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Instructional design and technology students' professional identity construction during graduate school : what influences identity?

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Title:
Instructional design and technology students' professional identity construction during graduate school : what influences identity?
Creator:
Ozyer, Aysenur
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Doctor of philosophy)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
School of Education and Human Development, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Education and human development
Committee Chair:
Davis, Alan
Committee Members:
Leech, Nancy
Kalir, Remi
Hamilton, Boni

Notes

Abstract:
Professional identity is a crucial element of being a good professional. Developing a professional identity occurs throughout one’s whole life. However, it most significantly develops during formal professional education. Master’s degrees prepare students to become a qualified professional in the field; therefore, it is expected that students develop professional identities during their time in graduate education. Professional identity has been a well-explored topic in the literature. The research is mostly subject-based, and the majority of the studies are in the fields of long-established professions such as medicine, nursing, teaching, and counseling. Instructional Design and Technology, as an emerging field, needs studies investigating how its professionals develop identities and what those identities entail. This study aimed to unveil some of the factors influencing students’ identity development during their professional education. For this purpose, an associational quantitative study was implemented. Students were asked to fill out a questionnaire that measured their identity scores. Regression results showed that students’ professional identity was associated with a combination of different factors including familiarity with the field, practice, and peer support. In light of the results, changing curricula to include more hands-on experiences as well as promoting interaction between students might help improving students’ identity development. The researcher hopes that this study will pave the way for further research looking into identity in Instructional Design and Technology.

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University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
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Copyright Aysenur Ozyer. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS’ PROFESSIONAL
IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION DURING GRADUATE SCHOOL: WHAT INFLUENCES
IDENTITY?
by
AYSENUR OZYER
B.A., Karadeniz Technical University, 2009 M.Ed., Karadeniz Technical University, 2012
A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Education and Human Development
2019


11
This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy degree by Aysenur Ozyer has been approved for the Education and Human Development Program
by
Alan Davis, Chair Nancy Leech, Co-Advisor Remi Kalir, Co-Advisor Boni Hamilton
Date: August 3, 2019


Ill
Ozyer, Aysenur (PhD, Education and Human Development)
Instructional Design and Technology Students’ Professional Identity Construction During Graduate School: What Influences Identity?
Thesis directed by Professor Nancy L. Leech and Assistant Professor Remi Kalir
ABSTRACT
Professional identity is a crucial element of being a good professional. Developing a professional identity occurs throughout one’s whole life. However, it most significantly develops during formal professional education. Master’s degrees prepare students to become a qualified professional in the field; therefore, it is expected that students develop professional identities during their time in graduate education.
Professional identity has been a well-explored topic in the literature. The research is mostly subject-based, and the majority of the studies are in the fields of long-established professions such as medicine, nursing, teaching, and counseling. Instructional Design and Technology, as an emerging field, needs studies investigating how its professionals develop identities and what those identities entail. This study aimed to unveil some of the factors influencing students’ identity development during their professional education. For this purpose, an associational quantitative study was implemented. Students were asked to fill out a questionnaire that measured their identity scores. Regression results showed that students’ professional identity was associated with a combination of different factors including familiarity with the field, practice, and peer support. In light of the results, changing curricula to include more hands-on experiences as well as promoting interaction between students might help improving students’ identity development. The researcher hopes that this study will pave the way for further research looking into identity in Instructional Design and Technology.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Nancy Leech and Remi Kalir


IV
DEDICATION
I would like to dedicate this dissertation to my peers and co-workers that helped me make this research happen. This study was sparked by the long conversations I had with my co-workers and peers about our identities as IDT professionals. Your invaluable input helped me to frame my research and, I thank you for inspiring me.


V
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to thank my co-advisors Dr. Nancy Leech and Dr. Remi Kalir. You have been incredibly helpful with your guidance, support, and input. You were supportive, patient, understanding, and always there when I needed help.
My dear friend and committee member, Dr. Boni Hamilton, I cannot thank you enough for your guidance and support from the beginning of my journey. You have always encouraged and motivated me.
Many thanks to my committee member, Dr. Alan Davis, for providing valuable feedback and perspective. I appreciate your guidance and help during this process.
To my husband, Yasin, your support, positive attitude, and cheerfulness kept me motivated. You always make me laugh and help me to keep going. You are always there when I need help, and you are always generous with your time and love. You are an incredible husband and father, and we are lucky to have you in our lives.
To my baby boy, Alp Bera, you are the most tiring and greatest thing in our lives! We adore you and cannot get enough of you. Your smile makes us giggle and forget all of our worries.
To my dear mother Fatma, thank you for always being supportive and incredibly generous. You have always been my biggest cheerleader.
To my dear father, Dr. Tevfik Ozlu, your wisdom and knowledge guided me. Knowing that I have someone I can always count on was essential in all I have achieved so far.
To my dearest sister and brother, you are the light of my life. I love you with all my heart and I could not have done this without your love and support. You are always there for me.
To my friends and co-workers, you were the first ones I went to when I needed consultation. Your feedback has been a great help.


VI
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION 1
Statement of the Problem 1
Purpose of the Study 3
Research Questions 4
Significance of the Study 4
Limitations of the Study 7
II. LITERATURE REVIEW 9
Professional Identity 9
History and Definition of Instructional Design and Technology 14
IDT’s Professional Identity 16
Discussion of the Literature and Conceptual Framework 24
III. METHODOLOGY 29
Research Design 29
The Null and Alternative Hypotheses 30
Population and Sampling 30
Participants 31
IDT Background of the Participants 35
Instrumentation 35
Validity and Reliability 36
Procedures 37
Data Collection
37


vii
Ethics and Confidentiality 37
Data Analysis 38
IV. RESULTS 39
Factor Analysis 41
Reliability Analysis 47
Regression Analysis 47
V. DISCUSSION 53
Significance of the Study 54
Summary of Key Findings 54
Discussion of the Findings 56
Being familiar with IDT before school 57
Having worked in assistantship/internship positions during graduate education 58
Being a part of informal student support groups during graduate education
60
Being affiliated with a professional organization 61
Other findings 62
Study Limitations 63
Recommended Future Studies 65
Implications for Practice 66
Conclusion 67
REFERENCES 68
TABLES 77
FIGURES
86


Vlll
APPENDIX
97


IX
LIST OF TABLES
1. Participant Demographics 32
2. Frequency and percentage values of the independent variables 40
3. Factor Loadings for the Rotated Factors 42
4. Factor Loading Comparison 45
5. Means, Standard Deviations, and Intercorrelations for Professional Identity and Predictor
Variables 49
6. Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis Summary Predicting Professional Identity
Levels from Bachelor’s Degree, Program Progress, Delivery Method, Work Experience, Professional Affiliations, and Support Group Participation, When Controlling for Familiarity 50
7. Identity Score Classification 55


X
LIST OF FIGURES
1. Characteristics of professional identity 12
2. Factors affecting professional identity development 14
3. Conceptual framework of professional student socialization during graduate school 25
4. Participants’ academic backgrounds 32
5. Names of the graduate programs 33
6. Progress of the participants 34
7. Delivery methods of the graduate programs participants were in 34
8. How participants become familiar with IDT 35
9. Equation for prediction of professional identity score 51
10. Factors influencing professional identity scores 56
11. Comparison of the framework and the findings of this study 57


XI
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
ACT...............................American College Testing
ADDIE.............................Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate
CMID..............................The Civic-Minded Instructional Designers Framework
GPA...............................Grade Point Average
ID................................Instructional Design
IDT...............................Instructional Design and Technology
ILT...............................Information Learning Technologies
IT................................Instructional Technology
KMO...............................The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin
LDT...............................Learning Design and Technology
PI................................Professional Identity
PID...............................Professional Identity Development
PIFFS.............................The Professional Identity Five-Factor Scale
PIS...............................Professional Identity Score
SAT...............................Scholastic Assessment Test


1
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem
Defined as an occupation requiring a specialized body of knowledge and skills, a profession needs to have rigorous training programs to prepare qualified professionals (Davidson-Shivers & Barrington, 2004; Williams, 1998). These extensive training programs are one of the few elements that separate a profession from an occupation. They aim to raise highly qualified, competent, ethical, committed, and motivated professionals mainly for the sake of the profession's future and legitimacy. Most fields are attached to daily practice (Freidson, 1989). That is especially true for professional fields that have clinical professional practice with a special status of serving the public good. Preparing professionals whose work aims to fulfill this special status, therefore, gains more importance in these fields. Instructional Design and Technology (IDT), having an ethical grand purpose of help, is one of these fields that carry a special status (Campbell, Schwier, & Kenny, 2005; Davidson-Shivers & Barrington, 2004; Inouye, Merrill, & Swan, 2005; Schwier, Hill, Wager, & Spector, 2006; Yusop & Correia, 2012). Therefore, raising qualified professionals is highly critical in IDT.
Being a qualified professional has many aspects to it. Developing a professional identity is one of them. It is a crucial part of becoming a successful professional. Professional identity requires commitment and investment (Cavenagh, Dewberry, & Jones, 2000; Jebril, 2008). Professionals with strong identities develop responsibility towards their professional role, commitment to behave ethically and morally, and feelings of pride for the profession (Zandt, 1990, as cited in Bruss & Kopala, 1993). Professional identity also comes with an increased positive and realistic professional self-image (Ohlen & Segesten, 1998). “Clearly, the important


2
role of professional identity in shaping both psychological and behavioral processes in the workplace cannot be overstated" (Caza & Creary, 2016, p. 7). Therefore, investigating the processes behind developing an identity could help with raising achieved professionals. Understanding how to develop a professional mindset could help training programs to improve their teaching and learning practices when training future IDT professionals. As a result, these programs would graduate better-equipped professionals that would increase the value and legitimacy of IDT in work settings. Better-trained professionals also means securing the future of the field.
Researchers in the field have a responsibility to contribute to the field's maturation process. A relatively new educational sub-field, IDT, is still maturating (Reiser, 2012a). Part of IDT's maturation requires presenting members of the field more than technicians applying the learning theory and technologies, and instead professionals skilled in the practice of technology-based instructional design. The existing literature in IDT mostly consists of studies examining the efficiency of strategies, theories, and technologies as well as articulating how to increase learning. Most of these studies, therefore, neglect more foundational sides of the story. IDT needs more studies investigating its roots, foundations, and processes behind the development of the profession, field, and professionals. Research highlights significant issues that require attention including establishing generally accepted values such as name, definition, identity, requirements, standards, professional codes of conduct as well as organizations that monitor the professionals in the field (Cox, 2003; Hill, Bichelmeyer, Gibbons, Grabowski, Osguthorpe, Schwier, & Wager, 2004; Reiser, 2012b; Sharif et al., 2014; Smith et al., 2006). Examining these foundational concepts will promote the field's legitimacy claims by providing a strong base of establishment for its existence. Studies that focus on the bigger picture of raising professionals


3
would benefit the field in the long run. This is a kind of contribution this field could use along with efforts to assert its authority as a full status profession.
Fields such as engineering, law, and medicine enjoy the perks of being recognized, valued, and respected professions (Davidson-Shivers & Barrington, 2004; Williams, 1998). Their long-established, full professional status combined with a well-studied, clear professional identity enhance their credibility in the eyes of public, which is also beneficial for professionals during their daily work practice (Hamilton, 2008a; Ibarra, 1999; Schwier, Campbell, & Kenny, 2004; Sharif, Cho & Cervera, 2014). The newness of the profession differentiates IDT from the aforementioned professions. Becoming a valued, known, and an accepted profession would yield benefits to the field of IDT (Cox, 2003; Sharif & Cho, 2015; Schwier, Hill, Wager, & Spector, 2006). Towards this goal, calls of studies that would contribute to this process have been made (Bird, 2004; Cox, 2003; Reiser 2012b; Schwier et al., 2004; Schwier et al., 2006; Sharif & Cho, 2015; Smith, Hessing, & Bichelmeyer, 2006). Despite these efforts, researchers still point out the ongoing lack of research contributing to this maturation process. In this sense, studies aiming to fill this gap of literature will be valuable for the field. By conducting an empirical study that explored factors affecting professional identity development, the researcher hopes to contribute to the efforts as mentioned earlier.
Purpose of the Study
The primary purpose of this study is to conduct a quantitative associational study to measure professional identity levels of IDT graduate students and explore factors affecting these levels. This study attempts to identify why there are differences between professional identity levels of students by investigating certain elements that are thought to influence professional identity development. To meet this purpose this research (a) measured participants' professional


identity levels, (b) sought out elements that are associated with identity levels, and (c) provided insights for degree programs to help their students become qualified professionals in IDT.
4
Research Questions
The proposed research question is:
Is there a relationship between IDT graduate students’ professional identity levels and the linear combination of the following seven factors?
a. Graduate students’ undergraduate majors
b. Graduate students’ familiarity with IDT prior to entering the graduate program
c. Graduate program delivery methods
d. Graduate students’ time in the graduate program
e. Graduate students’ fieldwork experiences as part of the graduate program
f. Graduate students’ involvement with informal support groups in IDT
g. Graduate students’ aflfiliation(s) with professional organizations for which they pay membership fees
The study used a pre-designed electronic questionnaire to obtain participants’ demographic info and measured their professional identity levels.
Significance of the Study
This study focused on a lasting, more profound format of learning that causes internal change: becoming a professional. I believe this type of learning is more important than learning technical skills in a graduate program. My purpose is consistent with the efforts of the bigger agenda of establishing a full professional status. I hope this study will provide some insights and shed light on professional identity formation in IDT as an emerging field.
Professional identity development has been extensively studied since the 1950s (Hughes, 1958). However, most of the literature is subject based, focusing on specific professions such as teaching, nursing, medicine, law, engineering, and psychology (Bruss & Kopala, 1993; Cavenagh, Dewberry, & Jones, 2000; Hamilton, 2008b; Hall, O'Brien, & Tang, 2010;
Jacobowitz, 2014; Limberg et al., 2013; Veach, Bartels, & LeRoy, 2002). IDT has an ongoing


5
lack of literature studying its professional identity development. A literature review showed only a few studies concerning IDT students' professional identity development (Yusop & Correira, 2012) whereas fully established and recognized professions such as nursing, law, and medicine (Davidson-Shivers & Barrington, 2004) have many, investigating the professional identity development processes students go through during their professional trainings. These studies have been mostly specific to the profession (Jebril, 2008). Different frameworks have been developed and used to investigate professional identity development as well (Weidman, Twale, & Stein, 2001).
Along with the lack of literature, there is also a serious concern about IDTs still-maturing identity impacting its legitimacy as a profession (Davidson-Shivers & Barrington, 2004). Studies have been warning researchers and practitioners about adverse effects of identity confusion on the credibility of the profession as well as the academic discipline. A significant amount of literature has been pointing out IDT's existing "identity crisis" (Sharif et al., 2014) and calling for further research that would contribute to the efforts to establish a clear professional identity and definition (Bird, 2004; Cox, 2003; Reiser 2012b; Schwier et al., 2004; Schwier et al., 2006;
Sharif & Cho, 2015; Smith et al., 2006). The literature gap, combined with the confusion about the meaning of professionalism, undermines the public's trust and understanding of IDT as well as the credibility of the profession (Hamilton, 2008a).
The literature mostly emphasizes the vagueness in the field's shared identity; however, it has also been recognized any confusion with what the profession exactly entails influences professionals' identity as well. Identity confusion negatively affects practitioners by posing challenges to their identities and leaving them in obscurity (Sharif et al., 2014). Hamilton (2008a, p.477) argues that "a clear and succinct definition [of professionalism] will help the public


