Citation
Ras Sahadeh : a case study in Jewish metaphysics and landscape architecture

Material Information

Title:
Ras Sahadeh : a case study in Jewish metaphysics and landscape architecture
Creator:
Shamberg, Aaron
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
RAS SAHADEH:
//
A CASE STUDY
IN JEWISH METAPHYSICS AND LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
SHAMBERG
/
environmental design
> AURARIA LlbRARY
MAY 1986
1


’HIS THESIS IS SUBMITTED AS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE LEQUIREMENTS FOR A MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DEGREE AT [NIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER,COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING,
IRADUATE department of landscape architecture.
’HILIP S. FLORES, DIRECTOR ;RAD. DEPT. OF LANDSCAPE ARCH. NIVERSITY OF COLORADO, DENVER
ERRY SHAPINS, ASSOCIATE PROFESSO RAD. DEPT. OF LANDSCAPE ARCH. NIVERSITY OF COLORADO, DENVER
ABBI MORDECAI B. TWERSKI
IRECTOR
TALMUDIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE
ENVER ,COLORADO
PC
ODD JOHNSON, PRINCIPAL DESIGNER IVITAS - URBAN DESIGN FIRM ENVER , COLORADO
RANCINE HABER, ARCHITECTURAL HISTORIAN
SSOCIATE PROFESSOR
NIVERSITY OF COLORADO , DENVER
LLEN KOTZ, ARCHITECT SSOCIATE PROFESSOR RAPAHOE COMMUNITY COLLEGE,
ATE
2


TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKOWLEDGEMENTS 4
INTRODUCTION _5
THE LAND OF ISRAEL: EBB AND FLOW 7_
THE NEED FOR JEWISH DESIGN CONCEPTS 21
THE SEFIROT: A BASIS JEWISH FOR DESIGN 25
THE SITE: RAS SAHADEH 34
THE DESIGN 35
â– CONCLUSION 44
BIBLIOGRAPHY 45
3


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would firstly like to hank my commitee; Rabbi ordecai Twerski, Todd Johnson, erry Shapins, Ellen Kotz, and rancine Haber, for not only heir invaluable contributions ut also for their tolerance of y design process.
Without the generousity of y Jerusalem crew; Professor amuel Frank, Gabi, Tina and atan Nachmani and Yaron urrel,in documenting the site f Ras Sahadeh, this project ould not have been cc omp1i shed.
I would like to thank my riend Leo Carl Berliner for his onstant inspiration.
It is truely my dear wife hoshanna Shamberg who has oauthored this work in its most mposing moments.There aren't nough thanks.
A


INTRODUCTION
When we look at cultures, we see that design expresses values. The analogy has been made that American culture is like a melting pot. The danger with melting pots is that the ! purity and diversity of the original substances are lost to homogeneity. The richness of culture also suffers.
In design we see much symbolism extracted from various cultures that does not communicate the intent of its original meaning. At best we record, encase and memorialize cultural ideas, seemingly from a sense of guilt. This too is their death.
In contrast to this tendency, we must look at our )wn cultural roots and envision jurselves as a vessel bringing renewal to them, from them.
5


During the last thirty-ight years, since the ededication of the state of srael , much design and planning as taken place. Very few of the esigners or planners have eflected on the time tested piritual aspirations or values f Jewish tradition.This is only artially due to the lack of a ajor Jewish design tradition.
In order to enrich Jewish ulture, as well as culture as a hole ,1 saw the need to look nto my own tradition and find ts rich applications to todays’ ew design opportunities in andscape architecture.
6


THE LAND OF ISRAEL : EBB AND FLOW
It is almost a hundred years since the Jewish exiles have resettled in the Land of Israel, after two thousand years of virtual Jewish displacement. This process resulted in a natural geographic revival, the renaissance of the Hebrew language , and the opportunity to live a Torah life in its own land. In order to understand the application of a Torah value system to planning design and scheme, it is necessary to generally understand the Jewish land relationship as it is framed in the Torah.
7


The Torah describes what is >robably the earliest recorded ixample community planning and esign. The Torah states " the orty eight cities reserved for he tribe of Levi, are to have n area of land approximately ,000 feet wide all around the
ity reserved as an open
pace".(1) In addition to this
pen space there is an
«rrounding the open space
^served for agricultural use.
limonides, a great thirteenth
intury Jewish scholar,
*r, infers that this should be e structure of every Jewish ty in the land of Israel.

8


Gezer, an ancient town of
dunams ( 22 acres ), was :avated and found to have an jn space fifteen times the fn area surrounding it. This ;a of open space and pasture rrounding a town is deeply )ted within Jewish tradition, -dence of this tradition is so expounded by the prophet ikiel for the layout of rusalem seven centuries later.
570 BCE , the prophet and fish leader, Nechemiah, jpected these reservations in building the walls of the Old
ty. (2)
9


The first settlers to the
id of Israel at the end of the 'hteenth century found an unrested and uncultivated
>und. It was virtually rhanged since the devastation ised by the marauding Roman 'ions who sent the Jewish >ple into death and exile. The r pioneers were primarily of •opean decent.
Over the centuries,
â– opean Jewry had been largely xessful in retaining its cul-al identity. This was due to ernal protective mechanisms, well as, a response to living a hostile environment. By late eighteenth and early :eteenth centuries, internal isions among Jews had ;nified. At that point, it :med easier to conform with expectations of the outside Id.
V.
10


Enlightment in European
culture was strongly
reductionist in its outlook. Che last remnants of metaphysics itere thrown out during the Dopernican revolution. Since Decarte, reality was defined by quantifiable experiences. This Period in western culture has >een referred to as the Age of Reason. As a reaction, many ntellectual pockets developed, het entertained the romantic, xistential, and irrational hilosophies.
11


Jewish culture in western Europe became beseiged by the ernal constraints that were upon it. There were Rabbis and er leaders in the Jewish community who instigated the ansion of secul.ar studies as a necessary componet of vival. They did not see it as a substitution for their own tural mores. The majority of people, however, did not erstand the subtleness of the issue. They dropped their toms and adopted the cultural norms of enlightened society, se who integrated the cultural tensions well, while pting popular elements of socialist and modernist thought, e also able to maintain their beliefs in Torah law, and the ine promise of the land of Israel. Many of these people ered agricultural and trade schools in order to practically ance their beliefs. Others entered the university system, se who entered the field of architecture and planning ing the early part of this century, found themselves in the ools of Bauhaus and the modernists movements. Their utopian tforms of change were also the form and style of the times, se pioneers brought their eastern European cultural kround and socialistic ideas into a Mediteranian environ-t under the rule of the Turkish Otoman Empire.They tried to pt the local Arabic urban and rural traditional hitecture, creating an "oriental eclectisism".
12


The British mandate of 1917
ned the doors for many of the t people in planning and hitecture to utilize their ents in Palestine. They main-ned strong interests in the y Land, especially Jerusalem, y introduced many of the town nning schemes and building ulations that are used ay.(3 )
When the pioneers entered land, they found a scheme for development of the land act. The British Mandatory ernment adopted ancient and ieval concepts, which the new aeli Government in 1948 also pted. For example, these plans e based upon the premise that Old City of Jerusalem and its rounding landscape constituted organic whole. This unity, iliar to the prophet Ezekiel's tements, must be rooted in a ritual ideal.
r.
13


erusalem as the spiritual and emographics center of the
andscape received, initially, he worst attention. The
hysical expression of this piritual center was to surround t with a greenbelt and prevent utside urban enroachment.The ritish Planners from 1918 hrough 1934 respected this, and ther long held concepts, about le nature of this land as a »ique blend of natural and -iritual elements. The Kendell an of 1944 was the first to olate these long held
inciples, introducing new velopment up to the old city 11s (4).
14


The first Israeli plan Jerusalem,compiled in 1948 by , was a brilliant application these ancient planning con-ts. Rau applied the
nciple of a greenbelt around entire new city, consistent the proposal Maimonides had forth eight hundred years lier. Rau's thinking underod that the valleys in the ean hills were restored for icultural and green open ces. The hill slopes received blanket of housing while the ge tops were reserved for titutional and public
1 dings, and small groves of usalem pines.(5)

