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Welton Strip of Five Points : urban design strategies for the revitalization of an urban neighborhood commercial strip

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Title:
Welton Strip of Five Points : urban design strategies for the revitalization of an urban neighborhood commercial strip
Creator:
Brazee, Brian
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Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

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University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
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Full Text
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ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRARY
/
“WELTON STRIP” of Five Points;
Urban Design Strategies for the Revitalization of an Urban Neighborhood Commercial Strip
Prepared for the Center for Community Development & Design and the University of Colorado at Denver
College of Environmental Design
Prepared and Submitted by R. Brian Brazee in partial fulfillment of requirements for thr degree: Master of Architecture in Urban Design 1981


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In the fall of 1979 the Center for Community Development and Design (C.C.D.D.) was approached by the Five Points Business Association for assistance with the revitalization of the commercial area commonly referred to as the "Welton Strip" (2300 to 2900 Welton Street). Their immediate concern, as then stated, was for the Center to produce an overall design scheme for the business strip deemed necessary to free loan monies from banking institutions and to facilitate the acquisition of various grants and loans from government programs.
Apparently, for many years prior to that time, a number of studies had been commissioned by a variety of individuals and groups to determine the social mixture, economic status of residents and their disposable incomes, individual project feasibilities, and the growth patterns of the area. However, due to a lack of cohesion among the businesses and between the businesses and the surrounding community, no significant overall plan for redeveloping the strip had taken place. Needless to say, the entire community was frustrated and, at best, reticent to respond to any new surveys that might be surfacing. In spite of those fruitless undertakings, all hope was not diminished. A number of strategy groups had been formed among businessmen as well as community members.
In the business community there are:
• Expansion Unlimited (a non-profit local development corporation)
INTRODUCTION
t Five-Points Business Association
• Progress Unlimited
Of the community groups there are:
• Concerned Citizens Congress
• Curtis Park Block Council
• Curtis Park Defense Committee
• Arrowhead Redevelopment Citizen's Council
• East Village Community Council
• The Five Points Strategy Committee, which concerns itself with business as well as community affairs
These groups are not only important for responsible planning and improved communication between each other, but in some cases are vital in attaining aid in the form of loans and grants from federal and state sources.
In keeDing with C.C.D.D.'s commitment to ongoing participation in community affairs and providing assistance in their development, I drew up a program, that through continuing contact by way of meetings, could hoDefullj/ translate their ideas into overall design recommendations that would benefit both business and residential communities.
After numerous initial contacts with businessmen and residents in meetings and on the street, efforts were made to
2


establish the types of organizations (ie. non-profit L.D.C.'s) that would need to be set up to qualify for various government loan packages. As it turned out, through the Neighborhood Business Revitalization (N.B.R.), the Community Development Block Grant (C.D.B.G.), and the Urban Development Action Grant (U.D.A.G.) programs, available funds were to be filtered through and apportioned by the city of Denver's Community Development Agency (C.D.A.).
When approached, C.D.A. stated that before it would consider any proposals for revitalizing the Welton commercial strip, a new market feasibility study would have to be conducted and that a licensed architect, as opposed to a university student, would have to be retained to perform the design work. These positions were allocated to the Denver Research Institute (Industrial Economics Division) and to David Decker, A.I.A.
In light of this unexpected turn of events, my role in the project was to continue working in house for the Center for Community Development and Design. Because the center will be working continually through and beyond the redevelopment of the Five Points neighborhood, this project will serve as a guide from which present and future activities can draw ideas and directions.
3



‘WELTON STRIP
of FIVE POINTS


PAST
As old as Denver itself, Five Points has been a neighborhood that has housed a variety of cultures and lifestyles. Five Points was named after the intersection of Helton Street, Washington Street, 27th Street and 26th Avenue which form a five-pointed star. The name was popularized (as a destination sign) by the Denver Tramway Corporation's horse-drawn streetcar system that began in 1871. Five Points was also the home of the beginnings of Denver's public park system. Two years before the first railroad spur swung through Denver, land for Curtis Park, the first of the public parks, was donated to the city in 1868.
By 1914, the entire area of Five points was developed and contained homes of some of Denver's most prominent citizens. It also had a base of middle income tradespeople to give the area an integrated economic mix of homeowners. This past economic mix is evident today in the architectural composition of large and impressive homes next to smaller salt-box types.
Five Points has long been a center of Black culture within the Denver area. The Rossonian (2642-44 Welton Street) featured jazz in the area for a multi-racial society audience in the 1940’s and 1950's. Across Welton Street was the Casino Ballroom which also hosted many civic activities. Residents of the community in those days recall a strong neighborhood spirit and identity.
FIVE POINTS PAST & PRESENT
In the late 1950's the Five Points area began to deteriorate, as many upwardly mobile middle-class Blacks began to migrate eastward towards Park Hill and other areas. As traditional racial constraints on home ownership were overcome, the historic Black neighborhood around Five Points changed from a mixed income area to an area of low income as well as high unemployment. This was partly due to the remaining concentration of public housing areas with large numbers of people on government subsidies, and partly due to the dispersal of many middle-income people. Concurrent with this social/housing change, the commercial strip on Welton Street lost many businesses, and those remaining lost many customers to newer service areas in the growing suburbs.
The turbulent 1960's did more to tarnish the neighborhood's image. Racial confrontations in the Denver area occurred in and around Five Points. The present business community on the strip consists mainly of survivors who have managed to stay in business through this period of decline. One shop owner informed me that while riotous looters were breaking out storefronts to make off with merchandise, he sat in his window all night with shotgun in hand to protect his store.
4


PRESENT
Many of the surviving businesses depend less on the surrounding community than on loyal customers who have moved away but still return to shop or acquire the unique goods and services not available in other neighborhoods.
A few businesses have survived because they either harbor, tolerate, or engage in illegal activities. The loitering flotsam of such activities have kept pedestrian traffic to a minimum, particularly in the 2500 block of Welton Street.
Five Points today is becoming one of Denver's most culturally diverse areas. The racial makeup includes 28% Blacks, 29% Hispanic, 1% Oriental (largely Vietnamese), and 23% White residents (Appendix A). Renewed interest in the historic renovation and occupation of older housing (predominantly by young White professionals) close to an expanding Central Business District, the construction of new moderate-income federally subsidized housing, and a general reduction in housing vacancy rates have combined to sharply increase the disposable income in nearby areas. In a recent market feasibility study done by the Denver Research Institute, this increase in disposable income could support a revitalized business strip on Welton Street (Appendix B).
In order for the Welton Strip to prosper, efforts need to be made to carefully select the type and mixture of retail and service-oriented establishments that would best serve its surrounding neighborhood's needs rather than to depend
heavily on drive-by customers or to compete for the 16th Street Mall clientele.


• To offer design alternatives within the surrounding neighborhood which promote a sense of identity and cohesion.
• To creat well-lit, landscaped pedestrian ways which help orient the focus of and facilitate the passage from the neighborhood to the commercial strip. '
• To offer design alternatives to existing traffic circulation.
• To create safe, open spaces within the housing district that keep children out of traffic and within parental surveillance.
• To provide recommendations for the appropriate mixture of land use along the comnercial strip.
• To create a pleasant shopping environment with signage, lighting, and scale oriented more towards pedestrian traffic as opposed to strictly vehicular traffic.
GOALS & OBJECTIVES


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EXISTING TRAFFIC CIRCULATION
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CIRCULATION
EXISTING
The majority of vehicular traffic travels on a system of three paired, one-way arterials plus a couple of two-way arterials in and around the Five Points neighborhood.
The two-way arterials are Broadway (N-S) and 23rd Street/ Park Avenue (NW-SE). Of the one-way pairs, the Ogden/ Downing/Marion Street (N-S) pair on the very eastern edge of the neighborhood, carries a slightly greater volume of traffic than the Champa/Stout Street (NE-SW) pair which cuts through the middle of the Five Points neighborhood.
On the northwestern edge of the neighborhood, and dividing the residential and industrial areas, is the Lawrence/ Larimer (NE-SW) pair, State Highway 33. The two one-way arterials that exist on the southern and southwestern edges are 20th Avenue and 20th Street, respectively.
There are also two one-way paired collectors, Blake/Walnut Streets to the northwest and California/Welton Streets just southwest of the Champa/Stout Street pair.
In general, the system runs fairly well save for some recent complaints that the heavy delivery truck traffic of the Lawrence/Larimer pair runs into the revitalized commercial/residential area surrounding Larimer Square.
The most glaring issue remains to be that of the Champa/ Stout Streets thoroughfare. If one takes a broader view of the overall city circulation plan, the route from one of the world's busiest airports, Stapleton, to the Central Business District flows westward along the newly designated
NEIGHBORHOOD
Martin Luther King, Jr. Parkway and directly southwestward along Champa and Stout Streets. Although Champa and Stout Streets are not presently running at their maximum capacity, it is my opinion that they soon will be.
This certainly will have a disastrous effect on the neighborhood. Not only does it bisect the more historic residential section of the Five Points neighborhood, but it will create an even more drastic safety hazard for the many elderly and school children in the vicinity. It would restrict pedestrian movement from the neighborhood to the Wei ton commercial strip as well as the movement of children from Gilpin Elementary School to Curtis Park or to their homes to the north and west.
Wei ton Street serves as a minor connection between the
C.B.D. and the neighborhoods to the northeast and east via 29th Street. It carries three lanes of traffic plus parking lanes on either side.
Other minor problem areas that might require attention are:
• a difficult intersection on Arapahoe Street where it intersects with Broadway and 23rd Street.
• a cumbersome turn where Downing Street southbound turns eastward to then continue south on Ogden Street.
• heavy truck traffic proceeding southeasterly on 38th Street cannot easily get to industrial district designations, particularly along Blake Street.
8


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Existing bus routes running through the Five Points neighborhood travel along:
Lawrence/Larimer Streets
Champa/Stout Streets
California/Welton Streets
Ogden/Downing/Marion Streets
Broadway
23rd Street
30th Street/29th Avenue
PROPOSAL
In an effort to deal with what I see to be the most serious neighborhood problem of the Champa/Stout Street thoroughfare bisecting the Five Points neighborhood, I suggest there are a limited number of options:
A. Nothing be done. I find this the least desirable option for not only the problems mentioned earlier, but for the additional noise and air pollution into what could be a serene residential community.
B. Make Champa and Stout Streets into either one large or two separate viaducts over the residential community, touching down near 23rd and 32nd Street. This option certainly would remove vehicular traffic and its noise from the community, but would still leave polluted air behind. Viaducts
through most areas, unless very sensitively designed, usually create an out-of-scale eye-sore and often an excellent nook for waiting muggers and the like.
C. Depress Champa and Stout Streets from 24th to 32nd Streets and from 23rd to 31st Streets, respectively, with bridges over intersecting surface streets. This option would keep all but an unlucky few children out of traffic, would not eliminate noise pollution (although the air pollution could
be dealt with), would need to handle storm runoff, would isolate the block between them with a moat of automobiles, and psychologically would still divide the neighborhood. A recent estimate by the State Highway Department stated a cost of $4 million to depress one mile of Ouebec Street, with no overpasses.
D. Depress Champa and Stout Streets under the same area with some blocks tunneled. A better solution, though costly.
E. Tunnel Champa and Stout Streets under the same area leaving the surface streets as two-way local streets. Ideal for the neighborhood, but very costly. (Perhaps shows too much foresight for Denver.)
Lawrence/Larimer Streets will likely continue to be a problem. The 1974 Denver Planning Office neighborhood plan for Five Points recommended that Lawrence/Larimer Streets merge into a parkway and divide again into Blake/Walnut
10


Denver Planning Office's Circulation Proposal
1974
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LAND USE AND ZONING
EXISTING
The Five Points neighborhood contains some of the most varied uses in the Denver area. From the Platte River's northwest boundary to Walnut Street are trainyards and heavy industrial activities; from Walnut Street to Lawrence Street are a mixture of light and heavy industry, warehouses, wholesale distributors, and a few single family residences. Between Lawrence and Arapahoe Streets is a nine block strip of government-subsidized medium density housing resembling so many brick boxes.
Across the southwestern boundary (20th Street) is Denver's Central Business District. From there to mid-block of 23rd Street is an intense mixture of commercial activities, often in some of Denver's more historic warehouse-type buildings. To the south is the East Village (Arrowhead) low to middle income public housing development. Through the center of Five Points runs the commercial strip on Wei ton Street which connects with the commercial strip of Downing Street on the eastern boundary.
The area between Downing and Washington Streets and south of 26th Avenue contains many good examples of modest but historically significant styles of 19th century architecture.
In the center of all these different uses is the residential area that boasts some of the city's most excellent
NEIGHBORHOOD
examples of Victorian, Gothic, and Italianate styles of architecture, though not all are in good condition.
During the 1960's many grand Victorian era houses and mansions were converted into multi-family units with as many as seven or eight separate apartments in each. In order to survive, landlords leased more and more units in a single house, while investing less and less in upkeep.
The result was a severe state of disrepair. Years of neglect and low demand have effectively lowered property values in the area to such an extent that formerly attractive Victorian houses have become attractive bargains to those with an eye for restoration and a taste for historic preservation. Most "preservationists" in Five Points, and particularly in the Curtis Park area, are young, White middle-income professionals.
Not all newcomers are "historic preservationists." Some are simply looking for a shorter commute to work, undervalued housing, and/or the potential for large capital gains as general neighborhood values escalate. (Prices for renovated units have doubled in three years - Appendix C.)
The bottom line is that there remains a great number of housing units, single and multiple, throughout the neighborhood that are suitable for restoration, renovation, or adaptive use, and that are within range of various income levels. Also the "gentrification" of areas like Curtis Park by the young, White professionals can aid in the success of a revitalized "Welton Strip" if appropriate shops are installed to attract these new owners.
14


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EXISTING ZONING


Five Points has two parks of noticeable size: Sonny Lawson Park and Curtis Park. According to the 1974 D.P.O. neighborhood plan, "using an established standard of ten acres of park land per 1000 population, this neighborhood, based on current (1974) population estimates , creates a demand for 87 acres. Current supply is 11.5 acres..." Population estimates for 1978 show a demand for 102.5 acres, a deficiency of 91 acres. (11.5 acres is 21% of or 43 acres short of the present city average.) It seems a bit ironic that the neighborhood that is the home of the beginning of Denver's public park system is now so deficient.
All three of the elementary schools in the neighborhood are deficient of the minimum site sizes recommended in the Public Facilities Standards component of the Comprehensive Plan.
The zoning in the Five Points neighborhood is somewhat out of sync from not only the existing uses but from the intention of future growth set forth in Denver's Comprehensive Plan.
The most glaring inconsistency is the B-8 designation over the entire residential sector southwest from 27th Street to the C.B.D. and northwest from the alley between Wei ton and Glenarm Streets. A B-8 zone designation is designed for intensive general business with very high density residential, has no bulk plane requirements, and allows a floor area equal to four times that of the site (Appendix D). The only possible appropriate existing use of this
zone is south of 23rd Street and isolated cases on Wei ton Street.
Neither of the two major parks have the appropriate 0-1 zone designations nor do any of the schools, churches, or other institutions have an appropriate R-5 designation.
Nearly all residential areas are zoned R-3. Zone R-3 is designed as a high density apartment district and allows a floor area equal to three times that of the site.
There are a few B-4 zones and one B-3 zone spotted within the neighborhood. A B-4 zone is designated as a general business district allowing most activities including certain industrial uses. It allows a building area equal to two times the site area and has no bulk plane or set-back requirements. A B-3 zone is designed for a shopping center district permitting a wide variety of shopping, service, and office activities in a unified center with large parking areas. Building is restricted in size by bulk planes and floor area equal to one times the site area.
PROPOSAL
My recommendations for change in land use and zoning, as with any plan, would serve as a guideline which I believe would satisfy the intent of the Comprehensive Plan in its assessment of Denver's future growth patterns. At the same time it would protect and preserve the residential atmosphere from wanton expansion from the Central Business
16