6
understand what goals the profession is trying to achieve." One's professional identity development is affected by the profession's status and its external image in the public's eyes. Therefore, a better established, recognized, and respected field with clear collective identity will impact practitioners' confidence and pride with their profession, which then positively affects their professional identity (Carrillo, 2014; Jebril, 2008).
The individual identities are connected to the field's identity; therefore, this research aimed to contribute to the IDTs quest of identity by studying its future professionals' identity development. During the journey of exploring identity, investigating factors influencing students' professional identity is specifically important mainly because students are the future of the profession. Also, Hamilton (2008a, p.477) argues that the lack of clarity on the meaning of professionalism will influence the conduct of students in professional schools. Clear definition of professionalism will help professional education programs apply efficient pedagogies and relevant assessments to help students to internalize and live the elements of the definition. Similarly, Smith et al. (2006) specifically stress the benefits of studying graduate students if we were to understand where IDT is going. In their words, "current graduate students will form the field's future academic and corporate leadership. As such, understanding the substance and range of their current concerns may provide some insight into the field's future" (p. 18). Graduate education is seen as the professional education during which students acquire professional knowledge and skills that will assure they have the characteristics desired by the profession (Stein & Weidman, 1989). Students "gain the knowledge, skills, and values necessary for successful entry into a professional career requiring an advanced level of specialized knowledge and skills" (Weidman, Twale, & Stein, 2001, p.l) through their professional education in graduate school. Jebril (2008) reports that the professional education is the primary stage where


the professional identity is constructed. Therefore, in order to understand identity formation, one needs to look at graduate education.
7
As a response to the calls that have been made by the existing research, this study attempted to address the identified gap in IDT's professional identity development literature. It aimed to contribute to the efforts concerning IDT's identity, meaning, and definition by investigating factors influencing students' identity levels. As an empirical study measuring professional identity levels of students, it tried to find what contributes to different levels of identity. The findings will be helpful for degree programs to understand the factors behind strong professional identity and design their curriculums accordingly to raise highly qualified IDT professionals.
With that said, it is crucial to point out that researching professional identity in IDT does not necessarily mean that the field will or should reach a unified name or identity. Researchers should be careful not to reduce, simplify or over-systematize identity and name. It can be argued that diversity in the field’s name and identity could be inclusive, enriching, and beneficial in reaching out a wider audience. This research is not promoting one identity and one name for IDT. The researcher rather hopes that the study will eventually provide an insight into how graduate students become professionals in IDT.
Limitations of the Study
This study sought to find out the elements affecting students' identity levels and look for factors causing differences between these levels. Students' identity development in the field of IDT can be significantly affected by the program and institution they are in. Therefore, the data collected are highly dependent on the setting. This limitation will affect the generalizability and transferability of the findings. Although the researcher used a valid and reliable measurement


8
tool to collect data to increase transferability, the readers will need to judge whether or not the data fit into their situations.
Since this is an associational study, findings point out possible correlations, not causations. Results should not be used to make casual inferences. The study did not measured identity over time therefore, the timely processes through which identity is shaped are not interpreted as a part of this study.


9
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter provides a summary of the literature in IDT’s history and definition, professional identity development, and identity formation during graduate school. As pointed out later in the chapter, IDT is lacking foundational studies such as exploring professional identity. In order to provide a solid base for IDT to assert itself as a full status profession, professional identity construction processes need to be explored. The literature review in this chapter covers the literature that frames professional identity development that occurs during graduate school.
Professional Identity
A profession, according to Merriam-Webster Dictionary (2019), is “a calling requiring specialized knowledge and often long and intensive academic preparation”. It is defined as "an occupation requiring specialized knowledge or skill" whereas an occupation is an activity to earn money (Ferguson & Rams 2010,10 , p.24). Williams (1998) listed the requirements of being a profession as follows (p. 18):
• a defined scope stating the profession's purpose and goals;
• qualifications for education, experience and professional development;
• a code of professional conduct to guide what should—or should not—be done under given circumstances; recognized certification that requires maintenance;
• standards that are consistent with other peer groups.
According to Williams (1998), one of the components of professions is having a code of
professional conduct, which is a sign of professionalism. Professionalism is considered a crucial
element a profession needs to possess in order to become a commonly accepted and respected
one (Hamilton, 2008a). Evans (2008, p.29) defined professionalism as:
work practice that is consistent with commonly-held consensual delineations of a specific profession or occupation and that both contributes to and reflects perceptions of the profession’s or occupation’s purpose and status and the specific nature, range and levels


10
of service provided by, and expertise prevalent within, the profession or occupation, as well as the general ethical code underpinning this practice.
Professionalism includes identifying closely with the chosen profession and thinking,
acting, and feeling like members of that profession (Cavenagh, Dewberry, & Jones, 2000).
Professionals are individuals who have specialized skills, knowledge, and training to conduct the
profession (Jebril, 2008). Seen as one of the essential components of becoming a professional,
professional identity represents the individual's perception of being a professional (Jebril, 2008),
and shapes one's work (Caza & Creary, 2016). It has different aspects including a sense of
commitment to the chosen profession and change in self-concept by starting to see oneself as a
professional (Cavenagh, Dewberry, & Jones, 2000; Jebril, 2008). It also influences well-being
since associating with a respected profession can increase self-esteem and pride (Caza & Creary,
2016). Professional identity has been defined as (Jebril, 2008, p.53):
an ongoing adaptive learning and evolving developmental process of identification with a profession, during which an interaction of profession traits, defining factors, sociocultural influences, personality characteristics, personal abilities and preferences, within the environmental contexts, determines one’s professional self, as well as, the extent of individual’s perception of his/her professional self and the level of integration of professional self, profession and professional values and characteristics into one’s behavior. The level of integration is reflected on one’s commitment, and attitude toward his/her profession.
In his doctoral dissertation, Jebril (2008) investigated professional identity development. His literature review revealed seven major themes of professional identity:
1. Professional identity construction is a process
2. Professional identity development includes an ongoing integration of internal and external factors
3. Professional identity is evolving
4. Professional identity is a developmental process that evolves through one's life and starts at childhood
5. Professional identity is adaptive
6. Professional identity is highly correlated to personal identity
7. Professional identity is learned.


11
Just by looking at the themes above, it can be said that the professional identity is a highly complex process that has several factors affecting its development including personal factors, which are related to the individual's perceived meaning of self, view of world, selfesteem, the person's emotional aspects such as feeling adequate and fulfilled. Professional identity is highly dependent on personal identity. It will be a mistake to interpret one’s professional identity or professionalism irrespective of their personal identity. This would be over-simplifying identity construction.
It is an accepted that there are some professions that are well-known and perceived more prestigious than the others. Members of these professions are usually proud of their profession and they have a well-integrated professional and personal identities. Medical doctors could be a good example. There are many doctors who prefer to identify with the title “Dr” in social circles. This could be indicative of a professional identity that is internalized and it is possible to attribute this internalization partly to the external image of the profession. The professional identity is shaped by the external factors such as the profession’s public image, clarity of definition for a profession, and role ambiguity all influence professional identity development (Jebril, 2008). Professional identity development is also influenced by how others see us, therefore affected by interpersonal relationships (Roberts, Dutton, Spreitzer, Heaphy, & Quinn, 2005). “Through our interactions with others, we also learn about the role expectations of others, and may try to adapt or move away from these expectations” (Caza & Creary, 2016, p. 5).
Jebril (2008) found that professional identity development has four stages: preoccupation, learning, professional, and post-professional. Professional education is a part of learning stage and individuals at this stage (p. 47):
learn the profession theoretical underpinnings; gain knowledge of the skills and tasks
related to the chosen profession; learn the profession language, ethics and morals; be able


12
to relate self to the profession; deepen the integration of the profession into oneself; and socialize self as a professional. In this stage, the individual may discover more traits within his/her professional self that fits the selected profession. In addition, the individual may strengthen professional self-traits and/or refine them for better fit between professional self and the selected profession. During this stage, the construction of PI is at the highest level. In addition, during this stage, the individual awareness of one’s professional self evokes, and the relative match between one’s professional self and professional characteristics activated.
Seen as an outcome of professional education, professional identity is a learned concept. During the formation of professional identity, the person develops a personal responsibility regarding his/her role in the profession, a commitment to behave ethically and morally, and feelings of pride for the profession (Zandt, 1990, as cited in Bruss & Kopala, 1993). Some studies also indicate developing a sense of connection to the values of the profession, involvement in the profession and identifying with the profession (Mrdjenovich & Moore, 2004).
Attributes of professional identity
• Assertiveness
• Competence
• Confidence
• Conscience
• Commitment
• Courage
Antecedents of professional identity
• Will
• Insight
• Capacity
• Self-reflection ability
• Understanding of one's limits and possibilities
Consequences of professional identity
• Genuineness
• Increased positive, realistic
professional self-image
• Increased feeling of professional pride
Figure 1. Characteristics of professional identity. Adapted from Ohlen & Segesten (1998).
Professional identity is constructed through an adaptive, developmental learning process that starts from childhood, develops most rapidly during professional education, and matures with the help of experience (Jebril, 2008). Even though different contexts affect the development of professional identity including work, cognitive and social experiences during childhood, and


13
apprenticeships, most of its construction occurs during formal learning (Cohen-Scali, 2003; Jebril, 2008).
Majority of graduate students start their degrees hoping career advancement. Graduate education is considered as professional education. One of primary purposes of graduate education is to prepare students for professional practice by "socializing them into the cognitive and affective dimensions of the anticipated professional role" (Stein & Weidman, 1989, p. 3). Students in graduate programs are socialized into their chosen profession during their education. Defined as "the social learning process by which a person acquires specific knowledge and skills that are required in a professional role" (Hall, 1987 as cited in Caza & Creary, 2016, p. 9), socialization is a key step during which begin to form their professional identities as they learn and internalize the norms of the profession (Caza & Creary, 2016). Socialization process consists of forming professional identity by acquiring specialized knowledge and skills along with participation that promotes identification with and commitment to a professional role (Weidman, Twale, & Stein, 2001).


14
Factors affecting professional identity development during professional education
• Students' background
• Personal identity
• Predispositions
• Academic programs
• Peer climate
• Interaction
• Integration
• Practitioners
• Professional associations
• Family, friends, and employers
• Use of professional language
• The perceived status of the profession
• Profession's public image
• Educational and theoretical foundations of the profession
Figure 2. Factors affecting professional identity development. Compiled from Weidman, Twale, and Stein (2001), Eisler, 2004; Schryer and Spoel (2005), Ibarra (1999) and Jebril (2008)
Given the professional education is where novices primarily develop their professional
identities, it can be claimed that the graduate programs providing professional education are the
critical stages for professional identity development. Consequently, graduate education is a good
starting point if we were to explore elements influencing professional identity development.
History and Definition of Instructional Design and Technology Instructional Design and Technology (IDT) is a field with roots in educational psychology and initially based on the behaviorist learning theories of Skinner and Thorndike (Campbell, Schwier, & Kenny, 2006). The establishment of IDT as a new field can be traced back to World War II. Early developments in the instructional design started with military training programs and gained speed in late 1950s with the Cold War. Realizing the need for efficient and faster learning, psychologists developed instructional design models to improve the quality of instruction and training. These models have been adopted and widely used by higher


15
education, military, business, and industry. The start of the 21st century marked instructional design history with the development of the internet and e-learning. New job opportunities have been opened once it was realized that instructional designers play a vital role in online course design. Today, professionals in instructional design and technology are employed to design, implement, and support learning in both traditional and non-traditional environments (Reiser, 2012a). Being a constantly developing field (Sharif & Cho, 2015), IDT has been defined using various definitions over the years. These definitions were mostly influenced by changing views on learning. Reiser (2012b, p.5) proposed the following definition for IDT:
The field of instructional design and technology (also known as instructional technology) encompasses the analysis of learning and performance problems, and the design, development, implementation, evaluation, and management of instructional and non-instructional processes and resources intended to improve learning and performance in a variety of settings, particularly educational institutions and the workplace.
Professionals in the field instructional design and technology often use systematic instructional design procedures and employ instructional media to accomplish their goals. Moreover, in recent years, they have paid increasing attention to non-instructional solutions to some performance problems. Research and theory related to each of areas mentioned above are also essential parts of the field.
IDT professionals analyze, develop, design, implement, evaluate, and manage learning and performance focused processes. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (2015), as of 2014, there were 151,100 IDT related jobs in the US. IDT professionals work mostly inK12 schools, higher education, government, and educational support services under various titles including instructional coordinators, learning designer, educational consultant, instructional


16
development consultant, curriculum developer, facilitator, and educational technology specialist (Sharif & Cho, 2015; The Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2015). There are also many IDT professionals working in corporate settings (Wagner, 2011).
IDT’s Professional Identity
Researchers agree that IDT is still in its infancy stage and seeking to establish its status as a profession (Cox, 2003; Sharif & Cho, 2015; Schwier, Hill, Wager, & Spector, 2006). The field of instructional design was not recognized as a discipline until the 1960s (Reiser, 2001). Davidson-Shivers and Barrington (2004) noted that IDT is still considered as a full status profession based on formal classification systems or when compared to fully established and recognized professions. IDT professionals with vague professional identities struggle for a positive image; therefore; their worth is not always valued and understood in the workplace (Schwier, Campbell, & Kenny, 2004). Sharif et al. (2014) reported that the unclear status of IDT negatively affects practitioners by posing challenges to their identities and leaving them in obscurity. Smith, Hessing, and Bichelmeyer (2006, p.23) found that IDT is seen as a subfield within a larger enterprise. Hannafin (1986) predicted the adverse effects caused by the lack of clarity and warned researchers that this diversity might lead to a fundamental academic identity loss, which could affect the development of the profession.
Similarly, Wilson (2005) has drawn attention to the academic status of instructional design that is looked down by other fields within the academy. Moreover, he is arguing that other fields, such as the learning sciences, work in the same space in which IDT functions. This, therefore creates a confusion about IDT's boundaries. The various names used to address the field, such as IDT, ID, IT, ILT, and LDT, also demonstrate a lack of coherence. Based on Wilson's (2005) argument, it can be said that there are more than one academic, professional


17
fields and organizations claiming the space IDT operates in. IDT’s boundaries cover a contested space in which diverse fields and professions that could be identified as part of the broader IDT profession function.
Disciplines that have a fully established professional status such as education, medicine, engineering, and law, all have "a definition of their scope, and standards for their members, which includes academic preparation, accreditation, certification and licensing. Most of these professions require their members to meet the academic and certification/licensing standards before practicing" (Williams, 1998, p. 18). IDT however, neither requires credentials to practice nor monitors the entrance to the profession. Instructional designers enter the profession rather serendipitously using different doors (Bird, 2004; Campbell, Schwier, & Kenny, 2004; Cox & Osguthorpe, 2003; Schwier et al., 2004). Because IDT does not require credentials to practice, designers from many different walks of life with diplomas that are unrelated to design come to the profession because they are "hooked" by the experience of designing something successfully (Bird, 2004; Campbell, Schwier, & Kenny, 2004, p. 5; Schwier et al., 2004). IDT undergraduate programs in the US are only a few when compared to the master’s and certificate programs. Consequently, it is not easy to find instructional designers who have undergraduate degrees in the field. Instead, designers usually have master’s degrees, certificates, and experience in IDT. Despite the lack of screening and monitoring and its negative effects on the integrity and ethics (Campbell, Schwier, & Kenny, 2004), researchers have reached a consensus on status of IDT as a profession rather than an occupation or vocation, based on Pavalko’s criteria (as cited in Davidson-Shivers & Barrington, 2004; Schwier et al., 2006): (1) theory or intellectual technique: IDT is a profession that has theory guiding its practice, (2) relevance to fundamental social values: it is concerned to improve learning, instruction, and performance, which are closely


