questioned, and listened.
STUDENT MEETING
On Monday, February 1, the team assembled students for an informal meeting. Faculty were strickly forbidden from attending. The purpose of the gathering was to air students' concerns about the school,and about the school's faculty and facilities. The meeting was well attended by students from all three design levels. (Anyone else notice how wonderfully vocal those from 500 were?)
Students expressed concerns about a limited number of faculty members, limited studio space, limited jury space, and a limited library with limited hours. A major concern of both the review team and the students was the lack of courses in, the lack of emphasis on, and the lack of resources in architectural theory. Bill McMinn, the spokesman for the review team, called it "focussed professionalism." Because many students require a complete architectural education in three years, the school focusses on the "professional" rather than the "graduate" school aspects of the program.
McMinn calls this being "geared to making buildings." He cited a need for more intellectual research and more discussion of political, social, and human issues.
McMinn went on to question the worth , for students, of juries. He also asked if there is a clear statement of intentions and expectations on the part of the faculty.
When asked about the dedication of permanent faculty, students responded positively. The fall lecture program also received a favorable vote from the students,
STRENGTHS
On February 3, Bill McMinn shared with students and faculty the review team's principle observations. He began with what he called the school's unique strengths. The architecture school's urban setting, he said, is, "right, proper, good." The University of Colorado is the only school he knew of in the country with its undergraduate program in the mountains and its graduate school in the city.
The review team saw an inherent "richness" in the mixed locations of the various design school programs. The team cited the diverse student body as a "rich asset."
With respect to curriculum, the team complimented the school for-establishing an energy program and for maintaining a "well developed" CCDD program.
The team feels confident that the technical aspects of the architecture program are sound and that students are well prepared upon graduation for the job market.
In concluding his review of the school's sum of strengths, McMinn congratulated the faculty, administration, and students for taking part in the gamble to establish a "model" for architectural education here amidst the "dynamic" city of Denver.
CONCERNS
McMinn then began the more somber task of outlining the program's weaknesses, or what he more euphemistically described as the review team's "concerns." He introduced the concerns as being indirectly related to many of the strengths. Sure* graduates will be well prepared for a job, but where will they be 10 or 20 years in the future? The emphasis on a "professional" education is fine, but this is also a graduate school. Students should be continuing to grow intellectually. McMinn warned against becoming a "vocational school." He said that there is too narrow a focus on Denver. The school needs a "world view."
At the same time the team wished to emphasize a need for more professional management courses.
McMinn questioned the the "quality" of student design performance. He said that the faculty should be demanding more; they should be demanding not only a mastering of technical skills, but they should also be serving to incite a sense of "excitement" about design.
The team insisted that it is "absolutely imperative that the school have the resourses of a first rate library." The architecture library, McMinn said, "is as important as a law library is to a law school."
In conclusion, McMinn suggested a closer relationship between Boulder and Denver; he cited a need for more minorities; and he emphasized the importance of keeping the University of Colorado administration aware of the architecture school's needs.


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Full Text

PAGE 1

• II , • = ...... AN ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN STUDENT PUBLICATION . . J)/J< . 11'/. MARCH 1982

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UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER EDITOR: Peter Levar STAFF: Dave Evans Nils Hjerman 'INS Nicholas Antonopoulos Chris Gallagher Paul Hopper Siulina Mega Melanie Ancin Dick Hansen Dan Jansenson Special thanks to: Dolores Hasseman Funding: The Deezine Club American Institute of Architects College of Environmental Design Cover Illustration: Nils Hjerman Mailing Address: Laminations c/o College of Environmnetal Mailing address: Laminations c/o College of Design and Planning 1100 14th Street Denver, Colorado 80202 STUDENTS: Mike Martin, Resident Dean in Boulder reported there are 10 TA positions needed in Boulder for Fall Graphic Problem Solving, meeting on Tuesday and Thursday afternooqs. Please submit a statement on why you would like to be a TA, and a portfolio of your work. Send these to Mike Martin in Boulder. You may bring them to the office and we will mail through the shuttle to Boulder for you. LECTURE: Talk and Discussion Brown bag lunch, 12:00 noon, March 30, Third Floor Studio, with MR. DOUGLAS COSTLE, Former Head Administrator, The Environmental Protection Agency, Washington Office, under the Carter Administration. TOPIC: The American Environmental Revolution: An Attempt at Some Perspective. Sponsored by the Planning/CD Division. STUDENTS: Students need to make a concious effort to keep the studios and facilities (Laminations office, darkroom, blueprint area, shop, etc.) NEAT and CLEAN. Please pick up after yourselves! Lack of AHEC housecleaning is due in part to their perception of the College as a disaster area that the students are unwilling to take care of. Help yourselves improve our image. Due to misuse of equipment, we remind you that you are responsible for facilities and equipment you use, including damage and loss. Lack of equipment only hurts other students. 1982 STUDENT AWARDS BANQUET On April 9, 1982, the College of Design and Planning will present our Awards Banquet to include all the divisions (Boulder and Denver). It will be held at the Brown Pal ace Hotel, with cocktails (cash bar) at 6:00pm; 7:00 pm dinner; and 8:00pm awards. The cost for students and their guests is $9.75 each. Any student who will receive an award will attend the dinner as a guest of their particular division. These students will be notified. Cost for the dinner/ tax/gratuity is $17.75. Please make reser with Dolores or Donna by Tuesday, April 6, at 5:00 pm. We are also pleased to announce that the main speaker for this Awards Banquet will be Paul Goldberger, who is the Architecture Critic for the NEW YORK TIMES. His expenses are being paid by the generosity of Eugene Sternberg. We urge everyone to attend this festive occasion with professionals from the community. If you have any questions regarding the banquet or the awards, please let the office know. We are all excited about this event for the College. POINTS OF INTEREST We are pleased to announce that as of February 18, 1982, the name of the College of Environmental Design has been officially changed to: COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING The sub-unit at Boulder be designated the • Environmental design Divisions, Boulder Campus. The sub-unit at Denver be designated Graduate Divisions of Design and Planning, Denver Campus. STUDENTS: If you are planning to graduate this Spring 1982, please obtain your diploma card from the office and return directly to the office -Dolores or Donna. Also, please check with your respective division to be sure you have fulfilled all requirements. STUDENTS: We urge you to Mail-In-Register for summer courses. You will be receiving instructions in the mail and materials will be due back by April 9. Please let us know if you did not receive information for ad-missions.