15


Massive population increases o the state of Israel, bined with simplistic
political concepts eventually an to . impose themselves on landscape and these ancient aciples of land use. The arnists had made their mark a a land, whose essence had /iously been the physical di-sity of its communities. The Lai modernist ideas were also liar with architects involved :he production of mass housing the rapidly growing popula-
1.(6) Politcally, it was a
>ian society that accepted
se ideas. F orm and function
listed harmonious 1y with an
litecture of square p1anning ;
:-r oof ed , monochromatic,
rcoed concrete; and monotonous
races , broken only by cubic
:ted recesses o f balconies.
*
\
X.
16


balconies were the symbol of harmony: of public and vate life, indoor and outdoor activities. There was vir-11y no articulation of structure, materials, texture
ornamentation.
The Technion, the only recognized school of design and nning in Israel, was the theoretical base for these elopments. Under the guidelines of Professor A.Neuman , a ace packing theory" was introduced. Professor Neuman, ether with Zvi Heker and Eldar Sharon, created buildings inated by three demensional qualities composed of
etitive forms.(7) They were attempting to create a Medi-ranean feeling of space, with modern techniques, and an lytical approach.
According to polyhedric architecture, a principal aims to unite and harmonize various parts of a building in an icient, aesthetically pleasing and physically satisfying, angment. Later, extensive research into mathematical forms conducted in the Technion by Professor Vachman. An
logy to the micro particles in nature and the geometry of yhedras led to space frame construction and better under-nding of form strength.
With the establishment of the state of Israel, in 1948, sing became an urgent priority overnight. During the next e years, Israel's population trippled from 650,000 to 00,000 people.
17


Hundreds of thousands of Holocaust survivors, and refugees from Islamic countires, were placed in tent cities
while awaiting housing in newly developed projects. These housing projects were primarily the result of administrative decisions, where speed of construction, location, and cost were more valued than architectural planning and improved design solutions. Under these conditions, that the norms and standards of Israeli architecture developed. The center of gravity was housing, which compromised 80-90% of the new construction. At the same time professor Burt explored the morphology of light weight membranes, both rigid and flexible. Large, three dimensional structures such as hyberolic paraboloids were created by repetition of the same element in smaller scale.
Israel Goodovitch was facinated by the saddle shape, which he utilized as a formal structural idea in most of his projects. His forms were argonomatically designed with simplicity and ease to manufacture and construct. Ram Karmi is more concerned about two dimesional form in planning as a clear configuration, while inserting three dimensional repetition of elements in the vertical scale. Haim Hefetz developed a concrete dome which is cast upon an inflatable neoprene balloon, introducing again into the built envoirment the shape of the dome which dominated the middle east as a symbol of Islamic architecture.(8)
18


The natural habitation of
animals and plants stimulated the architects mind. The beehive and sunflower seed arrangements were examples of a perfect models for imitation.(9)
Functionalism, formalism, and an analytical approach, led to quick development of building technologies. Prefabrication construction, using such methods as precast elements, in site fabrication components, and industrial construction are gradually replacing the conventional building techniques and skills.
19


Eldar Sharon uses the three
dimensional precast as a facade element in his architecture. A modular scheme, with modular elements, reduces the massiveness of his buldings by allowing air and light to penetrate through.
Moshe Safdi elaborated his modular style trying to create the venacular, rural, Mediterranean house. There are many Israeli architects who did not follow this standard of modelular design and developed their own style. Never the less, Israeli architecture followed the direction of analytical approach rather than a cultural or metaphysical one.
20


THE NEED FOR JEWISH DESIGN CONCEPTS
The Bauhaus and Modernist design theories adequately djusted to the changing social and political mood of Europe, riich was experiencing a transition from absolute monarchy rule d the democratic system. It was inappropriate to impose be European design framework on a population whose cultural utlook was very different from this European mentality. Within auhaus thinking, the environment was seen to be an entity that auld rationally and scientifically be described and evaluated. 3ood environments could be prescribed by formula using statis-Lcal averages or ideal dimensions, scale, and proportions rreguardless of historical, cultural, or natural variations." LO) This approach to the environment was based upon physical id reductionist principles, as opposed to the Jewish itaphysical relationship to the land.
It is easy to understand how such utopian thinkers with Lmplistic, universalist ideas would jump at the opportunity to iply their notions on such a large scale. The problem with the luhaus approach, with its abstracted notions of ideal propor-.on and universal style, stems from its roots in reductionist linking. This disects the world into a random set of unrelated itities without a metaphysically unifying fabric and purpose.
21


The Torah, according to its adherents, is a conceptual code th which to read all levels of reality. Because the Torah is nsidered the blueprint of creation, it provides the tools to proach life as a whole, infusing every level with purpose and rection.The Land of Israel is an essential component of our mvictions. It is the source, as well as, the goal and dream of ie Jewish people. For the last two thousand years, from vastly fferent locations around the globe during the Passover iliday, we have collectively and individually proclaimed "next :ar in Jerusalem".
The first book of the Torah, known as Genesis, discusses ro different scenarios about the human-land relationship. The rst scenario involves Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel,Noah and his :mily, and the people of Babel. These groups were all given a lemingly secure relationship to the land, but through their own liritual blunders were deprived of that privilege. Abraham, on te other hand, attached himself to will the of God. In turn, a ind was promised to him and his decendents. Abraham showed the ttience and stamina needed for the fulfillment of this promise.
22


During the time of the Exodus from Egypt, before the Jewish people had entered into the land of promise, they retained the
status of wanderers. A wanderer has no defined home. Survival is the main goal of living. Wanderers in the desert face the constant anticipation of either oasis and life, or drought and death. Exile is a memory of landlessness. Exile is a state of being cut off with seemingly no way back. Exile has notoriously been the backround of the Jewish peoples' strongest demonstration of faith. In the context of landlessness, the promises of return to the land of Israel, has inspired hope to many.
Israel's history is not all landless. Having land presents new problems and consequences for the Jewish people in their relationship to God.As the sons of Jacob went down to Egypt, they were given land by their brother Joseph. At this time, they dwelt in a land that was not theirs.The benefits of living on this land, called Goshen, were more apparent than the slavery it would lead to. Soon the desert ,with its freedom,would appear immeasurably more appealing.
The paradigmal human-land relationship in the Torah is one of tension between having land while fearing expulsion, and the condition of not having land while anticipating it. This is the vivid dichotomy faced by the Jewish people up through the present time. This attachment to Torah concepts clarifies to the Jewish nation that their survival and welfare on the land is incumbent upon applying this approach.
23


At the present time, it seems imperative to study the orah's metaphysical model in order to understand the role of his ancient landscape. An environment must be created which ourishes spiritual and cultural growth, and the physical equirements of a healthy society. The goal of design , in this ase, is not essentially physical. The goal is to infuse the hysical, with spiritual principles, in a way that bridges the wo levels of reality. An environment of this kind would opefully evoke this spiritual-physical dialogue.
In general terms, this project's intention is to acilitate other designers to approach design as inclusive of :ulture. The impersonal, post-modern application of cultural ;ymbolism in design will not heal an environment in which humans eel alienated. In our times we must promote the role of andscape architects as healers.


THE SEFIROT: A BASIS FOR JEWISH DESIGN
Torah thought, over the years, has been divided into various types of thought. On one end of the spectrum is 'Nigla' or the revealed Torah, and on the other end is 'Nistar' or the hidden Torah. The 'Nigla' side of the spectrum is largely involved with moral and ritual laws, and with the issues that govern mans' relationship to man. The 'Nistar' aspect of Torah pertains primarily to mans' relationship to God and explanations of the underlying structure of creation.
Hassidic thought, which developed concurrently with the enlightment movement, emphasizes the inherent link between hidden concepts and the more revealed laws. Because of this link, human actions directly effect the fulfillment of the creative structure.
25


In general, creation consists of two basic parts: the physical and the spiritual. The physical is that which we perceive with our senses. The spiritual consists of that which is not physical and which cannot be detected by physical means. Souls comprise a class of spiritual entities destined to enter human bodies as these bodies enter the world. A second class of spiritual entities, called sefirot, are not meant to be associated with physical bodies.
,loi/c C
•returning .tv5(1 Iwsmn .nJatcr
• public
• opt. i (■
•atcrsi^biy.
R
26


The great Rabbi Hoshe Chaim Luzzato discusses this very
clearly in the following quote. " We are well aware of physical things, and their natural properties and laws are well known. Spiritual concepts on the other hand, are outside our realm of experience, and therefore cannot be adequately described. When we speak of spiritual entities and phenomena, we must therefore rely completely on the traditions handed down to us.