18
related to social issues, (3) training period, has rigorous undergraduate and graduate programs that train IDT professionals, (4) motivation: is an altruistic profession that is motivated by service to public good, (5) autonomy, requires a certain level of creativity that contributes to autonomy, (6) sense of commitment', even though many enter the profession without any formal training background, there is generally a lifelong commitment, (7) sense of community. IDT has professional organizations that provide sense of community to the professionals, and (8) code of ethics', has a well-developed code of ethics.
Looking at these criteria, it can be said that the IDT is a profession that needs to clarify its name and definition along with establishing its limits. Even though it has rigorous training processes for its students and requires extensive preparation, it does not require professionals to have formal education to practice. Monitoring the entrance to the profession by requiring credentials will strengthen IDTs shared identity as well as its practitioners’ professional status at the workplace.
Over the years, different terms and labels have been used to represent IDT. Some terms, like educational technology and instructional technology, are often used interchangeably as Lowenthal and Wilson (2010) acknowledged. However, instructional technology is the term that has been used most frequently (Cox, 2003; Reiser, 2012b; Sharif et al., 2014). Lately, literature has reconsidered the field's name as instructional design and technology to emphasize its technology dimension. Reiser (2012b) argued that the field employs design principles along with the use of technology; therefore, using IDT to name the field is more appropriate. Parallel to the studies published in the field (Bichelmeyer 2005; Chen, 2012; Davidson-Shivers & Barrington, 2004; Eseryel, Bludnicki, & Doughty 2004; Inouye, Merrill, & Swan, 2005; Kinuthia, 2012;


19
Schwier et al., 2006; Smith et al., 2006), this study will also use the term IDT to address the field of instructional design and educational technology.
Besides not having a commonly accepted and used name, the field's borders are vague. Some researchers refer to this vagueness as an identity crisis (Hill et al., 2004; Smith et al.,
2006). Being a multi-disciplined, broad, non-uniform field, comprised of individuals from various backgrounds who take on a variety of titles and responsibilities, all contribute to its identity crisis (Smith et al., 2006). As Sharif and Cho (2015, p. 73) reported, "the profession takes on different titles in different parts of the world or even within the same institution." Their findings listed 16 different titles confirming even though the duties are same, professionals are employed under various titles. The roles IDT professionals play are highly dependent on the workplace. The variety and ambiguity in the practice influence not only the professionals but also the general public's perception. The role of the instructional designer is vague. Sharif and Cho's (2015) survey results confirmed that neither the IDT professionals nor the general public could not answer the questions of "who IDT professionals are" and "what they do." Sharif, Cho and Cervera (2014) found that the ambiguity about IDT's identity is common among the general public. Participants in their study indicated that most people they introduce themselves to are not aware of what instructional design entails. Parallel to their finding, Wagner (2011, p.33) talked about how the problematic identity of IDT manifests itself as a difficulty when explaining to civilians what instructional designers actually do for a living and argued that this inability to clearly describe the profession unites IDT professionals in the quest to better define the professional identity of the field. Similarly, Hill et al. (2004) believe the uncertainty motivates professionals and researchers to engage in critical conversations on identity. On a similar note, Smith et al. (2006) suggested that IDT might be forced to clearly identify its boundaries, main


20
focus, and potential contribution. Even though the literature pushes for an accepted name and clearly defined identity, the researcher is hesitant in sharing the same views mostly because it requires a gentle, cautious, and careful approach not to over-simplify and reduce field’s identity. Preserving the field’s richness and diversity while seeking a common identity and name, albeit potentially beneficial, is a sensitive process that requires balance.
It has been argued that IDT has a unique position as a field because it draws upon other disciplines such as psychology and is dependent on other professions to conduct its processes such as teachers, trainers, and subject matter experts (Davidson-Shivers & Barrington, 2004; Hannafin, 1986; Smith et al., 2006). Instructional designers act as change agents that transform workplaces through their work (Campbell et al., 2004). Keppell (2007) argued that instructional designers translate between different communities of practice and coordinate multi-disciplinary projects that foster connections across and within communities of practice. Because of their positions as consultants, instructional designers neither dominate nor subordinate to teaching professionals (Kerr, 1983 as cited in Davidson-Shivers & Barrington, 2004).
The professional status and identity of instructional designers are highly dependent on workplace contexts (Schwier et al., 2004; Sharif et al., 2014). Instructional designers work under many different titles while performing similar duties even within the same institution (Bird, 2004; Sharif & Cho, 2015, p.73). Some of the titles professionals take on include “learning designer, project manager, educational consultant, instructional development consultant, education program designer, educational analyst, manager (facilitation and process design), educational technology manager, meta designer, faculty learning management systems training coordinator, administrator, curriculum developer, facilitator, program manager, learning consultant, and educational technology specialist” (Sharif & Cho, 2015, p.78-79). As an IDT


21
professional working in higher education, the researcher of this study also wears many different hats including instructional technologist, trainer, instructional designer, project manager, learning management system admin, software admin, learning consultant, etc. Wearing many different hats at the workplace leads to a vague identity that impacts the status and value of instructional designers in the workplace (Schwier et al., 2004; Sharif et al., 2014). It also confuses professionals and affects their performance by causing lack of consistency in the expectations (Sharif et al., 2014). Similarly, in a study where Smith et al. (2006, p.23) asked IDT students about the meaning of IDT, findings indicated that IDT professionals struggle to explain to people what IDT is, delineate the boundaries and structure of the field, and balance breadth of cove.
Furthermore, research points out the gap between instructional design theories and field practices suggesting the theory is not grounded. Figueroa (2014) reported very few instructional designers actually use design models in their practice. She posited that the field would benefit from research in situated IDT practice. Lack of congruity between theory, research and practice contribute to the struggles instructional design professionals face during their daily practices in the field (Bichelmeyer, 2005; Campbell et al., 2004; Schwet alt al, 2003; Schwier, Campbell, & Kenny, 2007; Smith et al., 2006). Hannafin (1986) raised the question of why instructional designers do not publish research and argued that the designers see themselves as consumers rather than the producers of research. Lacking research produced by the practitioners in the field contributes to the gap that affects the daily practice and status of designers. It also could be a fundamental loss for academic identity as Hannafin (1986) posited.
Schwier, Campbell, and Kenny (2003) asked instructional designers to reflect on the significance of instructional design, and none of the participants spoke of how instructional design might have more significant influence on the future of education and training. They


22
instead talked about their influence on immediate projects. This also underlines the lack of role
awareness of IDT professionals. Instead of seeing themselves as designers or change agents,
these individuals only focused on the smaller picture. This could be a result of how they were
taught as Boling (2016) points out. "Preparing IDT professionals to become design thinkers
continues to be a gap in the field” (Tracey, 2016, p. 77). IDT programs need to include design
education into their curriculums to foster creativity (Hirumi, 2016; Smith, 2016). Creativity in
instructional design would lead to motivating and engaging learning designs that provide distinct
or unexpected experiences to learners (Smith, 2016).
Smith et al. (2006) asked IDT practitioners what instructional design and technology
meant to them and ADDIE (an instructional design model that lists design processes) was the
second most frequent response they received. Schwier et al. (2006) interpreted these findings as
instructional designers not being fully aware of the implications of their work as change agents.
It is essential the that the ID curriculum includes the development of the who-the designers’ professional identities and their ability to solve complex design problems. Students need opportunities to explore their concepts, experiences, and beliefs related to design, which serve as the foundation for their emerging professional identities as instructional designers. ID programs must construct an educational environment that molds students while supporting them in developing a sophisticated professional identity to become dynamic agents of change (Tracey, 2016, p. 96).
IDT education historically has been very mechanical (Hokanson, 2016). Students have been taught to memorize specific instructional design models and apply them systematically to real-life challenges. This approach is a result of the field's roots; originally based on the behaviorist learning theories and educational psychology with the addition of military background as explained in the previous pages. The way the students were taught has affected how they see themselves as professionals, therefore, affecting their professional identity. Therefore, shifting the focus from an algorithm-based approach to a heuristic approach that relies


23
on internal skills and experience will result in changes in the professional identity of IDT practitioners. Becoming designers instead of learning about instructional design will better capture IDT professionals’ professional responsibilities and identity (Hokanson, 2016).
Therefore, IDT programs should re-design their curricula to target professional identity development as a learning outcome (Wilson and Ozyer, 2019).
Schwier et al. (2004, p.76) argued that instructional designers work as agents of social change at interpersonal, institutional, and societal levels who challenge and shape the institutional and societal discourse about the purposes and forms of learning. Instructional design processes that are performed by the designers lead to cultural change in the long term. Campbell, Schwier, and Kenny (2005) argued that instructional design is a moral action that has transformational and ethical implications. They defined IDT practitioners as "(...) not only technicians that simply implement techniques and principles, (...) but principled actors whose practices embody core values, and are represented by moral language and political acts." (p.23). Inouye et al. (2005) argued that the grand purpose of IDT is help by serving learning. The reason for IDT's existence is to help learners learn and because helping people is by definition ethical, IDT's central concern is ethical. They argued that IDT professionals should see themselves as belonging to a helping profession with an ultimately ethical central concern like doctors, lawyers, and psychotherapists and be proud of their profession.
Keppell (2007, p.69) stated: "instructional designers have enormous potential to influence the policy and practices of university institutions, because they have a unique position within the institution." He further argued that designers work as brokers and translate between different communities of practice and coordinate multi-disciplinary projects that foster connections across and within communities of practice. Yusop and Correia (2012) proposed the civic-minded


24
instructional designers (CMID) framework to help define the social aspect of IDT. They emphasized the importance of nurturing designers' civic identities by embedding the CMID framework into the curricula. According to their definition civic-minded instructional designer "has the public interest and a sense of civic responsibility at the forefront of his or her work. He or she is also attentive, responsible and responsive to the emergent instructional needs of the members of the community. Most importantly, he or she utilizes knowledge and skills in IDT to improve learning and performance of others" (p. 185). These studies all stressed the importance of re-interpreting the IDT professional's identity in light of their role in society that is inherently ethical.
Discussion of the Literature and Conceptual Framework
Degree programs in IDT are facing pressure from the researchers to re-interpret how and what they teach future professionals. Professional identity is an essential element of becoming a qualified professional. It is learned and most rapidly developed during graduate education. A person with robust professional identity identifies with their profession. They are committed to being an ethical and morally responsible professional. They are proud to be a member of the profession with connection to the values it represents. They are involved, competent, confident, compassionate, and committed. They know their limits and benefit from a positive, realistic professional self-image. Since professional identity is most learned during graduate school, this study focused on graduate students' identity formation. By empirically studying identity in an emerging field, IDT, it is also aimed to contribute to the limited number of studies in the related literature. This study looked at identity formation from the lenses of a professional identity development framework by Weidman, Twale, and Stein (2001) that visualizes the student


25
socialization into the profession during graduate school. The factors explored were drawn from the framework that can be seen in Figure 3.
PROFESSIONAL
COMMUNITIES
Practitioners
Associations
PROSPECTIVE
STUDENTS
Background
Predispositions
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i * Institutional i /
i / Culture
' r - - - „ _
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Academic Programs Interaction Peer Climate Integration Learning
i
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NOVICE PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ['Commitment\
[Identity\
\Knowledee Acquisition1 rInvestment, Involvement1

PERSONAL COMMUNITIES Family Friends
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\ Employers
/: / i / i / i i i i i
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Interactive Stages of Socialization: Anticipatory, Formal, Informal, Personal
Figure 3. Conceptual framework of professional student socialization during graduate school


26
Literature reports that graduate education is the primary stage where the professional identity is constructed (Jebril, 2008). "If entering graduate students are to succeed in their new environments, they must learn not only to cope with the academic demands but also to recognize values, attitudes, and subtle nuances reflected by faculty and peers in their academic programs" (Weidman, Twale, & Stein, 2001, p. 2). Students in graduate programs are expected to learn the norms of the profession and develop skills, knowledge, sense of connection, and identity. Students emerge "more accomplished than at entry, changed in specific ways, and prepared to assume new professional roles" (Weidman, Twale, & Stein, 2001, p. 5). As a result of this typical pattern many graduate programs adopt: entry, advancement, and exit. According to the framework of Weidman, Twale, and Stein (2001) in Figure 3, student socialization in graduate school occurs in four stages: Anticipatory, Formal, Informal, and Personal
The anticipatory stage represents preparation for the graduate program and recruitment. Students at this stage have preconceived ideas and stereotyped expectations about the profession. Information on the anticipated professional role can be obtained through mostly novice's personal observation and interaction with the practitioners, professors, supervisors, etc. Information also could be gained via mass media. This stage was represented in the study with the variable "familiarity."
Formal stage of socialization is the phase students receive formal instruction. Students start gaining knowledge about the profession, practice role rehearsal, and determine their degree of fitness. They also keep observing and imitating role models. Novices become veteran newcomers; they have formal knowledge about the program; however, they still need accurate information on normative standards, rewards, and sanctions. This stage was addressed by variables “professional affiliations, being a part of a support group, field work/practice.”


27
The informal stage includes learning informal role expectations. Students pick up behavioral clues, observe acceptable behavior, and learn to respond accordingly. Novices in this stage become aware of flexibilities in performing professional roles. They develop student groups and cohorts that help with identification, cohesiveness, and connectedness. The informal stage is when students start to feel more like a professional. This stage was reflected by “support groups and time in the program.”
The personal stage is where students internalize the professional role. Students form a professional identity, reconcile the possible conflictions between their previous self-image and their new professional image. They become deeply immersed in the program, gain more freedom, and evolve into either a scholar or a professional. Students at this stage might look for formal assistantships or internships. This stage corresponded to the variable “fieldwork.” It should be noted that the internalization of the professional role is also directly linked with personal identity and transformation and that warrants in-depth exploration, which is out of this study's boundaries. More research is a must.
Socialization has three core elements: Knowledge acquisition, Investment, Involvement. Knowledge acquisition is a critical step for professional socialization since students will need to acquire sufficient cognitive knowledge and skills to perform effectively. Students also invest in their chosen role financially and personally. Their commitment increases as they progress in the program; therefore, it becomes more challenging to make any changes in educational institutions or professional goals. When students participate in the professional role, their involvement intensifies. The intensity of the involvement increases as students progress through the program, completing various rites of passages (exams, licensure). This study explored the progress in the program as a factor associated with identity development.