PAGE 3

the bro n palace You walk more than three blocks downtown and you feel parched, as if you're crossing a desert. The steel and glass towers and the many construction sites create a disturbing atmosphere of hard work, industry, optimism, and it is only when you reach the old Brown Palace Hotel, at Broadway and 17th, that you can rest and re-create. It's the single most interesting building in Denver. The Palace is an intensely urban, urbane place; it is pleasant to be near it and interesting to walk through it, and it offers one of the few civilizing experiences in the city. The interior lobby is the best interior public space in Denver. There is a grand lobby rising ten stories to a stained-glass ceiling, surrounded by a nineteenth-century extravaganza of balconies and columns, and walls clad in imported onyx. At the turn of the century, Lizzie the housecat fell from one of the balconies, plunging nine stories to the lobby. The horrified staff saw the cat revive and walk away. On the upper floors, in the hallways, the palazzo-like atmosphere of the lobby is replaced by a well-maintained nineteenth-century Western aura. With striped wallpaper and patterned carpets, there is a strange moment of deja-vu, in those hallways, and you can almost hear the tinkling of silver behind closed doors. It is easy, in those spaces, to imagine the tunnel that once linked the hotel with the Navarre. Wealthy gentlement guests would sit in tiny railroad cars and be towed, underground, to visit the ladies of the evening across the street. The bujlding was designed by a Chicago architect, Frank E. Edbrooke, and was completed in 1893 at a cost of two-million dollars. You could, at that time, obtain a room with a fire:J place, facing the street, "equipped," as the original brochure said, "with a system of sanitation the most perfect in existence, and furnished and decorated in exquisite and elaborate taste." Up on the seventh floor there is an elegant suite, once occupied by a wealthy fox terrier. The dog became, in 1896, the sole heir of a $50,000 estate, and spent the rest of its life surrounded by plush comfort; fine food, and a maid to look after it. Then it died of consumption. There were turkish baths in the hotel, billiard rooms, a bowling alley, a fine library, two-story-high dining halls on the top floor and, of course, the tunnel, and all for three-dollars a day. The outside of the building is clad in Arizona Sandstone and Colorado red granite, and is designed in the style of the Italian Renaissance. Bizarre stone medallions with animal figures were placed between windows on the seventh floor. The onyx on the ground floor, from Coahuila, Mexico, was so expensive that when a ground-floor staircase was replaced in 1937 by an elevator shaft, the onyx there was detached, re-cut and reapplied at great expense (the Art-Deco Westinghouse elevators give a terrific ride). The outside of the building has been terribly defaced by modifications. The addition of qars and restaurants with strange facades, and the second-floor bridge to the new addition across the street, all reveal the machinations of a criminal mind at work. The interior has been well-maintained , although lately intimations of shabbiness have crept in, along the corners. The coffee in the San Marco Room is a disaster. But in the end, what matters coffee's taste, when one reposes in the great Brown Palace? by D.J.