27


One of these fundamentals states that everything in the physical world has a counterpart among spiritual forces. Every entity, any process in the physical world, is linked to these forces, following a system decreed by God's wisdom. These forces are, therefore, the roots
of all physical things.
Everything in the physical wor 1 d
is a branch and and result of
these forces. They are bound
together like the links of a
chain.
The main existence and true state of the physical universe thus emanates from these highest forces. Whatever exists in the physical world is a result of something that takes place among these forces.This is true of both what existed in the beginning and what transpires with the passage of time.
• Tiff ref
• fatuity
â–  ptlMlUd
• licalHi
• ifan/eot
• qttm
. fat I Hi ‘^tri/icr . rtcr/ffroi i
. Siime f tru
. p'rfaj
tnuUfetM
K
28


These forces, the sefirot, were the first things created. They were arranged in various systems and placed in different domains. Everything that came about later was a result of this, following rules willed by God, and linking these forces with the spiritual world. Everything that happened in the past or happens in the present has its origin in processes taking place between these forces .
The existence, state, pattern, and every other quality that exists among these forces are a result of what is relevant to them by virtue of their essential nature. The existence, state, arrangement and other phenomena involving physical things, in turn, depends on what is transmitted and reflected to them by these forces.
0.
29


According to this principle, every physical phenomenon originates among these highest forces. The exception is that God willed man to influence the world through his actions.Since both man and his world are physical, the only direct influence they may attain is on physical things. Due to the the linkage between the physical world and the highest forces, each time a physical entity is influenced, its counterpart is effected within the sefirot. Since human activities in the world influence these forces on high, human influence is said to be upward."(11)
The Sefriot function simalarly to a prisim. They transform a unified emantion from God and disperse it into a world of plurality distinct from God. Everything in existance is rooted in the complexity of the Sefirot.
T.
30


The Sefirot,
each one a
totality unto itself, is composed of every other Sefira. Each sub sefira, in turn, is also composed of every other one ad infinitum. The combinations are seemingly endless as are the manifestations of the created world. The Sefriot are emanated successively from above to below, each one revealing an additional stage in the divine process.
1/L
31


In order to see the landscape
through Jewish eyes, it is neccesary to, first analyze the function of landscape features through the Sefirot. Once the landscape has informed the designer of the most important qualities on the site , it is then neccesary to analyze the interelationships of the qualities in the structure of the seven lower Sefirot to inform and guide the design. The Sefirot have been discussed widely in Jewish literature corresponding to the commandments. However, not since the building of the Second Temple, have the Jews needed the application of the spiritual in a physical design mode. While the Sefirot are widely subtantiated in the Jewish world, my application of them into the realm of landscape leaves room for misrepresentation.
. Tofahty ,f
• ivt'kU] euetc
• Ofwfw J
• opteC S-
V.
32


The first three Sefirot are
the sources of intellectual do-
mains while the lower seven
relate more to natural
phenomenon. It is the 1 ower
seven Sefirot which we will
analyze in terms of the
1andscape.
33


SITE
Ras Sahadeh, as it is referred to in the local Arabic, means Tribunal Head. This stately hill emerges out of a ridge and ravine of the Judean hills, in the northeastern corner of Jerusalem.lt is presently undeveloped, but it's southwestern slopes are soon slated to be a Jewish residental neighborhood. Being on the eastern edge of the Judean hills puts it in the rain shadow of the Judean desert.From its predominately hot and dry slopes on can look south to Mt. Scopus and the heart of Jerusalem. Ras Sahadeh lies approximately 6 kilometers from the Temple Mount on which sits the Moslem Dome of the Rock. Once the site is developed it will compromise a new gateway to Jerusalem from the Judean Desert.
34


THE DESIGN
The previous analysis of the Sefirot represents a significant theoretical study in its own right. The analysis and design of the site is , in a sense, a seperate study. The Sefirot as a system are objectively pure. However, applying them to the site requires subjective judgement.The intial analysis of the site was considered in terms the following primary functions; 1) Sacred,2) Public,3) Private, and 4) Linkage.
Once these areas were established, areas of secondary importance were established. Finally, the neccesary transitions were discerned according to the functional relationships dictated by the Sefirot.
z
35


SACRED
Sacred is represented by the sefira Chered due to its obvious visability and its relationship to landscape elements on a higher order.Chesed, in order to be physical, needs to be contained. Since the Sefira of Gevurah is the quality of containment, this sacred site is contained by a red enclosure signifying Gevurah. The top of the hill being relatively flat, but limited in scope, is most closely the Sefira Netzach. Along the primary functional path of the Sefirot, the Sefir.a Tiferet lies in between the Sefirot Gevurah and Netzach. Therefore, it became neccesary to design a ring of Tiferet around the containment area.Tiferet is represented, in this case, by vegetation.
UUM' «•>*
;mu*^**m ' R®mwitnr '


37


PUBLIC
In surveying the site, with the programming of the Sefirot in mind, I sought the flatest and largest region for accomadating active public use. A spur on the eastern side of the hill best addressed this quality. Similarly to the Sacred site, the Public site (Chesed) relates to the rest of the site through the quality of border or definition (Gevurah). This definition is indicated by the color red. Both the Sacred and the Public site are represented by the color white. The concept of a sacred space is a purer application of the of the quality Chesed. For this reason the Sacred space retains the purer shape of a circle , when in design form. The eastern side of the Public space would be considered the most public and would house the most often used public activities such as schools and synagogues etc.
38


The southwestern edge of the

Public space , which is most proximate to the Linkage zone would facilitate public uses such as health facilities , which are non required uses. Each of these various uses would be built into the surrounding limestone entering the public space in their appropriate locations. The center of the public space or courtyard could have a park celebrating the element of water , which is the quality of Chesed. The water from the center of this park could flow out from the center dividing the courtyard into four quarters much the way the way water flowed out of the Garden of Eden.
A.J.
39
/ /


PRIVATE
The site had to accomadate for an area that would best facilitate one hundred private dwelling units, each averaging around four people per unit. The section of the site that fosters this intimacy and remains accessable is best located on the middle of the site's southwestern slope. Due to lack of time, I did not commit myself to the details of these housing units . I imagined working out a scheme of earth - sheltered houses approximating the flow of the contours. Housing relates to the quality of privacy (Yesod), which is depicted in orange. It is the last of the contributing elements of the Sefirot structure. Because of this, it must be bordered by the quality of Hod which supercedes it in the structure. The quality structurally furthest away from private space (Yesod) is public and sacred
AM.
40


space (Chesed).This comprises the densest transition of qualities on the site , which will be dis-scused next.
A .0.
41


LINKAGE
The need for a linkage area is neccesary in a community plan based on the structure of the Sefirot. In the structure of the Sefirot ,the quality of publicness (Chesed) and the quality of privateness (Yesod) are stages 1 and 6 respectively in the lower structure of 7 that have expression in the world. The design expression of the the 4 intermediate stages are neccesary in order to transform the structure physically in a logical manner, logical transition.
The first stage in linkage, from public to private, involves the quality of delineating boundries or enclosures
(Gevurah). (See public space) The succeeding qualities are parks recreation (Tiferet), semi public , marketplace (Netzach), and semi - private ,clustering (Hod) .
42


The overall quality of this linkage area was envisioned to create a sense of transition. Using Earth-sheltered , groto-like construction building could be carved out or carved into the limestone bedrock. This would follow the example of Abshalom's Tomb in Jerusalem* valley of Siloam.
43