28
The framework of Weidman, Twale, and Stein (2001) assumes professional identification and commitment are complex, continuous, and developmental; therefore, their framework, presented in Figure 3, is nonlinear and interactive. Graduate students starting the program experience its culture and gradually socialize into the profession through learning, interaction with faculty and peers, and integration into activities. They acquire new knowledge, skills, involve in academic programs, and invest in becoming a qualified professional. As a result of this process of professional socialization, their professional identity evolves.
Left component of Figure 3 represents students’ backgrounds and predispositions about the profession. Students can come to the program from various professional and educational backgrounds (Smith et al., 2006). The previous educational and occupational experiences will influence their new professional identity. They might combine or transfer some of the knowledge and skills they gained from their old field to the new profession. The existing knowledge, skills, and experiences can be expected to affect their practice and interpretation of the new profession. The bottom part shows the personal communities of students that may affect the graduate school experience. Top center of the figure refers to the professional communities students are preparing for. Professional associations influence the design of academic programs. Finally, the right section of the figure is for the outcome of the professional socialization: a novice professional practitioner. This committed practitioner is successfully socialized into the profession; therefore, he/she identifies with the chosen professional career. The factors studied in this study were drawn from the framework; therefore, they address concepts listed above such as background, communities, affiliations, and fieldwork participation.


29
CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY
The purpose of this study was to investigate elements that influence professional identity formation during graduate school to explain why professional identity levels differ. This chapter will discuss the research methods that were employed to achieve this purpose.
Research Design
This study adopts associational research design to investigate factors influencing professional identity. Certain elements that emerged from the literature review have been found to affect students' professional identity development during graduate school. By employing associational research, the researcher investigated which of these elements explain why students differ in their professional identity levels (McMillan & Schumacher, 2006). Also called correlational research, associational research studies the possibility of relationships among two or more variables. "A major purpose of associational research is to clarify our understanding of important phenomena by identifying relationships among variables" (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2010, p. 329). Parallel to this purpose, this study investigated several factors that are believed to be related to professional identity development, a more complex phenomenon. These factors were derived from elements used in Weidman, Twale, and Stein's (2001) professional socialization framework:
• Undergraduate degree: The fields in which participants have their undergraduate degrees.
• Familiarity with IDT: Being familiar with IDT prior to entering the graduate program.
• Delivery methods: The delivery methods of graduate programs the participants are in.
• Time in the program: How far along the students in their graduate programs.
• Graduate field work: IDT related field experiences as part of the graduate program.


30
• Support groups: Having participated in IDT support groups during the graduate program.
• Affiliations: Being affiliated with professional organizations in IDT that collect membership fees.
The Null and Alternative Hypotheses
This study aimed to explain why there are differences between professional identity levels of students. To achieve this purpose, it investigated certain elements that are thought to influence professional identity development. Based on this, the research question was:
Is there a relationship between IDT graduate students’ professional identity levels and the linear combination of the following seven factors?
1. Graduate students’ undergraduate majors
2. Graduate students’ familiarity with IDT prior to entering the graduate program
3. Graduate program delivery methods
4. Graduate students’ time in the graduate program
5. Graduate students’ fieldwork experiences as part of the graduate program
6. Graduate students’ involvement with informal support groups in IDT
7. Graduate students’ affiliation(s) with professional organizations for which they pay membership fees
Below were the null and alternative hypotheses created by reformulating the research question:
a) There will be no significant association between IDT graduate students’ professional identity levels and the linear combination of the seven factors.
b) There will be a significant association between IDT graduate students’ professional identity levels and the linear combination of the seven factors.
Population and Sampling
The target population comprised of graduate students who were pursuing their master’s degrees in IDT programs. Degree programs varied in terms of modes of delivery, online, face-to-face, and hybrid.
The goal of this study was to investigate the factors influencing professional identity development of instructional design students; therefore, a purposeful sampling with snowball


31
sampling scheme was used. Purposeful sampling design is usually considered the best to increase understanding of phenomena (Onwuegbuzie & Collins, 2007; Onwuegbuzie & Leech, 2007). Snowball sampling scheme includes asking to recruit individuals to join the study (Onwuegbuzie & Collins, 2007). The researcher promoted the study online (via email and social media) while asking for recipients to share the announcement with their circles, therefore, aiming to reach out to a broader and more diverse population that might have been interested in the study. Increasing diversity of participants also increases the likelihood of generalization of findings. The sampling frame included graduate students that were enrolled in an IDT master's degree in a higher education institution. First-year students were also included since the study assumed they had started school with certain pre-dispositions about their future profession either from personal or professional contacts or previous experiences. Some students may have family members, friends in IDT, professional experiences, and/or have had an undergraduate degree in a similar field. Thus, these students might have started their studies with some degree of professional identity (Tan, Van der Molen, & Schmidt, 2017).
Participants
Sampling size in quantitative research varies. It is important because it determines the extent of the statistical/analytical generalizations that can be made using the study findings. According to McMillan and Schumacher (2006), associational research should have a minimum of 30 participants whereas Fraenkel and Wallen (2010) consider 50 participants sufficient. Onwuegbuzie and Collins (2007) also provide sample size guide for different research designs and according to their guidelines, the sample size for associational research design changes between 64 and 82 based on hypotheses. G*power, a power analysis software used to determine the sample size for this study, indicated that a minimum of 49 participants would be needed to


32
detect a large effect size (Cohen, 1988) (^=0.35) with .80 power using a multiple regression with alpha at .05. Originally aiming for at least 50 participants, the researcher was able to collect data from 51 participants. Participant demographics can be seen Table 1.
Table 1
Participant Demographics
Gender Race School Country Home Country
F M White Asian Black US Cost a Rica Tur key Kore a US Can ada Cost a Rica Tur key China Israel
40 11 47 3 1 46 2 2 1 43 2 2 2 1 1
Total: 51
The undergraduate degrees of the participants showed the diversity of IDT. Of 51 participants, only 4 of them had an undergraduate degree in the field. Frequently reported subject areas included Communications, English, and Education. Complete list of fields is in Figure 4.
Figure 4. Participants’ academic backgrounds


Names of the graduate programs the participants were also diverse. Most reported program names were Information and Learning Technologies and Educational Technology. In
33
Figure 5 is the list of the graduate program names.
â–  Number of Participants
Figure 5. Names of the graduate programs
Graduate programs in the study mostly were online. Most participants indicated they
were close to the end of their degrees. Figure 6 and 7 contain the reported information.


34
Figure 6. Progress of the participants
Delivery Method
â–  Face-to-face BFtybrid â–  Online
Figure 7. Delivery methods of the graduate programs participants were in


35
IDT background of the participants
Participants were asked whether or not they had been familiar with IDT before they started the program. Majority of the participants (57%) stated that they were familiar.
Participants became familiar with the field through different channels that are displayed in Figure
9.
Figure 8. How participants become familiar with IDT
Instrumentation
This study used a measure of professional identity development, the Professional Identity Five-Factor Scale (PIFFS). Developed by Tan, Van der Molen, and Schmidt (2017), this scale measures professional identity levels of students in professional education, being prepared to become new practitioners. It consists of 25 items across five dimensions that give the overall Professional Identity score. Professional Identity Five-Factor Scale is developed for both


36
established and emerging fields. Since the literature categorizes IDT as a developing and emerging field that is still establishing its status, identity, and borders, PIFFS was determined as a good fit for this study. It is also not specific to one profession as it was designed for a diverse selection of professional fields. Another reason for this instrument to be selected is that it explicitly designed for students that are currently enrolled in professional education; therefore, it fits the purpose of this study.
The scale was used as a whole, without any modifications except changing the word "profession" to "IDT." Along with the scale, demographic questions, as well as items aiming to collect information on investigated variables, were added to another page of the survey to obtain survey takers' information. The survey link was distributed online via email groups and social media. Individuals were encouraged to share the survey link on their profiles to reach a broader and more diverse population.
Validity and Reliability
Validity and reliability tests for the Professional Identity Five-factor Scale (PIFFS) have been conducted and reported by Tan et al. (2017). Along with these, the researcher will also present validity and reliability scores calculated from the collected data.
The PIFFS consists of 25 items spanning across five dimensions. All the items except one are five-point Likert-scale questions. The exception is a Yes or No item. In order to ensure the validity and reliability of the scale Tan et al. (2017) conducted different statistical analyses with a sample of 1295 students from 36 different degree programs at a technical university in Singapore. To test construct validity, the researchers conducted factor analysis. The results showed there were significant differences across all five dimensions meaning they were all individually distinct and essential in contributing to professional identity development.


37
Construct reliability was measured using the coefficient H test with scores ranging from .65 to .85 for each dimension which shows that the scale had good reliability. Correlations between the five dimensions ranged from .42 to .76 which indicated a reasonable distinctiveness between them. The scale was also tested for stability, and the results showed that it was invariant with non-significantp-values which indicated high stability. Meaningful differences were also measured between strong and weak identities across different degrees. Differences between high and low professional identity scores were statistically significant in all five dimensions. Effect sizes for all dimensions were large based on Cohen’s d.
Procedures
Data Collection
Data was collected over six months using an online survey. Students in IDT master's programs from different higher education institutions were invited to join the study. The invitation that included a survey link was sent out to email groups and also shared via social media. The consent form was included at the beginning of the online questionnaire prompting participants to give consent in order to proceed to the questions. All data was kept confidential. Ethics and Confidentiality
The following efforts were made to make sure the study was conducted ethically and confidentially: 1) The researcher clearly disclosed and informed participants of the details of the research via the informed consent form, 2) In order to protect the participants from any discomfort, participants were reminded of their right to withdraw their consent before collecting any data, 3) Entire personal information was confidential and kept anonymous to ensure the participants’ privacy, and 4) The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB)
before the data collection.


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Data Analysis
In order to answer the research question, data collected was analyzed using hierarchical linear multiple regression in SPSS. Multiple regression was selected because the study is looking at several independent variables and exploring the relationships among them to understand how professional identity is developed. Being a complex phenomenon, professional identity development is affected by different factors. Multiple regression was the best choice to identify these factors and possible relationships among them (Johnson & Christensen, 2004).
Having several independent variables increased the odds of accurately explaining changes in the dependent variable. Multiple regression is a useful tool for explanatory studies that seek to explain why subjects differ in their scores. It is also helpful because it allows controlling selected variables to determine the relationship between remaining independent variables and the dependent variable (McMillan & Schumacher, 2006).


39
CHAPTER IV RESULTS
The study used a pre-created scale to measure students' professional identity scores. The PIFFS scale consisted of 25 items across five factors. Reliability and factor analysis were conducted to verify that the measuring tool was valid and reliably measuring the dependent variable of professional identity score, which was continuous. Categorical independent variables were:
1. Familiarity with IDT before starting the program
2. Bachelor’s degree major
3. Program progress
4. Program delivery met
5. The work experience part of the program
6. Professional affiliations
7. Support group participation during the program
Hierarchical linear regression was used to explore the associations between professional identity and the independent variables. Table 2 shows the frequency and percentage values for the seven independent variables. Variables were coded as Yes=l and No=0.


40
Table 2
Frequency and Percentage Values of the Independent Variables (N= 51)
Frequency Percent
Bachelor’s Degree Major
In IDT (1) 4 7.8
In another field (0) 47 92.2
Familiarity with IDT
Yes (1) 29 56.9
No (0) 22 43.1
Degree progress
Close to the end (1) 31 60.8
Just starting (0) 20 39.2
Delivery method
Face-to-face (1) 4 7.8
Online (0) 47 9
The work experience part of the school
Yes (1) 14 27.5
No (0) 37 72.5
Affiliation with professional organizations
Yes (1) 12 23.5
No (0) 39 76.5
Participation in support groups
Yes (1) 15 29.4
No (0) 36 70.6
Most of the participants reported that they had been familiar with the field of IDT before they entered their program. A detailed analysis showed that familiarization was mostly through the work. More than 70% of the answers indicated that the participants did not have work experiences as a part of their degree. Work experiences included internships, assistantships, and volunteering. Results showed 76% of graduate IDT students that were a part of this study were not affiliated with any professional IDT organization, and more than 70% of them were not participating any support groups in the field.


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Factor Analysis
Principal axis factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted to assess the underlying structure for the 24 items of the Professional Identity Five-Factor Scale (PIFFS). One item, which was a Yes/No question, was excluded from the analysis. The assumptions of independent sampling were met. The assumptions of normality, linear relationships between pairs of variables, and the variables being correlated at a moderate level were checked and met. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy was .64, above the recommended value of .60, and Bartlett’s test of sphericity was significant (x2 (276) = 675.23,/) < .001). Finally, the communalities were all above .3 (see Table 3), further confirming that each item shared some common variance with other items. Given these overall indicators, factor analysis was conducted with 24 items.
Five factors were requested, based on the fact that the items were designed to index five constructs: Knowledge About Professional Practices, Experience with the Profession, Having the Professional as a Role Model, Professional Self Efficacy, and Preference for a Particular Profession. After rotation, the first factor accounted for 17.6% of the variance, the second factor accounted for 11%, the third factor accounted for 9.4%, the fourth factor accounted for 9.4%, and the fifth factor accounted for 5.8%. Table 3 displays the items and factor loadings for the rotated factors, with loadings less than .40 omitted to improve clarity.


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Table 3
Factor Loadings for the Rotated Factors Item
I am aware of the impact of the decisions I make as a professional in IDT industry I have no doubt that I will master all the skills necessary to succeed in my future work as an IDT professional I’m confident that I can do an excellent job in the future
I have a good idea about the roles and responsibilities of my future job as an IDT professional
I have a good idea about the rules and regulations in IDT industry I believe I can already think and reason like an IDT professional in a company or organization
I feel poorly prepared for a real job (Reversed)
I know what kind of applications, tools and equipment I will handle as an IDT professional
When working on problems in class, I imagine myself to be in the shoes of an IDT professional in my future work environment
I concentrate in my studies on what I believe I would need to know and be able to do when I enter my future occupation as an IDT professional I admire most those teachers who are professionals in the area that I would like to enter
I am already pretty sure what kind of profession I will enter after completing my education
1
.85
.75
.71
.69
.62
.58
.55
.40
.41
Factor Loading 2 3 4
.43
-.42
.67
.60
.50
.46
^ Communality .82
.80
.83
.85
.70
.45 .72
.69 .75
.75
.83
.71
.50


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Table 3 (continued)
I am sure I will have no problems dressing and behaving professionally in my industry
I work part-time in (or am running) a
business related to IDT
I am part of an interest group (inside or
outside of my university) related to IDT
I know the nature of the work I will do as
an IDT professional
Before I entered my program, I already
had some prior work experience related to
IDT
I admire IDT professionals who are already working in my future work environment
I personally know some people who work in IDT
I have interacted with professionals in IDT industry outside of my university or through events organized in my university I follow developments in IDT industry in newspapers and on television In most work environments, professionals with different backgrounds work together. I know of the different types of professionals I will be collaborating with I am not sure about the kind of challenges faced by the professionals in IDT industry (Reversed)
I believe that I will easily get along with my future colleagues, get their cooperation, and have informal conversations with them Eigenvalues % of variance
.42
4.23
17.64
.43 -.41 .58
.70 .67
.66 .69
.43 .47 .84
.44 .61
.78 .72
.58 .59
.54 .55
.44 .69
.50 .66
-.47 .65
.47 .54
2.63 2.32 2.25 1.39
10.97 9.64 9.37 5.77
Note. Loadings < .40 are omitted.