FIVE POINTS
PROPOSED WAND
% CIRCULATION


District. They are:
• Expand open space by roughly thirteen acres throughout the neighborhood, and zone major parks accordingly.
• Give elementary school additional open space to meet the minimum standards and also vacate Arapahoe Street from 24th to 25th Street and vacate Glenarm Street from 22nd to 23rd Streets.
• Preserve Curtis Park and Washington/Downing Street neighborhoods with an R-2 - A medium density residential zone designation.
• Give schools, churches, and health institutions an appropriate R-5 zone designation.
t Give the half block to the northwest of and
parallel to Lawrence Street an 1-0 light industrial district zone designation to maintain that strip as an effective transitional buffer from residential to industrial uses.
• Rezone Washington Street near Glenarm Street and next to the Arrowhead Development as a B-2 Neighborhood Business District.
• Rezone a one block strip to either side of 23rd Street and a half block strip to either side of Wei ton Street as a B-7 Business Restoration zone.
The B-7 zone district "is intended to preserve and improve older structures which are architecturally and/or historically significant." It allows light industrial, general retail, wholesale, services, offices, and high density residential uses.
Building floor area to site ratio is 2:1, or 4:1 with premiums such as open space, underground parking or residential units.
• Create a park where Downing Street changes to Ogden and Marion Streets, with a fountain or sculpture strategically located to block the oncoming headlights of nighttime traffic.
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CIRCULATION
EXISTING
Welton Street carries three lanes of traffic in a northeasterly direction and extends from the C.B.D. to Downing Street. As might be expected, its peak load time is between 4-5 p.m. as downtown workers head for home, although it is fairly well trafficked throughout the day (Appendix E). Because of the parking lanes at either curb, Welton is a relatively wide street (about 54 feet). The three traffic lights on Welton Street at 23rd, 27th, and mid block of 28th streets are not synchronized; however, this does not cause any undue congestion. Congestion is most often caused by double (and sometimes triple) parking by customers of the shops. Parking is in very short supply. The existing parking lot between 28th Street and 26th Avenue was initially intended for patrons of the Health/ Community Center complex; however, it is more often filled with Welton Street shoppers.
Twenty-sixth Avenue has fairly light traffic throughout the day, as does Washington Street, which is only 30 feet wide with a parking lane.
WELTON STRIP
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LAND USE CHARACTER EXISTING
The density of buildings along Welton Street from 23rd to 29th Streets is commensurate with its surrounding neighborhood. Indeed, roughly 38% of the 90 or so buildings are either single family or apartment residences, exclusive of some apartments above retail buildings. The heaviest concentration of buildings is between 26th and 28th Streets. There are about twelve derelict buildings and approximately sixteen vacant lots scattered along Welton Street. Many more are to be found in the surrounding neighborhood.
As explained earlier in the text, many of the surviving businesses depend on loyal customers who have long since left the area, but return for special services. It should come as no surprise that the next highest use to residential is service-oriented (about 26%). The services appear as traditional occupations and in high frequency: ten barbershops or hair stylists and five clothes cleaners. Other service-oriented activities include tailoring, shoe repair, income tax service, real estate agency, dentistry, and an employment agency.
The next largest activity is entertainment (about 18%) in the form of restaurants, taverns, bars, pool halls, and a dance hall.
Lower on the list is actual retail (about 12%). The selection here is also somewhat limited with a hardware store,
22




a florist, record shops, a small convenience grocer, a computer software outlet, and used furniture shops.
There are very few offices and only two light industrial/ manufacturing uses. "Deep Rock" water on 27th Street I find to be an appropriate facility; however, the tortilla processor at 26th Street is somewhat objectionable both in location and appearance.
One of the more positive additions to the area has been the Health/Community Center Complex just to the east of Wei ton Street. With its Day-Care Center and the soon to be remodeled Glenarm Recreation Center, the complex not only promotes better health care but also serves as headquarters and meeting place for the Five Points Neighborhood.
According to the market study done by the Denver Research Institute, the Welton Strip is seriously lacking in the type of tenants most frequently found in neighborhood shopping centers. It is missing three of the top six and nine out of the top twenty uses (Appendix F). The ones most obviously missing, and shown by surveys to be most asked for from community members, are a grocery store, a drug store, clothing stores, and a bank. Others include a laundromat, an appliance store, an ice cream store, a department store, and a movie theater.
ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER
EXISTING
The majority of buildings possessing historic architectural significance, with few exceptions, are predominantly residential. Such is the case with the Welton Strip. Of the ninety or so buildings in the six blocks of Welton Street, eleven of the thirty-one residences have some architectural significance, while only ten out of the remaining sixty business establishments have any significance. It should be added that except for the Rossonian and a couple of other buildings, the remaining six or seven have little more than a fancy cornice stuck onto what would otherwise be a brick box. From an architectural standpoint, Welton Street could certainly not be compared with the likes of Larimer Square or Market Street.
Most of the existing signage is oriented towards vehicular traffic rather than pedestrian. Signs jut out horizontally from the building with each successive store seemingly trying to outdo his neighbor. The result is the type of visual clutter that plagues most commercial strips.
Street lighting is also geared towards the automobile. The typical roadway luminaires used are barely adequate, certainly do not flatter the buildings, and hardly create an inviting space.




PROPOSAL
The purposes of this proposal are to:
• Suggest the type and location of infill or readaptive uses that will satisfy the needs of a neighborhood shopping strip
• Locate open space that preserves the views of focal points along the strip
• Locate "pocket parks" and pedestrian ways in the neighborhood along the strip
• Provide a retail focal piece at the Five Points intersection
• Rechannel and control vehicular traffic flow with alternate street design and synchronized traffic
1i ghts
• Provide adequate parking to service the commercial area
• Create more accessible bus stops
According to the Denver Research Institute report, a major element in the success of the Wei ton Strip is to remove or control loiterers on the street who intimidate potential shoppers. To this end, I recommend a police storefront operation be installed at 2721-23 Welton Street and that a couple of "beat" patrolmen be placed on the strip.
‘WELTON STRIP’
Some commercial uses are more readily targets for crime than others, such as banks and drug stores. To mitigate this problem, I would recommend that the bank be designed into the new Rossonian and that a drug store be readapted to the building at 2716 Welton Street, across from the police storefront.
26


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ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER
A Historical Significance
B Compatible Buildings Istone, brick, etc.)
C Plain, Faceless “Modern” Facade
D Incompatible Characterless Buildings
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FIVE
The site at the Five Points intersection and between Washington Street and 26th Avenue is the prime focal point of the commercial area. It is not only visible from the residential areas to the south, east, and northwest, but from the site one can see the Health/Community Center Complex, the activities of the Welton Strip, the mountains to the west, and what hopefully will be the renewed activities of Washington Street. Presently, the site has a couple of derelict buildings, a one-room pool hall, a fast-food chicken place, an auto garage, and a few acceptable houses.
To determine the appropriate usage of the site, a number of factors need consideration: •
• It has been determined that in order for the Welton Strip to succeed, it must draw from the surrounding neighborhoods and particularly from the new money of the upper-middle income Whites. This implies that the uses must be attractive enough to entice White shoppers into an otherwise Black community.
t The site should be oriented predominantly towards pedestrian traffic with outlying parking for neighborhood commuters.
• The structure should be an observable focal point from surrounding areas, but not so massive in the vertical scale as to diminish the height of surrounding buildings.
• A festive marketplace environment is most desirable where people can gather, shop, listen to outdoor music, and congregate.
POINTS CENTER
• A one block vacating of Washington Street, which is very narrow and seldom trafficked, would expand outdoor activity space and tie the center to the new uses of the Rossonian.
• Replication of historic architectural style is not particularly necessary given that the few architecturally significant commercial buildings along the strip are very much the exception rather than the rul e.
• Primary new tenants needed are a grocery store, clothiers, a bank, and a drug store.
• The Rossonian building should be completely remodeled to adapt to the uses and orientation of the site.
28




CIRCULATION
EXISTING
Vehicular movement about the site is rarely heavy enough to be a major problem, except for those incidents where double (and triple) parking occur on Welton Street. As illustrated on the circulation map (previous page), the majority of traf fic flows northeast along Welton Street, east and west along 26th Avenue, and northwest along 27th Street. The remaining streets carry relatively little traffic.
Primary pedestrian circulation is experienced along Welton Street, a brief segment of 26th Avenue, and, to a lesser degree, along 26th and 27th Streets.
Off-street loading areas for local businesses are very few. Much of the delivery service to businesses is done from the street entry and, more often than not, these delivery trucks are the culprits found double parking.
PROBLEMS:
t Insufficient number of curbside parking spaces;
• Curbside parking spaces are unmetered and often used by employees, leaving none for their customers;
• Access to shops from existing undersized parking lots is convoluted and too distant;
• Pedestrian paths do not interface well with vehicular circulation. Unlike the location of the sidewalk volume indicators, much of the pedestrian street crossing takes place randomly at mid-block, and, at times, between stopped vehicles awaiting the green light on Welton Street
at 27th Street.
POINTS CENTER
Curbside parking on both sides of Welton Street tends to:
- obscure storefronts and thereby add to the visual clutter of confusing signage;
- give deference to the automobile by wasting valuable property with paving that could be used for a variety of other things;
- physically and psychologically divides the shops on either side of the street, rather than unify them into a singular shopping space.
30


LAND USE
PROPOSAL
In accordance with the needs voiced by the community and the Denver Research Institute, the primary concern for a grocery store I feel can best be met with a wholesale type outlet (ie. "Shoppin1 Bag"), given the average income levels of the surrounding neighborhood. Grocery stores are excellent daytime activity generators and,with it's entrances and parking to the south, no significant vehicular-pedestrian conflicts should occur.
Other needed uses cited by the community included a drugstore, a banking institution, and more suitable types of retail stores than presently exist. Towards this end, I propose placing a bank into a revived Rossonian building with a walk-up automated teller; and, placing a drug store on Wei ton Street within a short walking distance from the grocery store and within ready surveillance of the proposed storefront police station. New retail space should be provided on the proposed pedestrian mall and more suitable types of retail might replace existing uses on Welton Street where indicated on accompanying site plan.
The pedestrian mall is designed to allow for flexibility of outdoor activities. The placement of trees and fountains psychologically divide the area into major and minor activity spaces, and, at the same time, direct one's focus towards major buildings, entrances and pedestrian pathways.
31
CIRCULATION and PARKING
PROPOSAL
In this scheme, Welton Street has been reduced in width from it's present 50 feet to 36 feet (3 driving lanes @ 12 feet ea. This allows the pedestrianway on the southeast side of the street to increase in width by 14 feet! The additional width also allows for busstop pullouts that do not interfere with traffic flow and for some angled parking to occur all along Welton Street (see page 25), where off-street lots are not practical. Vehicular traffic is streamlined and channelled to increase it's efficiency of movement and to maximize the potential amount of land that can be used for pedestrians. Sequential signalization for traffic at an average speed of 25 mph. along Welton Street is recommended to promote a slow but steady traffic flow and facilitate safe pedestrian crossings.
Textured and/or planted pedestrian pathways are placed to prov ide access from parking lots to retail area and across streets where existing flow proves to be sustantial.
The proposed parking lots to the south of the grocery store and to the southwest of the mall will pull triple duty. During the day they will serve the shopping district; at night, provide parking for the various restaurants and night clubs; and, on Sunday mornings, serve the two churches on either side of the mall.


PEDESTRIAN MALL
PROPOSAL
The basic ground patterning of the mall is of octagonal shapes at 25 foot intervals to relate, geometrically, with the intersecting of the two city street grid systems at 45 degrees and, dimensionally, with the typical 25 foot zone lot frontage. The patterning is also placed in such a way as to direct one's path to major building entries and to facilitate one's passage through the site.
The octagonal shapes of the mall floor are to be of scored concrete with a lightly brushed texture. The square shaped interstices,that accentuate the octagons, are to be of brick pavers. Typically, at the center of these squares, is where trees are to be planted.
The two fountains and four pools are to be fitted into the octagonal scheme with 18 inch high masonry walls around the pool perimeters; each having a 24 inch wide cap for seating.
Kiosks, information posts, drinking fountains, benches and bus shelters should be of durable material and as vandal-proof as possible.
Lighting, throughout the mall and surrounding areas, should be plentiful and kept at a pedestrian scale (ie. about 10 to 12 feet in height).


FIVE POINTS CENTER
retail - Existing Use RETAIL - Suggested Infill (retail) ~ Second Story Use
Brick Pavers
Concrete
Entry Locations




ROSSONIAN
A Design for Adaptive Re-use


ROSSONIAN
EXISTING
The Rossonian, originally built in 1907 as a hotel, in many ways typifies the type of building practices of that era; that is, overbuilt in some areas and underbuilt in others.
The building envelope is of quality masonry on a continuous footing of rubble and concrete. The interior superstructure, however, is of hot-riveted steel (unusual for this area at that time) and is fairly substantial. Much of the floor joist-ing is of wood and generally in very poor condition.
The interior layout has been altered on various occasions throughout the building's life and the mechanical/plumbing systems have been bastardized to suit it's changing uses.
Prior to it's closing a couple of years ago, the building's last uses included: some rather dismal apartments on the second and third levels; a "cabaret" (of the topless variety), a defunct restaurant facility and a bar at the ground level; and a virtually unused full basement.
As previously mentioned, the Rossonian used to draw crowds from all over the Denver area to hear nationally known jazz artists. The building has recently aquired a new owner whose intention is to bring back the jazz enthusiasts to a new restaurant/ night club facility, once again featuring top-name artists.
The rest of the building has been planned for leasable office space.
PROPOSAL
Given the eventuality of the new owners proposed uses for the Rossonian, my design for adaptive re-use will make efforts to satisfy his program, with the exception of my suggestion to install a banking institution at entry level.
Due to the fact that the building's exterior treatment is one of only a very few historically significant commercial facades on the Welton 'Strip', efforts will be made to retain it's character. At present, much of the ground level facade is of painted cinder block infill, presumably between structural support elements. In any event, my proposal would remove the existing cinder block and expose and/or replace structural columns to match existing column lines in the north-south direction. These columns are to be faced with a compatible material (ie. brick or exposed aggragate concrete), with the intervening spaces to be glazed under a signage band and atop a stone base. The two major entries are to be emphasized by large canopies and flanked by brick panels with insets that give building identification and other information.
The existing interior steel framing system is substantial enough to work with, with few alterations. The flooring, in most cases, needs replacing. Spans between column lines are typically small enough to use punched metal joists with concrete topping on corrugated metal decking.
All of the mechanical air handling systems (including kitchen hood exhaust) are to projected down from roof-top units.
Nearly all of the plumbing would need to be revamped. The installation of a hydraulic elevator near the Welton Street entry provides complete handicap access to the building.


ROSSONIAN
PROPOSAL
The breakdown of proposed uses for the Rossonian are as follows:
Gross Building Area / Floor = 4,630 sq.ft.x 4 = 18,520
- Basement Level - sq.ft.
Restaurant/Night Club
& Public Facilities* 2220 sq.ft 55.5%
Kitchen 1300 sq.ft. 32.5%
Circulation 480 sq.ft. 12.0%
Total Net Area 4000 sq.ft. 100.0%
- Ground Level -
Bank 1240 sq.ft. 30.0%
Offices 1675 sq.ft. 41.0%
Circulation (& Lobby) 1205 sq.ft. 29.0%
Total Net Area 4120 sq.ft. 100.0%
- 2nd & 3rd Levels - (each)
Offices 2650 sq.ft. 63.0%
W.C.'s, etc. 260 sq.ft. 6.0%
Atrium 282 sq.ft. 7.0%
Circulation 1028 sq.ft. 24.0%
Total Net Area/ Floor 4220 sq.ft. 100.0%
Total Office (Net Area) 6975 sq.ft.
* Maximum Occupant Load = 2220 sq.ft./ 15 sq.ft, per occ.
= 148 occupants.
Planned space for max. of 34 tables 0 4 occ.'s/ table
= 136 occupants + 8 bar spaces
144 occupants.


BASEMENT
LEVEL
0 2 4
8
16


1



GROUND LEVEL
0 2 4
8
16
N





ROSSONIAN
SECTION
J


ROSSONI AN
WASH. ST. ELEVATION


ROSSONI AN
WELTON ST. ELEVATION


Neighborhood business revitalization poses special problems for merchants and local officials who must locate, obtain, and implement financing mechanisms. Being a relatively new concept, many local governments and beneficiaries of the NBR program are not familiar with existing financial tools.
Neighborhood business revitalization must involve the use of creative leveraging techniques because of the scarcity of funds. This leveraging can involve piggybacking one federal program with another, federal monies with local funds, or federal and/or local funds with private capital. In order to maximize the effect of limited public sector resources, local government in conjunction with local development corporations (LDCs) must explore the specific application of funding sources, educate merchants about their disadvantages as well as advantages and decide how to best leverage local funds.
Basically, there are five sources of financing available for public and private improvement:
0 HUD's Community Development Block Grant Program (CDBG)
0 HUD's Urban Development Action Grant Program (UDAG)
0 Several SBA loan and/or loan guarantee programs 0 Locally financed commercial rehabilitation programs 0 Private financing.
37
There are many combinations of these programs, but all must rely on the injection of private capital if a neighborhood business revitalization program is to be effective. The major problem facing the Welton Street Project is convincing local lending institutions that the risk of lending to businesses in Five Points is not too high. Conversely, the merchant also must be convinced that a coordinated implementation shceme will result in increased sales and profits.
It would be nearly impossible to fully describe the procedures and administrative regulations or technical differences associated with each financing tool. The purpose of this section is, rather, to familiarize the reader with those programs applicable to neighborhood business revitalization situations and describe the use and major components of each.
Community Development Block Grant Program makes available federal funds which are allocated to local governments to finance a wide range of housing, community development and economic development activities. Priority projects and funding allocations are determined by the local unit of government. Many neighborhood revitalization projects have been funded through the C.D.B.G. Program. Denver's allocation from HUD is $13.5 million per year. Ten percent of these funds ($1.3 million) are targeted for efforts to revitalize commercial areas. This program offers the flexibility to induce reinvestment in private improvements in high risk areas. This occurs via subsidized loans to merchants and/or property owners. Loans are commonly a combination of city and bank funds. CDBG monies are also utilized for public improvements. Cities generally budget one dollar in public improvements for every dollar reinvested in private improvements .