PAGE 4

ane relevance? David Evans This is a time of great questioning, value appraisal and soul-searching in American society. Our aspirations to be "one nation under God" were shaken by racial unrest, social and cultural alienation culminating in the violence and hatred of the late 1960's Vietnam era. America's foreign affairs in disarray, its cities smoking from rioting, its people fragmented and worn. The resignation of an American President over corruption and the Arab oil embargo added further to evidence that the American dream had ended. Meanwhile, over at Architecture and Planning Inc. (API) there was new business to be done. It was business as usual in the best tradition of Heroic Period Modernism. Lyndon Johnson ' s ;'Great Society" and The Model Cities Act of 1966 had mandated huge funding of slum clearance, megastructural housing redevelopment and planning of heroic scale. The well meaning Modern movement types had pronounced what was well and good for the masses and then gave to it form. They were intent, as were the Modern masters of the 1920's, on transformation and establishing the great unity so vital to the democracy. Kahn's 1953 addition to the Collegiate Gothic Yale Art Gallery. Kahn asked the administrators, "You don't see that the string courses express the floor lines. They will reveal the structure." Honesty and truth are triumphant. It was--mere window dressing. Their forms, ill sited and ill-suited to the users needs became monuments of crime and neglect. The clods (low income almost exclusively) it seems had never been educated as to their benefits. The of light, space and air became their prison; its streets in the air became their battleground. And yet the architect heard himself say (and st!il says), "The fault lies not in our forms but in ourselves" (meaning the clods--not God forbid, the architects). Yamasaki and Pruitt-Igoe were held blameless--their solution and thoughts were pure--according to the code. But even they, The Pure, knew the reports of dynamite would mean a slight readjustment in their formal ideas, if not their view toward the great collective populace. They persisted in designing for the middle-middles at the very time the middlemiddles were becoming extinct.

PAGE 5

.. Meanwhile, over at Popular American Society Unincorporated (PASU), the business of getting by was being attended to--and the gulf between PASU and API widened. The multitudinous failures at the governmental/bureaucratic/institutional levels had deflated the collective balloon. The consistent, almost systematic thwarting of the majority's will at every level from national representation and the executive branch down through local issues had and has still left a disillusioned, cynical, and unresponsive collective. The vacuum of collective abandonment has been filled by the individual, one who acts not for the collective but for himself. The ascension of the "Me Generation" (actually in progress since the passing of FOR) is both symptomatic and predictive of present and future changes in the American (and world) scene. One of the foremost manifestations of this change is the fragmentation and secularization of people and groups. There is here an inherent breakdown of consensus--of collective unanimity. This process only makes more irrelevant the predisposition of the architect toward universalities, generalizations and ultimate truths in order and form; toward grand plans "total design" concepts, and megastructural solutions. This same process actually makes more relevant the speculative building venture wherein the five year payback overrides any questions of urban or social responsibility, amenities, or decoration except those that may affect the balance sheet. The architect is caught in the middle. For him the desire to produce quality is weighed against the costs of his office. The urban and social responsibility issues are put off by the avaricious developer. The amenity and style he wishes to give may not be those the user would like to see. There are symbolism, ornament, semiological, spatial,associational and many issues for which there may be no ground rules or guidelines. He is beset from all sides. With all this going on, it is no surprise that reductivist prisms abound--that buildings outnumber architectural products by hundreds to one. If the architect is to halt the erosion in his credibility, he must clearly design for economic conditions but not let them become a basis for his decisions. He must include the social and user parameters rather than exclude. He must recognize that in a pluralistic society such as ours (i.e. a common society in which factions or groups seek to further special interests) fragmentation and factionalism are inevitable, and absolute truths and processes meaningless. He must develop a critical consciousness versed in historical/cultural parameters and how these operate. Above all he must be relevant to the socio-cultural inputs of his time, not engaged in some insular professionalist diatribe with others of bent. Mies' Farnsworth House of 1945 & Venturi's Tucker Bouse-1975. Mies planarity, elemental forms, purity-high espressionism. Venturi--the child's • f 11h II concept1on o ouse. There is new hope on the architectural scene. This is broadly labeled Post-Modernism. It is at its base an inclusive mode in which meaning is implied, and associational and symbolic elements used. In short it seeks to embody the whole range of human experience. This is somewhat like rediscovery of the known world--that its premises, precepts or directions are mostly unknown or illdefined should not surprise you. What should impress you is that this is the most appropriate response to the society. A world as complex and paradoxical as the present, and likely the future, needs a vehicle with this diversity for The changes evident in modern living must carry over into architecture. Socially speaking the architect is a low priority commodity. He is not so much a form-giver as a receiver of social and cultural parameters within which he must work. His forms, manifestos and plans have never "engineered" society--quite the reverse has always been true. High-minded professional elitism must come to this realization, and return to architectural solutions as a process toward, but not necessarily realizing final resolution. Whether architecture can realize a significant impact on society is doubtful. But society will surely have a major impact on us.