CONCLUSION
The purpose of this project was to give an example of design rooted in a strong cultural context while still addressing contemporary design and planning issues. This was accomplished by keeping the focus of the design on social issues such as sacred, public, and private spaces. The second intent of the project was to give Jewish designers a traditional language of qualitative functional relationships to base on or borrow from when designing in their own cultural environment. I was able utilize the sefirot system, on a small community wide scale. However, It needs to be applied on many scales and at greater levels of complexity before it proves to be practicably viable. I was pleased that the design made logical sense to viewers who were previously unfimiliar with this Jewish design processes.
44


INDEX OF PHOTOGRAPHS
A) Typical aricultural settlement in the Judean Hills taken by Todd Johnson
B) Siloan Valley in Jerusalem, showing traditional landscape patterns,taken by Todd Johnson
C) Mt. Zion in Jerusalem showing forested hilltop taken by Todd Johnson
D) Early settlements in the Judean hills. ( source unknown )
.E) Urban courtyard the Hasidic neighborhood Mea Shearim, Jerusalem, taken by Todd Johnson
F) Designers of the Bauhaus whose impact was felt in Israel, from Kibbutz and Bauhaus,Massada Pub. 1976
G) View of the wall of the old city , in middle ground , and the new city of Jerusalem in the backround,showing the contrast and tension in historic development trends, taken by Todd Johnson
H) Arab village in the Judean hiIs , showing effective green belt around village, taken by Todd Johnson
I) A hillside in Haifa showing a 1950's Modernist influence, from Kibbutz and Bauhaus, Massada Pub. 1976
J) The Beehive, a paradigm of naturalist design, Ibid.
K) A Beehive influenced housing design in Beersheva,Ibid.
L) A further abstracted beehive housing structure in the Negev, Ibid
M) The 'egg-carton 'style housing at Ramot,Jerusalem , an outgrowth of the naturalist -formalist movement, from Kiriaty,


J) The more venacular - modular stye of Moshe Safdie, Ibid
)) The metaphysical structure of the Sefirot
P) The attribute of Chesed and its derivations
2) The attribute of Gevurah and its derivations
*) The attribute of Tiferet and its derivations
3) The attribute of Netzach and its derivations
T) The attribute of Hod and its derivations
J) The attribute of Yesod and its derivations
/) The attribute of Malkut and its derivations
tf) The location of Jerusalem within Israel and its historical trading routes
X) The relationship of Ras Sahadeh to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem
Y) Topographic view of Ras Sahadeh
Z) The initial stage of a site analysis using color coded
spheres to represent the dominant sefira in any given
topographical location
AA) A color coded cross section of the site showing the sacred zone at the highest point in white.
AB) The sacred space depicted by the sefira chesed in white is a primary focal point on the site. The next most predominate sefira on this part of the site is Netzach. In order to arrive at Netzach from Chesed , according to the structure of the sefirot, one must pass through the Sefirot of Gevurah and Tiferet. These are depicted as a red and yellow bands


AC) This graphic shows the relationship of the sacred space to
a higher level of the landscape , in this case, Jerusalem's Temple Mount.
AD) This picture shows a further blending of the spheres ,as depicted in AC into landscape zones.
AE) This picture show the hilltop and the sacred site as it might look from a low flying aircraft.
AF) A color coded cross section showing the public area
as depicted in white with its gently sloping and accessable location.
AG) The large white circle represents the sphere of public
space due to its relative accessibility and gentle slopes, as mentioned. This area, like the sacred space, is within the sefira of Chesed, and therefore due to the structure of the sefirot is encircled by a band of gevurah (red) and Tiferet (yellow).
AH) This graphic shows a further blending of the the spheres and the allusion of activity within the public space.
AI) Here, an addition stage of blending is portrayed.
AJ) The public space in this picture is further developed showing its relationship to the Linkage area to the left. The public area is further developed with a core area microcosm of the structure that encloses it.
AK) This graphic is an illustrative of the the developed public area.
AL) A color coded cross section showing the private area as an


iM) The private space indicated by the orange circles of the sefira of Yesod cover a major part of the hills slopes.
These slopes are relatively steep but still accessable. This combination of qualities allows a buildable but intimate environment.
VN) This picture shows a blending of the spheres depicted in AM.
MD) In this graphic the spheres have congealed into cubes representing housing units on a hillside.
^P) A birdseye view of the hillside cubes that represent housing units.
^Q) This cross section of the hillside is not typical in that
it splits the length of the study area. The linkage area joins the public area to the right( in white ) to the private area ( in orange ) to the left.
^R) In this picture the layout of the spheres is apparent with
the linkage area roughly from the upper right to the lower left hand corner of the photo.
^S) A closer look at the layout of the sefirot.
\T) The linkage concept of moving through the structure of the
sefirot is depicted here as Chesed (white) moves through the sefirot color spectrum to Yesod (orange) and vice versa.
MJ) The linkage area developed here in plan view ( moving from
right to left ) a red band representing a destinct border for the public area; a wide yellow band signifying a horticultural garden area; a light pink zone of semi-public markets; a dark pink area of semi-private offices and clubs merging into the private housing area, depicted as orange squares.
AU-AY) I1lustratives of the site showing the linkage area from a number of different birds-eye perspectives.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
The Jerusalem Bible, See Numbers (35:2-5), Pub.,Philipp Feldheim Inc. 1977 . . / • :
Ibid. See Nechemiah / 2 (444 B.C.E.)
Sharon,A. Planning Jerusalem, McGraw-Hi11,1973
Ibid.
Kutcher,A. The New Jerusalem, The M.I.T. Press, 1975
* •. * y *•? v •
Sharon,A. Kibbutz and Bauhaus,Massada Publishing Co. 1976
b ' . i
Kiriaty,J. I_n ji Search for Identity,Procees Architecture #44 Feb. 1984
Ardalan,N.,Bakhtiar,L. The Sense of Unity,The University of
n.. * • ’ ! • - ‘ ■■• . ‘J • ‘
Chicago Press,1973
Kiriaty,J. In a Search for Identity,Procees Architecture
- ! â– 
#44 Feb. 1984
Koh,J. Ecological Design:A Post-Modern Design Paradigm of Holistic Philosophy and Evolutionary Ethic.Landscape Journal,Vol.1. No.2,1982
Luzza11o,M.C. The Way o f God,Fe1dheim Pub.,Trans.
Kaplan,A.,1978


REFERENCES
A1exander,C.,and others, A Pattern Language, Oxford University Press,1977
Canaan,G. Rebuilding The Land of Israel,Architectural Book Publishing Company,1954
Harlap,A. New Israeli Architecture, Associated University Presses ,1982
Brueggemann,W. The Land, Fortress Press,1977 Speigal,E. New Towns In Israel,Praeger Pub.,1966 HaLevi,P. Sefer HaHinnuch Feldheim Pub.,1984 Steinsalz,A Biblical Images Basic Books,1984 Turpin,L. The Environment In Israel ,EPS Jerusalem,1979 Maimonides,M. Mishneh Torah, Ktav Pub.,1983
Wischnitzer ,R.Th_e Architecture of the European Synagogue, The Jewish Publication Society,1964
Mumford,L.The City In History, HBJ Pub.,1961
Golany,G.Design For Arid Regions,Van Nostrand,1983
Konya,A. Design Primer for Hot Climates,Arch. Press,1980
Cochrane,!.& Brown,J.Landscape Design for the Middle East,
RIBA Pub.,1978
Rappaport,L. The Lost Jews, Stein and Day Publishers 1980
Brebner,J. Environmental Psychology in Building Design,Applied Science Pub. 1982
Jackson,J.B. The Necessity of Ruins and Other Topics, U. of Mass. Press 1980
Kaplan,R. & S. Environmental Knowing, Comm. Devel.
Series,Dowden, Hutch. & Ross Inc. 1976
Rossbaum,S. Feng Shui: The Chinese Art of PIacement, E.P. Dutton Inc. N.Y.
46










