Urban Development Action Grants (UDAG), is another HUD program which seeks to encourage reinvestment in distressed cities in order to revitalize local economies and reclaim deteriorated neighborhoods. Funding source for relatively large scale projects. UDAG proposal can only be submitted after private capitol has been arranged. The normal ratio of private capital to federal funds is 6.5 to 1. UDAGs are awarded after a national competition. Funds are funnel ed through the city where the project is located.
Small Business Administration (SBA) has two programs. The first is 7(a) Loan Guarantee Program. Most SBA financing is done under the 7(a) Loan Guarantee Program, in which a bank makes a direct loan, usually at below market rate of interest, to a small business with a 90 percent guarantee not to exceed $500,000. These direct loans are for capital investment such as new construction, conversion, building expansion or working capital. Loans extend from five to seven years. 7(a) program requires strict collateral demands and SBA carefully scrutinizes the net worth of the applicant businessperson. With respect to storefront rehabilitation, guarantees are not a common devise. 7(a) is probably most useful where the small business is sound and well established and where private lending institutions are cooperative.
The second program of SBA is the Section 502 program. Section 502 offers loans and guarantees to qua 1ifing local development corporations (either profit or nonprofit corporations authorized to promote and assist small business growth and development in the community where they operate) Loans are available for purchase or renovation of fixed
IMPLEMENTATION
assets (including store buildings) by small businesses.
Loans made available at market interest rates with a maximum maturity of 25 years. The SBA 502 program seems most appropriate in those situations where a small businessperson needs a relatively large sum of money (maximum of $500,000) to rehabilitate and/or purchase a commercial facility. Program works best where private lenders are willing to cooperate and where small businesspersons are willing to cooperate with an LDC. The Program does not lend itself well to small storefront rehabilitation loans. In many cases, a city must provide part of the local injection requirement (10 percent) as a means to stimulate reinvestment. Local injection funds of the project cost for each loan can come from different sources, usually from funds of city government.
Both prospective and established businesspersons may receive assistance under the Economic Opportunity Loans program which provides direct long term loans to minority or other disadvantaged small businesses. Maximum amount is $100,000 for up to 15 years at reasonable interest rate. Working capital loans have a maximum maturity of ten years. Program is more lenient than other SBA programs. Collateral requirements are less stringent. Major problem is the availability of funds by SBA.
State and Federal laws provide Tax Incentives for rehabilitation by owners of commercial or income-producing historic structures. Tax Reform Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-445) outlines federal qualifications. Preservation provisions permit owners to amortize the costs of rehabilitation over a five-year period or to depreciate the costs of a substantially rehabilitated structure at an accelerated rate. To qualify,
38


property owner must complete a two-part Historical Preservation Certification Application and secure certification from the Secretary of the Interior.
Section 315 of the Revenue Act of 1973 provides an investment tax credit to encourage the rehabilitation of older buildings. In most cases, the credit is computed at the rate of 10 percent of the costs of rehabilitating a qualifying building. A qualifying structure is defined as a building which has been in use for a period of at least 20 years before commencement of the rehabilitation, without regard to number of owners. While the credit has a number of limitations, it can be a useful tool in encouraging the rehabilitation of older buildings. City government can be an important source of financing since it possesses the unique ability to create special assessment districts; sell bonds; borrow tax-exempt money; and receive direct federal monies such as the CDBG Program of HUD.
Special assessments which pass the local government's costs onto the businessperson located in the improved area are also employed to finance public improvements. City government could issue local bonds to finance improvements and then assess the cost to each businessperson to repay the bonds. Generally, 51 percent of property owners are required to sign a document to designate special improvement district. Special assessment procedures are tricky in terms of dividing up the payment among merchants. The question is which criteria to use to determine the amount each business should pay. Criteria that has been used in the past include: the length of the business' street
39
frontage, it's sqare footage, it's gross income or sales, and it's proximity to the improvements. Cities can combine assessment with granting programs such as the CDBG Program.
In this way, part of the improvements could be funded under the CDBG Program, with the remaining funds furnished by businesspersons under an assessment mechanism.
Cities are emoowered to issue revenue bonds to finance a
..movement programs, such as neighborhood commercial rehabilitation. In some cases, cities have made revenue bond proceeds available to small businesspersons as direct loans, or, otherwise, have combined bond proceeds with CDBG monies to finance public improvements and/or direct rehabilitation loans.
The recent substantial home financing activity in the neighborhood represents a major change from the early 1970's; however, activity is still somewhat limited outside of the areas of interest of historic preservationists. There is still no significant commercial mortgage activity anywhere close to the site, although the commercial lending environment for Five Points has probably improved over the past five years.
In spite of favorable trends, some resistance to conventional, non-guaranteed financing is likely to continue until the area proves itself. This route may only be open to the major land-owners, and even then, may require some willingness to negotiate on terms.
Lending institutions can be expected to be receptive, however, to guaranteed loans such as the SBA 502 program. Anumber of urban lendino departments are now confident of their ability to turn profits participating in federal programs.


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APPENDIX A
1980 CENSUS POPULATION
Census Tract Curtia Park 16.00 5-P. NW 24.01 5-P. 3E 24.02 5-P. 3 25.00 Ethnic Totals
Ethnic Group
White 1442(24*) 840(18*) 515(25*) 485(55*) 5280(23*)
Black 1276(21*) 1152(25*) 1262(56*) 501(22*) 3991(28*)
Spanish 2005(34*) 1509(55*) 252(11*) 580(27*) 4144(29*)
Am. Indian 63 (1*) 58 (1*) 11(.5*) 17 (1*) 154 (1*)
Asian 59 (1*) 60 (1*) 8(.5*) 11.(1*) 138 (1*)
Other 1115(19*) 1041(22*) 211 (9*) 190(14*) 2557(18*)
Neighborhood Total* 5965(42*) 4640(33*) 2257(16*5 1584 (9*) 14244(100*)



CENSUS TRACTS


APPENDIX B
".a
TABLE II-4. CHANGES IN HOUSEHOLDS AND HOUSEHOLD INCOMES*
1969-70 1978-79 PERCENTAGE CHANGE
NO. OF HOUSE- AREAS HOLDS AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD INCOME AGGREGATE HOUSEHOLD INCOME NO. OF HOUSEHOLDS AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD INCOME AGGREGATE HOUSEHOLD INCOME NO. OF HOUSEHOLDS AVG. HOUSE- HOLD INCOME ACGR. HOUSE- HOLD INCOME
NEIGHBORHOOD
TRADE AREA**
Census Tract 16 41*.tis 1,518 $ 4,347 $ 6,598,746 1,597 $ 9,329 $14',898,413 + 5% +115% +126%
vJH.Trie* 23 2,327 5,734 13,343,018 1,703 13,322 22,687,366 -27 +132 + 70
sr*\p 24.01 1,662 3,973 6,603,126 1,254 8,925 11,191,950 -25 +125 + 69
w»,5w.-tw>24.02 35 4,068 3,803,530 803 7,490 6,014,970 -14 + 84 + 58
?3,T -**« 25 760 3,351 2,546,760 649 7,041 4,569,609 -15 +110 + 79
*,215
5 Tract Area 7,202 $32,895,230 6,006 $ 9,884 $59,362,308 -17% +116% + 80%
AREA WITHIN 1
MILE RADIUS*** 15,759 $ 5,025 $79,190,448 13,536 $10,463 $141,620,719 -14% +108% + 79%
j (includes 5 tract
i area above)________
j ’’‘Source: National Planning Data Corporation. Household figures are for 1970 and 1979; incomes are for the
previous year.
1. . ' ' . ' \ j .'•/ • V. ' ; ... .
**This area is roughly bounded by 23rd Street, Downing, East 23rd Avenue, York Street, 32nd Avenue, 38th Street, j. and the South Platte River.
***Includes Census Tracts 23, 31.01, 31.02, 26.02, 26.01, 25, 16, 24.01, 24.02, and 17.02.
!
t
i
<
!
l
I
1
t
43


TABLE II-l. HOUSING SALES SAMPLES*
APPENDIX C
1ST QUARTER, 1979 4TH QUARTER, 1979
UNITS SOLD % OF TOTAL UNITS SOLD % OF TOTAL
AREAS AND SALES PRICES UNITS UNITS
NEIGHBOR TRADE AREA** Less than $15,000 15 25% 5 10% _ 24 *
$15,001 - 30,000 21 35 12
$30,001 - 45,000 16 27 15 31 T
$45,001 - 60,000 8 13 15 31 *
Greater than $60,000 0 0 2 04 lt(,o,cvt
1
TOTAL 60 100% 49 100%
WITHIN 1 MILE RADIUS*** -
Less than $15,000 22 19% 10 23%
$15,000 - 30,000 40 34 16 38
$30,001 - 45,000 33 29 10 23
$45,001 - 60,000 15 13 3 07
Greater than $60,000 _4 05 _4 09
TOTAL 114 100% 43 100%
^Source: Denver Planning Office
**The Five Points neighborhood is defined by the Denver Planning Office to include Census Tracts 16* 24.01, 24.02, and 25. For analytical purposes we have added in Census Tract 23, which begins three blocks east of the Welton Strip, as being within the area of likely retail influence.
***Includes Census Tracts 23, 31.01, 31.02, 26.02, 26.01, 25, 16, 24.01, 24.02, and 17.02. Census Tract 17.02 contains no single-family housing or condominiums.
11-3
44


] / 78
APPENDIX D
GENERAL PURPOSE AND DESCRIPTION <)F ZONE DISTRICTS CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER
The following paragraphs explain Che purpose and general description of the various zone districts contained within the Denver Zoning Ordinance. The regulations of these zone districts are changed from time to time, and a person desiring to learn the latest provisions of these regulations should contact the Department of Zoning Administration.
This explanation has been prepared by the Zoning Review Section of the Denver Planning Office.
RS-2 SINGLE UNIT DETACHED DWELLINGS, RURAL DENSITY. Minimum of one acre of
land required for each housing unit. Home occupations are prohibited. Density = 1 dwelling unit/acre.
RS-4 SINGLE UNIT DETACHED DWELLINGS, SUBURBAN DENSITY. Minimum of 12,000
square feet of land required for each dwelling unit. Home occupations are prohibited. Density =3.6 dwelling units/acre.
RX ATTACHED OR CLUSTERED SINGLE UNIT DWELLINGS, LOW DENSITY. Development
Plan must be approved by City Council. Home occupations are prohibited. Minimum of 7.500 square feet of land area required for each dwelling unit. Density = 5.8 dwelling units/acre.
R-0 SINGLE UNIT DETACHED DWELLINGS, LOW DENSITY. Foster Family Care and Day
Care allowed as home occupations by permit. Minimum of 6,000 square feet of land required for each dwelling unit. Density = 7.3 dwelling units/acre.
R-l SINGLE UNIT DETACHED DWELLINGS, LOW DENSITY. Same as R-0 except that
home occupations and room-renting to one or two persons are allowed upon application and issuance of a permit. Density =7.3 dwelling units/acre.
R-2 MULTI-UNIT DWELLINGS, LOW DENSITY. Typically duplexes and triplexes.
Home occupations are allowed by permit only. Minimum of 6,000 square feet required for each duplex structure with an additional 3,000 square feet required for every unit over 2. Density = 14.5 housing units/acre.
R-2-A MULTI-UNIT DWELLINGS, MEDIUM DENSITY. 2,000 square feet of land required
for each dwelling unit unless a unified site plan is submitted under the Planned Building Croup (PBG) provisions. In which case, 1,500 square feet of land is required for each unit. Home occupations are allowed by permit. Density - 21.8 housing units/acre (29 housing units/acre under PBG).
R-3 HIGH DENSITY APARTMENT DISTRICT. Building size is controlled by bulk.
standards and open space requirements. Building floor area cannot < xceed 3 times the site area. This zone should not be used as a buffer zone.
Maximum density is not specified and is determined by the size of ti e units and the factors mentioned above.


R-3-X
R-A
R-5
B-l
B-2
B-3
B-A
HIGH DENSITY APARTMENT DISTRICT. This district is intended to encourage new residential development in older, developed areas.
Building size is controlled by bulk standards and open space requirements. Building floor area cannot exceed 2 times the site area.
Maximum lot coverage is A0%.
VERY HIGH DENSITY APARTMENT AND OFFICE DISTRICT. The purpose of this district is to provide a location for very-high density apartment and intensive office development. Building size is controlled by bulk standards and open space requirements. Allows hotel or mote] uses and limited accessory retail shopping. Building floor area cannot exceed A times the site area.
INSTITUTIONAL DISTRICT. Allows hospitals, colleges, schools, churches and other institutional uses. Maximum lot coverage is 60% of zone lot. Building size is controlled by bulk standards.
LIMITED OFFICE DISTRICT. This district is intended to serve as a transitional zone between business and residential areas, and should be limited to relatively small tracts. It should be located near hospitals and established business centers, although it may be created as a freestanding zone. Building height controlled by bulk standards and open space requirements. Building floor area cannot exceed the site area.
NEIGHBORHOOD BUSINESS DISTRICT. This district is intended to be a location for convenience shopping, service and office establishments providing for the daily or weekly 'convenience' needs of residents from adjoining residential areas. Building height controlled by bulk standards and open space requirements. Building floor area cannot exceed the site area.
SHOPPING CENTER DISTRICT. This district is intended to serve as the location for large unified community shopping centers permitting a wide variety of shopping, service and office activities with large parking areas. Building height is controlled by bulk standards and open space requirements. Building floor area cannot exceed the site area.
GENERAL BUSINESS DISTRICT. General retail, wholesale, service and office activities, and certain industrial uses. Building floor area cannot exceed 2 times the site area. District regulations contain no bulk, open space, or setback requirements. The establishment of additional B-A zoning along arterial streets is discouraged by the Denver Comprehensive Plan. Also, the Zoning Code, Section 618.2-6 states that no B-A should be established unless there is a clear and demonstrable need in the area for it.
-2-


ARTERIAL OFFICE AND INSTITUTIONAL USE DISTRICT. Allows banks, offices, hospitals, clinics, institutions, churches, apartments and office service uses. Requires 100 feet of arterial street frontage. Maximum lot coverage is 30%. Building floor area cannot exceed 2 times the site area. Building height is controlled by bulk standards. Maximum residential density is unspecified and is determined by the size of units and the factors mentioned above. Front setback areas are required for landscaping.
ARTERIAL SERVICE DISTRICT. This district is intended as a tourist oriented zone, allowing only hotels, motels and restaurants with automobile service stations. Requires 100 feet of arterial street frontage.
Zone lot coverage not to exceed 30%. Building height is controlled by bulk standards. Front setback areas are required for landscaping.
ARTERIAL GENERAL COMMERCIAL DISTRICT. This district is designed to accommodate those uses which are oriented toward the motorist and residents of nearby neighborhoods but which uses are not normally part of shopping centers. Included among such uses are bowling alleys, theaters, night clubs, drive-in restaurants and service stations. Setback areas are required for landscaping. Ground coverage by buildings cannot exceed 30% of the site. Building height is controlled by bulk standards.
AUTO SALES AND SERVICE DISTRICT. This district provides an area designed particularly for the special needs and characteristics of auto sales and service activities. The Comprehensive Plan encourages the establishment of this district in concentrated centers rather than in a linear arrangement along arterials. Ground coverage by structures cannot exceed 60% of the site area. Building height is controlled by bulk standards.
CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT. Permits all of the business, office and light industrial uses which are permitted in the more restricted 'B' zones along with residential and educational uses. Maximum floor area cannot exceed 10 times the site area, plus floor area premiums for the development of plazas, arcades, atriums, etc.
BUSINESS RESTORATION ZONE. This district is intended to preserve and improve older structures which are architecturally and/or historically significant. This district allows light industrial, general retail, wholesale, services, offices and high density residential uses. Additional floor area is allowed with the development of residential units, underground parking or open space areas. Building floor areas cannot exceed 2 times the site area. However, with premiums the floor area can be increased to 4 times the site area.
INTENSIVE GENERAL 3USINESS/VERY-HIGH DENSITY RESIDENTIAL DISTRICT. Permits all types of businesses, certain industrial uses, and high density residential and office uses. Intended for application in large business areas and around the Central Business District. Total floor space cannot exceed 4 times the area of the site.