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Denver Architecture is pretty boring. Except what is down-right ugly. Unless of course, you happen to live on Capitol Hill. Between Cherry Creek, Colfax and So Colorado Blvd. this image is beautyfully restored and everything done downtown the last 15 years is forgiven. On the Hill you have the entire History of Architecture -worldwide -within a mile radius; Here Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Byzantine, German & French Romanesque, Dutch & English Medieval, Italian & Spanish Renaissance and even Saracenic blend together. bpposite my own place on lOth a Seljuk Turkish apartment-building happily coexists with a German Schwarzwald-barn and a 15th Century Flemish Hanseatic Canal-house. My own place is Spanish Revivalo @{ill Down on 4th behind meticulously manicured hedges and carpet-like lawns we find small neat half-timbered Tudor hide-aways and a handful of scaled-down French 12th C o castles. All with steep roofs, rustic towers, mullioned dormer-windows and ogee door-headso Add a moat and a draw-bridge, drop the Cadillac and the barbecue-stand and you are back in the 12th C o Rhone-valley. If you find the old styles too 'cute', picturesquely bourgeois, a load of anachronistic pretence out of time and place, then you missed the point; This, folks -is serious Architecture. Real efforts by (real) people trying to evoke a sense of identity and continuity in a new land.

PAGE 7

American Eclecticism at its best is especially well represented. The community is loaded with close-to-perfect Greek cornices and capitals and richly ornamented ovolos and friezes from your great stylistic Revivals. Pretty Romanesque oriel-windows are abundant, as well as great Renaissance facades with fine stonework and handsomely carved pilasters. If you think todays Architecture has come a long way up and forward from the dark ignorance of History towards a better understanding of human needs and aspirations -then I'm afraid you are wrong againo Never did we have more materials, architects, schools and knowledge, as well as architectural povertyo And most of the lattero To copy old times is not the answer, but our over-confident self-image (not just in architecture) needs shaking now and theno This College now offers Historic Preservation in form of an Independant Study, much due to Gary Longs interest and belief in the subjecto And that is good; We can't live on Energyrelated Design onlyo You'll find your future clients will agree with you. Compared to present downtown-area with its crude sterility and profound lack of sensitivity and real innovation, then Capitol Hill is Heaven on Eartho Not even a 16th Sto Mall can fix this cheapness and coldness (rather than coolness) of downtowno So -leave your Apple Computer behind for a while (it won't mind -the poor thing needs a rest) and head for 6th East and use your eyes. And expect to meet a (Tom) Wolfe around every corner, admiring the innovative detailling and craftmanship our profession found unnecessary a long time ago. PS: According to Rocky Mnto News list of IN and OUT things to do in Colorado -then Capitol Hill is definitely IN. Make a visit to Denvers hottest after-hours spot -King Soopers on 9th and Corona, and you will see what they meano Nils Hjermann

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HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE OF INDONESIA By Siulina Mega One of the e<1rliest stage of human evolution discovered in Indonesia Has the fossil remains of Pithecanthropus Erectus or the "Java Han. " The Java Han lived some .500, . 000 years ago Following this period, a series of migrations from mainland i\sia Helanesians and Negritos absorbed the descendents of the Java Man. Around 8,000 ILCu , the arrival of the from Indochina drove the Negritos into the mountainuous interior regions of Indonesia. The uf assimilation between the two races the ancestor of the present day "Native Indone• II N k Slanso o one nows exactly when they stopped heing nmnads, and started to build more permaneni : shelters from available materials. Huts were erected on stilts mainly for protection from vJi}, animals and occasional floods. The space underneath was useful as storage, work space, shelter for living stock, and disposal of human waste. Information, ':eography Population ( : 1 ima te i\rchipelago of 13,f>77 islands of which f>,044 are inhabited. Total land area is 735,8f>5 sq. miles. 143 millions, Tropical. i\verage temperature 70-95" F all year round. There are 2 seasons: Rainy (Nov -April) and Dry season Days and nights are equal length, Sunrise at f>:OO A M . and sunset at 6: 00 P M .. Indonesia Section. In the Second Century A.D., commercial West Sumateran typical house. trade A house in North Sumatera. among China, India, and Indonesia increased tremendously. There was a decline in trade between India and The Roman Empire. Brick and stone were introduced into architecture by foreign influences. These materials were used in larger structures. Hinduism and Buddhism became two predominant religions in addition to the existing strong animism belief in Indonesia. Buddhist and Hindu Kingdoms flourished and died leaving behind some magnificent monuments and temples. The most well known Buddhist place of \vorship is "Borobudur", an immense stone structure in Central of Java. It is considered as one of the wonders of the world. Borobudur Borobudur -plan. Hindu temple in Central Java. section. Borobudur -Details