Full Text

PAGE 1

RAS SAHADEH: // A CASE STUDY IN JEWISH METAPHYSICS AND LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE SHAMBERG I .....,_ _ _ ... . ----'"'1 .....,_ _ _ .. -----; ENVIRONMENTAL DESIG "AURAR lA LIBRARY. 1 MAY 1986

PAGE 2

:HIS THESIS IS SUBMITTED AS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE lEQUIREMENTS FOR A MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DEGREE AT INIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER,COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING, ;RADUATE DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE. 'HILIP S. FLORES, DIRECTOR -:RAD. DEPT. OF LANDSCAPE ARCH. NIVERSITY OF COLORADO, DENVER ERRY SHAPINS, ASSOCIATE PROFESSO DEPT. OF LANDSCAPE ARCH. ' NIVERSITY OF COLORADO, DENVER . ABBI MORDECAI B. TWERSKI I IRECTOR , TALMUDIC RESEARCH 1ENVER , COLORADO ODD JOHNSON, PRINCIPAL DESIGNER IVITAS -URBAN DESIGN FIRM , COLORADO RANCINE HABER, ARCHITECTURAL HISTORIAN . SSOCIATE PROFESSOR NIVERSITY OF COLORADO ,DENVER LLEN KOTZ, ARCHITECT SSOCIATE PROFESSOR RAPAHOE COMMUNITY COLLEGE, ATE • ' J ---:----... 2 Date oue ! --\'/ fG

PAGE 3

TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKOWLEDGEMENTS 4 INTRODUCTION 5 THE LAND OF ISRAEL: EBB AND FLOW 7 THE NEED FOR JEWISH DESIGN CONCEPTS 21 THE SEFIROT: A BASIS JEWISH FOR DESIGN 25 THE SITE: RAS SAHADEH 34 THE DESIGN 35 ONCLUSION 44 IBLIOGRAPHY 45 3

PAGE 4

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would firstly like to hank my commitee; Rabbi :ordecai Twerski, Todd Johnson, erry Shapins, Ellen Kotz, and rancine Haber, for not only heir invaluable contributions ut also for their tolerance of y design process. Without the generousity of y Jerusalem crew; amuel Frank, Gabi, a tan Nachmani and Professor Tina and Yaron urrel,in documenting the site f Ras Sahadeh, this project ould not have been ccomplished. I would like to thank my riend Leo Carl Berliner for his onstant inspiration. It is truely my dear wife hoshanna Shamberg who has oauthored this work in its most mposing moments.There nough thanks. aren't 4

PAGE 5

INTRODUCTION When we look at cultures, we see that values. The design analogy expresses has been made that American culture is like a melting pot. The danger with melting pots is that the purity and diversity of the original substances are lost to homogeneity. The richness of culture also suffers. In design we see much symbolism extracted from various cultures that does not communi-cate the intent of its original eaning. At best we record, encase and memorialize cultural ideas, seemingly from a sense of uilt. This too is their death. contrast to this In endency, we must look at our wn cultural roots and envision urselves as a vessel bringing enewal to them, from them. 5

PAGE 6

During the last thirty-ight years, since the ededication of the state of srael, much design and planning as taken place. Very few of the esigners or planners have eflected on the time tested piritual aspirations or values f Jewish tradition.This is only artially due to the lack of a ajor Jewish design tradition. In order to enrich Jewish ulture, as well as culture as a hole ,I saw the need to look nto my own tradition and find ts rich applications to todays' ew design opportunities in andscape architecture. 6

PAGE 7

THE LAND OF ISRAEL It is almost a hundred years have since the Jewish exiles resettled in the Land of Israel, years of after two thousand virtual Jewish displacement. This process re-sulted in a natural geographic revival, the renaissance of the Hebrew language , and the opporA. tunity to live a Torah .life in its own land. In order to under-stand the application of a Torah value system to planning design and scheme, it is necessary to generally understand the Jewish land relationship as it is framed in the Torah. 7 EBB AND FLOW

PAGE 8

The Torah describes what is •robably the earliest recorded 1 e community planning and lesign. The Torah states II the orty eight cities reserved for he tribe of Levi, are to have . n area of land approximately ,000 feet wide all around the ity reserved as an pace".(l) In addition to pen space iddi tional lurrounding there 4,000 the open is _served for agricultural open this an feet space use. 1imonides, t u ry a great Jewish thirteenth scholar, ilosopher, and Torah commentar, infers that this should be e structure of every Jewish ty in the land of Israel. 8

PAGE 9

Gezer, an ancient town of dunams ( 22 acres ) , was :avated and found to have an space fifteen times the area surrounding it. This of open space and pasture a town is deeply >ted within Jewish tradition. Ldence of this tradition is ;o expounded by the prophet for the layout of seven centuries later. 570 BCE , the prophet and dsh leader, Nechemiah, ;pected these reservations in 'uilding the walls of the Old ty. (2) G. 9

PAGE 10

The first settlers to the 1 d of Israel at the end of the century found an un>und. It and uncultivated was virtually :hanged since the devastation 1sed by the marauding Roman who sent the Jewish >ple into death and exile. The pioneers were primarily of :opean decent. Over the centuries, :opean Jewry had been largely :cessful in retaining its culal identity. This was due to :ernal protective mechanisms, well as, a response to living a hostile environment. By late eighteenth and early teteenth centuries, internal tsions :nified. among At that Jews point, had it easier to conform with expectations of the outside 1 d. 10 0.

PAGE 11

Enlightment in European strongly outlook. was reductionist in its rhe last remnants of metaphysics ller e thrown out during the ::opernican revolution. Since Decarte, reality was defined by experiences. This eriod in western culture has een referred to as the Age of eason. As a reaction, many ntellectual pockets developed. het entertained the romantic, xistential, hilosophies. and irrational 11

PAGE 12

Jewish culture in western Europe became beseiged by the ernal constraints that were upon it. There were Rabbis and er leaders in the Jewish community who instigated ansion of sec ul.ar studies as a necessary componet the of vi val. They did not see it as a substitution fer their own tural mores. The majority of people, however, did not erst and the subtleness of the issue. They dropped their toms and adopted the cultural norms of enlightened society. se who integrated the cultural tensions well, while pting popular elements of socialist and modernist thought, e also able to maintain their beliefs in Torah law, and the ine promise of the land of Israel. Many of these people ered agricultural and trade schools in order to practically ance their beliefs. Others entered the university system. se who entered the field of architecture and planning ing the early part of this century, found themselves in the ools of Bauhaus and the modernists movements. Their utopian tforms of change were also the form and style of the times. se pioneers brought their eastP.rn European cultural kround and socialistic ideas into a Mediteranian environt under the rule of the Turkish Otoman Empire.They tried to pt the local Arabic urban and rural traditional hitecture, creating an "oriental eclectisism". 12

PAGE 13

The British mandate of 1917 ned the doors for many of the t people in planning and hitecture to utilize their ents in Palestine. They mainned strong interests in the y Land, especially Jerusalem. y introduced many of the town nning schemes and building ulations that are used ay. ( 3) When the pioneers entered land, they found a scheme for development of the land act. The British Mandatory ernment adopted ancient and ieval concepts, which the new aeli Government in 1948 also pted. For example, these plans e based upon the premise that Old City of Jerusalem and its rounding landscape constituted organic whole. This unity, iliar to the prophet Ezekiel's tements, must be rooted in a ritual ideal. 13 F.

PAGE 14

erusalem as the spiritual and emographics center of the andscape received, initially, he worst attention. The this hysical expression of piritual center was to surround t with a greenbelt and prevent utside urban enroachment.The ritish Planners from 1918 hrough 1934 respected this, and ther long held concepts, about e nature of this land as a ique blend of natural and iritual elements. The Kendell an of 1944 was the first to olate inciples, velopment lls (4). these long held introducing new up to the old city 14

PAGE 15

The first Israeli plan Jerusalem,compiled in 1948 by was a brilliant application these ancient planning con-ts. Rau applied the nciple of a greenbelt around entire new city, consistent the proposal Maimonides had forth eight hundred years lier. Rau's thinking underad that the valleys in the ean hills were restored for icultural and green open ces. The hill slopes received blanket of housing while the ge tops were reserved for titutional and public ldings, and small groves of usalem pines.(5) 15 tt.