1-0
1-1
0-1
0-2
LIGHT INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT. A transitional district between intensive industrial and residential districts. Allows limited manufacturing, wholesale and retail activities, offices and motels. Building height is controlled by bulk plane standards and setback requirements for buildings. Floor area cannot exceed 50% of the site area.
GENERAL INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT. Allows many manufacturing, warehousing and wholesaling activities, along with limited retail and service uses for the benefit of the area employees. Building floor area cannot exceed 2 times the site area. Generally no setback requirements.
HEAVY INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT. Allows all manufacturing, warehousing, wholesaling and mineral extraction activities. Limited retail and service uses for the benefit of area employees are permitted. No limitations on the size or location of buildings. This district should not be located adjacent to residential or business zones.
OPEN USE DISTRICT. Allows airports, recreational uses, parks, cemeteries, reservoirs, and other u^un uses including a limited number of public and semi-public activities housed in buildings. Setback requirements apply to the location of buildings.
OPEN SPACE DISTRICT. Allows large tracts of open land utilized primarily for agricultural or ranching activities.
OFF-STREET PARKING DISTRICT. Allows parking lots and structures. Bulk and setback regulations apply to buildings. This zone is intended to provide needed business parking without the expansion of the business zone, i.e. a buffer between business and residential uses. Requires visual barriers adjacent to residential uses.
P-1


.SUMMARY OF ZONE REGULATIONS
ikTA-’tther J4, 1978
These Zone Regulations are amended from time Co time ay the City Council, anj this summary may not reflect the most recent regulations. For the latest details contact the Zoning Administration Department.
This Summary prepared by the Ordinance Review Section of the Denver .'fanning Office.
Required Min. Size Floor Minimum Setback
Lot Size Structure Area at ground level Minimum Acreage to
In sqâ– f t. (1)_________Ratlo(21 Front Rear Side_______Amnd Zone Man______
RS-2 1 Ac. 600 — 20 5 20 Hal f of exist ing s iies snoui [ he interior co Che
RS-4 12,000 600 — 20 5 10 d is trlet
R-X 7,500 1,000 — 22,500 sq.ft.
R-0 61000 600 — 20 20 5 Half of existing sices
shouId be interLor co
R-l 6,000 600 — 20 20 5 the district
If abutting R-2-A,R-3,R-4,
R-2 6,000 600 — 20 20 5 3-2,3,4,or 1-0, 1 acre; otherwise 8 acres.
If abutting R-3,R-4,B-2,
R-2-A 6,000 600 — 20 20 5 3,4,or 1-0 an one side and R-0,R-l or R-2 on 2nd side, 1 acre; otherwise 8 acres.
If abutting R-3,R-4,3-3,
R- 3-X 12,000 600 2:1 10 5 0 B-4 or 1-0, i acre; otherwise 8 acres.
R-3 6,000 600 3:1 L0 20 7. 5 8 acres
R-4 6,000 4:1 10 20 7.5 3 acres
R-5 12,500 0 607. I. c- 20 20 7. 5 70,000 sq.ft.
If abutting B-2,3,4,5,3,
3-1 0 0 1:1 10 10 0 l-0,l-l,or 1-2, no requirements ;ochervise 70,000 sq. ft.
Has f-
8-A-l 18,000 600 2:1 15-30 20 10 not less than 100' of frontage along an arterial street, 18,000 sq.fc.
3-2 0 0 1:1 5 10 0 If abutting 3-4, no requirement ; otherwi se 70,000 sq.ft.
B-A-2 15.000 .302 1. a. 10-20 20 10 70,000 sq.ft.
B-3 1:1 5 5 0 If abutting 3-4, no requirement; otherwise 8 acres.
Has not less than 100 ft. of front-
B-A-3 12,000 0 307. 1. c.10-20 20 0 age along an arterial street. ai!d 12,G00 sq.ft.
8-4 0 0 2:1 0 0 0 8 acres
It abutting B-4 and has not less than 100 fc. of
B-A-4 15,000 0 60% 1. c. 10-20 20 10 froncage along an arterial street, 15,000 sq.ft.; otherwise 5 acres
8-5 0 40 + K68 10:1 0 0 0 200 acres
B-7 0 400 +- rCixd 2:1 0 0 0 if abutting 3-5 or 3-8, 5 seres; otherwise 20 acres.
B-8 0 80 + K4B 4:1 100 acres
0 1 â–ºH 0 0 .5:1 20 20 10 if abuicing i-i or i-2, no requirement; otherwise 3
acres.
1-1 0 0 2:1 0 0 0 i acres
1-2 0 0 — O 0 -t acres
(1) Minimum size in sq.ft. of dec ache single- f ami1 y s cruecure; multi—family units have no
minimum size except as noted in the E-5,B- â– 7 4 3-8 zones.
(2) Max i nnsra ratio of total floor area Co site size. -
K&B = Kitchen and bathroom, i-c. =â–  lot coverage


Welton Street
APPENDIX
l» “a w P r\ i r\ £v:TEC ..'££*LY COUNT DATA DATE 04-01' -1 980 * * * — - * 1— ’ *
DIRECTION TOTAL HIGHWAY
AVERAGE
L A ‘f f* QiiUn ( TUESDAY WEDNESDAY Thursday FRIDAY weekday Saturday SUNDAY STATION 520-1-0050 C.T. 3
hour COUNT COUNT COUNT count CUUNT count COUNT WEEK 07 YEAR 79
00 - 01 82 82 SATURDAY TOTAL
01 - C2 59 69
02 - 03 45 45 SUNDAY TOTAL
w 3 — O') 20 20
04 - 03 10 10 AVERAGE WEEKDAY 5474
05 - Co 14 14
CG - 07 1 • 6 146 AVERAGE DAY OF WEEK
07 - CG 221 *•* 221
CG - 09 233 233 GROUP NUMBER & MEAN FACTOR
09 - 1C 246 24 3 GRP 1 01.01 GRP 0 00.00
l C - 11 253 253
11 - 12 301 3 Cl PRELIM AVERAGE DAILY TRAFFIC
5329 0
12 - 13 BEGIN 374 374 PEAK LOAD AND HOUR
13-14 286 END 366 581 LA 4 - 5 PM TUESDAY
14 - 15 367 36V
1 b ~ 15 16 - 17 17 ~ 13 432 581 5i e 432 531 516 N.tL. of
15 ~ Is 237 297
19 - 20 2ie 216
20 - 21 1 fit ICO
21 - 22 1 7 7 177
22 - 23 14C 146
23 - 24 154 154
TOTAL 3450 2024 S*7 / «i ✓
U R L R I n IEiM SEO WEEK LY COUNT DATA DATE 04-01 -1580 * ~ ~ - - V* »> .
DIRECTION TOTAL HIGHWAY
AVERACE
DAY MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY WEEKDAY Saturday SUNDAY STATION 520-1-0060 C.T. 3
H 0 ’J R COUNT COUNT COUNT COUNT COUNT count COUNT WEEK 47 YEAR 78
00 - 01 51 51 SATURDAY TOTAL
01 - 02 50 50
02 - 03 24 24 SUNDAY TOTAL
C 3 ~ C h 18 ie
04 - 05 £ e AVERAGE WEEKDAY 3633
05 - CG 19 19
06 - 07 73 79 AVERAGE DAY OF WEEK
07 - 03 124 124
00 - cy 13G 138 GROUP NUMBER & MEAN FACTOR
CD - 10 SEC> IN 140 140 GRP 1 01.07 GRP 0 00.00
10-11 107 END 187
11 - 12 252 252 PRELIM AVERAGE DAILY TRAFFIC
2941 0
12 - 13 245 245 PEAK LOAD AND HOUR
13 - 14 243 243 425 ♦- 4 - 5 PM MONDAY
14 - 15 2 75 275
15- 15 16- 17 17- 13 337 425 344 337 425 344 5.w. OF ^oWnIINC^ St.
13 - 13 203 203
19 - 20 127 127
20 - 31 107 107
21 - 22 1 07 107
22 - 23 co c 2
23 - 24 08 re
TOTAL 3032 651 3533


APPENDIX F
The following list shows in descending order of frequency the types of tenants most frequently found in neighborhood shopping centers. (Source: Dollars and Cents of Shopping Centers; the Urban Land Institute; 1978; p. 161.)
Rank Tenant Classification On Welton Strip
Supermarket No
2 Beauty shop Yes
3 Barber shop Yes
4 Cleaners Yes
D Ladies ready-to-wear clothing No
7 Restaurant without liquor Yes
8 Fast food/Carry out Yes
9 Restaurant with liquor Yes
© Laundry No
11 Medical and dental Yes
12 Liquor store Yes
ft Bank No
14 Radio/TV No
15 Real estate Yes
16 Cards and gifts No
17 Superdrug No
18 Hardware Yes
19 Variety store Yes
20 Jewelry No
The Strip is missing 3 out of the top 6 and 9 out of the top 20.
Virtually everybody we talked to in the study want trocerv store* ............... .......r "" ------ 11 — .......... ~
and a drugstore on the Welton Strip. Other types of businesses mentioned
included a bank, a clothing store.
a.laua-
a movie theater.
an ice cream store,
a fast-food restaurant, an ap-
pliance store, and a department store.
*The Welton Market currently offers a limited range of grocery items. VThen we use the term grocery store or supermarket, we mean a much larger and more complete store than the Welton Market.


TABLE III-l. AVERAGE 1978 ANNUAL BUDGET FOR A FOUR-PERSON LOW-INCOME FAMILY
PERCENT1 1978 AVERAGE INCOME2
Household Budget 100 $ 9,884
Total Consumption 82 8,105
Food" JtL 3,064
At Home 27 2,669
Away from Home 4 395
Housing 18 1,779
Transportation A 791
Clothing* _9 890
Personal Care* 2 198
Medical Care __9 890
Other* 4 395
Other Non-Consumption Items 4 395
Taxes and Deductions:
Social Security 6 593
Personal Income Taxes 8 791
^Retail Sales.
Sources: "^Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1979.
2
National Planning Data Corporation, 1978.
52


CONTACTS
• Five Points Business Association
- Oscar Wattiey
- Norman Harris
- Chris Blackmon
- Leonard Dixon
- Aubrey Lewis
- A1 Richardson
- Jim Parker
- Sarah Lewis
• Expansion Unlimited
- Oscar Wattiey
•- Progress Unlimited
- John Sellman
• Five Points Community Center
- Tom Foster
• Five Points Strategy Committee
- Jay Feichter
§ Denver Planning Office
- John Harris - Five Points Neighborhood Planner
- Gerald Andolsek - City Planner
- Ron Rorowski - Traffic Circulation •
• Community Development Agency of Denver
- Louis R. LaPerriere - Director
- Hiawatha Davis
• Denver Research Institute - University of Denver (Industrial Economics Division)
- Lee Olver
- Keith Moore
• Historic Denver
- Elizabeth Schlosser
• District 8 Councilman
- Elvin Caldwell (Ret.)
- King Trimble
• Traffic Engineering - City and County of Denver
- Ron Becker
- Dennis E. Royer
- Robert Heister - Design Engineering
• Colorado State Highway Department
- Rich Cutler - Transportation Specialist
- Jennifer Finch - Transportation Specialist
- Gordon F. Horst - Design Engineer
• Engelke Architects
- Ron Hedstrom - Eastside Neighborhood Health Center
David Decker, A.I.A.


RESOURCES
"Planning Toward the Future - A Comprehensive Plan for Denver Denver Planning Office, Denver, 1978.
"Five Points Neighborhood Plan", Denver Planning Office, 1974
"Economic Feasibility of Commercial Development in Five Points", Industrial Economics Division, Denver Research Inst. University of Denver, 1980.
"Displacement - City Neighborhoods in Transition", National Urban Coalition, Washington, D.C., 1978.
Centers for the Urban Environment, Victor Gruen, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., N.Y., 1973.
Urban Design: The Architecture of Towns and Cities, Paul D. Spreiregen, McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1965.
Open Spacse: The Life of American Cities, August Heckscher, Harper & Row Pub., N.Y., 1977.
Cities Fit to Live In, Walter McQuade, MacMillan Co., N.Y., 1971.
The New Downtowns: Rebuilding Business Districts, Louis G. Redstone, F.A.I.A., McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1976.
Shopping Center Development Handbook, Urban Land Institute, Washington, D.C., 1977.
New Dimensions in Shopping Centers and Stores, Louis G.
Redstone, F.A.I.A.,McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1973.
Central City Malls, Harvey M. Rubinstein, John Wiley & Sons, N.Y., 1978.
Small Urban Spaces, Whitney North Seymour, Jr., New York University Press, N.Y., 1969.
Site Planning, Kevin Lynch, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1971.
Places for People, edit. Jeanne M. Davern., an Architectural Record Book, McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1976.
For Pedestrians Only - Planning, Design and Management of Traffic-Free Zones, Roberto Brambilla and G. Longo, Whitney Library of Design, Watson-Guptil1 Publications, 1977.
Pedestrian Planning and Design, John J. Fruin, Metropolitan Assoc, of Urban Designers and Environmental Planners, Inc., N.Y., 1971.
Defensible Space - Crime Prevention through Urban Design, Oscar Newman, Collier Books, N.Y., 1973.
Residential Streets: Objectives, Principles and Design Considerations, Urban Land Institute, Amer. Soc. of Civil Eng.' and Nat. Assoc, of Homebuilders, Washington, D.C., 1974.
"Automobile Diversion - A strategy for reducing excessive traffic in sensitive areas", Denver Planning Office, Denver, 1978.
Design of Cities, Edmund Bacon, Penguin Books, N.Y., 1974.
"A Guide to Housing Rehabilitation Programs", U.S. Dept, of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Neighborhoods, Voluntary Associations of Consumer Protection, Washington, D.C. August, 1978.


Full Text

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/ . -. ... , ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRARY , ' i l--"WELTON STRIP" of Five Points; Urban Design. Strategies for the Revitalization of an Urban Neighborhood Commercial Strip Prepared for the Center for Community DeveJopment & Design and the University of Co7orado at Denver Co77ege of Environmental Design Prepared and Submitted by R. Brian Brazee in partia7 fu1fi11ment of requirements for thr degree: Master of Architecture in Urban Design 1981 I

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' ':-.,. ' .;, . ....... ''. NORTHEASTPARK Htll STAPLETON t ; I . i l l i l j ' 1

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',,.' ' . .r .. ... --. , . . -. ..... # ••• •• .•-• , ; ...-w••• In the fall of 1979 the Center for Comnunity Development and Design (C.C.D.D.) was approached by the Five Points Business Association for assistance with the revitalization of the commercial area commonly referred to as the "Welton Strip'' (2300 to 2900 Welton Street). Their immediate concern, as then stated, was for the Center to produce an overall design scheme for the business strip deemed neces sary to free loan monies from banking institutions and to facilitate the acquisition of various grants and loans from government programs. Apparently, for many years prior to that time, a number of studies had been commissioned by a variety of individuals and groups to determine the social mixture, economic status of residents and their disposable incomes, individual project feasibilities, and the growth patterns of the area. However, due to a lack of cohesion among the businesses and between the businesses and the surrounding community, no significant overall plan for redeveloping the strip had taken place. Needless to say, the entire community was frustrated and, at best, reticent to respond to any new surveys that might be surfacing. In spite of those fruitless undertakings, all hope was not diminished. A number of strategy groups had been formed among businessmen as well as community members. • . In the business community there are: 1 Expansion Unlimited {a non-profit local development corporation) 1 Five-Points Business Association 1 Progress Unlimited Of the community groups there are: 1 Concerned Citizens Congress 1 Curtis Park Block Council 1 Curtis Park Defense Committee 1 Arrowhead Redevelooment Citizen's Council 1 East Community Council 1 The Five Points Strategy Committee, which concerns itself with business as well as community affairs These groups are not only important for responsible planning and improved communication between other, but in some cases are vital in attaining aid in the form of loans and grants from federal and state sources. In kP.eoing with C.C.D.D.'s commitment to ongoing participation in community affairs and providing assistance _ in their development, I drew up a program, that through continuinq contact by way of meetings, could hooefullj t . ranslate their ideas into overall design recommendations that would benefit both business and residential communities. After numerous initial contacts with businessmen and residents in meetings and on the street, efforts were made to 2