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The Moslem religion was brought to Indonesia by traders from Persia. By the Century almost all Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms had disappeard. Some temples were transformed into mosques. The Moslem/Persian style was becoming an influence in Indonesian architectureo Not long after this, Indonesians had to face a second power that of the Western World. Portugese, Spanish, English, French, and Dutch ships came looking for valuable spices. As the Dutch involvement grew, their trading area developed into a colonial empireo For the next 350 years, Dutchmen occupied "Netherlands East Indies." Dutch influence upon every aspect of Indonesian culture was inevitable. During the tumultuous years of World War II, Indonesia fell into the hand of the Japanese. The Indonesian Nationalists were able to organize themselves. They issued a Declaration of Independence in 1945 when Japan surrendered to Allied Forces. As an independent country, Indonesia tried hard to catch up with the rest of the world. In the first 10 years, economy was the main focus of the Nation. 11 A Mosque in Borneo. A typical 1930's house in Java. Methodist church in Jakarta. .Jakarta Train Station Presidential Official Residence Jakarta. Catholic church. The following 15 years, rapid progression in cities created more damage than good. There was no master plan, and yet building construction was booming. To accomodate increasing vehicular traffic, streets were widened, and building fronts were cut back. Following the latest style in architecture, people covered their buildings with false facades. The lack of local experts, as well as not wanting to be categorized as an underdeveloped country,led the government to decide to hire foreign consultants. It did not matter whether the building designs would fit the surroundings or not, as long as they were contemporary, they were put up. Given the chance of becoming the host of the Asean Games IV in 1962, triggered the trend evenmore. Despite the poor economy, Indonesia built the largest sport stadium and the largest mosque in Southeast Asia. They built international hotels,National monuments, and more governmental buildings. The building extravaganza did not last very long, because of economic and political instability, as well as communist infiltration, the whole government system collapsed in 1965. It of national chaos and emergency. Jakarta street scene. "Monumen Nasional." Office building -Jakarta. The largest mosque in Southeast Asia Jakarta. Although the standard of living is still low, now Indonesia is back on its feet. New construction both in commercial and residential area can be seen everywhereo Presently the most popular style for luxurious residences is what people call the "Spanish House." It is a mixture of every possible Western classical style one could think of making an incoherent style on its own. In commercial areas, aluminum clad low rise and "Shoe Box" midrise buildings are still the most typical; there are a few exceptions. The lack of sensitivity and respect to the existing structures and tradition are still the major drawhack in architecture in Indonesian cities.

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INTERIORS AND THE GRAMMAR OF ARCHITECTURE l'{ICHOLAS ANTONOPOULOS Sullivan: "Outward appearances resemble inner purposes." Le Corbusier: "The plan proceeds from within to without; the exterior is the result of an interior." More than three quarters of our time is spent under the overt, or more often indirect influence of our immediate environment, interior space. While it would appear that our psychological and physical well-being depends heavilly on the success .of interiors in providing optimum conditions for living and functioning, little more than perfunctory notice and treatment is given them by most architects, and superficial attention at best by decorators. Interiors, rather than being recognized as a discipline with inherent value, has instead become polarized between those who would view it as merely incidental to structure, and therefore worthy of an afterthought, and those who see it as central to what invariably amounts to a dubious expression of good taste. Clearly the distinction here is false, while the term "struc ture" is shorn of all but its most iiteral significance. The primary issue behind interior design does not concern adornment. This loaded distinction between architecture as the exponent of structural purity, and interiors as o rnamental frivolity, ultimately leads to a narrower definition of what architecture itself is-especially in the United States, due to the overwhelming influence of technQlogy and a short cultural history. If structure is taken to mean no more than what is necessary to make a building stand up, then architecture begins and ends with the empty shell, a shell that encloses but does not disclose. Yet the shell is a product of other things, is itself embraced by a context beyond itself, and must, in other words, stand up semiologically as well as literally. As such, the shell becomes a presupposition of what is inside, and not just one more isolated, selfcontained fragment to the whole. It is not enough to think of the shell-in terms only of constituent to whole. This may be scientifically sound, but it nevertheless predisposes the designer to attribute primary emphasis to one component at the expense of the rest, which in turn rejects the notion that the whole structure is greater than the sum of its parts. Here structure is used metaphorically to invoke the meaning of whole environment. From the perspective of a totality of design, architecture and interiors are not only complementary, but one and the same. Certainly their ends were never far removed in the first place. If we accept the premise that the multiplicity of man's environmental needs and his corresponding abilities to comfortably cope with those needs are legitimate human factors in design, it is apparent that both architecture and interiors would address this question squarely, however different their articulation. Both in the vernacular tradition of building, and in the work of a few great architects such as Wright, there is an understanding of the diversity of elements that comprise a whole environment (their