PAGE 16

Massive population increases 0 the state of r 'srael, bined with simplistic political concepts eventually an to . impose themselves on landscape and these ancient llciples of land use. The had made their mark 11 a land, whose essence had been the physical di;ity of its communities. lal modernist ideas were The also 1lar with architects involved :he production of mass housing the rapidly growing populal. ( 6) Politcally, >ian society that ;e ideas. Form and it was a accepted function tisted harmoniously with an 1itecture of square planning; :-roofed, monochromatic, :coed concrete; and monotonous :aces, broken only by cubic :ted recesses of balconies. 16

PAGE 17

balconies were the symbol of harmony: of public and vate life, indoor and outdoor activities. There was vir-lly no articulation of structure ' materials, texture ornamentation. The nning Technion, in Israel, the only recognized school of design and was the theoretical base for these elopments. Under the guidelines of Professor A.Neuman , a ace packing theory" was introduced. Professor Neuman, ether with Zvi Reker and Eldar Sharon, created buildings inated by three demensional qualities composed of etitive forms.(7) They were attempting to create a Medi-ranean feeling of space, lytical approach. with modern techniques, and an According to polyhedric architecture, a principal aims to unite and harmonize various parts of a building in an icient, aesthetically pleasing and physically satisfying, angment. Later, extensive research into mathematical forms conducted in the Technion by Professor Vachman. An logy to the micro particles in nature and the geometry of yhedras led to space frame construction and better undernding of form strength. With the establishment of the state of Israel, in 1948, sing became an urgent priority overnight. During the next e years, Israel's population trippled from 650,000 to 00,000 people. 17

PAGE 18

Hundreds of thousands of Holocaust survivors, and refugees from Islamic countires, were placed in 'tent cities' while awaiting housing in newl y developed projects. These housing projects were primarily the result of administrative decisions, where speed of construction, location, were more valued than architectural planning and and cost improved design solutions. Under these conditions, that the norms and standards of Israeli architecture developed. The center of gravity was housing, which compromised 80-90% of the new construction. At the same time professor Burt explored the and morphology flexible. hyberolic of light weight membranes, both rigid Large, three dimensional structures such as paraboloids were created by repetition of the same element in smaller scale. Israel Goodovitch was facinated by the saddle shape, which he utilized as a formal structural idea in most of his projects. His forms were argonomatically designed with simplicity and ease to manufacture and construct. Ram Karmi is more concerned about two dimesional form in planning as a clear configuration, while inserting three repetition of elements in the vertical scale. dimensional Haim Hefetz developed a concrete dome which is cast upon an inflatable neoprene balloon, introducing again into the built envoirment the shape of the dome which dominated the middle east as a symbol of Islamic architecture.(8) 18

PAGE 19

The natural habitation of animals and plants stimulated the architects mind. The beehive and sunflower seed arrangements were examples of a perfect models for imitation.(9) Functionalism, formalism, ,.. "'---...... and an analytical approach, led --to quick development of building Jr technologies. Prefabrication construction, using such methods as precast elements, in site fabrication components, and industrial construction are gra-dually replacing the conventional building techniques and skills. L. 19

PAGE 20

Eldar Sharon uses the three dimensional precast as a facade element in his architecture. A modular scheme, with modular elements, reduces the massiveness of his buldings by allowing air and light to penetrate through. Moshe Safdi elaborated his modular style the venacular, nean house. trying to create rural, Mediterra-There are many Israeli architects who did not follow this standard of modelular design and developed their own style. Never the Israeli architecture followed the direc-tion of analytical approach rather than a cultural or metaphysical one. 20

PAGE 21

THE NEED FOR JEWISH DESIGN CONCEPTS :ljusted The Bauhaus and Modernist design theories to the changing social and political mood adequately of Europe, hich was experiencing a transition from absolute monarchy rule o the democratic system. It was inappropriate to impose h e European design framework on a population whose cultural was very different from this European mentality. Within auhaus thinking, the environment was seen to be an entity that ould rationally and scientifically be described and evaluated. ;ood environments could be prescribed by formula using statis-leal averages or ideal dimensions, scale, and proportions rreguardless of historical, cultural, or natural variations." LO) This approach to the environment was based upon physical reductionist principles, as opposed to the Jewish relationship to the land. It is easy to understand how such utopian thinkers with Lmplistic, universalist ideas would jump at the opportunity to >ply their notions on such a large scale. The problem with the tuhaus approach, with its abstracted notions of ideal propor-Lon and universal style, stems from its roots in reductionist linking. This disects the world into a random set of unrelated 1tities without a metaphysically unifying fabric and purpose. 21

PAGE 22

The Torah,according to its adherents, is a conceptual code .th which to read all levels of reality. Because the Torah i s 1nsidered the blueprint of creation, it provides the tools to 1proach life as a whole, infusing every level with purpose and .rection.The Land of Israel is an essential component of our 1nvictions. It is the source, as well as, the goal and dream of 1 e Jewish people. For the last two thousand years, from vastly .fferent locations around the globe during the Passover 1liday, we have collectively and individually proclaimed "next !ar in Jerusalem". The first book of the Torah, known as Genesis, discusses r o different scenarios about the human-land relationship. The .rst scenario involves Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel,Noah and his 1mi 1 y, and the people of Babel. These groups were all given a !emingly secure relationship to the land, but through own 1iritual blunders were deprived of that privilege. Abraham, on 1 e other hand, attached himself to will the of God. In turn, a tnd was promised to him and his decendents. Abraham showed the 1tience and stamina needed for the fulfillment of this promise. 22

PAGE 23

During the time of the Exodus from Egypt, before the Jewish people had entered into the land of promise, they retained the status of wanderers. A wanderer has no defined home. Survival is the main goal of living. Wanderers in the desert face the constant anticipation of either oasis and life, or drought and death. Exile is a memory of landlessness. Exile is a state of being cut off with seemingly no way back. Exile has notoriously been the backround of the Jewish peoples' s trongest demonstration of faith. In the context of landlessness, the promises of return to the land of Israel, many. has inspired hope to Israel's history is not all landless. Having land presents new problems and consequences for the Jewish people in their relationshi p to God.As the sons of Jacob went down to Egypt, they were given land by their brother Joseph. At this time, they dwelt in a land that was not theirs.The benefits of living on this land, called Goshen, were more apparent than the slavery it would lead to. Soon the desert ,with its freedom,would appear immeasurably more appealing. The paradigmal human-land relationship in the Torah is one of tension between having land while fearing expulsion, and the condition of not having land while anticipating it. This is the vivid dichotomy faced by the Jewish people up through the present time. This attachment to Torah concepts clarifies to the Jewish nation that their survival and welfare on the land is incumbent upon applying this approach. 23

PAGE 24

At the present time, it seems imperative to study the orah's metaphysical model in order to understand the role of his ancient landscape. An environment must be created which ourishes spiritual and cultural growth, and the physical equirements of a healthy society. The goal of design , in this ase, is not essentially physical. The goal is to infuse the hysical, with spiritual principles, in a way that bridges the wo levels of reality. An environment of this kind would .opefully evoke this spiritual-physical dialogue. In general terms, this project's intention is to 'acilitate other designers to approach design as inclusive of :ulture. The impersonal, post-modern application of cultural :ymbolism in design will not heal an environment in which humans :eel alienated • In our times we must promote the role of . andscape architects as healers. 24

PAGE 25

THE SEFIROT: A FOR JEWISH DESIGN Torah years, has thought, over the been divided into various types of thought. On one end of the spectrum is 'Nigla' or the revealed Torah, and on the other end is 'Nistar' or the hidden Torah. The 'Nigla' side of the spectrum is largely involved with moral and ritual laws, and with the issues that govern mans' relationship to man. The 'Nistar' aspect of Torah pertains primarily to mans' relationship to God and explanations of the underlying structure of creation. Hassidic thought, which developed concurrently with the enlightment movement, emphasizes the inherent link between hidden concepts and the more revealed laws. Because of this link, human actions directly effect the fullfillment of the creative struc-ture. 25 o .