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establish the types of organizations (ie. non-profit L.D.C. 's) that would need to be set up to qualify for various government loan packages. As it turned out, through the Neighborhood Business Revitalization (N.B.R.), the Community Development Block Grant (C.D.B.G.), and the Urban Development Action Grant (U.D.A.G.) programs, available funds were to be filtered through and apportioned by the city of Denver's Community Development Agency (C.D.A.). When approached, C.D.A. stated that before it would consi der any proposals for revitalizing the Welton commercial strip, a new market feasibility study would have to be conducted and that a licensed architect, as opposed to a university student, would have to be retained to perform the design work. These positions were allocated to the Denver Research Institute (Industrial Economics Division) and to David Decker, A.I.A. In light of this unexpected turn of events, my role in the project was to continue working in house for the Center for Community Development and Design. Because the center will be working continually through and beyond the redevelopment of the Five Points neighborhood, this project will serve as a guide from which present and future activities can draw ideas and directions. •. 3 f f 1 1

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'WELTON STRIP' of FIVE POINTS

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.. -------. PAST As old as Denver itself, Five Points has been a neighborhood that has housed a variety of cultures and lifestyles. Five Points was named after the intersection of Welton Street, Washington Street, 27th Street and 26th Avenue which form a five-pointed star. The name was popularized (as a destination sign) by the Denver Tramway Corporation's horse-drawn streetcar system that began in 1871. Five Points was also the home of the beginnings of Denver's public park system. Two years before the first railroad spur swung through Denver, land for Curtis Park, the first of the public parks, was donated to the city in 1868. By 1914, the entire area of Five points was developed and contained homes of some of Denver's most prominent citizens. It also had a base of middle income tradespeople to give the area an integrated economic mix of homeowners. This past economic mix is evident today in the architectural composition of large and impressive homes next to smaller salt-box types. Five Points has long been a center of Black culture within the Denver area. The Rossonian (2642-44 Welton Street) featured jazz in the area for a multi-racial society audience in the 1940's and 1950's. Across Welton Street was the Casino Ballroom which also hosted many civic activities. Residents of the community in those days recall a strong neighborhood spirit and identity. FIVE POINTs: .--: .... .. -PAST & PRESENT In the late 1950's the Five Points area began to deteriorate, as many upwardly mobile middle-class Blacks began to migrate eastward towards Park Hill and other areas. As traditional racial constraints on home ownership were overcome, the historic Black neighborhood around Five Points changed from a mixed income area to an area of low income as well as high unemployment. This was partly due to the remaining concentration of public housing areas with large numbers of people on government subsidies, and partly due to the dispersal of many middle-income people. Concurrent with this social/housing change, the commercial strip on Welton Street lost many businesses, and those remaining lost many customers to newer service areas in the growing suburbs. The turbulent 1960's did more to tarnish the neighborhood's image. Racial confrontations in the Denver area occurred in and around Five Points. The present business community on the strip consists mainly of survivors who have managed to stay in business through this period of decline. One shop owner informed me that while riotous looters were breaking out storefronts to make off with merchandise, he sat in his window all night with shotgun in hand to protect his store.

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PRESENT Many of the surviving businesses depend less on the surrounding community than on loyal customers who have moved away but still return to shop or acquire the unique goods and services not available in other neighborhoods. A few businesses have survived because they either harbor, tolerate, or engage in illegal activities. The loitering flotsam of such activities have kept pedestrian traffic to a minimum, particularly in the 2600 block of Welton Street. Five Points today is becoming one of Denver's most culturally diverse areas. The racial makeup includes 28% Blacks, 29% Hispanic, 1% Oriental (largely Vietnamese), and 23% White residents (Appendix A). Renewed interest in the historic renovation and occupation of older housing {predominantly by young White professionals) close to an expanding Central Business District, the construction of new moderate-income federally subsidized housing, and a general reduction in housing vacancy rates have combined to sharply increase the disposable income in nearby areas. In a recent market feasibility study done by the Denver Research Institute, this increase in disposable income could support a revitalized business strip on Welton Street (Appendix B). In order for the Welton Strip to prosper, efforts need to be made to carefully select the type and mixture of retail and service-oriented establishments that would best serve its surrounding neighborhood's needs rather than to depend .. __ ...... ... ::.. . : ,; . heavily on drive-by customers or to compete for the 16th Street Mall clientele. : .. . ... . . -. . . . , . ' .. . . .

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-. .. . ; _ _ ---• To offer design alternatives within the surrounding neighborhood which promote a sense of identity and cohesion. • To creat well-lit, landscaped pedestrian ways which help orient the focus of and facilitate the passage from the neighborhood to the commercial strip. • To offer design alternatives to existing traffic circulation. • To create safe, open spaces within the housing district that keep children out of traffic and within parental surveillance. • To provide recommendations for the appropriate mixture of land use along the commercial strip. • To create a pleasant shopping environment with signage, lighting, and scale oriented more towards pedestrian traffic as opposed to strictly vehicular traffic. I GOALS & OBJECTIVES : " c o . . -.. -. ' •. • . :-i --'' . 1. l . . . . -.

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• • ' ' FIVE POINTS EXISTING TRAFFIC CIRCULA TtON l I _: ___.....1< 1 ' I I -ARTERIAL PARKWAY COLLECTOA BUS ROJTE I I q . -------.......__ ___________ ......,

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CIRCULATION EXISTING -...... _.,._. ' The majority of vehicular traffic travels on a . system of three paired, one-way arterials plus a couple of two-way arterials in and around the Five Points neighborhood. The two-way arterials are Broadway (N-S) and 23rd Street/ Park Avenue (NW-SE). Of the one-way pairs, the Ogden/ Downing/Marion Street (N-S) pair on the very eastern edge of the neighborhood, carries a slightly greater volume of traffic than the Champa/Stout Street (NE-SW) pair which cuts through the middle of the Five Points neighborhood. On the northwestern edge of the neighborhood, and dividing the residential and industrial areas, is the Lawrence/ Larimer (rJE-SW) pair, State Highway 33. The two one-way arterials that exist on the southern and southwestern edges are 20th Avenue and 20th Street, respectively. There are also two one-way paired collectors, Blake/Walnut Streets to the northwest and California/Welton Streets just southwest of the Champa/Stout Street pair. In general, the system runs fairly well save for some recent complaints that the heavy delivery truck t raffic of the Lawrence/Larimer pair runs into the revitalized commercial/residential area surrounding Larimer Square. The most glaring issue remains to be that of the Champa/ Stout Streets thoroughfare. If one takes a broader view of the overall city circulation plan, the route from one of the world's busiest airports, Stapleton, to the Central Business District flows westward along the newly designated t1artin Luther King, Jr. Parkway and directly southwestward along Champa and Stout Streets. Although Champa and Stout Streets are not presently running at their maximum capacity, it is my opinion that they soon will be. This certainly will have a disastrous effect on the neigh borhood. Not only does it bisect the more historic residential section of the five Points neighborhood, but it will create an even more drastic safety hazard for the many elderly and school children in the vicinity. It would restrict pedestrian movement from the neighborhood to the Welton commercial strip as well as the movement of children from Gilpin Elementary School to Curtis Park or to theit' homes to the north and west. Welton Street serves as a minor connection between the C.B.D. and the neighborhoods to the northeast and east via 29th Street. It carries three lanes of traffic plus parking lanes on either side. Other minor problem areas that might require attention are: • a difficult intersection on Arapahoe Street where it intersects with Broadway and 23rd Street. • a cumbersome turn where Downing Street southbound turns eastward to then continue south on Ogden Street. • heavy truck traffic proceeding southeasterly on 38th Street cannot easily get to industrial district designations, particularly along Blake Street. 8

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. " . '"'' .. : •.• • ,:_= . : _":; ': . • • • " . .! . . Existing bus routes running through the Five Points neighborhood travel along: Lawrence/Larimer Streets Champa/Stout Streets California/Welton Streets Ogden/Downing/Marion Streets Broadway 23rd Street 30th Street/29th Avenue PROPOSAL In an effort to deal with what I see to be the most serious neighborhood problem of the Champa/Stout Street thorough fare bisecting the Five Points neighborhood, I suggest there are a limited number of options: A. Nothing be done. I find this the least desirable option for not only the problems mentioned earlier, but for the additional noise and air pollution into what could be a serene residential community. B. Make Champa and Stout Streets into either one large or two separate viaducts over the residential community, touching down near 23rd and 32nd Street. This option certainly would remove vehicular traffic and its noise from the community, but would still leave polluted air behind. Viaducts through mos. t areas, unless very sensitively designed, usually create an out-of-sea 1 e eye-sore and often an excellent nook for waiting muggers and the like. C. Depress Champa and Stout Streets from 24th to 32nd Streets and from 23rd to 31st Streets, respectively, with bridges over intersecting surface streets. This option would keep all but an unlucky few children out of traffic, would not eliminate noise pollution (although the air pollution could be dealt with), would need to handle storm runoff, would isolate the block between them with a moat of automobiles, and psychologically would still divide the neighborhood. A recent estimate by the State Highway Department stated a cost of $4 million to depress one mile of Quebec Street, with no over passes. D. Depress Champa and Stout Streets under the same area with some blocks tunneled. A better solution, though costly. E. Tunnel Champa and Stout Streets under the same area leaving the surface streets as two-way local str.eets. Idea 1 for the neighborhood, but very costly. (Perhaps shows too much foresight for Denver.) Lawrence/Larimer Streets will likely continue to be a problem. The 1974 Denver Planning Office neighborhood plan for Five Points recommended that Lawrence/Larimer Streets merge into a parkway and divide again into Blake/Walnut 10

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Denver Planning Circulation Office's Proposal 1974 !> . ,I • .. / "" >. .. . ' '• I '; + + ' -. 1 " l J

PAGE 14

d . EXISTING MARCH i 974 '> . . . 1 ND USE RESIDENTIAL CU. tJ•t_, . n VNit r" ' ,•.:. ,... < .. -:"("': .. :.:..-:<( MlxtD . '

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. ;;;;:_; E l(j H BO R H 0 ..._ --.:... LAND USE AND ZONING EXISTING The Five Points neighborhood contains some of the most varied uses in the Denver area. From the Platte River's northwest boundary to \4alnut Street are trai nyards and ... . . heavy industrial activities; from Walnut Street to Lawrence Street are a mixture of 1 ight and heavy industry, ware houses, wholesale distributors, and a few single family residences. Between Lawrence and Arapahoe is a nine block strip of government-subsidized medium density housing resembling so many brick boxes. Across the southwestern boundary (20th Street) is Denver's Central Business District. From there to mid-block of 23rd Street is an intense mixture of commercial activities, often in some of Denver's more historic warehouse-type buildings. To the south is the East Village low to middle income public housing development. Through the center of Five Points runs the commercial strip on Street which connects with the commercial strip of Downing Street on the eastern boundary. The area between Downing and Washington Streets and south of 26th Avenue contains many good examples of modest but historically significant styles of 19th century architecture. In the center of all these different uses is the tial area that boasts some of the city's most excellent examples of Victorian, Gothic, and Italianate styles of architecture, though not all are in good condition. During the 1960's many grand Victorian era houses and mansions were converted into multi-family units with as many as seven or eight separate apartments in each. In order to survive, leased more and more units in a single house, while investing less and less in upkeep. The result was a state of disrepair. Years of neglect and low demand have effectively lowered property values in the area to such an extent that formerly attractive Victorian houses have become attractive bargains to those with an eye for restoration and a taste for historic preservation. Most "preservationists" in Five Points, and particularly in the Curtis Park area, are young, White middle-income professionals. Not all newcomers are "historic preservationists." Some are simply looking for a shorter commute to work, under valued housing, and/or the potential for large capital gains as general neighborhood values escalate. (Prices for renovated units have doubled in three years-Appendix C.) The bottom line is that there remains a great number of housing units, single and multiple, throughout the neighborhood that are suitable for restoration, renovation, or adaptive use, and that are within range of various income levels. Also the "gentrification" of areas like Curtis Park by the young, l'!hite professionals can aid in the success of a revitalized "Welton Strip" if appropriate shops are installed to attract these new owners. 14

PAGE 16

. R-4 ; ; .. . r '" fiVl POINTS '' ... EXISTING ZONING ' . ., ' , .

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-. ... , . .. -< . •. -••.• l' '": ;:_ . ... -:;?:;_--_: :.C .. :__ . • ::_ :: _ : . -: F" , -. ; . "' .. -.• t-.• • .• : ..... ;:r.:Five Points has two parks of noticeable size: Sonny Lawson Park and Curtis Park. According to the 1974 D.P.O. neighborhood plan, 11Using an established standard of ten acres of park land per 1000 population, this neighborhood, based on current (1974) population estiMates, creates a demand for 87 acres. Current supply is 11.5 acres ... 11 Population estimates for 1978 show a demand for 102.5 acres, a deficiency of 91 acres. (11.5 acres is 21% of or 43 acres short of the present city average.) It seems a bit ironic that the neighborhood that is the home of the beginning of Denver's public park system is now so defi dent. All three of the elementary schools in the neighborhood are deficient of the minimum site sizes recommended in the Public Facilities Standards component of the Compre hensive Plan. The zoning in the Five Points neighborhood is somewhat out of sync from not only the existing uses but from the intention of future growth set forth in Denver's Compre hensive Plan . The most glaring inconsistency is the B-8 designation over the entire residential sector southwest from Street to the C . B . D. and northwest from the a 11 ey between Welton and Glenarm Streets. A B-8 zone designation is designed for intensive general business with very high density residential, has no bulk plare and allows a floor area equal to four times that -of the site (Appendix D). The only possible appropriate existing use of this zone is south of 23rd Street and isolated cases on Welton Street. Neither of the two major parks have the appropriate 0-1 zone designations nor do any of the schools, churches, or other institutions have an appropriate R-5 designation. Nearly all residential areas are zoned R-3. Zone R-3 is designed as a high density apartment district and allows a floor area equal to three times that of the site. There are a few B-4 zones and one B-3 zone spotted within the neighborhood. A B-4 zone is designated as a general business district allowing most activities including certain industrial uses. It a building area equal to two times the site area and has no bulk plane or requirements. A B-3 zone is designed for a shopping center district permitting a wide variety of shopping, service, and office activities in a unified center with large parking areas. Building is restricted in size by bulk planes and floor area equal to one times the site area . PROPOSAL t1y recommendations for change in land use and zoning, as with any plan, would serve as a guideline which I believe would satisfy the intent of the Comprehensive Plan in its assessment of Denver's future growth patterns. At the same time it would protect and preserve the residential atmosphere from wanton expansion from the Central Business 16

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District. They are: .....,._: ......... -.....:.-... • Expand open space by roughly thirteen acres throughout the neighborhood, and zone major parks accordingly. • Give elementary school additional open space to _ meet the minimum standards and also vacate Arapahoe Street from 24th to 25th Street and vacate Glenarm Street from 22nd to 23rd Streets. • Preserve Curtis Park and Washington/Downing Street neighborhoods with an R-2 medium density residential zone designation. • Give schools, churches, and health institutions an appropriate R-5 zone designation. • Give the half block to the northwest of and parallel to Lawrence Street an I-0 light industrial district zone designation to maintain that strip as an effective transitional buffer from residential to industrial uses. • Rezone Washington Street near Glenarm Street and next to the Arrowhead Development as a B-2 Neighborhood Business District. Rezone a one block strip to either side of 23rd Street and a half block strip to either side of •. Welton Street as a B-7 Business Restoration zone. The B-7 zone district "is intended to preserve and improve older structures which are architecturally and/or historically significant." It allows light industrial, general retail, wholesale, services, offices, and high density residential uses. Building floor area to site ratio is 2:1, or 4:1 with such as open underground parking or residential units. • Create a park where Downing Street changes to Ogden and Marion Streets, with a fountain or sculpture strategically located to block the oncoming headlights of nighttime traffic. ' -. --• . . .-........ . .,. . . ..... _ .... ........ . _..._ ... .......... .... ---.,.