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The first factor had strong loading on the first eight items. Items showed that this factor corresponded to Knowledge About Professional Practices. The second factor had five strong loadings, and it seemed to index Having the Professional as a Role Model. The third factor, which seemed to be indexing Experience with the Profession, had four loadings. The fifth factor had three loadings; one of them was negative. It is suspected that this caused by the reversed item. Participants might have not read the question as being reversed. There were also a few cross-loadings with values larger than .40. The item "I have a good idea about the rules and regulations in the IDT industry" had its highest loading from factor one but it also had a loading from factor two. Similarly, "I believe I can already think and reason like an IDT professional in a company or organization" had two loadings were from factor one and three with the strongest one being from factor one. "I know the nature of the work I will do as an IDT professional" was an item that had very similar loadings from three different factors. Factors one, two, and three all loaded on this item with values of .42, .43, and .47. Factors indicated by the analysis:
1. Knowledge about professional practices
2. Having the professional as a role model
3. Experience with the profession
4. Preference for a particular profession
5. Professional self-efficacy
Factor analysis results indicated that some items were loading onto different factors than those listed in Tan et al. (2017) study. This could be explained by the difference in sample sizes. Tan et al. (2017) collected data from 1295 participants whereas this study had only 51 participants. Therefore, the researcher decided to use the original factor loadings from Tan et al. (2017) instead of relying on the results above. Comparison of the results from the current study to Tan et al. (2017) can be seen in Table 4.


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Table 4
Factor Loading Comparison__________________
Item
I am aware of the impact of the decisions I make as a professional in IDT industry
I have no doubt that I will master all the skills necessary to succeed in my future work as an IDT professional I’m confident that I can do an excellent job in the future
I have a good idea about the roles and responsibilities of my future job as an IDT professional
I have a good idea about the rules and regulations in IDT industry
I believe I can already think and reason like an IDT professional in a company or organization
I feel poorly prepared for a real job (Reversed)
I know what kind of applications, tools and equipment I will handle as an IDT professional
When working on problems in class, I imagine myself to be in the shoes of an IDT professional in my future work environment
I concentrate in my studies on what I believe I would need to know and be able to do when I enter my future occupation as an IDT professional I admire most those teachers who are professionals in the area that I would like to enter
Factor Loadings in Tan et al. (2017)
1
5
5
1
1
2
5
1
2
2
2
Factor Loadings in the Current Study
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2


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Table 4 (continued)
I am already pretty sure what kind of
profession I will enter after completing my education 4 2
I am sure I will have no problems dressing and behaving professionally in my industry 5 2
I work part-time in (or am running) a business related to IDT 3 3
I am part of an interest group (inside or outside of my university) related to IDT I know the nature of the work I will do as an IDT professional Before I entered my program, I already 3 1 3 3
had some prior work experience related to IDT 3 3
I admire IDT professionals who are already working in my future work environment 2 4
I personally know some people who work in IDT I have interacted with professionals in IDT 3 4
industry outside of my university or through events organized in my university 3 4
I follow developments in IDT industry in newspapers and on television In most work environments, professionals 3 4
with different backgrounds work together. I know of the different types of professionals I will be collaborating with I am not sure about the kind of challenges 1 5
faced by the professionals in IDT industry (Reversed) I believe that I will easily get along with 5 5
my future colleagues, get their 5 5
cooperation, and have informal conversations with them
Table 4 shows that almost half of the items were loading onto different factors. Items that had the same loadings are in bold. Factor number 4, preference for a particular profession, had only one loading in Tan et al. (2017); however, it had four items in this study.


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Reliability Analysis
To assess whether the data from the six items that were summed to create the Knowledge About Professional Practices score formed a reliable score, Cronbach’s alpha was computed.
The alpha for the six items was .76, which indicates that the items form a scale that has reasonable internal consistency reliability. Experience with the Profession score, which consists of six items had an alpha of .72 that also shows fair reliability. Having the Professional as a Role Model, another scale that has five items had an alpha of .77, which shows a good internal reliability. Another scale with six variables, Professional Self Efficacy, had an alpha of .65 which indicates minimally adequate reliability. The last scale, Preference for a Particular Profession, has two items; however, one of them is a yes/no question. Therefore, reliability analysis was not conducted for this scale. Internal consistency reliability alpha for the whole Professional Identity Five-Factor Scale (PIFFS) was calculated as .83, which indicated high reliability.
Regression Analysis
To investigate how well bachelor's degree, professional affiliations, fieldwork experiences, progress in the program, and support group involvement predict professional identity levels, after controlling for familiarity, a hierarchical linear regression was computed. Assumptions were checked, and none were violated. Independent variable familiarity was entered first because of a multicollinearity issue. The means, standard deviations, and intercorrelations can be found in Table 5. The total professional identity score was used as the only dependent variable for the regression analysis, separate 5 factors were not used as variables.
The combination of 7 independent variables was found to be accounted for 25% of the variance in identity scores. When familiarity was entered alone, it significantly predicted professional identity level, F(l,49) = 6.744,p = .012, adjusted R2 = . 10. As indicated by the R2,


48
10% of the variance in professional identity could be predicted by knowing if the student was familiar with IDT before they started the graduate program. When the other variables were added in the second step of the regression, they significantly improved the prediction by increasing R2 by .15, F(7,43) = 3.375,p = .006, adjusted R2= .25. According to Cohen (1988), this is a medium to large effect. The final model significantly predicted professional identity score; however, none of the variables were individually significant at predicting the scores. The model significantly explained 25% of the variance in professional identity levels. The beta weights and significance values, presented in Table 6, indicate which variables contribute most to predicting professional identity level when they were all entered together.


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Table 5
Means, Standard Deviations, and Intercorrelations for Professional Identity and Predictor Variables (N=5 1)__________________________________________________________________________
Variable M SD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Dependent variable
Professional identity 3.64 .51 .35* -.01 .1 -.15 43** 4g** .34*
Predictor variables
1. Familiarity with IDT before starting the program 1.43 .50 1 .25 .06 .73** .15 .18 .13
2. Bachelor’s degree major 1.92 .27 .25 1 .21 .11 .27 .30* .30*
3. Program progress 1.61 .50 .06 .21 1 -.08 -.22 -.16 -.08
4. Program delivery method 1.92 .27 73** .11 -.08 1 .15 .01 -.03
5. Work experience part of the program 1.73 .45 .15 .27 -.22 .15 1 .60** 47**
6. Professional affiliations 1.76 .43 .18 .30* -.16 .01 .60** 1 .45**
7. Support group participation during the program 1.71 .46 .13 .30* -.08 -.03 47** .45** 1
*p<.05; ** p<.01.


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Table 6
Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis Summary Predicting Professional Identity Levels from Bachelor’s Degree, Program Progress, Delivery Method, Work Experience, Professional Affiliations, and Support Group Participation, When Controlling for Familiarity (N=5 1)_____________
Variable B SEB P P R2 AR2
Step 1 .10 .10
Familiarity with IDT before starting the program .35 .14 .35** .00
Constant 3.44 .10
Step 2 .25 .15
Familiarity with IDT before starting the program .18 .14 .18 .21
Bachelor’s degree major -.04 .37 -.02 .91
Program progress .16 .14 .15 .27
Program delivery method -.35 .36 -.19 .34
Work experience part of the program .31 .19 .27 .11
Professional affiliations .30 .19 .25 .14
Support group participation during the program .06 .16 .06 .70
Constant 3.33 .11
*p<05; **/><.01.


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Based on the beta values, the equation for prediction of a participant’s professional identity score (PIS) from the model was:
PIS=3 33+(. 18xFamiliarity)-(.04xBachelorsDegree)+(.16xProgProgress)-(.35ProgDelivery)+(.31xWorkExperience)+(.30xProfAffiliations)+(.06xSupportGroup)+e
Figure 9. Equation for prediction of professional identity score
The beta weights for the model are presented in Table 6; these suggest that as the familiarity increased by one unit, professional identity score increases by 0.18, holding everything else constant. Being close to the end of the program increases identity scores by 0.16, holding everything else constant. Having a support group during graduate school increases scores by 0.06, holding everything else constant. Based on the results, the biggest increase is caused by work experience: working in the field as a part of the graduate program increases professional identity scores by 0.31, holding everything else constant. Program delivery mode also influences the scores: face-to-face delivery decreases identity scores by 0.35, holding everything else constant. The other negative influencing factor is the bachelor’s degree: having a bachelor’s degree in the field of IDT decreases identity scores by 0.04, holding everything else
constant.


52
Each variable is coded either l(Yes) or 0 (No). Scores from 1.67 to 3.23 are considered low professional identity whereas scores range from 3.27 to 4.53 are classified as high based on the original instructions from the authors Tan et al. (2017).
Findings presented in this chapter are discussed in the next section.


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CHAPTER V DISCUSSION
This study aimed to explain why there are differences between professional identity levels of students. To achieve this purpose, it investigated certain elements that are thought to influence professional identity development. Based on this, the research question was:
Is there a relationship between IDT graduate students’ professional identity levels and the linear combination of the following seven factors?
• Graduate students’ undergraduate majors
• Graduate students’ familiarity with IDT prior to entering the graduate program
• Graduate program delivery methods
• Graduate students’ time in the graduate program
• Graduate students' fieldwork experiences as part of the graduate program
• Graduate students’ involvement with informal support groups in IDT
• Graduate students’ affiliation(s) with professional organizations for which they pay membership fees
Below were the null and alternative hypotheses created by reformulating the research question:
1. There will be no significant association between IDT graduate students’ professional identity levels and the linear combination of the seven factors.
2. There will be a significant association between IDT graduate students’ professional identity levels and the linear combination of the seven factors.
In order to answer the research question, an electronic survey was implemented. The survey consisted of demographic questions and Likert scale questions aimed to measure participants’ identity scores. The measurement instrument used in the study was developed by Tan, Van der Molen, and Schmidt (2017) to measure professional identity levels of students in professional education, being prepared to become new practitioners. Professional Identity Five-Factor Scale (PIFFS) was developed for a diverse selection of professional fields. Another reason for this instrument to be selected is that it was explicitly designed for students that are currently


54
enrolled in professional education; therefore, it fits the purpose of this study. After six months of data collection, 51 participants from different universities filled out the survey. Data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression in SPSS to determine associations.
Significance of the Study
As a field, IDT lacks empirical studies exploring professional identity. A literature search proved that no studies were measuring IDT students' professional identity. This study aims to be one of the first studies that will close the gap. As an empirical study, it develops an instrument customized for IDT that can be taken further by other researchers in the field. It is also unique in terms of providing a formula for calculating possible identity scores of students, which could allow degree programs to predict students’ future identity levels.
None of the seven independent variables individually predicted identity levels significantly, however, the combination of the variables was statistically significant at predicting the scores and accounted for 25% of the variance in identity, therefore, bringing us one step closer to understand the factors behind the professional identity development in IDT. It can be argued that the 25% variance is low; however, it is still essential since this statistically significant result was achieved by a relatively small sample size. The researcher highly encourages the researchers in the field to take this measurement instrument further by applying it to a bigger sample size; thus, increasing the generalizability of the findings.
Summary of Key Findings
According to the results, the null hypothesis was rejected; therefore, it was concluded that there was a relationship between the following elements and identity levels:
1. Having versus not having a bachelor’s degree in IDT
2. Being versus not being familiar with IDT before the program
3. Online versus Face-to-Face delivery
4. Beginning versus finishing the program


55
5. Participating versus not participating fieldwork during the program
6. Being versus not being a part of a support group during the program
7. Being versus not being a member of a professional organization
Listed factors significantly predicted 25% of each individual’s professional identity score when combined. 10% of the variance in identity scores can be attributed to being familiar with the field of IDT prior to or starting the program. A formula for calculating individuals’ identity scores was also introduced based on the results. The formula might be especially useful for degree programs as it allows for predicting the identity score for each student. Scores range from 0-5 and are classified as low and high as shown in Table 7 below:
Table 7
Identity Score Classification
Score range Classification
1.67-3.23 Low
3.27-4.53 High
Table 7 can be referred to when assessing where each student lands in terms of their identity development. The researcher strongly recommends not considering the identity score as definitive instead regarding it as a piece that helps to interpreting professional identity as a whole.
This study looked at 7 variables that were thought to influence professional identity and based on the correlation analysis, four of those variables were found to be significantly positively correlated with the professional identity scores. Figure 10 displays the list of all factors.


56
Factors significantly correlated with professional identity scores
• Being familiar with the field of IDT prior to entering graduate school: Students had gotten familiar with the field via different channels, but previous work followed by bachelor’s in IDT were the most reported ones.
• Having worked in assistantship/internship positions during the graduate education
• Being a part of informal student support groups during graduate education
• Being affiliated with a professional organization
Factors not correlated with professional identity scores
• Bachelor’s degree
• Progress in the degree
• The delivery method of the program
Figure 10. Factors influencing professional identity scores
Discussion of the Findings
This section discusses the findings listed above along with the relevant literature. In terms of significant factors, the results confirm the conceptual framework by Weidman, Twale, and Stein (2001). Figure 11 matches the study findings with the student socialization during professional education framework.