PAGE 26

In general, creation con-sists of two basic parts: the physical and the spiritual. The physical is that which we per-ceive with our senses. The spiritual consists of that which is not physical and which cannot be detected by physical means. Souls comprise a class of spiritual entities destined to enter human bodies as these bodies enter the world. A second class of spiritual entities, cal-led sefirot, are not meant to be associated with physical bodies. 26 P.

PAGE 27

The great Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzato discusses this very clearly in the following quote. " We are well aware of physical things, properties and and their laws natural are well known. Spiritual concepts on the other hand, are outside our realm of experience, and therefore cannot be adequately described. When we speak of spiritual entities and phenomena, we must therefore rely completely on the traditions handed downto us. 27 q .

PAGE 28

One of these fundamentals states that everything in the physical world has a counterpart among .spiritual forces. Every entity, any process in the physical world, is linked to these forces, following a system decreed by God's wisdom. These forces are, of all Everything in therefore, the roots physical things. the physical world is a branch and and result of these forces. They are bound together like the links of a chain. The main existence and true state of the physical universe thus emanates from these highest forces. Whatever exists in the physical world is a result of something that takes place among these forces.This is true of both what existed in the beginning and what transpires with the passage of time. 28

PAGE 29

These forces, the sefirot, were the first things created. They were arranged in various systems and placed in different domains. Everything that came about later was a result of this, following rules willed by God, and linking these forces with the spiritual world. Everything that happened in the past or happens in the present has its origin in processes taking place between these forces. The existence, state, pattern, and every other quality that exists among these forces are a result of what is relevant to them by virtue of their essential nature. The existence, state, arrangement and other phenomena involving physical things, in turn, depends on what is transmitted and reflected to them by these forces. 29 ?.

PAGE 30

According to this principle, every physical phenomenon originates among these highest forces. The exception is that God willed man to influence the world through his actions.Since both man and his world are physical, the only direct influence they may attain is on physical things. Due to the the linkage between the physical world and the highest forces, each time a physical entity is influenced, its counterpart is effected within the sefirot. Since human activities in the world influence these forces on high, human influence is said to be upward."(ll) The Sefriot function simalarly to a prisim. They transform a unified emantion from God and disperse it into a world of plurality distinct from God. Everything in existance is rooted in the complexity of the Sefirot. 30 T.

PAGE 31

The Sefirot, each one a totality unto itself, is composed of every other Sefira. Each sub sefira, in turn, is also composed of every other one ad infinitum. The combinations are seemingly endless as are the manifestations of the created world. The Sefriot are emanated successively from above to below, each one revealing an additional stage in the divine process. 31

PAGE 32

In order to see the landscape through Jewish eyes, it is neccesary to, first analyze the function of landscape features through the Sefirot. Once the landscape has informed the designer of the most important qualities on the site it is then neccesary to analyze the interelationships. of the qualities in the structure of the seven lower Sefirot to inform and guide the design. The Sefirot have been discussed widely in Jewish literature corresponding to the commandments. However, not since the building of the Second Temple, have the Jews needed the application of the spiritual in a physical design mode. While the Sefirot are widely subtantiated in the Jewish world, my application of them into the realm of landscape leaves room for misrepresentation. 32 v.

PAGE 33

The first three Sefirot are the sources of intellectual do-mains relate while the lower more to seven natural phenomenon. It is the lower seven Sefirot which we analyze in terms of landscape. will the 33

PAGE 34

SITE Ras Sahadeh, as it is referred to in the local Arabic, means Tribunal Head. This stately hill emerges out of a ridge and ravine of the Judean hills, in the northeastern corner of Jerusalem. It is presently undeveloped, but it's southwestern slopes are soon slated to be a Jewish residental neighborhood. Being on the eastern edge of the Judean hills puts it in the rain shadow of the Jude an desert.From its predominately hot and dry slopes on can look south to Mt. Scopus and the heart of Jerusalem. Ras Sahadeh lies approximately 6 kilometers from the Temple Mount on which sits the Moslem Dome of the Rock. Once the site is developed it will compromise a new gateway to Jerusalem from the Judean Desert. 34 w. '(.

PAGE 35

THE DESIGN The previous analysis of the Sefirot represents a significant theoretical study in its own right. The analysis and design of the site is , in a sense, a seperate study. The Sefirot as a system However, site are objectively pure. applying them to the requires subjective judgement.The intial analysis of the site was considered in terms the following primary functions; 1) Sacred,2) Public,3) Private, and 4) Linkage. Once these areas were established, areas of secondary importance were established. Finally, the neccesary transi-tions were discerned according to the functional dictated by the Sefirot. 35 z

PAGE 36

SACRED Sacred is represented by the sefira Chered due to its obvious visability and its relationship to landscape elements on a higher order.Chesed, in order to be physical, needs to be contained. Since the Sefira of Gevurah is the quality of containment, this sacred site is contained by a red enclosure signifying Gevurah. The top of the hill being relatively flat, but limited in scope, is most closely the Sefira Netzach. Along the primary functional path of the Sefirot, the lies in between the Tiferet Sefirot Gevurah and Netzach. Therefore, it became neccesary to design a ring of Tiferet around the containment area.Tiferet is represented, vegetation. in this case, by . 36

PAGE 37

Ao. 37

PAGE 38

PUBLIC In surveying the site, with the programming of the Sefirot in mind, I sought the flatest and largest region for accomadating active public use. A spur on the eastern side of the hill best addressed this quality. Similarly to the Sacred site, the Public site (Chesed) relates to the rest A . f. of the site through the quality of border or definition (Gevurah). This definition is indicated by the color red. Both the Sacred and the Public site are represented by the color white. The concept of a sacred space is a purer application of the of the quality Chesed. For this reason the Sacred space retains the purer shape of a circle , when in design form. The eastern side of the Public space would be considered the most public and would house the most often used public activities such as schools and synagogues etc. A.tir. 3a Att.

PAGE 39

The southwestern edge of the Public space which is most proximate to the Linkage zone would facilitate public uses such as health facilities , which are non required uses. Each of these various uses would be built into the surrounding limestone entering the public space in their appropriate locations. The center of the public space or courtyard could have a park celebrating the element of water , which is the quality of Chesed. The water from the center of this park could flow out from the center dividing the courtyard A .l. into four quarters much the way the way water flowed out of the Garden of Eden. 39

PAGE 40

PRIVATE The site had to accomadate for an area that would best facilitate one hundred pri-vate dwelling units, each averaging around four people per unit. The section of the site that fosters this intimacy and remains accessable is best located on the middle of the site's southwestern slope. Due to lack of time, I did not commit myself to the details of these housing units • scheme I imagined working out a of earth -sheltered houses approximating the flow of the contours. Housing relates to the quality of privacy (Yesod), which is depicted in orange. It is the last of the contributing elements of the Sefirot structure. Because of this, it must be bordered by the quality of Hod which supercedes it in the struc-ture. The quality structurally furthest away from private space (Yesod) is public and sacred 40

PAGE 41

space (Chesed).This comprises the densest transition of qualities on the site , scused next. which will be dis-41

PAGE 42

LINKAGE The need for a linkage area is neccesary in a community plan based on the structure of the Sefirot. In the structure of the Sefirot ,the quality of publicness (Chesed) and the quality of privateness (Yesod) are stages 1 and 6 respectively in the lower structure of 7 that have expres-sion in the world. The design expression of the the 4 intermediate stages are neccesary in order to transform the struc-ture physically in a logical manner. logical transition. The first stage in linkage, from public to private, involves the quality boundries of or delineating enclosures ( G . e v u r a h ) • ( See pub 1 i c space ) The succeeding qualities are parks recreation (Tiferet), semi public , marketplace (Netzach), and semi -private (Hod). ,clustering 42 f..&J.

PAGE 43

The overall quality of this linkage area was envisioned to create a sense of transition. Earth-sheltered grotoUsing construction building could be carved out or carved into the limestone bedrock. This would follow the example of Abshalom's Tomb in Jerusalem' Siloam. valley of 43 A.\/.