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8 5: cao: r----------fiVE POINTS flHOfl O S E D ZONlNG

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.t--_: ............. .. .. _ _ _ ...,..... . . ,_ .. ,"'"';:"• . . . . ''WELTON STRIP" --.:.-. 20

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; }• ---" ''\ --.-.---.. .... .......... _ .. •.. : ... _ _ . ._.,.. ... ..... -.-:-.. ........ _. " W ; R . UL.:._) .... t t:i ...... lOt _ r . ... a tk. FIVE POINTS _ _ ,__., :;t'.,.l, . m ;:. $/t ? ! i'./ • . -:.u .. .. WELTON

PAGE 23

--.0: •• • ... ..,.,_ • •• • CIRCULATION EXISTING Welton Street carries three lanes of traffic in a northeasterly direction and extends from the C.B.D. to Downing Street. As might be expected, its peak load time is between 4-5 p.m. as downtown workers head for home, although it is fairly well trafficked throughout the day (Appendix E). Because of the parking lanes at either curb, Welton is a relatively wide street (about 54 feet). The three traffic lights on Welton Street at 23rd, 27th, and mid block of 28th streets are not synchronized; however, this does not cause any undue congestion. Congestion is most often caused by double (and sometimes triple) parking by customers of the shops. Parking is in very short supply. The existing parking lot between 28th Street and 26th Avenue was initially intended for patrons of the Health/ Community Center complex; however, it is more often filled with Welton Street shoppers. Twenty-sixth Avenue has fairly light traffic throughout the day, as does Washington Street, which is only 30 feet wide with a parking lane. -. . . LAND USE CHARACTER EXISTING The density of buildings along Welton Street from 23rd -to 29th Streets is coiTDllensurate with its -surrounding neighborhood. Indeed, roughly 38% of the 90 or so buildings are either single family or apartment residences, exclusive of some apartments above retail buildings. The heavi .est con centration of buildings is between 26th and 28thStreets. There are about twelve derelict buildings and sixteen vacant lots scattered along .Welton Street. Many more are to be found in th . e surrounding neighborhood. . As explained earlier in the text, many of the surviving . businesses depend on loyal customers have long since left the area, but return for special services . . . It should come as no surprise that the next highest use to residential is service-oriented (about 26%). The services appear as traditional occupations and in high frequency: ten bar bershops or hair stylists and five clothes cleaners. Other service-oriented activities include tailoring, shoe repair, income tax service, real estate agency, dentistry, and an employment agency. The next largest activity is entertainment (about 18%) in the form of restaurants, taverns, bars, poolhalls, and a dance hall. Lower on the list is actual retail (about 12%j. The selection here is also somewhat limited with a hardware store, 22

PAGE 24

... .,.. Fl\tE' __ _ PO iNT& -.......... . ' , Y " , i . 't./ ... " 0 -"-.-.... . ... '.":: ..... , ...... ._ ,_J • ' •. 1 ,_; --' f ... . . . t I f --..... ...., ... ... .•• . j -:' 1*. . ----# FOCAL POINTS , , -. 1 j."' ! ---==--t . 1 ; .• . ? ) :'lr.: : -

PAGE 25

.. •., ., • •: L ............ _ .. .. ' a florist, record shops, a small convenience grocer, a computer software outlet, and used furniture shops. There are very few offices and only two light industrial/ manufacturing uses . "Deep Rock" water on 27th Street I find to be an appropriate facility; however, the tortilla processor at 26th Street is somewhat objectionable both in location and appearance. One of the more positive additions to the area has been the Health/Community Center Complex just to the east of Welton Street. With its Day-Care Center and the soon to be remodeled Glenarm Recreation Center, the complex not only promotes better health care but also serves as head quarters and meeting place for the Five Points Neighborhood. According to the market study done by the Denver Research Institute, the Welton Strip is seriously lacking in the type of tenants most frequently found in neighborhood shopping centers. It is missing three of the top six and nine out of the top twenty uses (Appendix F). The ones most obviously missing, and shown by surveys to be most asked for from community members, are a grocery store, a drug store, clothing stores, and a bank. Others indude a laundromat, an appliance store, an ice cream store, a department store, and a movie theater. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER EXISTING The majority of buildings possessJng architectural with few exceptions, are predominantly resident i a 1 . Such is the case with the We 1 t_on Strip. Of the ninety or so buildings in the six blocks of Helton Street, eleven of the thirty-one residences have some architectural significance, while only ten out of the remaining sixty business establishments have any significance. It should be added that except for the Rossonian and a couple of other buildings, the remaining six or seven have little more than . a fancy cornice stuck onto what would otherwise be a brick box. From an architectural standpoint, Welton Street could certainly not be compared with the likes of Larimer Square or Market Street. Most of the existing signage is oriented towards vehicular traffic rather than pedestrian. Signs jut out horizontally from the building with each successive store seemingly trying to outdo his neighbor. The result is the type of visual clutter that plagues most commercial strips. Street lighting is also geared towards the automobile. The typical roadway luminaires used are barely adequate, certainly do not flatter the buildings, and hardly create an inviting space. 24 . . ::... .

PAGE 27

PROPOSAL The purposes of this proposal are to: 1 Suggest the type and location of infill or readaptive uses that will satisfy the needs of a neighborhood shopping strip 1 Locate open space that preserves the views of focal points along the strip 1 Locate "pocket parks" and pedestrian ways in the neighborhood along the strip 1 Provide a retail focal piece at the Five Points intersection 1 Rechannel and control vehicular traffic flow with alternate street design and synchronized traffic lights 1 Provide adequate parking to service the commercial area 1 Create more accessible bus stops According to the Denver Research Institute report, a major element in the success of the Welton Strip is to remove or control loiterers on the street who intimidate potential shoppers. To this end, I recommend a police storefront operation be installed at 2721-23 Welton Street and that a couple of "beat" patrolmen be placed on the strip. 'WELTON STRIP' Some commercial uses are more readily targets for crime than others, such as banks and drug stores. To mitigate this problem, I would recommend that the bank be designed into the new Rossonian and that a drug store be readapted to the building at 2716 Welton Street, across from the police storefront. 26

PAGE 28

LAND USES Residential I res.+ comm.l Mixed u se -mmercial Retail I Co Service or public l _ 1 comm. t I Derelict Vacan EXISTING A B c D E . . I Compatible Buildings brick, etc.l (stone, i Faceless Pian, " Facade "Modern mpatible I nco MaJor Repair Buildings Characterless Demo II t I on or I I

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FIVE POINTS CENTER The site at the Five Points intersection and between Washington Street and 26th Avenue is the prime focal point of the commercial area. It is not only visible from the residential areas to the south, east, and northwest, but from the site one can see the Health/Community Center Complex, the activities of the Welton Strip, the mountains to the west, and what hopefully will be the renewed activities of Washington Street. Presently, the site has a couple of derelict buildings, a one-room pool hall, a fast-food chicken place, an auto garage, and a few accept able houses. To determine the appropriate usage of the site, a number of factors need consideration: • It has been determined that in order for the Welton Strip to succeed, it must draw from the surrounding neighborhoods and particularly from the new money of the upper-middle income Whites. This implies that the uses must be attractive enough to entice White shoppers into an otherwise Black community. • The site should be oriented predominantly towards pedestrian traffic with outlying parking for neighborhood commuters. -• The structure should be an observable focal point areas, but not so massive in the vertical scale as to diminish the height of surrounding buildings. • A festive marketplace environment is most desirable where people can gather, shop, listen to outdoor music, and congregate. • A one block vacating of Washington Street, which is very narrow and seldom trafficked, would expand outdoor activity space and tie the center to the new uses of the Rossonian. • Replication of historic architectural style is not particularly necessary given that the few architecturally significant commercial buildings along the strip are very much the exception rather than the rule. • Primary new tenants needed are a grocery store, clothiers, a bank, and a drug store. • The Rossonian building should be completely remodeled to adapt to the uses and orientation of the site. 28

PAGE 30

. \' . . ------------------. CIRCULATION VEHICULAR: heny light PEDESTRIAN: h .. vy light & ---.... -"' IIIII III\ ----------PARKING: on street existing .... -lots

PAGE 31

FIVE POINTS CENTER CIRCULATION EXISTING Vehicular movement about the site is rarely heavy enough to be a major problem, except for those incidents where double (and triple) parking occur on Welton Street. As illustrated on the circulation map (previous page), the majority of traffic flows northeast along Welton Street, east and west along 26th Avenue, and northwest along 27th Street. The remaining streets carry relatively little traffic. Primary pedestrian circulation is experienced along Welton Street, a brief segment of 26th Avenue, and, to a lesser de gree, along 26th and 27th Streets. Off-street loading areas for local businesses are very few. Much of the delivery service to businesses is done from the street entry and, more often than not, these delivery trucks are the culprits found double parking. PROBLEMS: • Insufficient number of curbside parking spaces; • Curbside parking spaces are unmetered and often used by employees, leaving none for their customers; • Access to shops from existing undersized parking lots is convoluted and too • paths do not interface well with vehicular circulation. Unlike the location of the sidewalk volume indicators, much of the pedestrian street crossing takes place randomly at mid-block, and, at times, between stopped vehicles awaiting the green light on Welton Street at 27th Street. • Curbside parking on both sides of Welton Street tends to: obscure storefronts and thereby add to the visual clutter of confusing signage; give deference to the automobile by wasting valuable property with paving that could be used for a variety of other things; -physically and psychologically divides the shops on either side of the street, rather than unify them into a singular shopping space. 30

PAGE 32

LAND USE PROPOSAL In accordance with the needs voiced by the community and the Denver Research Institute, the primary concern for a grocery store I feel can best be met with a wholesale type outlet (ie. "Shoppin' Bag"), given the average income levels of the surrounding neighborhood. Grocery stores are excellent day time activity generators and,with it's entrances and parking to the south, no significant vehicular-pedestrian conflicts should occur. Other needed uses cited by the community included a drugstore, a banking institution. and more suitable types of retail stores than presently exist. Towards this end, I propose placing a bank into a revived Rossonian building with a walk-up automated teller; and, placing a drug store on Welton Street within a short walking distance from the grocery store and within ready surveillance of the proposed storefront police station. New retail space should be provided on the proposed pedestrian mall and more suitable types of retail might replace existing uses on Welton Street where indicated on accompanying site plan. The pedestrian mall is designed to allow for flexibility of outdoor activities. The placement of trees and fountains divide the area into major and minor activity spaces. and, at the same time, direct one's focus towards maj or buildings, entrances and pedestrian pathways. 31 CIRCULATION and PARKING PROPOSAL In this scheme, Welton Street has been reduced in width from "--it's present 50 feet to 36 feet (3 driving lanes@ 12 feet ea.). This allows the pedestrianway on the southeast side of the street to increase in width by 14 feet! The additional width also allows for busstop pullouts that do not interfere with traffic flow and for some angled parking to occur all along Welton Street (see page 25), where off-street lots are not practical. Vehicular traffic is streamlined and channelled to increase it's efficiency of movement and to maximize the potential amount of land that can be used for pedestrians. signalization for traffic at an average speed of 25 mph. along Welton Street is recommended to promote a slow but steady traffic flow and facilitate safe pedestrian crossings. " Textured and/or planted pedestrian pathways are placed to prov ide access from parking lots to retail area and across streets where existing flow proves to be sustantial. The proposed parking lots to the south of the grocery store and to the southwest of the mall will pull triple duty. During the day they will serve the shopping district; at night, pro vide parking for the various restaurants and night clubs; and, on sunday mornings, serve the two churches on either side of the mall.

PAGE 33

PEDESTRIAN MALL PROPOSAL The basic ground patterning of the mall is of octagonal shapes at 25 foot intervals to relate, geometrically, with the intersecting of the two city street grid systems at 45 degrees and, dimensionally, with the typical 25 foot zone lot frontage. The patterning is also placed in such a way as to direct one's path to maj or b uilding entries and to facillitate one's passage through t h e site. The octagonal shapes of the mall floor are to be of scored concrete with a lightly brushed texture. The square shaped interstices,that accentuate the octagons, are to be of brick pavers. at the center of these squares, is where trees are to be planted. The two fountains and four pools are to be fitted into the octagonal scheme with 18 inch high masonry walls around the pool perimeters; each having a 24 inch w ide cap for seating. Kiosks, information posts, dr i nking fountains, benches and bus shelters should be of durable material and as vandal proof as possible. Lighting, throughout the mall and surrounding areas, should be plentiful and kept at a pedestrian scale (ie. about 10 to 12 feet i n height).

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0 10 25 FIVE POINTS CENTER 50 100 retai I -Existing Use RETAIL -Suggested lnfill (ret a i I) -Second Story Use Brick Pavers Concret e • -Entry Locations

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PAGE 36

ROSSON IAN \ A Design for Adaptive Re-use

PAGE 37

ROSSON IAN EX I STING The Rossonian, originally built in 1907 as a hotel, in many ways typifies the type of building practices of that era; that is, overbuilt in some areas and underbuilt in others. The building envelope is of quality masonry on a continuous footing of rubble and concrete. The interior superstructure, however, is of hot-riveted steel (unusual for this area at that time) and is fairly substantial. Much of the floor joisting is of wood and generally in very poor condition. The interior layout has been altered on various occasions throughout the building1s life and the mechanical/plumbing systems have been bastardized to suit it1s changing uses. Prior to it1S closing a couple of years ago, the building1s last uses included: some rather dismal apartments on the second and third levels; a 11Cabaret11 (of the topless variety), a defunct restaurant facility and a bar at the ground level; and a virtually unused full basement. As previously mentioned, the Rossonian used to draw crowds from all over the Denver area to hear nationally known jazz artists. The building has recently aquired a new owner whose intention is to bring back the jazz enthusiasts to a new restaurant/ night club facility, once again featuring top-name artists. The rest of the building has been planned for leasable office space. PROPOSAL Given the eventuality of the new owners proposed uses for the Rossonian, my design for adaptive re-use will make efforts to satisfy his program, with the exception of my suggestion to install a banking institution at entry level. Due to the fact that the building1s exterior treatment is one of only a very few historically significant commercial facades on the Welton 1Strip1 , efforts will be made to retain it1S character. At present, much of the ground level facade is of painted cinder block infill, presumably between structural support elements. In any event, my proposal would remove the existing cinder block and expose and/or replace structural columns to match existing column lines in the north-south direction. These columns are to be faced with a compatible material (ie. brick or exposed aggragate concrete), with the intervening spaces to be glazed under a signage band and atop a stone base. The two major entries are to be emphasized by large canopies and flanked by brick panels with insets that give building identification and other information. The existing interior steel framing system is substantial enough to work with, with few alterations. The flooring, in most cases, needs replacing. Spans between column lines are typically small enough to use punched metal joists with concrete topping on corrugated metal decking. All of the mechanical air handling systems (including kitchen hood exhaust) are to projected down from roof-top units . Nearly all of the plumbing would need to be revamped. The installation of a hydraulic elevator near the Welton Street entry provides complete handicap access to the building.

PAGE 38

ROSSON IAN PROPOSAL The breakdown of proposed uses for the Rossonian are as follows: Gross Building Area I Floor= 4,630 sq.ft.x 4 = 18,520 -Basement Level Restaurant/Night Club & Public Facilities* Kitchen Circulation Total Net Area -Ground Level -Bank Offices Circulation (& Lobby) Total Net Area -2nd & 3rd Levels (each) Offices W. C. • s, etc. Atrium Circulation Total Net Area/ Floor Total Office (Net Area) 2220 sq.ft 1300 sq. ft. 480 sq.ft. 4000 sq.ft. 1240 sq. ft. 1675 sq.ft. 1205 sq. ft. 4120 sq. ft. 2650 sq.ft. 260 sq.ft. 282 sq.ft. 1028 sq.ft. 4220 sq.ft. 6975 sq.ft. sq. ft. 55.5 % 32.5 % 12.0 % 100.0 % 30.0 % 41.0 % 29.0 % 100.0 % 63.0 % 6.0 % 7.0 % 24.0 % 100.0 % *Maximum Occupant Load= 2220 sq.ft./ 15 sq.ft. per occ. = 148 occupants. Planned space for max. of 34 tables @ 4 occ. •s; table = 136 occupants + 8 bar spaces 144 occupants.