57
Factors significant in identity development in the Student Socialization during Professional Education Framework
• Prospective Students (Backgrounds, Predispositions)
• Socialization Processes (Interaction, Integration, Learning),
Novice Professional Practices
• Personal Communities (Family, Friends, Employees)
• Professional Communities (Practitioners, Associations)
Factors significant in identity development in this study
Familiarity
> <
Work experience during school
> i
Support group involvement during school
> i
Professional affiliations during school
L_________________________A
Figure 11. Comparison of the framework and the findings of this study Being familiar with IDT before school
Results showed that familiarity with IDT before entering the program was positively associated with professional identity scores. This finding suggests that having a background in IDT before entering the degree programs, whether it is informal education, practice, or just is informed, positively impacts professional identity development during graduate school. Carrillo (2014) found in her study that lack of experience before the graduate school directly impacted the professional identity development process. Participants with less experience in the field had more anxiety and challenge with their identity construction. This was especially true when they were required to complete specific tasks that were associated with being a professional. Lack of experience impacted their confidence, which then impacted their professional identity


58
development. However, Carrillo (2014) also notes that students with less experience were more open to the learning that was occurring.
Having worked in assistantship/internship positions during graduate education
As the literature widely accepts (Carrillo, 2014; Harris, Thurman, and Jamison, 2002; Herrington, Reeves, and Oliver, 2014; Larson, 2004; Larson and Lockee, 2009; Tracey and Boling, 2014; Tan, Molen, and Schmidt, 2016; Wilson and Ozyer, 2019), this study also demonstrates that providing students with practice opportunities during school positively impacts their professional development therefore, resulting in higher identity scores. An extended list of possible examples of the practice opportunities is presented towards the end of this section, but some of the most prominent ones include internships and practicums during graduate school. Fortney (2016) argues that providing students with authentic, real-world design activities is the best way to prepare them for the field that is full of uncertainties. She compares the classroom work and the field work, emphasizing that the academic design projects do not have any vagueness with the objectives and priorities are under control. However, in the workplace, IDT professionals juggle with various constraints and judgments imposed by interaction with clients, users and other stakeholders. Fortney (2016) defends organizing projects that simulate the real-world design work that will introduce them to constraints and shifting priorities may help them develop tolerance for ambiguity.
Academic programs alone will highly unlikely to develop high levels of expertise in IDT students without authentic learning opportunities (Fortney, 2016). Internship and practicum are two ways that programs might offer students to support them during their professional development (Harris, Thurman, and Jamison, 2002; Herrington, Reeves, and Oliver, 2014; Larson, 2004; Larson and Lockee, 2009; Shambaugh and Magliaro, 2001; Tan, Molen, and


59
Schmidt, 2017; Tracey and Boling, 2014). Student involvement in practicums, internships, or
assistantships has the potential of assisting them in developing a deeper and more integrated
understanding of the field as reported by Funk (2000). Authentic learning experiences will
immerse learners in the IDT community of practice (Larson, 2004). Intensive participation in
these experiences is considered as a component of a quality Master’s program according to
Haworth and Conrad as cited by Funk (2000).
Another promising hands-on learning method is design studios. IDT is a design-based
profession; however, the way instructional design has been taught is very systematic.
Historically, students have been encouraged to apply instructional design models in a very
systematic way to the real-world problems, and this creates the gap between the IDT education
and the actual field work (Tracey and Hutchinson, 2013). It may be argued that this could have
undermined the instructional designers' ability to see their role as designers instead focus on the
processes, clients, and contents. Lack of awareness could also have been the reason behind what
Schwier, Campbell, and Kenny (2003) reported. When they asked instructional designers to
reflect on the significance of instructional design none of their participants spoke of how
instructional design might have more significant influence on the future of education and
training. They rather talked about their influence on immediate projects.
Similarly, Smith et al. (2006) asked IDT practitioners what instructional design and
technology meant to them and ADDIE (an instructional design model that lists design processes)
was the second most frequent response they received. Schwier et al. (2006) interpreted these
findings as instructional designers not being fully aware of implications of their work as change
agents. Boling (2016, p. 60) report an interesting observation of hers:
I observed in the field that the animators, illustrators, graphic designers, and interface designers on my teams were designing, whereas most of the instructional designers were


60
following process models, believing that these would yield design solutions (...) I diagnosed the primary cause of these problems to be the academic and industry preparation of most instructional designers.
IDT professionals of the future need skills for problem-solving. Immersive learning environments are beneficial to develop these skills. Knowlton (2016) argues that design studios that provide students authentic and meaningful learning experiences might help promoting design thinking. There is a substantial amount of literature that discuss the importance of authentic learning environments in IDT. This might be indicating a change of understanding in the field where the professionals are seen as change agents, and their work is seen in a bigger context.
Being a part of informal student support groups during graduate education
Graduate school can be a lonesome experience for many students. It has been noted that graduate students may feel disconnected and alone especially in fully online programs and that hindered their professional identity development (Carrillo, 2014). Sense of community, where students feel they are part of a learning community, improves satisfaction, retention, and graduation numbers, especially in online learning (Rovai, 2002). Similarly, peer support was found to significantly predict retention numbers (Morrow and Ackerman, 2012).
Establishing an inclusive learning environment where students feel like a part of a community influences their development as professionals. Carrillo (2014) found that students felt supported by interacting and having relationships with peers. She also reported that connecting with others provided students with an opportunity to make comparisons. Students compared themselves with peers as a means of measuring their abilities and progress. Also, through interaction, students received feedback, which helped them gain confidence; therefore, it impacted their professional identity development.


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Based on the results, being a part of a support group during school increases professional identity scores. This finding reflects what the literature suggests. In light of the findings of this study as well as the literature, it can be argued that cohorts might play an important role in identity development. Carrillo's (2014) participants have formed informal cohorts in the absence of a formal cohort. They supported each other during the program, presented at several conferences, assist each other with writing and getting published. Participants expressed that they would not have been able to achieve these accomplishments without the support from the informal cohort. The existence of such a support group strengthened their professional identity.
Creating relationships, connections will also benefit students during and after school especially when searching for jobs. The results of this study showed that being a part of a support group during school increased professional identity scores. Therefore, the researcher recommends promoting study teams, cohorts, and other support groups that would allow students to meet and connect.
Being affiliated with a professional organization
Another fundamentally similar element appeared from the results is that affiliation with professional organizations. Professional affiliations are positively impacting identity development resulting in higher identity scores. Being a member of a professional organization could expose students to the profession at a better degree by allowing them to be surrounded by practitioners and experts as well as attend conferences and other professional events. The literature demonstrates the benefits of interacting with professionals during professional education. Access to field experts is a part of authentic learning environments and supports professional identity development (Herrington, Reeves, and Oliver, 2014; Tracey and Boling, 2014). Expert access can also serve as a mentor-mentee relationship. Having a mentor is one of


62
the critical components of professional identity development. Mentors can either be a faculty or an expert. Having access to a mentor or a mentor type person to share frustrations, milestones and to get advice from is critical to identity development (Carrillo, 2014, p. 258).
Mentorship programs can be established with faculty involvement; however, volunteering alumni would be another possibility. Tracking alumni has been reported beneficial for degree programs for various reasons including networking for current students to obtain internship and professional positions. Alumni involvement paves the way for building an active community between alumni and the program connecting theory and practice (Ingram, Haynes, Davidson-Shivers, and Irvin, 2005).
Other findings
Progress in the degree program was not a significant factor in the identity scores. There was not a significant difference between students that were beginning their program and those that were about to finish. No significant differences were observed between genders. The delivery method of the programs was not significant in identity development however, it was observed to be negatively correlated. Findings suggest that online delivery increases identity scores. This finding is interesting because it conflicts with the literature. Delivery method sometimes can be seen as inhibitive for professional identity construction. Participants in Carrillo's (2014, p.234) study appreciated the convenience for a hybrid graduate program; however, they also thought "there were fewer opportunities to connect with faculty members in order to get mentorship, as well as fewer opportunities to apply the information and practice the skills they were learning. It was mentioned by a few participants that in a traditional doctoral program there would be opportunities to teaching and supervise, conduct research and connect in general with faculty and peers. There was a sense of having lost those opportunities by electing


63
to be in a hybrid program”. This is a valid concern considering online learning puts more responsibility to students and may cause isolation however, the findings of this study suggest otherwise. The negative, non-significant association between face-to-face learning and identity scores can be attributed to the fact that the majority (88%) of the participants were in online programs. This might have skewed the data. Similarly, having a bachelor’s degree in IDT was found to be negatively associated with identity. Only 4 of the 51 participants majored in IDT and this could be pointing out to a skewed distribution resulting in an unexpected finding as well.
Study Limitations
The sample size was a significant limitation of this study. Recruitment process lasted six months, and 51 participants signed up. Although the original goal for participants has been met, reaching out to more individuals would have made the results statistically more robust and generalizable.
Data were collected on participants' race, gender, age; however, there were no questions about ethnicity, which could be a limitation since knowing ethnicity could have allowed for more detailed information about the diversity of the participants.
It is vital to note that identity is a very complex phenomenon and various factors play into it. Being a developmental process, identity is not limited to a period; it instead is constructed throughout one's whole life (Jebril, 2018). Therefore, limiting identity development to only graduate education will be a grave mistake.
The each of the seven independent variables in the study was measured by only one question. This was due to the limited time of the survey. Having multiple questions for each variable will increase reliability and might change the results.


64
One of the important limitations of this study is that the lack of holistic exploration of professional identity. Professional identity is closely tied to personal identity and characteristics of the individual (Jebril, 2018; Hershey, 2007; Ohlen & Segesten, 1998). Individuals are not blank pages. Every student starts the program with an initial identity. Carrillo (2014) reports that initial identities enhance, serve as a foundation, basis, and framework for the evolving professional identities. Different professions have been looking into personalities and investigating the required characteristics for becoming a qualified professional in the field such as medicine and counseling (Woo, Lu, Harris, & Cauley, 2017). For instance, Carrillo (2014) found that her participants described several personal characteristics that helped overcome the challenges the counseling profession imposed on them. She listed these characteristics as "ability to have fun with the process, being laid back, being a quick learner, being tenacious, stubbornness, having good people skills, being self-motivated, having perseverance, determination, and being resilient" (p. 246). Some participants even stated that they have seen individuals not possessing these traits failed their program. These statements are good indicators of the relationship between personal and professional identity.
Considering IDT is inherently multidiscipline field, IDT professionals work with people from various fields and positions. Fieldwork often requires working with stakeholders including customers, other professionals, and supervisors. In many occasions, professionals perform under many restrictions, financially and other. IDT work can be stressful especially in cases where high-risk projects with budget limitations are at stake. Consequently, some of the characteristics of competent IDT professionals can be listed as (Tracey, 2016):
• Ability to work under stress
• Responsiveness to uncertainty
• Identifying and managing constraints
• Ability to collaborate


65
• Communicative
Having good inter and intrapersonal traits are essential for IDT professionals. These are closely relevant to personal identity validating the importance of exploring professional identity as a complex phenomenon. As Wilson and Ozyer (2019) warn, identity development is a transformational process, which cannot be captured by a single theory or definitive list of factors or variables. It is crucial not to over-formulize identity formation in the process of unveiling it.
Recommended Future Studies
PIFFS is a measurement instrument that can potentially be used in different settings. Researchers can report on its use in degree programs and its efficiency. The researcher strongly recommends applying it to a bigger sample size since this study had a limited sample. By using it in a bigger-scale research, PIFFS will make researchers able to generalize the findings and therefore confidently outline the elements influencing identity development in IDT. As PIFFS is a unique measurement scale in IDT, more robust research is a must. Results from a bigger group will help researchers to understand identity development in IDT, therefore closing a gap in the field. The researcher also strongly suggests combining quantitative and qualitative methods for more in-depth research of identity.
Future research should also focus on the relationship between personal and professional identities. Looking at identity as a whole will bring us closer to understanding its complexity. Another area that holds promise for research is the critical points of transformation or big moments for students in graduate programs. Students build/form their professional identities during their degrees, and that warrants a certain degree of transformation. Decoding the common rites of passages students experience during an IDT graduate program will benefit the field
further.


66
Implications for Practice
The tool that was used to measure students’ professional identity scores was initially developed by Tan, Van der Molen, & Schmidt (2017) for students in various technical degrees. Named as Professional Identity Five Factor Scale (PIFFS), it was customized for the field of IDT for this study. Following list provides some of the potential uses for the customized instrument.
• PIFFS can be used as a diagnostic tool to measure IDT students’ professional identity scores in the middle of their program. Institutions can use the scores to determine where each individual is at in terms of identity embracement. Professional objectives can also be developed to aid in the students’ professional development as well. This will also allow a more individualized instruction that benefits students in the field.
• PIFFS can also serve as an evaluation tool for degree programs. Understanding the possible reasons behind the high identity scores, degree programs can improve their curriculums to include elements that might help developing identity. A good example could be providing more internship/assistantship opportunities and creating support groups for students since they seem to have a positive effect on identity scores according to the results of this study. Programs can also invite guest speakers into the classrooms as a way to connect students with experts and practitioners.
• PIFFS can also assist in the acceptance process of prospective students. Similar to colleges using SAT/ACT scores to determine possible GPAs of the applicants, degree programs can use PIFFS to predict student success and where they potentially will be at the end of the program. Results of this study indicated that familiarity with the field was positively associated with identity. Familiarity could be one of the possible selection
criteria.


67
• Using PIFFS, institutions can spot first-year students that might experience challenges in becoming an IDT professional and create proactive intervention/support mechanisms such as employing specialized student advisors. Developing a mentorship program where students will be matched with volunteer practitioners actively working in the field could be helpful in terms of supporting students in becoming a professional. These volunteers can be picked among the alumni of the degree programs.
• PIFFS can be used as a pre-posttest to observe how much change students experience between the beginning and the end of the program.
Conclusion
To explore factors influencing professional identity development during graduate school, an associative study was implemented. The results emphasize the immersive learning environments, specifically for technical professions. Degree programs in IDT should consider adding as many hands-on opportunities as possible into their curriculums. Results also advocate for support mechanisms during graduate school in shape of informal/social student groups or cohorts. Providing immersive and inclusive learning experiences for future professionals will play a vital role in their development. Degree programs in IDT also must be encouraged to target professional identity development as a learning outcome and improve their curriculums accordingly.


68
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77
TABLES
Table 1
Participant Demographics
Gender Race School Country Home Country
F M White Asian Black US Cost a Rica Tur key Kore a US Can ada Cost a Rica Tur key China Israel
40 11 47 3 1 46 2 2 1 43 2 2 2 1 1
Total: 51


78
Table 2
Frequency and Percentage Values of the Independent Variables (N= 51)
Frequency Percent
Bachelor’s Degree Major
In IDT (1) 4 7.8
In another field (0) 47 92.2
Familiarity with IDT
Yes (1) 29 56.9
No (0) 22 43.1
Degree progress
Close to the end (1) 31 60.8
Just starting (0) 20 39.2
Delivery method
Face-to-face (1) 4 7.8
Online (0) 47 9
The work experience part of the school
Yes (1) 14 27.5
No (0) 37 72.5
Affiliation with professional organizations
Yes (1) 12 23.5
No (0) 39 76.5
Participation in support groups
Yes (1) 15 29.4
No (0) 36 70.6


79
Table 3
Factor Loadings for the Rotated Factors Item
I am aware of the impact of the decisions I make as a professional in IDT industry I have no doubt that I will master all the skills necessary to succeed in my future work as an IDT professional I’m confident that I can do an excellent job in the future
I have a good idea about the roles and responsibilities of my future job as an IDT professional
I have a good idea about the rules and regulations in IDT industry I believe I can already think and reason like an IDT professional in a company or organization
I feel poorly prepared for a real job (Reversed)
I know what kind of applications, tools and equipment I will handle as an IDT professional
When working on problems in class, I imagine myself to be in the shoes of an IDT professional in my future work environment
I concentrate in my studies on what I believe I would need to know and be able to do when I enter my future occupation as an IDT professional I admire most those teachers who are professionals in the area that I would like to enter
I am already pretty sure what kind of profession I will enter after completing my education
1
.85
.75
.71
.69
.62
.58
.55
.40
.41
Factor Loading 2 3 4
.43
-.42
.67
.60
.50
.46
^ Communality .82
.80
.83
.85
.70
.45 .72
.69 .75
.75
.83
.71
.50


80
I am sure I will have no problems dressing and behaving professionally in my .43 -.41
industry I work part-time in (or am running) a .70
business related to IDT
I am part of an interest group (inside or .66
outside of my university) related to IDT
I know the nature of the work I will do as an IDT professional .42 .43 .47
Before I entered my program, I already had some prior work experience related to .44
IDT
I admire IDT professionals who are already working in my future work .78 .72
environment I personally know some people who work .58 .59
in IDT
I have interacted with professionals in IDT industry outside of my university or .54 .55
through events organized in my university I follow developments in IDT industry in .44 .69
newspapers and on television
In most work environments, professionals with different backgrounds work together. .50 .66
I know of the different types of
professionals I will be collaborating with I am not sure about the kind of challenges faced by the professionals in IDT industry -.47 .65
(Reversed) I believe that I will easily get along with my future colleagues, get their .47 .54
cooperation, and have informal
conversations with them Eigenvalues 4.23 2.63 2.32 2.25 1.39
% of variance 17.64 10.97 9.64 9.37 5.77
Note. Loadings < .40 are omitted.


