Citation
Music technology in high school music education : how music technology can increase musicianship skills in high school students

Material Information

Title:
Music technology in high school music education : how music technology can increase musicianship skills in high school students
Creator:
Hungate, William
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of science)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
Department of Music and Entertainment Industry Studies, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Recording arts
Committee Chair:
Bregitzer, Lorne
Committee Members:
Burgess, Scott
Schulze, Michael

Notes

Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to provide a foundation to show how music technology can help high school students become better musicians, and to create a current and nearlyexhaustive list of software and applications currently available for all major platforms, giving high school music teachers a resource to find programs appropriate for their students’ needs. Current literature on the topic focuses on common and best practices for utilizing music technology in the classroom, but does not describe how the technology can help students improve in specific areas of musicality, nor give a comprehensive resource of all currently available software and apps for each musicianship skill. The threads examined throughout the literature are how technology can be used to help students with sense of time, sight-reading skills, general music theory, singing and playing in tune, improvisation, and composition. The culmination of this research will provide high school music teachers a comprehensive source from which to draw when looking for technology to help their students with personal musicianship skills, and strengthen their traditional programs in the process.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright William Hungate. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
MUSIC TECHNOLOGY IN HIGH SCHOOL MUSIC EDUCATION
HOW MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CAN INCREASE MUSICIANSHIP SKILLS IN
HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS
by
WILLIAM M HUNGATE
B.A., University of Wyoming, 1991
A thesis submitted to the Laculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science Recording Arts Program
2016


©2016
WILLIAM M HUNGATE ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
11


This thesis for the Master of Science degree by
William M Hungate has been approved for the Recording Arts Program By
Lome Bregitzer, Chair Scott Burgess Michael Schulze
July 30, 2016
111


Hungate, William M (M.S., Recording Arts)
How Music Technology can Increase Musicianship Skills in High School Students Thesis directed by Associate Professor Lome Bregitzer
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this research is to provide a foundation to show how music technology can help high school students become better musicians, and to create a current and nearly-exhaustive list of software and applications currently available for all major platforms, giving high school music teachers a resource to find programs appropriate for their students’ needs. Current literature on the topic focuses on common and best practices for utilizing music technology in the classroom, but does not describe how the technology can help students improve in specific areas of musicality, nor give a comprehensive resource of all currently available software and apps for each musicianship skill. The threads examined throughout the literature are how technology can be used to help students with sense of time, sight-reading skills, general music theory, singing and playing in tune, improvisation, and composition. The culmination of this research will provide high school music teachers a comprehensive source from which to draw when looking for technology to help their students with personal musicianship skills, and strengthen their traditional programs in the process.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Lome Bregitzer
IV


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank Lome Bregitzer, Leslie Gaston, Scott Burgess, Sam McGuire, Pete Buchwald, and Fred Johnson for their outstanding classes and teaching here at UC Denver in the Recording Arts program. Thank you for sharing you knowledge, skills, insights, time and patience with me, and for letting me pursue my passion of using technology as a tool to help high school musicians further their musicianship skills. In addition, thank you to Michael Schulze from the University of Denver Recording Arts Program for serving on my committee.
I would also like to thank Dr. Cheryl Anderson, musical mentor extraordinaire, for inspiring a squirrely junior high boy to pursue a career in music education, and for standing behind me and supporting me in my path over the last 35 years, which has led me to this program and this thesis. Thank you Cheryl!
v


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION........................................................... 1
Purpose of Study....................................................2
Scope of Study......................................................3
Data Limitations....................................................3
Other Limitations...................................................4
Arrangement of the Thesis...........................................4
II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE...............................................6
Researchers.........................................................6
1. Time.............................................................6
2. Sight-reading....................................................7
3. General Music Theory.............................................9
4. Singing and Playing in Tune.................................... 10
5. Improvisation.................................................. 12
6. Composition.................................................... 13
III. CURRENTLY AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES
Overview.............................................................. 17
1. Time .............................................................. 18
2. Sight-reading.......................................................29
vi


3. General Music Theory........................................43
4. Singing and Playing in Tune............................... 128
5. Improvisation............................................. 162
6. Composition................................................243
IV. CONCLUSIONS....................................................477
REFERENCES.........................................................478
vii


LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
1. Time Apps and Programs.........................................Supplemental File
2. Sight-Reading Apps and Programs................................Supplemental File
3. General Music Theory Apps and Programs.........................Supplemental File
4. Singing and Playing in Tune Apps and Programs..................Supplemental File
5. Improvisation Apps and Programs................................Supplemental File
6. Composition Apps and Programs..................................Supplemental File
viii


LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
3.1 #1 Keep the Beat Screen Shots............................................. 19
3.2 Got Rhythm Screen Shots....................................................20
3.3 iKeepTime Screen Shots.....................................................21
3.4 Pro Metronome Screen Shots................................................22
3.5 MyTronome Screen Shots....................................................23
3.6 Timing Trainer Pro Note Value Choice......................................24
3.7 Timing Trainer Pro Meter Choices..........................................25
3.8 Timing Trainer Pro Exercise Choices.......................................25
3.9 Timing Trainer Pro Tap Window.............................................26
3.10 Timing Trainer Pro Results.................................................26
3.11 ProTools Steady Beat Exercise Screen Shot..................................28
3.12 The Practice Room Example Screen Shot......................................30
3.13 SmartMusic Student Exercise Window Features................................32
3.14 SmartMusic Teacher Student Assessment Window Features.....................32
3.15 SmartMusic Teacher Gradebook Window Features..............................33
3.16 SmartMusic Student Interface Features.....................................33
3.17 Practice Sight Reading Rhythm Exercise Screen Shot........................34
3.18 Practice Sight Reading Melodic Exercise Example...........................35
3.19 Practice Sight Reading Custom Levels Example..............................35
3.20 Practice Sight Reading Melodic Available Meters...........................35
3.21 Sight Reading Factory Exercise Screen Shot................................37
IX