PAGE 44

CONCLUSION The purpose of this project was to give an example of design rooted in a strong cultural context while still addressing contemporary design and planning issues. This was accomplished by keeping the focus of the design on social issues such as sacred, public, and private spaces. The second intent of the project was to give Jewish designers a traditional language of qualitative functional relationships to base on or borrow from when designing in their own cultural environ-ment. I was able utilize the sefirot system, on a small community wide scale. However, It needs to be applied on many scales and at greater levels of complexity before it proves to be practicably viable. I was pleased that the design made logical sense to viewers who were previously unfimiliar with this Jewish design processes. 44 1\-W. A .x. A':(.

PAGE 45

INDEX OF PHOTOGRAPHS A) Typical aricultural settlement in the Judean Hills taken by Todd Johnson B) Siloan Valley in Jerusalem, showing traditional landscape patterns,taken by Todd Johnson C) Mt. Zion in Jerusalem showing forested hilltop taken by Todd Johnson D) Early settlements in the Judean hills. ( source unknown ) , E) Urban courtyard the Hasidic neighborhood Mea Jerusalem, taken by Todd Johnson Shearim, F) Designers of the Bauhaus whose impact was felt in Israel, from Kibbutz and Bauhaus,Massada Pub. 1976 G) View of the wall of the old city , in middle ground , and the new city of Jerusalem in the backround,showing the contrast and tension in historic development trends, taken by Todd Johnson H) Arab village in the Judean hlls , showing effective green belt around village, taken by Todd Johnson I) A hillside in Haifa showing a 1950's Modernist influence, from Kibbutz and Bauhaus, Massada Pub. 1976 J) The Beehive, a paradigm of naturalist design, Ibid. K) A Beehive influenced housing design in Beersheva,Ibid. L) A further abstracted beehive housing structure in the Negev, Ibid M) The 'egg-carton 'style housing at Ramot,Jerusalem, an outgrowth of the naturalist -formalist movement, from Kiriaty ,

PAGE 46

n )) ?) )) 3) r) J) The The The The The The The The more venacular -modular stye of Moshe Safdie, metaphysical structure of the Sefirot attribute of Chesed and its derivations attribute of Gevurah and its derivations attribute of Tiferet and its derivations attribute of Netzach and its derivations attribute of Hod and its derivations attribute of Yesod and its derivations v) The attribute of Malkut and its derivations Ibid N) The location of Jerusalem within Israel and its historical trading routes X) The relationship of Ras Sahadeh to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem Y) Topographic view of Ras Sahadeh Z) The initial stage of a site analysis using color coded spheres to represent the dominant sefira in any topographical location AA) A color coded cross section of the site showing the sacred zone at the highest point in white. given AB) The sacred space depicted by the sefira chesed in white is a primary focal point on the site. The next most predominate sefira on this part of the site is Netzach. In order to arrive at Netzach from Chesed , according to the structure of the sefirot, one must pass through the Sefirot of Gevurah and Tiferet. These are depicted as a red and yellow bands

PAGE 47

AC} This graphic shows the relationship of the sacred space to a higher level of the landscape , in this case, Jerusalem's Temple Mount. AD} This picture shows a further blending of the spheres ,as depicted in AC into landscape zones. AE) This picture show the hilltop and the sacred site as it might look from a low flying aircraft. AF) A color coded cross section showing the public area as depicted in white with its gently sloping and accessable location. AG) The large white circle represents the sphere of public space due to its relative accessibility and gentle slopes, as mentioned. This area, like the sacred space, is within the sefira of Chesed, and therefore due to the structure of the sefirot is encircled by a band of gevurah (red) and Tiferet (yellow). AH) This graphic shows a further blending of the the spheres and the allusion of activity within the public space. AI) Here, an addition stage of blending is portrayed. AJ) The public space in this picture is further developed showing its relationship to the Linkage area to the left. The public area is further developed with a core area microcosm of the structure that encloses it. AK) This graphic is an illustrative of the the developed public area. AL) A color coded cross section showing the private area as an

PAGE 48

lM) The private space indicated by the orange circles of the sefira of Yesod cover a major part of the hills slopes. These slopes are relatively steep but still accessable. This combination of qualities allows a buildable but intimate environment. \N) This picture shows a blending of the spheres depicted in AM. \0) In this graphic the spheres have congealed into cubes representing housing units on a hillside. \P) A birdseye view of the hillside cubes that represent housing units. \Q) This cross section of the hillside is not typical in that it splits the length of the study area. The linkage area joins the public area to the right( in white ) to the private area ( in orange ) to the left. In this picture the layout of the spheres is apparent with the linkage area roughly from the upper right to the lower left hand corner of the photo. A closer look at the layout of the sefirot. The linkage concept of moving through the structure of the sefirot is depicted here as Chesed (white) moves through the sefirot color spectrum to Yesod (orange) and vice versa. The linkage area developed here in plan view ( moving from right to left ) a red band representing a destinct border for the public area; a wide yellow band signifying a horticultural garden area; a light pink zone of semi-public markets; a dark pink area of semi-private offices and clubs merging into the private housing area, depicted as orange squares. AU-AY) Illustratives of the site showing the linkage area from a number of different birds-eye perspectives.

PAGE 49

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. The Jerusalem Bible, See Number s (35:2-5), Feldheim Inc. 1977 Pub. , Phili p p 2. Ibid. See Nechemiah I 2 (444 B.C.E.) 3. Sharon,A. Planning Jerusalem, McGra w Hill,l973 . . -. . : -: .. 4. Ibid. 5. Kutcher,A. The New Jerusalem, The P.r ess, 197 5 .:. :.o " 5. Sharon,A. Kibbutz and Bauhaus,Massada Publis hing Co . 1 976 --. ) } . . 7. Kiriaty,J. In a Search for Identity,Procees Architecture #44 Feb. 1984 A rda1an,N.,Bakhtiar,L. The Sense of Uniiy , T h e Un iversity of ' \ . .. t n ...... Ch icago Press,1973 . Kiriaty,J. In a Search for Identity,Proce e s Architectur e • t t. 1144 Feb. 1984 .0. Koh,J. Ecological Design:A Post-Modern.Design Paradigm of _H?listic.Philosophy and Evolutionary Ethic,Landscape . Journal,Vol.l. No.2,1982 .' .. :.1. Luzzatto,M.C. The of Go .d, Pub.,Trans. Kaplan,A., 1978 45

PAGE 50

REFERENCES Alexander,C.,and others, University Press,l977 A Pattern Language, Oxford Canaan,G. Rebuilding The Land of Israel,Architectural Book Publishing Company,l954 Harlap,A. New Israeli Architecture, Associated University Presses,l98"'2" Brueggemann,W. The Land, Fortress Press,l977 Speigal,E. New Israel,Praeger Pub.,l966 HaLevi,P. Sefer HaHinnuch Feldheim Pub.,l984 Steinsalz,A Biblical Images Basic Books,l984 Turpin,L. The Environment In Israel,EPS Jerusalem,1979 Maimonides,M. Mishneh Torah, Ktav Pub. ,1983 Wischnitzer,R.The Architecture of th_ e European Synagogue,The Jewish Publication Society,l964---f!!I HBJ Pub.,l961 Golany,G.Design For Arid Regions,Van Nostrand,l983 Konya,A. Design Primer for Hot Press,l980 Cochrane,T.& Brown,J.Landscape Design for the Middle East, RIBA Pub.,1978 Rappaport,L. Jews, Stein and Day Publishers 1980 Brebner,J. Environmental Building Design,Applied Science Pub. 1982 Jackson,J.B. The Nec.essity of Other Topics, U. of Mass. Press 1980 Kaplan,R. & S. Environmental Knowing, Comm. Devel. Series,Dowden, Hutch. & Ross Inc. 1976 Rossbaum,S. Feng Shui: The Chinese Art of Placement, Dutton Inc. N.Y. 46 E.P.

PAGE 53

' . / ' /! / ' ' ' .

PAGE 58

' ' / <,. ' >.' ( . ,...,

PAGE 63

t<::':_/•'--' " " <. /