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Table 4
Factor Loading Comparison__________________
Item
I am aware of the impact of the decisions I make as a professional in IDT industry
I have no doubt that I will master all the skills necessary to succeed in my future work as an IDT professional I’m confident that I can do an excellent job in the future
I have a good idea about the roles and responsibilities of my future job as an IDT professional
I have a good idea about the rules and regulations in IDT industry
I believe I can already think and reason like an IDT professional in a company or organization
I feel poorly prepared for a real job (Reversed)
I know what kind of applications, tools and equipment I will handle as an IDT professional
When working on problems in class, I imagine myself to be in the shoes of an IDT professional in my future work environment
I concentrate in my studies on what I believe I would need to know and be able to do when I enter my future occupation as an IDT professional I admire most those teachers who are professionals in the area that I would like to enter
I am already pretty sure what kind of profession I will enter after completing my education
I am sure I will have no problems dressing and behaving professionally in my industry
Factor Loadings in Tan et al. (2017)
1
5
5
1
1
2
5
1
2
2
2
4
5
Factor Loadings in the Current Study
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2


82
I work part-time in (or am running) a ^
business related to IDT
I am part of an interest group (inside or ^
outside of my university) related to IDT
I know the nature of the work I will do as an ^
IDT professional
Before I entered my program, I already
had some prior work experience related 3
to IDT
I admire IDT professionals who are already ^
working in my future work environment I personally know some people who work in ~
IDT
I have interacted with professionals in IDT
industry outside of my university or through 3
events organized in my university
I follow developments in IDT industry in ^
newspapers and on television
In most work environments, professionals
with different backgrounds work together. I
know of the different types of professionals
I will be collaborating with
I am not sure about the kind of challenges
faced by the professionals in IDT industry 5
(Reversed)
I believe that I will easily get along with
my future colleagues, get their ^
cooperation, and have informal
conversations with them
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
5
5


83
Table 5
Means, Standard Deviations, and Intercorrelations for Professional Identity and Predictor Variables (N=5 1)__________________________________________________________________________
Variable M SD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Dependent variable
Professional identity 3.64 .51 .35* -.01 .1 -.15 43** 4g** .34*
Predictor variables
1. Familiarity with IDT before starting the program 1.43 .50 1 .25 .06 73** .15 .18 .13
2. Bachelor’s degree major 1.92 .27 .25 1 .21 .11 .27 .30* .30*
3. Program progress 1.61 .50 .06 .21 1 -.08 -.22 -.16 -.08
4. Program delivery method 1.92 .27 73** .11 -.08 1 .15 .01 -.03
5. Work experience part of the program 1.73 .45 .15 .27 -.22 .15 1 .60** 47**
6. Professional affiliations 1.76 .43 .18 .30* -.16 .01 .60** 1 .45**
7. Support group participation during the program 1.71 .46 .13 .30* -.08 -.03 47** .45** 1
*p<.05; ** p<.01.


84
Table 6
Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis Summary Predicting Professional Identity Levels from Bachelor’s Degree, Program Progress, Delivery Method, Work Experience, Professional Affiliations, and Support Group Participation, When Controlling for Familiarity (N=5 1)_____________
Variable B SEB P P R2 AR2
Step 1 .10 .10
Familiarity with IDT before starting the program .35 .14 .35** .00
Constant 3.44 .10
Step 2 .25 .15
Familiarity with IDT before starting the program .18 .14 .18 .21
Bachelor’s degree major -.04 .37 -.02 .91
Program progress .16 .14 .15 .27
Program delivery method -.35 .36 -.19 .34
Work experience part of the program .31 .19 .27 .11
Professional affiliations .30 .19 .25 .14
Support group participation during the program .06 .16 .06 .70
Constant 3.33 .11
*p<05; **/K.01.


85
Table 7
Identity Score Classification
Score range Classification
1.67-3.23 Low
3.27-4.53 High


86
FIGURES
Attributes of professional identity
• Assertiveness
• Competence
• Confidence
• Conscience
• Commitment
• Courage
Antecedents of professional identity
• Will
• Insight
• Capacity
• Self-reflection ability
• Understanding of one's limits and possibilities
Consequences of professional identity
• Genuineness
• Increased positive, realistic
professional self-image
• Increased feeling of professional pride
Figure 1. Characteristics of professional identity. Adapted from Ohlen & Segesten (1998).


87
Factors affecting professional identity development during professional education
• Students' background
• Personal identity
• Predispositions
• Academic programs
• Peer climate
• Interaction
• Integration
• Practitioners
• Professional associations
• Family, friends, and employers
• Use of professional language
• The perceived status of the profession
• Profession's public image
• Educational and theoretical foundations of the profession
Figure 2. Factors affecting professional identity development. Compiled from Weidman, Twale, and Stein (2001), Eisler, 2004; Schryer and Spoel (2005), Ibarra (1999) and Jebril (2008)


88
/ PROFESSIONAL
/
COMMUNITIES
Practitioners
Associations
---------------------
• i
■ r - - - „ _
PROSPECTIVE
STUDENTS
Background
Predispositions
i
i /
i / i f i '
i'
»'
4 V l\ l \ l \
1
Institutional Socialization \
Culture
Processes
Academic Programs Interaction Peer Climate Integration Learning
rKnowledge Acquisition1 rInvestment. Involvement1 /
i i
\ i \ i ' l
\
;!
/â– ' / ' / i / i
' ;
NOVICE
PROFESSIONAL
PRACTICES
[Commitment]
[Identity]
\ '
\ PERSONAL COMMUNITIES / v '
Family
Friends
Employers
Interactive Stages of Socialization: Anticipatory, Formal, Informal, Personal
Figure 3. Conceptual framework of professional student socialization during graduate school


89
Figure 4. Participants’ academic backgrounds


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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

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Attributes of professional identity Assertiveness Competence Confidence Conscience Commitment Courage Antecedents of professional identity Will Insight Capacity Self reflection ability Understanding of one's limits and possibilities Consequences of professional identity Genuineness Increased positive, realistic professional self image Increased feeling of professional pride

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Factors affecting professional identity development during professional education Students' background Personal identity Predispositions Academic programs Peer climate Interaction Integration Practitioners Professional associations Family, friends, and employers Use of professional language The perceived status of the profession Profession's public image Educational and theoretical foundations of the profession

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Socialization Processes Interaction Integration Learning PROSPECTIVE STUDENTS Background Predispositions NOVICE PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES [ Commitment ] [ Identity ] Institutional Culture Academic Programs Peer Climate [ Knowledge Acquisition ] [ Investment, Involvement ] PERSONAL COMMUNITIES Family Friends Employers Interactive Stages of Socialization: Anticipatory, Formal, Informal, Personal PROFESSIONAL COMMUNITIES Practitioners Associations

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. a) b)

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Gender Race School Country Home Country F M White Asian Black US Cost a Rica Tur key Kore a US Can ada Cost a Rica Tur key China Israel 40 11 47 3 1 46 2 2 1 43 2 2 2 1 1 Total: 51 5 2 1 2 2 5 1 1 1 1 5 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Number of Participants

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1 21 15 2 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 Number of Participants

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12% 27% 61% Degree Progress Just starting Middle Close to the end 8% 4% 88% Delivery Method Face-to-face Hybrid Online

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Bachelor's in IDT 17% Personal Research 14% Through personal connections 7% Conferences 3% Previous Work 59%

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

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Frequency Percent In IDT (1) 4 7.8 In another field (0) 47 92.2 Familiarity with IDT Yes (1) 29 56.9 No (0) 22 43.1 Degree progress Close to the end (1) 31 60.8 Just starting (0) 20 39.2 Delivery method Face to face (1) 4 7.8 Online (0) 47 9 The work experience part of the school Yes (1) 14 27.5 No (0) 37 72.5 Affiliation with professional organizations Yes (1) 12 23.5 No (0) 39 76.5 Participation in support groups Yes (1) 15 29.4 No (0) 36 70.6

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Ite m Factor Loading Communality 1 2 3 4 5 I am aware of the impact of the decisions I make as a professional in IDT industry .85 .82 I have no doubt that I will master all the skills necessary to succeed in my future work as an IDT professional .75 .80 job in the future .71 .83 I have a good idea about the roles and responsibilities of my future job as an IDT professional .69 .85 I have a good idea about the rules and regulations in IDT industry .62 .43 .70 I believe I can already think and reason like an IDT professional in a company or organization .58 .45 .72 I feel poorly prepared for a real job (Reversed) .55 .42 .69 I know what kind of applications, tools and equipment I will handle as an IDT professional .40 .75 When working on problems in class, I imagine myself to be in the shoes of an IDT professional in my future work environment .67 .75 I concentrate in my studies on what I believe I would need to know and be able to do when I enter my future occupation as an IDT professional .41 .60 .83 I admire most those teachers who are professionals in the area that I would like to enter .50 .71 I am already pretty sure what kind of profession I will enter after completing my education .46 .50

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Table 3 (continued) I am sure I will have no problems dressing and behaving professionally in my industry .43 .41 .58 I work part time in (or am running) a business related to IDT .70 .67 I am part of an interest group (inside or outside of my university) related to IDT .66 .69 I know the nature of the work I will do as an IDT professional .42 .43 .47 .84 Before I entered my program, I already had some prior work experience related to IDT .44 .61 I admire IDT professionals who are already working in my future work environment .78 .72 I personally know some people who work in IDT .58 .59 I have interacted with professionals in IDT industry outside of my university or through events organized in my university .54 .55 I follow developments in IDT industry in newspapers and on television .44 .69 In most work environments, professionals with different backgrounds work together. I know of the different types of professionals I will be collaborating with .50 .66 I am not sure about the kind of challenges faced by the professionals in IDT industry (Reversed) .47 .65 I believe that I will easily get along with my future colleagues, get their cooperation, and have informal conversations with them .47 .54 Eigenvalues 4.23 2.63 2.32 2.25 1.39 % of variance 17.64 10.97 9.64 9.37 5.77 Note. Loadings < .40 are omitted.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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Item Factor Loadings in Tan et al. (2017) Factor Loadings in the Current Study I am aware of the impact of the decisions I make as a professional in IDT industry 1 1 I have no doubt that I will master all the skills necessary to succeed in my future work as an IDT professional 5 1 in the future 5 1 I have a good idea about the roles and responsibilities of my future job as an IDT professional 1 1 I have a good idea about the rules and regulations in IDT industry 1 1 I believe I can already think and reason like an IDT professional in a company or organization 2 1 I feel poorly prepared for a real job (Reversed) 5 1 I know what kind of applications, tools and equipment I will handle as an IDT professional 1 1 When working on problems in class, I imagine myself to be in the shoes of an IDT professional in my future work environment 2 2 I concentrate in my studies on what I believe I wou ld need to know and be able to do when I enter my future occupation as an IDT professional 2 2 I admire most those teachers who are professionals in the area that I would like to enter 2 2

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Table 4 (continued) I am already pretty sure what kind of profession I will enter after completing my education 4 2 I am sure I will have no problems dressing and behaving professionally in my industry 5 2 I work part time in (or am running) a business related to IDT 3 3 I am part of an interest group (inside or outside of my university) related to IDT 3 3 I know the nature of the work I will do as an IDT professional 1 3 Before I entered my program, I already had some prior work experience related to IDT 3 3 I admire IDT professionals who are already working in my future work environment 2 4 I personally know some people who work in IDT 3 4 I have interacted with professionals in IDT industry outside of my university or through events organized in my university 3 4 I follow developments in IDT industry in newspapers and on television 3 4 In most work environments, professionals with different backgrounds work together. I know of the different types of professionals I will be collaborating with 1 5 I am not sure about the ki nd of challenges faced by the professionals in IDT industry (Reversed) 5 5 I believe that I will easily get along with my future colleagues, get their cooperation, and have informal conversations with them 5 5 Table 4 shows that almost half of the items were loading onto different factors. Items that had the same loadings are in bold. Factor number 4, preference for a particular profession, had only one loading in Tan et al. (2017); however, it had four items in this study.

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Variable M SD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Dependent variable Professional identity 3.64 .51 .35* .01 .1 .15 .43** .46** .34* Predictor variables 1. Familiarity with IDT before starting the program 1.43 .50 1 .25 .06 .73** .15 .18 .13 1.92 .27 .25 1 .21 .11 .27 .30* .30* 3. Program progress 1.61 .50 .06 .21 1 .08 .22 .16 .08 4. Program delivery method 1.92 .27 .73** .11 .08 1 .15 .01 .03 5. Work experience part of the program 1.73 .45 .15 .27 .22 .15 1 .60** .47** 6. Professional affiliations 1.76 .43 .18 .30* .16 .01 .60** 1 .45** 7. Support group participation during the program 1.71 .46 .13 .30* .08 .03 .47** .45** 1 * p <.05; ** p <.01.

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Variable B SEB p R 2 R 2 Step 1 .10 .10 Familiarity with IDT before starting the program .35 .14 .35** .00 Constant 3.44 .10 Step 2 .25 .15 Familiarity with IDT before starting the program .18 .14 .18 .21 .04 .37 .02 .91 Program progress .16 .14 .15 .27 Program delivery method .35 .36 .19 .34 Work experience part of the program .31 .19 .27 .11 Professional affiliations .30 .19 .25 .14 Support group participation during the program .06 .16 .06 .70 Constant 3.33 .11 * p <.05; ** p <.01.