PAGE 39

? / ? / NIGHT+ CLUB STAGE BASEMENT LEVEL

PAGE 40

• OFFICES • • OFFICE • GROUND-LEVEL • 8 16 ' ' \ ' I I / /

PAGE 41

OFFICE 0 F F C E s • • 2nd (&3rd) _LEVEL 0 2 4 8 16

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v [:] v LAV v >':,, v LAV bJ 1013 ,i', VESTIBULE rl D VESTIBULE ATRIUM ;;=== ' (ELEV.) EN RY ROSSON IAN SECTION I DOFFICES = ,i', 100 0 16

PAGE 43

uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu I D CJ CJ CJ c:=J c:=J p CJ LJ c [ J L"::J CJ CJ [ J.Q [-[ J CJ c:=J c:::::J CJ CJ CJ c:=J c:=J C=:J c:=J c:=J c::=r c:=J C=:J C=:J C=:J CJ D C=:J CJ C=:J CJ •••••• T . . --. . . ROSSONIAN WASH. ST. ELEVATION 1'JJ\ J Y rE:G. -r , ; \ J" 1 1 ( . i"..Jr \ 1\J(\ . ... . , ..... . ( . ) .•.... •••••• 0 2 4 8 16

PAGE 44

hn111 111111 1 1 11 11 11 11 11 1r f -p ' u u u u u u u U U U U Uf-I 1:=:J cJ c::::J. c-=J c.:::J c:::J C-.:J [ :::J :J CJ 1:=:J CJ L-=:J CJ CJ CJ c:::J c::J CJ QQ CJ CJ CJ c::J c::J CJ I . ... i \ i' i r r : . =-11: ' f=:J --------1 E .••• •••• •••• . _ J --iEI11: I ---• •••••••..•••••• _ _ _ •••••• _ _ : _ _ -_-- • • _ .•••.••••••••••.•••••••.••••••••.•••••. • _ •• ' _••,•.•. ._E ----......... > .. 1 -----••••••• .• .. ["--------_y-= \r-: , r: :)j\JJ : r=; l j \jl\ , . .. (_ ' .. fl< . \f _,J. . '1 --ROSSON IAN WELTON ST. ELEVATION . r -. . ...... . -----

PAGE 45

Neighborhood business revitalization poses special problems for merchants and local officials who must locate, obtain, and implement financing Being a relatively new concept, many local governments and beneficiaries of the NBR ptogram are not familiar with existing financial tools. Neighborhood business revitalization must involve the use of creative leveraging techniques because of the scarcity of funds. This leveraging can involve piggybacking one federal program with another, federal monies with local funds, or federal and/or local funds \'lith private capital. In order to maximize the effect of limited public sector resources, local government in conjunction with local de velopment corporations (LDCs) must explore the specific application of funding sources, educate merchants about their disadvantages as well as advantages and decide how to best leverage local funds. Basically, there are five sources of financing available for public and private improvement: 37 • HUD1s Community Development Block Grant Program (CDBG) • HUD1s Urban Development Action Grant (UDAG) • Several SBA loan and/or loan guarantee pro0rams • Locally financed commercial rehabilitation rrograms 1 Private financing. There are many combinations of these programs, but all must rely on the injection of private capital if a neighborhood business revitalization program is to be effective. The major facing the Welton Street Project is convincing local lending institutions that the risk of lending to businesses in Five Points is not too high. Conversely, the merchant also be convinced that a coordinated implementation shceme will result in increased sales and profits. It would be nearly impossible to fully describe the procedures and administrative regulations or technical differences associated with each financing tool. The purpose of this section is, rather, to familiarize the reader with those programs applicable to neighborhood business revitalization situations and describe the use and major components of each. Development Block Grant Program makes available federal funds which are allocated to local governments to finance a wide range of housing, community development and econo1i1dc development activities. Priority projects and funding allocations are determined by the local unit of government. Many neighborhood revitalization projects have been funded through the C.D.B.G. Program. Denver1s allocation from HUD is $13.5 million per year. Ten percent of these funds (Sl.3 million) are targeted for efforts to revitalize commercial areas. This program offers the flexibility to induce reinvestment in private improvements in high risk areas. This occurs via subsidized loans to merchants and/or property mmers. Loans are colllllonly a combination of city and bank funds. CDBG monies are also utilized for public improvements. Cities budget one dollar in public improvements for every dollar reinvested in private improve ments.

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---... . -1M PL . E -MENT. A . T .. .. .-_._ .... -........:....:. • ' ::-• • • • • . • • " • ' • . • ' .0.. -•• "-::-• • • • : ;::::;::; Urban Development Action Grants (UDAG), is another HUD program which seeks to encourage reinvestment in distressed cities in order to revitalize local economies and reclaim deteriorated neighborhoods. source for relatively largE: .scale projects. UDAG proposal can only be submitted after private capitol has been arranged. The ratio of private apita1 to federal funds is 6.5 to 1. UDAGs are awarded after a nat-ional competition. Funds are funneled the city where the project is located. Small Business Administration (SBA) has two programs. The first is ?(a) .Loan Guarantee Program. Most SBA financing i s cdone u nder the 7(a) Loan Guarantee Program, in which a bank -makes a direct loan, usually at below market rate of ;nterest, to a small business with a 90 percent guarantee flOt to $500,000. These direct loans are for capital investment such as new construction, conversion, building expansion or working capital. Loans extend from five to seven years. 7{a) program requires strict collateral demands and SBA carefully scrutinizes the net worth of the applicant businessperson. With respect to storefront rehabilitation, guarantees are not a common devise. 7(a) is probably most useful where the small business is sound and well established and where private lending institutions are cooperative. The second program of SBA is the Section 502 program. Section 502 offers loans and guarantees to qualifing local development corporations (either profit or nonprofH corp orations authorized to promote and assist small business growth and development in the community where they operate). Loans are available for purchase or renovation of fixed assets (including store buildings) by small businesses. Loans made available at market interest rates with a maximum maturity of 25 years. The SBA 502 program seems most appropriate in those situations where a small businessperson needs a relatively large sum of money {maximum of $500,DOO) to rehabilitate and/or purchase_a commercial facility. Program works best where private lenders are willing to cooperate and where small businesspersons are willing to cooperate with an LDC. The Program does not lend itself well to small storefront rehabilitation loans. In many cases, a city must provide part of the local injection requirement (10 per cent) as a means to reinvestment. Local injection funds of the project cost for each loan can come from different sources, usually from funds of city government. Both prospective and established businesspersons may receive assistance under the Economic Opportunity Loans program which provides direct long term loans to minority or other disad vantaged small businesses. Maximum amount is $100,000 for up to 15 years at reasonable interest rate. Working capital loans have a maximum maturity of ten years. Program is more lenient than other SBA programs. Collateral requirements are less stringent. problem is the availability of funds by SBA. State and Federal laws provide Tax Incentives for rehabilitation by owners of commercial or income-producing historic structures. Tax Reform Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-445) outlines federal qualifications. Preservation provisions per mit owners to amortize the costs of rehabilitation over a five-year period or to depreciate the costs of a substantially rehabilitated structure at an accelerated rate. To qualify, 38

PAGE 47

.,. property owner must complete a two-part Historical Pre servation Certification Application and secure certification from the Secretary of the Interior. Section 315 of the Revenue Act of 1978 provides an investment tax credit to encourage the rehabilitation of older buildings. In most cases, the credit is computed at the rate of 10 percent of the costs of rehabilitating a qualifying building. A qualifying structure is defined as a building which has been in use for a period of at least 20 years before commencement of -the rehabi 1 itati on, with out regard to number of owners. While the credit has a number of limitations, it can be a useful tool in encouraging the rehabilitation of older buildings. City government can be an importailt source of financing since it possesses the unique ability to create special assess-ment districts; sell bonds; borrow tax-exempt money; and receive direct federal monies such as the CDBG Program of HUD. Special assessments which pass the local government's costs onto the businessperson located in the improved area are also employed to finance public improvements. City government could issue local bonds to finance improver:1ents and then assess the cost to each businessperson to repay the bonds. Generally, 51 percent of property owners are required to sign a docuQent to designate special improvement district. Special assessment procedures are tricky in terms of dividing up the payment among merchants. The question is which criteria to use to determine the amount each business should pay. Criteria that has been used in the past include: the length of the business' street . . ,_., _____ ,_. __ ._ -"' .. .. ;,.,. ----._._.;.l..t..c._ •• frontage, it's sqare footage, it's gross income or sales, and it's proximity to the improvements. Cities can combine assessment \'lith gra,nting programs such as the CDBG Program. In this way, part of the improvements could be funded. under the CDBG Program, with the remaining funds furnished by businesspersons under an assessment mechanism. Cit i es a re empowered to issue revenue bonds to finance a ,.1.rov ement programs, such as neighborhood commer cial rehabilitation. In some cases, cities have made revenue bond proceeds available to small businesspersons as direct 1 oans. or, otherwise, have combined-bond proceeds \'Jith CDBG monies to finance public improvements and/or di rect rehabilitation loans. The recent substantial home financing activi .ty in the neigh-borhood represents a major change from the early 1970's; however, activity is still somewhat limited outside ofi the areas of interest of historic preservationists. There is still no significant commercial mortgage activity anywhere close to the site, although the commercial lending environment for Five Points has probably improved over the past five years. In of favorable trends, some resistance to conventional, non-guaranteed financing is likely to continue until the area proves itself. This route may only be open to the major land owners, and even then, may require some willingness to negotiate on terms. Lending institutions can be expected to be receptive, however, to guaranteed loans such as the SBA 502 program. Anumber of urban 1 ending departments are now confident of their ability to turn profits participating in federal programs. -.: ....... -. -.. ... . _::

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.. _.,.; J> ....... - •• ' 40

PAGE 49

A 1980 CENSUS POPULATION Curti a Parle 5-P. NW 5-P • . SE 5-P. S Ethnic Cen.us Tract 16.00 24.01 24.02 25.00 Total. Ethnic Group White I Black 1276( 1 152( 25%) 301(22%) 3991(28%) ! I Spanish II 2003(;4%) 1509(33% ) 252( 11%) 4144 !i I 11 68 ( 1%) 38 (1%) 17 ( 134 ( Am. Indian f! A dan I 59 ( 60 ( 1%) 8(.5%) 11. ( 138 ( Other 1115( 19%) 1041{22%) 211 (9%) 190{14%) 2557(18%) Neighborhood Total a 4640(33%) 2257{ 16% ) 1384 , 14244{, tO<),() • • • • 41.. ........... .. ... __ ... :.. __ -:=: _ .. ,.. . . '(_. ---. ,_ -.... •. _.-,... .... . -. .. ' ; . . .... : _ _:..,._ . . . ---• . ___ ..... • -. ..• ;;. ' .. .; . . : .... _ ..

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----------_.:..'t. ... . ..-.....:-::,..----:--5 .01 .... .... -, ..... ;._. ...-:1 9 8 0 CENSUS TRACTS l I <1.05 0 . CiTY REVITALIZ -ATION -AHEA --.. ll.f5 .., 0 I: 42

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•' . . . APPENDIX 8 AREAS NEIGHBORHOOD TRADE AREA,;* Census Tract OF HOUSE-HOLDS 1,518 23 2,327 TABLE II-4. HOUSEHOLDS AND HOUSEHOLD 1969-70 B78-79 AVERAGE AGGREGATE NO. OF AVERAGE AGGREGATE HOUSEHOLD HOUSEHOLD HOUSE-HOUSEHOLD HOUSEHOLD INCOt-!E INCm!E HOLDS INCOHE INCOME $ 4,347 $ 6,598,746 1,597 $ 9,329 $14',898,413 5,734 13,343,018 1,703 13' 322 22,687,366 •.,. PERCENTAGE CHANGE AVG. AGGR. NO. OF HOUSE-HOUSE-HOUSE-HOLD HOLD HOLDS IN CONE INCOHE + 5% +ll5% +126% -27 +132 + 70 sn,r24.01 _1 t 6 ----? t ---_ 6 _ _,_603' 126 _ ___ 11 ___ _ _ :_25 +125 + 69 + 84 w..,sw.-n-..124. 02 35 4,Q68 3,803,580 803 6,014,970 -14 +58 z,n. -ltavc 25 760 3,351 2' 546' 76. 0 649 7,041 4,569,609 -15 +110 . &4, 245 5 Tract Area 7,202 $34,56S 6,006 $ 9,884 $59,362,308 -17% +116% + 80%" AREA HITHIN 1 1'-IILE R.i\DIUS•i*>'( 15,759 $ 5,025 $79,190,448 13,536 $10,463 $141,620,719 -14% +108% + 79% (includes 5 tract area above) *Source: National Planning Data Corporation. Household figures are for 1970 and 1979; incomes are the previous year. •'dThis area is roughly bounded by 23rd Street, Downing, East 23rd Avenue, York Street, 32nd Avenue, 38th Street ; and the South Platte River. ***Includes Census Tracts 23, 31.01, 31.02, 26.02, 26.01, 25, 16, 24.01, 24.02, an& 17.02. ..-...... ----. ....... . -.:.... •-. :_ ... . , . . .

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._ , •' .. ::,. . ... . l ;. . ,., " . . . .'. . ' . . ------..... . ...... . -..: ... ----..----' -4_ • ,. •. -":-: ... -----;------::""" --:. -...-.. . --......... _..... -. -. . ::. _.._-""' TABLE Il-l. HOUSING SALES SAHPLES* APPENDIX C I-_ eo; I ' ! . " 1ST 1979 4TH QUARTER, 1979 UNITS SOLD % OF TOTAL UNITS SOLD % OF TOTAL .. A..llliAS A...lfD SALES .PRICES UNITS UNITS NEIGHBOR TRADE AREA** Less :than 15 25% 5 10% 001 30.,000 21 35 12 24 $1'l"""" $30;0:01 ... .16 27 15 31 .... "t ---8 -------..... _ , _ _______ . --,\'-\S'IL '\" ' , <$45,. 001 . 60,000 13 15 31 .'Greater than $60,000 0 0 2 04 TOTAL 60 100% 49 100% ''WITHIN 1 MILE R.tilliUS*** Less than $15,000 22 19% 10 237. . '000 -: 30,000 40 34 16 . 38 $ -30,001 45 .,000 33 29 10 23 c<$ .45,001 60,000 15 13 3 07 .Greater than $60,00-o 4 05 4 09 'TOTAL 114 100% 43 100% *Source: Denver Planning Office **The Five Points neighborhood is defined by the Denver Planning Office to include Census Tracts 24.01, 24.02, and 25. For analytical purposes we have added in Census Tract 23, which begins three blocks east of the Welton Strip, as being within the area of likely retail influence. ***Includes Census Tracts 23, 31.01, 31.02, 26.02, 26.01, 25, 16, 24.01, 24.02, and 17.02. Census Tract 17.02 contains no single-family housing or condominiums. II-J .... . .

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J /78 APPENDIX D GENERAL PURPOSE AND DESCRIPTION UF DISTRICTS CITY A .. "'D COUNTY OF RS-2 RS-4 RX R:-0 R:-1 R-2 R-2-A R-3 .... .... ---.-.-:_ .. :;-,_ "' : ... . The following paragraphs explain the purpose and general description of the various zone districts contained within the Denver Zoning Ordinance. The regulations of these zone districts are changed from time to time, and a person desiring to learn the latest provisions of these regulations should contact the Department of Zoning Administration. This explanation has been prepared by the Zoning Review Section of the Denver Planning Office. SINGLE UNIT DETACHED D\.JELLINGS, RURAL DENSITY. tlinimum of one acre of land required for each housing unit. Home occupations are prohibited. Density = 1 dwelling unit/acre. SINGLE UNIT DETACHED DWELLINGS, DENSITY. Minimum of 12,000 square feet of land required for each dwelling unit. Home occupations are prohibited. Density= 3.6 dwelling units/acre. _ATTACHED OR CLUSTERED SINGLE UNIT D\.JELLINGS, LOW DENSITY. Development Plan must be approved by City Council. Home occupations are prohibited. llinimum of 7.500 square feet of land area required for each dwelling unit. Density = 5.8 dwelling units/acre. SINGLE UNIT DETACHED DWELLINGS, LO\.J DENSITY. Foster Family Care and Day Care allowed as home occupations by permit. Minimum of 6,000 square feet of land required for each dwelling unit. Density= 7 . 3 dwelling units/acre. SINGLE UNIT DETACHED DWELLINGS, LOW DENSITY. Same as R-0 except that home occupations and room-renting to one or two persons are allowed upon application and issuance of a permit. Density= 7.3 dwelling units/acre. HULTI-UNIT DWELLINGS, LOW DENSITY. Typically duplexes a nd triplexes. Home occupations are allowed by permit only. Hinimum of 6,000 square feet required for each duplex structure with an add.itional 3, 000 square feet required for every unit over 2. Density = 14.5 housing units/acre. MULTI-UNIT DI.JELLINGS, HEDilJ M DENSITY. 2, 000 square feet of land required for each dwelling unit unless a unified site plan is submitted under the Planned Buildi..'1g Croup (P BG) provisions. In \ihich case,. 1,500 square feet of land is required for each unit. Home occupations are allowed by ,permit. Density -21.8 housing units/acre (29 housing units/acre under PBG). HIGH DENSITY APARTMENT DISTR ICT. Building size is controlled by bu J k stru1dards and open space requirements. B uilding floo r area c annot
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-,_ ' • • . ...,_ > .. .. ' -----:; ..... .;. ... ....... ......_ . . . ....... --------____ R-J-X R-4 R-5 B-1 B-2 B-3 B-4 ' • ...::-• .. .....:.. .... __ ; .. ....... ..... H.IGH DENSITY APARTill-'NT DISTRICT. This district is intended to encourage new residential develo pment in older, developed ar. e a s . . :Building size i'S -controlled b y bulk standards a nd open space require ments. Building floor area cannot exceed 2 times the site area . • Maximum lot cover age is 40%. VERY HIGH DENSITY Al'ARIHENT AND OFFICE DISTRICT. The purpose o f t:his district is to provide a location for very-high density apartment and intensive office development. Building size is controlled by bulk standards and open space requirements. Allows hotel or mote] uses . and limited accessory retail shopping. Building floor area cannot exceed 4 times the s ,ite area. INSTITUTIONAL DISTRICT. Allows hospitals, colleges, schools, churches and other institutional uses . Maximum lot coverage is 60 % of zon e lot. Building is controlled by bulk standards. ' " . LIMIT E D OFFICE DISTRICT. This district is intended to serve a s a t ran? itional zone between business and residential areas, and should be limited to relatively small tracts. It should be located near hospitals and established business centers, although it may be created as a freestanding zone. Building height controlled by bulk standards and open requirements. Building floor area cannot exceed the site area. NEIGHBORHOOD BUSINESS DISTRICT. This district is intended to be a location for convenience shopping, service and office establishments providing for the daily or weekly 'convenience' needs of residents from ad joining residential areas. Building height controlled by bulk standards and open space re.quirements. Building floor area cannot exceed the site area. SHOPPING CENTER DISTRICT. This district is intended to serve as the location for large unified con unity shopping centers permitting a wide variety of shopping, service and office activities with large parking areas. Building height is controlled by bulk standards and open space requirements. Building floor area c annot exceed the site area. GENERAL BUSI NESS DISTR I CT. General retail, wholesale, service and office activities, and certain industrial uses. Building floor area cannot exceed 2 times the site area. District regulations contain no bulk , open space, or setback requirements. The establishment of additional B-4 zoning along arterial streets is discouraged by the Denver Comprehensive Plan. Also, the Zoning Code, Section 618.2-6 states that no B-4 should be established unless there is a clear and demonstrable need in the area for it. -2