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complexity and ambiguity), where context is seen not only to extend to, but in great part to derive from the real issues that interiors pose. Vernacular solutions are arrived at unselfconsciously, while Wright advocated designing from the inside out, allowing the interior to naturally articulate its shell, a far cry from the tendency to impose a rigid geometry on a structure and expect the interior to succeed by conforming. Of course the two can conflict if each poses seperate values. The case where an intolerable environment outside is made livable by posing opposite values within is just one example. The point is not to obliterate the distinctions between spaces through indiscriminate continuity, or contrived homogeneity, but to achieve the "difficult whole," as Venturi would have it, where the dynamic of transition and a sense of passage and threshold create a dialogue between inside and out. The language of architecture becomes impoverished without into account interiors as a legitimate discourse. Yet there is a characteristic chauvanism that continues to stubbornly manifest itself concerning interiors: interiors is often dismissed on the absurd grounds that it is not properly a "man's" discipline. The word itself carries with it primordial associations with the womb, and the dark and intractable recesses of the mind, yet interiors is common to everyone's experience, and not some sort of mystical domain reserved for the eternal feminine. This dismissal by way of mystification brings about another misconstrued that interiors is solely concerned with private or personal space, the assumption being that this is space you do not consider because it is a purely subjective problem. Privacy is an important issue appropriate to interiors, but insofar as "a building is a harboring place," as Kahn intimates, then it is not a foreign issue to architecture either. Privacy is but one element in a wide gamut of psychological and physical factors which all contribute to a more complete understanding of an environment so much a part of us, so inextricably bound to our fundamental existence, that we obliterate it from consciousness. Venturi: "Designing from the outside in, as well as the inside out, creates necessary tensions, which help make architecture. Since the inside is different from the outside, the the wall-the point of change-becomes an architectural event. Architecture occurs at the meeting of interior and exterior forces pf use and space. These interior and environmental forces are both general and particular, generic and circumstantial. Architecture as the wall between the inside and the outside becomes the spatial record of this resolution and its drama."

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Peoplewatching with William Whyte For the last ten years William Whyte has been looking at city spaces -taking photographs and time-lapse films, talking to people, notes, trying to discover why some urban spaces work people and some don't. As director of the Street Life Project in New York City; he initiated a program of small urban space analysis that did not involve questionaires, polls, or economic profiles but rather direct observation. From miles of time-lapse film and exhaustive charting of daily user patterns in 16 plazas and 3 small parks in New York City, Whyte made some surprising discoveries. Last November William Whyte shared some of his insights with members of the Colorado Chapter/ ASLA while leading a walking tour of down town Denver and as keynote speaker for the Chapter's annual conference. His appearance at the conference and the showing of his film (generously loaned by Robert Yeager of the Civic Design Team, Denver Partnership.) gave the landscape architecture students present some new perspectives on urban open space design. When he started looking at plazas in the center of New York Whyte realized that the tremendous densit) of people at certain •choke points"-subway stations in particular-strongly infleunced our perception of the city. This image of the city has affected researcher's and designer's attitudes also. Having been conditioned to see crowding and of space because of strong experiences at certain high density areas, we fail to see the empty and little used spaces that are actually all around. The amount of open space had been increasing in NewYork City since 1961 due to some innovative zoning that offered incentive bonuses to builders who provided plazas. Some of these plazas attracted people but most did not. The whole idea of trade-offs with builders was to for people yet most of the spaces were scarcely used. Whyte and his research team set out to discern why in hopes of setting up better zoning guidelines. The results of his research did enable New York to enact stiffer and more productive zoning regulations. But zoning is not the best way to accomplish good design. Design should be done for its own sake and often is-yet many well intended designs fail because assumptions about people's and activities are sometimes not actually valid. The following are just a few of the lessons learned from Whyte's peoplewatching. Sometimes surprising, sometimes obvious, they are points that designers should bear in mind when dealing with city open space. (1) What attracts people most is other people. Many urban spaces are designed as though the opposite were true. When people respond to questionaires they use words like "oasis, retreat, escape" so naturally designing in privacy and seperate spaces seeoslike the solution. But what people actually do, according to Whyte's observations, reveals a different priority. (2) The most popular places had the largest amount of sittable space. The favorite plazas were not the visually pleasing ones, nor was it a matter of proportion, placement, or location but simply seats.