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PIS=3.33+(.18xFamiliarity) (.04xBachelorsDegree)+(.16xProgProgress) (.35ProgDelivery)+(.31xWorkExperience)+(.30xProfAffiliations)+(.06xSupportGroup)+ e

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This study aimed to explain why there are differences between professional identity levels of students. To achieve this purpose, it investigated certain elements that are thought to influence professional identity development. Based on this, the research question was: linear combination of the following seven factors? ors Graduate program delivery methods Graduate students' fieldwork experiences as part of the graduate program Graduate pay membership fees Below were the null and alternative hypotheses created by reformulating the research question: 1. professional identity levels and the linear combination of the seven factors. 2. professional identity levels and th e linear combination of the seven factors. In order to answer the research question, an electronic survey was implemented. The survey consisted of demographic questions and Likert scale questions aimed to measure ement instrument used in the study was developed by Tan, Van der Molen, Schmidt (2017) to measure professional identity levels of students in professional education, being prepared to become new practitioners. Professional Identity Five Factor Scale (P IFFS) was developed for a diverse selection of professional fields. Another reason for this instrument to be selected is that it was explicitly designed for students that are currently

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enrolled in professional education; therefore, it fits the purpose of t his study. After six months of data collection, 51 participants from different universities filled out the survey. Data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression in SPSS to determine associations. Significance of the Study 1. 2. Being versus not being familiar with IDT before the program 3. Online versus Face to Face delivery 4. Beginning versus finishing the program

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5. Participating versus not participating fieldwork during the program 6. Being versus not being a part of a support group during the program 7. B eing versus not being a member of a professional organization Score range Classification 1.67 3.23 Low 3.27 4.53 High

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Factors significantly correlated with professional identity scores Being familiar with the field of IDT prior to entering graduate school: Students had gotten familiar with the field via different channels, but previous work followed Having worked in assistantship/internship positions during the graduate education Being a part of informal student support groups during graduate education Being affiliated with a professional organization Factors not correlated with professional identity scores Progress in the degree The delivery method of the program

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Prospective Students (Backgrounds, Predispositions) Familiarity Socialization Processes (Interaction, Integration , Learning), Novice Professional Practices Work experience during school Personal Communities (Family, Friends, Employees) Support group involvement during school Professional Communities (Practitioners, Associations) Professional affiliations during school

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Gender Race School Country Home Country F M White Asian Black US Cost a Rica Tur key Kore a US Can ada Cost a Rica Tur key China Israel 40 11 47 3 1 46 2 2 1 43 2 2 2 1 1 Total: 51

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Frequency Percent In IDT (1) 4 7.8 In another field (0) 47 92.2 Familiarity with IDT Yes (1) 29 56.9 No (0) 22 43.1 Degree progress Close to the end (1) 31 60.8 Just starting (0) 20 39.2 Delivery method Face to face (1) 4 7.8 Online (0) 47 9 The work experience part of the school Yes (1) 14 27.5 No (0) 37 72.5 Affiliation with professional organizations Yes (1) 12 23.5 No (0) 39 76.5 Participation in support groups Yes (1) 15 29.4 No (0) 36 70.6

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Item Factor Loading Communality 1 2 3 4 5 I am aware of the impact of the decisions I make as a professional in IDT industry .85 .82 I have no doubt that I will master all the skills necessary to succeed in my future work as an IDT professional .75 .80 excellent job in the future .71 .83 I have a good idea about the roles and responsibilities of my future job as an IDT professional .69 .85 I have a good idea about the rules and regulations in IDT industry .62 .43 .70 I believe I can already think and reason like an IDT professional in a company or organization .58 .45 .72 I feel poorly prepared for a real job (Reversed) .55 .42 .69 I know what kind of applications, tools and equipment I will handle as an IDT professional .40 .75 When working on problems in class, I imagine myself to be in the shoes of an IDT professional in my future work environment .67 .75 I concentrate in my studies on what I believe I would need to know and be able to do when I enter my future occupation as an IDT professional .41 .60 .83 I admire most those teachers who are professionals in the area that I would like to enter .50 .71 I am already pretty sure what kind of profession I will enter after completing my education .46 .50

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I am sure I will have no problems dressing and behaving professionally in my industry .43 .41 .58 I work part time in (or am running) a business related to IDT .70 .67 I am part of an interest group (inside or outside of my university) related to IDT .66 .69 I know the nature of the work I will do as an IDT professional .42 .43 .47 .84 Before I entered my program, I already had some prior work experience related to IDT .44 .61 I admire IDT professionals who are already working in my future work environment .78 .72 I personally know some people who work in IDT .58 .59 I have interacted with professionals in IDT industry outside of my university or through events organized in my university .54 .55 I follow developments in IDT industry in newspapers and on television .44 .69 In most work environments, professionals with different backgrounds work together. I know of the different types of professionals I will be collaborating with .50 .66 I am not sure about the kind of challenges faced by the professionals in IDT industry (Reversed) .47 .65 I believe that I will easily get along with my future colleagues, get their cooperation, and have informal conversations with them .47 .54 Eigenvalues 4.23 2.63 2.32 2.25 1.39 % of variance 17.64 10.97 9.64 9.37 5.77 Note. Loadings < .40 are omitted.

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Item Factor Loadings in Tan et al. (2017) Factor Loadings in the Current Study I am aware of the impact of the decisions I make as a professional in IDT industry 1 1 I have no doubt that I will master all the skills necessary to succeed in my future work as an IDT professional 5 1 in the future 5 1 I have a good idea about the roles and responsibilities of my future job as an IDT professional 1 1 I have a good idea about the rules and regulations in IDT industry 1 1 I believe I can already think and reason like an IDT professional in a company or organization 2 1 I feel poorly prepared for a real job (Reversed) 5 1 I know what kind of applications, tools and equipment I will handle as an IDT professional 1 1 When w orking on problems in class, I imagine myself to be in the shoes of an IDT professional in my future work environment 2 2 I concentrate in my studies on what I believe I would need to know and be able to do when I enter my future occupation as an IDT professional 2 2 I admire most those teachers who are professionals in the area that I would like to enter 2 2 I am already pretty sure what kind of profession I will enter after completing my education 4 2 I am sure I will have no problems dressing and behaving professionally in my industry 5 2

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I work part time in (or am running) a business related to IDT 3 3 I am part of an interest group (inside or outside of my university) related to IDT 3 3 I know the nature of the work I will do as an IDT professional 1 3 Before I entered my program, I already had some prior work experience related to IDT 3 3 I admire IDT professionals who are already working in my future work environment 2 4 I personally know some people who work in IDT 3 4 I have interacted with professionals in IDT industry outside of my university or through events organized in my university 3 4 I follow developments in IDT industry in newspapers and on television 3 4 In most work environments, professionals with different backgrounds work together. I know of the different types of professionals I will be collaborating with 1 5 I am not sure about the kind of challenges faced by the professionals in IDT industry (Reversed) 5 5 I believe that I will easily get alo ng with my future colleagues, get their cooperation, and have informal conversations with them 5 5

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Variable M SD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Dependent variable Professional identity 3.64 .51 .35* .01 .1 .15 .43** .46** .34* Predictor variables 1. Familiarity with IDT before starting the program 1.43 .50 1 .25 .06 .73** .15 .18 .13 1.92 .27 .25 1 .21 .11 .27 .30* .30* 3. Program progress 1.61 .50 .06 .21 1 .08 .22 .16 .08 4. Program delivery method 1.92 .27 .73** .11 .08 1 .15 .01 .03 5. Work experience part of the program 1.73 .45 .15 .27 .22 .15 1 .60** .47** 6. Professional affiliations 1.76 .43 .18 .30* .16 .01 .60** 1 .45** 7. Support group participation during the program 1.71 .46 .13 .30* .08 .03 .47** .45** 1 * p <.05; ** p <.01.

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Variable B SEB p R 2 R 2 Step 1 .10 .10 Familiarity with IDT before starting the program .35 .14 .35** .00 Constant 3.44 .10 Step 2 .25 .15 Familiarity with IDT before starting the program .18 .14 .18 .21 .04 .37 .02 .91 Program progress .16 .14 .15 .27 Program delivery method .35 .36 .19 .34 Work experience part of the program .31 .19 .27 .11 Professional affiliations .30 .19 .25 .14 Support group participation during the program .06 .16 .06 .70 Constant 3.33 .11 * p <.05; ** p <.01.

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Score range Classification 1.67 3.23 Low 3.27 4.53 High

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Attributes of professional identity Assertiveness Competence Confidence Conscience Commitment Courage Antecedents of professional identity Will Insight Capacity Self reflection ability Understanding of one's limits and possibilities Consequences of professional identity Genuineness Increased positive, realistic professional self image Increased feeling of professional pride

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Factors affecting professional identity development during professional education Students' background Personal identity Predispositions Academic programs Peer climate Interaction Integration Practitioners Professional associations Family, friends, and employers Use of professional language The perceived status of the profession Profession's public image Educational and theoretical foundations of the profession

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Socialization Processes Interaction Integration Learning PROSPECTIVE STUDENTS Background Predispositions NOVICE PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES [ Commitment ] [ Identity ] Institutional Culture Academic Programs Peer Climate [ Knowledge Acquisition ] [ Investment, Involvement ] PERSONAL COMMUNITIES Family Friends Employers Interactive Stages of Socialization: Anticipatory, Formal, Informal, Personal PROFESSIONAL COMMUNITIES Practitioners Associations

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5 2 1 2 2 5 1 1 1 1 5 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Number of Participants

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1 21 15 2 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 Number of Participants

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12% 27% 61% Degree Progress Just starting Middle Close to the end

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8% 4% 88% Delivery Method Face-to-face Hybrid Online

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Bachelor's in IDT 17% Personal Research 14% Through personal connections 7% Conferences 3% Previous Work 59%

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PIS=3.33+(.18xFamiliarity) (.04xBachelorsDegree)+(.16xProgProgress) (.35ProgDelivery)+(.31xWorkExperience)+(.30xProfAffiliations)+(.06xSupportGroup)+ e

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Factors significantly correlated with professional identity scores Being familiar with the field of IDT prior to entering graduate school: Students had gotten familiar with the field via different channels, but previous work followed Having worked in assistantship/internship positions during the graduate education Being a part of informal student support groups during graduate education Being affiliated with a professional organization Factors not correlated with professional identity scores Progress in the degree The delivery method of the program

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Prospective Students (Backgrounds, Predispositions) Familiarity Socialization Processes (Interaction, Integration , Learning), Novice Professional Practices Work experience during school Personal Communities (Family, Friends, Employees) Support group involvement during school Professional Communities (Practitioners, Associations) Professional affiliations during school

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Professional Identity Five Factor Scale Start of Block: Informed Consent Principal Investigator: Aysenur Ozyer COMIRB No: Version Date: Study Title: IDENTITY OF IDT PROFESSIONAL: WHY IDENTITIES DIFFER? You are being asked to be in a research study. This form provides you with information about the study. A member of the research team will describe this study to you and answer all of your questions. Please read the information below and ask questions about anyth understand before deciding whether or not to take part. Why is this study being done? This study plans to learn more about professional identity development of students in instructional design and technology (IDT) graduate programs. The t erm IDT will be used throughout this survey to represent the field of instructional design and educational technology. The study will seek to explain why identity levels differ across individuals and look for possible factors influencing these levels. Y ou are being asked to be in this research study because you are a graduate student who is currently enrolled in a graduate degree program in IDT. Up to 100 people will participate in the study. What happens if I join this study? If you join the study , you will complete a survey containing demographic questions and professional identity measurement scale items. Your participation will last approximately 20 minutes depending upon survey completion. What are the possible discomforts or risks? Discomf orts you may experience while in this study include sparing your time to accurately answer the questions in the survey. Other possible risks include anonymity. While every attempt will be made to make all data anonymous such as not collecting name or emai l address, there may be a very small chance that others may be able to identify participants. What are the possible benefits of the study? This study is designed for the researcher to learn more about factors associated with IDT fessional identity levels. The research does not represent a potential

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education opportunity for participants. Will I be paid for being in the study? Will I have to pay for anything? You will not be paid to be in the study. It will not cost you anyth ing to be in the study. Is my participation voluntary? Taking part in this study is voluntary. You have the right to choose not to take part in this study. If you choose to take part, you have the right to stop at any time. If you refuse or decide t o withdraw later, you will not lose any benefits or rights to which you are entitled. Who do I call if I have questions? The researcher carrying out this study is Aysenur Ozyer. You may ask any questions you have now. If you have questions later, you may email Aysenur Ozyer at aysenur.ozyer@ucdenver.edu. You may have questions about your rights as someone in this study. You can call Aysenur Ozyer with questions. You can also call the Multiple Institutional Review Board (IRB). You can call them a t 303 724 1055. Who will see my research information? We will do everything we can to keep your records a secret. It cannot be guaranteed. Both the records that identify you and the consent form signed by you may be looked at by others. Federal ag encies that monitor human subject research Human Subject Research Committee The group doing the study The group paying for the study Regulatory officials from the institution where the research is being conducted who want to make sure the research is s afe The results from the research may be shared at a meeting. The results from the research may be in published articles. Your name will be kept private when information is presented. Indicate below if you agree with the following statements: I hav e read this consent form about the study or it was read to me. I understand the possible risks and benefits of this study. I know that being in this study is voluntary. I choose to be in this study. o Agree (1) o Do Not Agree (2) End of Block: Informed Consent

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Start of Block: Demographics What is your year of birth? ________________________________________________________________ What is your gender? o Male (1) o Female (2) Choose one or more races that you consider yourself to be: White (1) Black or African American (2) American Indian or Alaska Native (3) Asian (4) Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander (5) Other (6) ________________________________________________

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What is your home country? Afghanistan (1) ... Zimbabwe (1357) In which country do you currently attend your graduate program? Afghanistan (1) ... Zimbabwe (1357) What was your bachelor's degree major? o I have a bachelor's degree in IDT (1) o I have a bachelor's degree in another field (Please specify) (2) ________________________________________________ Please enter the name of the graduate program you are currently in. ________________________________________________________________

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Were you familiar with IDT and what it entails before starting to graduate school? o Yes (Please specify how you had gotten familiar with the field) (1) ____________________________________ ____________ o No (2) How far along are you in your graduate program? o I am just starting my program (1) o I am in the middle of my program (2) o I am close to the end of my program (3) Please select the delivery method of your graduate program. o Face to face (1) o Online (2) o Hybrid (3)

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As part of your graduate program, have you had work experience in IDT such as internships, assistantships or volunteer work? o Yes (1) o No (2) Are you currently affiliated with any professional o rganization in IDT for which you pay membership fee? o Yes (1) o No (2) During your graduate studies, have you participated in an ongoing support group related to IDT? o Yes (1) o No (2) End of Block: Demographics Start of Block: Default Question Block

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Please select the answer that best applies to you.

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1 (Never True) (1) 2 (Not Really True) (2) 3 (Neutral) (3) 4 (Somewhat True) (4) 5 (Definitely True) (5) I know the nature of the work I will do as an IDT professional (1) o o o o o In most work environments, professionals with different backgrounds work together. I know of the different types of professionals I will be collaborating with (2) o o o o o I have a good idea about the roles and responsibilities of my future job as an IDT professional (3) o o o o o I know what kind of applications, tools and equipment I will handle as an IDT professional (4) o o o o o I am aware of the impact of the decisions I mak e as a professional in IDT industry (5) o o o o o

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I have a good idea about the rules and regulations in IDT industry (6) o o o o o I work part time in (or am running) a business related to IDT (7) o o o o o I am part of an interest group (inside or outside of my university) related to IDT (8) o o o o o I personally know some people who work in IDT (9) o o o o o I follow developments in IDT industry in newspapers and on television (10) o o o o o Before I entered my program, I already had some prior work experience related to IDT (11) o o o o o

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I have interacted with professionals in IDT industry outside of my university or through events organized in my university (12) o o o o o When working on problems in class, I imagine myself to be in the shoes of an IDT professional in my future work environment (13) o o o o o I concentrate in my studies on what I believe I would need to know and be able to do when I enter my future occupation as an IDT professional (14) o o o o o I believe I can already think and reason like an IDT professional in a company or organization (15) o o o o o

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I admire most those teachers who are professionals in the area that I would like to enter (16) o o o o o I admire IDT professionals who are already working in my future work environment (17) o o o o o I am sure I will have no problems dressing and behaving professionally in my industry (18) o o o o o I feel poorly prepared for a real job (19) o o o o o I believe that I will easily get along with my future colleagues, get their cooperation, and have informal conversations with them (20) o o o o o that I can do an excellent job in the future (21) o o o o o

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I have no doubt that I will master all the skills necessary to succeed in my future work as an IDT professional (22) o o o o o I am not sure about the kind of challenges faced by the professionals in IDT industry (23) o o o o o Do you already know what kind of work or profession you prefer? o Yes (1) o No (2) Please select the answer that best applies to you. 1 (Never True) (1) 2 (Not Really True) (2) 3 (Neutral) (3) 4 (Somewhat True) (4) 5 (Definitely True) (5) I am already pretty sure what kind of profession I will enter after completing my education (1) o o o o o