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47 . ) B-A-1 B-A-2 B-A-3 B-A-4 B-5 B-7 B-8 ARTERIAL OFFICE A.l\lO INSTITUTIONAL USE DISTRICT. Allows banks, offices, hospitals, clinics, institutions, churches, apartments and office service uses. Requires 100 feet: of arterial street frontage. 1-!aximllm lot coverage is 307.. Building floor area cannot exceed 2 times the site area. Building height is controlled by bulk standards. l taximu m residential density is unspecified and is determined by the size of W1its and the factors n1entioned above. Front setback areas are required for landscaping. ARTERIAL SERVICE DISTRICT. This district is intended as a tourist oriented zone, allowing only hotels, motels and restaurants with automobile service stations. Requires 100 feet of arterial street frontage. Zone lot coverage not to exceed 30%. Building height is controlled by bulk standards. Front setback areas are required for landscaping. ARTERIAL DISTRICT. This district is designed to accommodate those uses which are oriented toward t h e mot orist :md residents of nearby neighborhoods but which uses are not normall: r part o shopping centers. Included among such uses are bowling alleys, night clubs, drive-in restaurants and service stations. Setback areas are required for landscaping. Ground coverage by buildings <:annot exceed 30% of the site. Building height is controlled by bulk standards. AUTO SALES AND SERVICE DISTRICT. This district provides an area designed particularly for the special needs and cb:aracteristics of auto sales and service activities. The Comprehens.ive, Plan encourages the establishment o-f this district in concentrated centers rather than in a linear arrangement along arterials. Ground coverage by struct.ures-canna t exceed 607. of the site area. Building height is controlled by bulk standards. CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT. Permits all of the business,_ office and light industrial uses which are permitted in the more restricted 'B' zones along with residential and educational uses. floor area cannot exceed 10 times the site area, plus floor area premiums for t h e development of pl.azas, arcades,, atriums 1 . etc. BUSINESS RESTORA.TION ZONE. This district is intended to preserve and improve older structures which are architecturally and/or historically significant. This d -istrict allows light industrial, general retail, who:lesale services, o .ffices .and high density residential uses. Additional floor area is allowed with the development of residential un its, u.o.der grou:nd parking or open space areas. Building floor areas cannot exceed 2 times the site area. However, with prem iums the floor area can be increased to 4 times the site areaL INTENSIVE GENERAL BUSIN ESS/VERY-HI G H DENSITY RES (DENTL\L DISTRICT. Per-mits all types of businesses, certain industrial uses , and high de nsity residential and office uses. Intended f o r a pplicaci1 n in large busines s areas and-around the Central Business District. Total floor space cannot exceed 4 times the a rea of the site. -3... ... . .. . --..: -_: -__ ,.._;.,;;_ --"'" .. _,. ---...... . .. ." . . ; --"!"'-' ...... -'-''-_ _ _ ::. __ .... :..:.... • ---

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-:::. : ... ..... I-0 I-1 I-2 0-1 0-2 P-1 . -,. __ _. •• _-')o.,..-, ..... .......... -:.:.:.. t;. ...... . . ---.. ... _ ... :-._ LIGHT INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT. A transitional district between intensive industrial and residential districts. Allo\l."s limited manufact.uring, \l."holesale and retail activities, offices and motels. Building height is controlled by bulk plane standards and setback requirements for buildings. Floor area canna t exceed 50% of t he site area. GENERAL INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT. Allo\l."s many manufacturing, warehousing and wholesaling activities, along wit h limited retail and service uses for the benefit of the area employees. Building floor area cas not exceed 2 ti.'1les the site area. Generally no setback requirements. HEAVY INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT. Allows all manufacturing, warehousing, wholesaling and mineral extraction Limited retail and service us.es for the of area employees are permitted. No limitations on t 'he size or location of buildings. This distri.ct should not be located adjacent to residential or business z.anes. OPEN USE DISTRICT. Allows airports, recreational uses, parks, cemeteries, reservoirs, and other u.t!.:.n uses including a limited number of public and semi-public activities housed in buildings. Setback requirements apply to the location of buildings. OPEN SPACE DISTRICT. Allows large tracts of open land utilized primarily for agricultural or ranching activities. OFF-STREET PARKING DISTRICT. Allows parking lots and structures. Bulk and setback regulations apply to buildings. This zone is intended to provide needed business parking without the expansion of the business zone, i.e. a buffer between business and residential uses . Requires visua l barriers adjacent to residential uses. -4.-,. : -.. -......... ... ..... •.• 48

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-49 These Z une Regulat Lons are amended f r o m tim"' to t by Lhe City Counc-il, .this sumrn . tn• not reflect rhe roost rt'(cnt regulat i.ntts. fo"nr thl! late s t dl!tai .ls cont:tC'I titl.1n RS-2 l Ac. 600 5 .:o H J 1 f siLl'S slloul.. t to the __ ,_0:-:G:-:0:----"7-:0-6700,:---------=-2 0::..__ ..::.5 ___ ;:_1 0=-----..,::d..,::ic::..s t.: r"7L_c.;c..t -,--RX 7 500 ..,.-----,----B..,_! ]29_2_'l_:_L_::_,_ _____ R0 6 000 600 20 5 i!a H o i <.!:<:s:.Lug :;i u,:; R-1 6 000 600 20 R-2 6,000 600 20 R-2-A 6,000 600 20 1 2,000 60 0 2 : l 1 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 5 5 5 5 0 should b e inccri o r t o the IE a butting .-:.2 A , R ) , R-4 , B-2,3,4 , o r l 0 , 1 acre; othe rwiS 8 ;; r n!s. If abutting R 3 , R 4 , B-2, 3,4, o r I-0 o n one side a n d R O , R-1 o r on 2nd slde , l acre 8 acr e s . If abuttin g i J , R-4,8 3 , B 4 o r I-0 , l acre; otherwis e 8 !t} 6,000 600 ) 1 10 20 7.5 8 a cres R 4 6 , 000 ! o: l 10 2 0 7 . 5 8 a c res ____ ______ If abutting B-2,3,4,5 , 8 , B-1 8-A-1 S-2 lh\-2 B-J B-A-3 B-4 B-A-4 0 ta,ooo 0 15.000 12,000 0 15,0 0 0 0 6013 0 o 0 (} 1:1 10 10 2:1 15-30 20 1:1 5 10 0 10 0 I-O,I-1,or 1-2, no r equire mencs;ochen ;ise 70,000 s q . fc. H a s not less c h o n 100' o f frontage alung an arterial street, anci 18 ,000 sq.ft. Lf abutting 3-4, no require men t;othervis e 70,00 0 sq. ft. .307. ________ 1:1 5 5 3.07. l. c .lD-20 20 2:1 0 0 607. l.c . 10-20' 20 0 I abutting a-4, n o require men. t othero. • ise 8 acres. 0 0 1 0 Has nu t less than 1 0 0 fr. o E fro nt-a ge along an arterial and lZ,OOO sq.ft. --------8 acre s IE abutting B 4 and has not less tha n 1 0 0 ft. o f fFont::q;e a1o .1g a n arterLJ.l str e e t . , 15,0 ; 1 0 >;q . ft.; ---,------------,----------.,-------.,..---------..,.0-----'0 c he rw is e 5 : t c res _________ ______ ____ 8-7 0 4oo + K&B 2 : 1 0 0 0 [ f abuttin g !l5 o r J;-8, 5 . teres; 20 B-8 0 3 0 + K&B C.: 1 LOO < I U C ! S . -----_...;:. __ ...:::;"-..:.... =:c::... ___ ..:..:.=-... _ ___ _____ ------[ E a but t i ng L-1 o r [2 , no l-0 0 0 .5:1 2 0 20 10 rcqutr\:Jent;u therwlse 8 _________ ---I-l -::0 _______ _:0:_ ____ __ _:0:.._ ___ --"0 ______ ::! '"c ''"' ------___ _ l2 -----_ _ O=------o,.. -----------"'-'-"-------'r'"-1 _____ c_r_ e _ s _ ---------___ (1) size in sq. tt. o f der:.:.1::heJ structure;. mutti-[.Lmit;.; tlni..t:s have !!O minimum as noted in che 8-S,B-7 & BH (2) tl.:lxi. n11: m r:ltio o f coc:ll flcwr . Hca. t o sit e s L ze. K&B = and l.c. lor coverage -":'. . . ::o::'''"'---: . .... ___ ....,..:-::,. . . ..-:: ... .. . ..:..., ....

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_ . _ ••• ::;, .. .:-!-. .. -:-'--< _ .. _. :.---"'---•• r.E:.-: .1[.<.L Y COUNT DI.TA ... \ . L r 00 C1 C• i C2 02 C3 o s -c.:; CG -07 07 ou C3 -00 0 1 c l c -i 1 11 -i 2 12 13 13 14 l; , s 15-;_; 6 1 '7 1 : .? is 1 2(1 :? I :.:2 :n :3 23 2.:1 TOT ;.L COLJI, T Tu!:.S!:J.!.Y to:ED';O:SDAY THURSDAY CCUrH BEGIN 286 367 432 5G 1 2:6 . l f;i:; 1 rt 1/; 154 ccu rn li2 59 45 20 1 ' ) lA ::.!33 2•:6 w END 2C24 COUNT ... REVISED W[EKLY COUNT 02 03 C3 C.4 04 O') CS GG 07 CG oo _t,.l:_1 10 1011 11 -1:2 12 13 1 3 i .-. 14 -1 15 1;; I G -17 17 18 1 ;j -1 g i 9 1 ]2 22 23" 2t; T01AL COUNT 6EG!N • 1 07 252 :!.;5 243 327 425 3.,4 203 127 ,07 1(, 7 92 b8 3032 TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY COUN1 ::1 50 24 18 s 19 n 124 138. 140 END COuNT COUNT ..: , •• : •..... ,1" ... •• : ... .... _.._ -----... _--_::--..... .... ...:• .::..--:--4><:. •-;-•'1>"' ;;, • Welton Street APPENDIX ••• l.ll '-' .. FRIDAY AVE !'lACE SATURDAY 82 69 45 20 10 14 14G 221 233 :t43 2G3 3Cl 180 1 ,,6 154 54i-1 COUNT DATE 04-01-1S80 ;-HI DAY COUNT AVERAGE WEEKDAY SATURDAY 51 30 24 18 B 19 7;,; 1 'j..., _.., 138 14C 107 252 245 275 337 425 34.:: 203 1:;:7 10'/ 107 r . , < •t. 3G33 COUNT SUNDAY COUNT SUNDAY COUNT DIRECTION TOTAL HIGH\vAY STAl c. T. 3 07 79 SATUiT. E -SO -

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APPENDIX F The following list shows in descending order of frequency the types of tenants most frequently found in neighborhood shopping centers. (Source: Dollars and Cents of Shopping Centers; the Urban Land Institute; 1978; p. 161.) Rank Tenant Classification On Stri2
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.. . ' , ..__ ,_,.,_..._ ,r,.,_ _ _., ---• ,_,,,::...-...!.....; . , !,...;:;. ___ ,•':;/" •.•_,"_.. ,.___:..• • -' 7:':.!"' ..,.....,...-, .. _ '_-... . •. '-'I-• .:_--"-: ... -.--.... j..-. .... .. _.. .... : -.:: . . . . . . .. ; ... . ..: .. .. .. ... .... ' ... _. . ' .:, .. ... TABLE III-1. AVERAGE 1978 'BUDGET FOR A FOUR-PERSON LOH-INCOrlli FAl1ILY Household Budget To.tal Consumption At Home f ro)!l Home Housi!}_g . Personal Care* .Nedical Care Other* Other Non-Consumption Items Taxes and Deductions: Social Security Personal Income Taxes *Retail Sales. PERCENT! 100 82 ..J.l.. 27 4 _:.8_ ;__9_ 2 ....2.. 4 4 6 8 Sour.ces: 1 Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1979. 2National Planning Data Corporation, 1978. . . . ' .. 1978 AVERAGE $ 9,834 8,105 3,1)64 2,669 395 1, 779 791 890 198 890 395 395 593 791 52

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CONTACTS I Five Points Business Association Oscar Wattley -Aubrey Lewis -Norman Harris -Al Richardson Chris Blackmon -Jim Parker leonard Uixo.n Sarah Lewis I Expansion Unlimited Oscar Wattley .. Progress Unlimited -John Sellmim I ' Five Points Community Center -Toin Foster • Five Points Strategy Committee Jay, Feichter • Denver Planning Dffice -John Harris Five Points Neighborhood Planner -Gerald Andolsek City Planner -Ron Rorowski -Traffic Circulation 1 Community Development Agency of Denver Louis R. LaPerriere Director Hiawatha Davis ' : . ... .;,-:. 2 ... .. . -----. .. ' .... -:: • ,-.... "'-'='" • 1 Denver Research Institute University of Denver (Industrial Economics Division) -Lee 01 ver Keith Moore 1 Historic Denver Elizabeth Schlosser 1 District 8 Councilman Elvin Caldwell (Ret.) King Trimble 1 Traffic Engineering City and County of Denver -Ron Becker -Dennis E. Royer Robert Heister Design Engineering 1 Colorado State Highway Department -Rich Cutler Transportation Special ist -Jennifer Finch -Transportation Specialist Gordon F. Horst -Design Engineer 1 Engelke Architects -Ron Hedstrom Eastside Neighborhood Health Center 1 David Decker, A.I.A. .... -. : ... -. ....-..•

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RESOURCES "Planning Toward the Future -A Comprehensive Plan for Denver", Denver Planning Office, Denver, 1978. "Five Points Neighborhood Plan", Denver Planning Office, 1974. "Economic Feasibility of Commercial Development in Five Points", Industrial Economics Division, Denver Research Inst., University of Denver, 1980. "Displacement City Neighborhoods in Transition", National Urban Coalition, Washington, D.C., 1978. Centers for the Urban Environment, Victor Gruen, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., N.Y., 1973. Urban Design: The Architecture of Towns and Cities, Paul D. Spreiregen, McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1965. Open Spacse: The Life of American Cities, August Heckscher, Harper & Row Pub., N.Y., 1977. Cities Fit to Live In, Walter McQuade, MacMillan Co., N.Y., 1971. The New Downtowns: Rebuilding Business Districts, Louis G. Redstone, F.A.I.A., McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1976. Shopping Center Development Handbook, Urban Land Institute, Washington, D.C., 1977. New Dimensions in Shopping Centers and Stores, Louis G. Redstone, F.A.I.A.,McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1973. Central City Malls, Harvey M. Rubinstein, John Wiley & Sons, N.Y., 1978. Small Urban.Spaces, Whitney North Seymour, Jr., New York University Press, N.Y., 1969. Site Planning, Kevin Lynch, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1971. Places for People, edit. Jeanne M. Davern., an Architectural Record Book, McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1976. For Pedestrians Only Planning, Design and Management of Traffic-Free Zones, Roberto Brambilla and G. Longo, Whitney Library of Design, Watson-Guptill Publications, 1977. Pedestrian Planning and Design, John J. Fruin, Metropolitan Assoc. of Urban Designers and Environmental Planners, Inc., N.Y., 1971. Defensible Space Crime Prevention through Urban Design, Oscar Newman, Collier Books, N.Y., 1973. Residential Streets: Objectives, Principles and Design Con siderations, Urban Land Institute, Amer. Soc. of Civil Eng. •s and Nat. Assoc. of Homebuilders, Washington, D.C., 1974. "Automobile Diversion -A strategy for reducing excessive traffic in sensitive areas", Denver Planning Office, Denver, 1978. Design of Cities, Edmund Bacon, Penguin Books, N.Y., 1974. "A Guide to Housing Rehabilitation Programs", U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Neighborhoods, Voluntary Associations of Consumer Protection, Washington, D.C., August, 1978.