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(3) Benches are primarily used to punctuate architectural photographs. They are not good for sitting, being generally too small, too few and not placed well. (4) Moveable chairs are an important element in any urban space. Their big asset is moveability. People have a choice to move into the sun, out of it, to make room for a group, or to move away from it. The individual has a part in the actual "design" of the space. (5) The key space for a plaza is not in the plaza. It is the street. Surprisingly, proximity to the street is the critical design factor. But often a MARCH 17 17 17 18 18 19 19 23 25-27 26 30 30 31 APRIL 3-7 9 7:00 am, Urban Design Committee Meeting, 1459 Pennsylvania, Carriage House 12:15 pm, Lebanon Lecture, Robert Kindig Room 202, UCD 7:30 pm, Interior Architecture Lecture, John Saladino, Paramount Theatre, $5. 7:15am, Denver AlA Continuing Ed. Prog., "Building Codes", 3 hr. seminar, $15. Gene Ernst (Kansas State),"Generic Housinp:Designers in the Great Shelter Game'' 5:30 pm, Associates Network Party, 1459 Pennsylvania, Carriage House, free. 5:30 pm,"International Conservation of Historic Buildings-A Comparison of Theories & Practices".Dr. Feilden, Science Bldg, UCD, $2, Reception after. 11:30-5:30, Urban Design Symposium il ' Developers and Urban Design", Scott Ditch, Fairmont Hotel, Students-$15 w/lunch, $5 afternoon only US Institute for Theatre Technology Annual Convention, Denver Hilton, AlA members welcome, Contact AlA office-831-6185 5:00-7:00, Architectural Firm Open House, Engelke Architects, 6950 E. Bellview, wine,cheese,no charge. 11:30-5:30, Urban Design Symposium, "An Overview of Urban Design Strategies for Denver", John Pastier, Raquel Ramati, Brown Palace. Student $15 w/ lunch, $5w/o Mr. Douglas Costler, 12:00, 3rd fl.studio "The American Environmental Revolution: An Attempt at Some Perspective" All School Student/Faculty Meeting 12: 15, Room 2 3, UC D. ASCA Annual Conference in Quebec Student Awards Banquet, Paul Goldberger, Brown Palace Hotel, 6:00 designer's first thought is how to screen the street activity from the space. Ideally Whyte feels that the transition from street to plaza be made so that it is hard to tell where one ends and the other begins. Architects, planners, and landscape architects have much to learn from Whyte's work (and from similar studies, i.e. Fred Kent's Project for Public Spaces). Whyte's book, The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces, is a valuable tool for anyone in urban space design decisions. In a broader context the methods utilized-first hand observation and analysis, thorough and unprejudiced-have application whereever we hope to have design that truly meets human needs. -Dick Hansen 10 "Polyester and Plastic," Deezine Club's Annual Spring Bash at the Children's Huseum with "the Pink". 14 15 18 18 19-23 20 22 26,27 25 29 30 11AY 2 9 15 15 28 Indonesia Architecture Lecture, Suilina Hega, 12:15, Room 202, UCD "Zion on the Frontier: Mormon Town Plan ning in the Settlement of the American West", John Reps(Cornell), Boulder Campus United Bank Center Architects Sunday, 17th a d Broadway Interfaith Center, "Creating a Human Environment. in a Growing City", Sam Brown. 3:00-5:()0 Mini-Festival "Film on Design" AlA's 125th Anniversary J.B.Jackson (Santa Fe), "The Memory of VJood:American Vernacular Architecture" Boulder Campus DCPA Cinema, 7:30 nightly. NCAR Architects Sunday (Northern Colorado Chapter, Jack Brokow) Constance Perin (MIT) "Suburbia: Symbol & Fact". Boulder. 5:00-7:00 pm, Architectural Firm Open Ho House, HWH (Dan Havekost), 1121 Grant, wine and cheese, no charge. RTD Headquarters Open House Architects Sunday, (Dominick/RID/Mall) Hilton/May D&F Architects Sunday (Denver Chapter AlA) Graduation 2:00 pm, UCD Honorary Degree-leoh Ming Pei 7:00-12:00 pm, 16th Street Mall Celebration Block Party. 5:00-7:00, Architectural Firm Open House Dominick Associates, 1543 19th Street (Wazee Building). STUDENTS: If you plan to attend Summer School, please sign-up in the office. We are trying to get an idea of enrollment for summer. . -.

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AlA NEWS AlA NEWS Coming Up: The Big Event, the 1982 AlA Convention in Honolulu, Hawaii on June 6th -9th. This years theme will Thesis Students: be "A Quest in Time", exploring the areas of innerspace, outerspace, and the world just ahead. The Hawaii Society/AlA, and dents at the University of Hawaii are planning an outstanding welcome, and many special student events. For information on lodging, means of transportation, and organization of students from U.C.D . , see Scott Grady and Lina Mega. We all know that the fun doesn't end with graduation! You still have apprenticeship and the necessary exams for registration ahead of you. But there is a bright side-each of you will be eligible to become part of an ambitious support group of the AlA The Associate Members/Denver AlA. This chapter headed by Kevin Mills organizes activities aimed toward your career and registration goals, involvement with the Denver AlA, as well as a few parties here and there. Interested grads can contact Kevin at 825-5598, or better yet, meet everyone at their first party on Friday evening, March 19, 5:30-7:30 pm, at the AlA office 1459 Pennsylvania St. (carriage house). Any questions regarding the Denver/AlA and it's activities can be directed to: Brian Bartholomew-third floor Scott Grady-fourth floor. CELEBRATION! A Denver Design Celebration in April and May! The film festival is a fund raising benefit for Larry Atkinson (Series tickets: Patron $100, Regular $50, or $3.50 each to students 15 minutes before performance. Tax deductible.) Superb titles on landscape, urban design, architecture, interior design include "Lewis Mumford: Toward Human Architecture," "An Ames Celebration: Several Worlds of Charles and Ray Ames," "The Writing on the Wall: Architecture and Crime," "Conversation with Frank Lloyd Wright," "Pattern of Beauty: The World of Islam," and many, many more. Sponsored by Denver Part nership, Denver ALA, CSA, and the College of Design and Planning. Contact Ann Tait (831-6185) for tickets and Francine Haber (629-3382/2877), UCD, for program information. ACRONYMS A.I.A.-American Institute of Architects (National Level) A.C.S.A.Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture A.S.C./A.I.A.-Association of Student Chapters/ American Institute of Architects C.S.A.Colorado Society of Architects (State Level) D.D.I.-Downtown Denver, Inc. Denver Chapter/A.I.A.-Denver Chapter/American Institute of Architects (Local Level) I.D.P.Intern-Architect Development: Program N.A.A.B.-National Architects' Accrediting Board N.C.A.R.B.-National Council of Architectural Registration Boards U.I.A.International Union of Architects (International Level) Association of Architecture Students Newly elected board members: Co-chairpersons Martha Carlson Dave Anderson Class Representatives Deborah Andrews (500) Chris Liddle (500) Nan Weidmann (500) Connie Brace (600) Bruna Pedrelli (600) Anne Bain (700) Emmy Jenson (700) CSA Educational Committee Rep George Thompson CSA Board Rep Melanie Ancin AlA Board Reps Brian Bartholomew Scott Grady ASC/AIA Rep Lindy Weller Associates Rep ? GRADUATION: May 15, 1982 2:00 pm. You will receive a letter from Admissions with instructions for ordering cap and gown if you plan to graduate and have turned in your diploma card. We wish to announce that I.M.Pei will receive an Honorary Degree, Doctor of Humane Letters, at Commencement on May 15, at 2:00 pm. This is a very significant event for the College.

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Christopher G. Gallagher The presentation is over, the jury has had its say, and the architecture school can nowexhale. Along with the first of the came the review team for the National Architectural Accrediting Board. Through three days, January 31 to February 2, the review team watched, talked, questioned, and listened. STUDE NT MEETING On Monday, February 1, the team assembled students for an informal meeting. Faculty were strickly forbidden from attending. The purpose of the gathering was to air students' concerns about the school,and about the school's faculty and facilities. The meeting was well attended by students from all three design levels. (Anyone else notice how wonderfully vocal those from 500 were?) Students expressed concerns about a limited number of faculty members, limited studio space, limited jury space, and a limited library with limited hours. A major concern of both the review team and the students was the lack of courses in, the lack of emphasis on, and the lack of resources in architectural theory. Bill McMinn, the spokesman for the review team, called it "focussed professionalism." Because many students require a complete architectural education in three years, the school focusses on the "professional" rather than the "graduate" school aspects of the program. McMinn calls this being "geared to making buildings." He cited a need for more intellectual research and more discussion of political, social, and human issues. McMinn went on to question the worth , for students, of juries. He also asked if there is a clear statement of intentions and expectations on the part of the faculty. When asked about the dedication of permanent faculty, students responded positively. The fall lecture program also received a favorable vote from the students, STRENGTHS On February 3, Bill McMinn shared with students and faculty the review team's principle observations. He began with what he called the school's unique strengths. The architecture school's urban setting, he said, is, "right, proper, good," The University of Colorado is the only school he knew of in the country with its undergraduate program in the mountains and its graduate school in the city. The review team saw an inherent "richness" in the mixed locations of the various design school programs. The team cited the diverse student body as a "rich asset," With respect to curriculum, the team complimented the school for-establishing an energy program and for maintaining a ''well developed" CCDD program. The team feels confident that the technical aspects of the architecture program are sound and that students are well prepared upon graduation for the job market. In concluding his review of the school's sum of strengths, McMinn congratulated the faculty, administration, and students for taking part in the gamble to establish a "model" for architectural education here amidst the "dynamic" city of Denver. CONCERNS McMinn then began the more somber task of outlining the program's weaknesses, or what he more euphemistically described as the review team's "concerns." He introduced the concerns as being indirectly related to many of the strengths. Sure; graduates will be well prepared for a job, but where will they be 10 or 20 years in the future? The emphasis on a "professional" education is fine, but this is alsb a school. Students should be continuing to grow intellectually. McMinn warned against becoming a "vocational school." He said that there is too narrow a focus on Denver. The school needs a "world view." At the same time the team wished to emphasize a need for more professional management courses. McMinn questioned the the "quality" of student design performance. He said that the faculty should be demanding more; they should be demanding not only a mastering of technical skills, but they should also be serving to incite a sense of "excitement" about design. The team insisted that it is "absolutely imperative that the school have the resourses of a first rate library." The architecture library, McMinn said, "is as important as a law library is to a law school." In conclusion, McMinn suggested a closer relationship between Boulder and Denver; he cited a need for more minorities; and he emphasized the importance of keeping the University of Coloradu administration aware of the architecture school's needs.

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