3.22 Sight Reading Factory Teacher Assessment Screen Shot...........................37
3.23 Sight Reading Factory iOS Screen Shots.........................................38
3.24 Steps to Reading Music Rhythm Tapping Exercise Screen Shot......................39
3.25 Rhythm Sight Reading Trainer Practice Mode Screen Shot........................40
3.26 Rhythm Sight Reading Trainer Test Mode Screen Shot............................41
3.27 Rhythm Sight Reading Trainer Fixed Exercises Screen Shot......................41
3.28 Rhythm Teacher Exercise Screen Shots..........................................42
3.29 Essentials of Music Theory Lesson Screen Shots..................................45
3.30 Music Theory Tutor Progress Statistics Screen Shot............................47
3.31 Music Theory Tutor Intelligent Practice Screen Shot............................47
3.32 Music Theory Tutor Rhythm Reading Screen Shot.................................48
3.33 Music Theory Tutor Rhythm Reading Screen Shot.................................48
3.34 Music Theory Tutor Rhythm Reading Screen Shot.................................49
3.35 Practica Musica Ear Training Screen Shot........................................51
3.36 Practica Musica Theory Screen Shot..............................................51
3.37 “Exploring Theory with Practica Musica” Sample Page............................52
3.38 Musition 5, Pitch Category Screen Shot..........................................54
3.39 Musition 5, Rhythm Category Screen Shot.........................................54
3.40 Musition 5, Terms and Symbols Category Screen Shot..............................55
3.41 Musition 5, Harmony Category Screen Shot........................................55
3.42 Musition 5, Instruments Category Screen Shot....................................56
3.43 Musition 5, Teacher Test Results Screen Shot....................................56
3.44 Auralia 5, Intervals & Scales Category Screen Shot.............................59
x


3.45 Auralia 5, Chords Category Screen Shot...............................................59
3.46 Auralia 5, Rhythm Category Screen Shot...............................................60
3.47 Auralia 5, Harmony & Form Category Screen Shot..................................60
3.48 Auralia 5, Intervals & Scales Category Screen Shot..................................61
3.49 Auralia 5, Teacher Test Results Screen Shot..........................................61
3.50 Auralia 5 Intervals & Scales Category Screen Shot....................................62
3.51 Alfred’s Interactive Musician Pitch Exercise Screen Shot.............................63
3.52 Alfred’s Interactive Musician Sight-Reading Exercise Screen Shot.....................64
3.53 Alfred’s Interactive Musician Rhythm Exercise Screen Shot............................64
3.54 EarMaster 6 Interval Identification Screen Shot......................................66
3.55 EarMaster 6 Chord Identification Screen Shot.........................................67
3.56 EarMaster 6 Scale Identification Screen Shot.........................................67
3.57 EarMaster 6 Rhythmic Reading Screen Shot.............................................68
3.58 EarMaster 6 Melodic Dictation Screen Shot............................................68
3.59 Auralia Chord Recognition Chord Identification Screen Shot...........................69
3.60 Auralia Interval Recognition Interval Identification Screen Shot.....................70
3.61 Auralia Interval Singing Sample Lesson Screen Shot...................................71
3.62 Auralia Jazz Chords Chord Identification Screen Shot.................................72
3.63 Auralia Jazz Scales Scale Identification Screen Shot.................................73
3.64 Auralia Jazz Scales Customization and Results Screen Shots...........................74
3.65 Auralia Interval Recognition Interval Identification Screen Shot.....................75
3.66 Auralia Scales Scale Identification Screen Shot......................................76
3.67 ChordEind Game Screen Shot...........................................................77
xi


3.68 Musition Advanced Note Reading Alto Clef Screen Shot............................79
3.69 Musition Instrument Recognition Sample Lessons Screen Shots ....................80
3.70 Musition Intervals Perfect Intervals Lesson Screen Shot.........................81
3.71 Musition Intervals Keyboard or Fretboard Entry Screen Shot .....................82
3.72 Musition Key Signatures Sample Lesson Screen Shot...............................83
3.73 Musition Note Reading Treble Clef Notes Screen Shot.............................84
3.74 Musition Note Reading Customized Lesson Screen Shot.............................84
3.75 Musition Rhythmic Subdivision Lessons Screen Shots..............................85
3.76 Musition Rhythm Notation Lessons Screen Shots...................................86
3.77 Musition Rhythm Tapping Rhythm Practice Screen Shot.............................87
3.78 Musition Symbols Dynamic Symbols Screen Shot....................................88
3.79 Musition Symbols Score Tracking Screen Shot.....................................88
3.80 Piano Chord Dictionary Screen Shot..............................................89
3.81 Bass Sight Reading Trainer Scale Lesson.........................................91
3.82 Bass Sight Reading Trainer Settings Options.....................................91
3.83 Bass Sight Reading Trainer Fretboard in Perspective Mode........................92
3.84 Ear Trainer Exercise Selection..................................................93
3.85 Ear Trainer Virtual Keyboard Feedback...........................................94
3.86 Ear Trainer Note View and Playback..............................................94
3.87 Ear Trainer Scores and Statistics...............................................95
3.88 Ear Training Mastery Online Pitch Recognition Exercise..........................96
3.89 Ear Training Mastery Online Interval Recognition Exercise.......................97
3.90 Ear Training Mastery Online Interval Singing Exercise...........................97
xii


3.91 Ear Training Mastery Online Rhythmic Identification Exercise...................98
3.92 Functional Ear Trainer Learning Mode...........................................99
3.93 Functional Ear Trainer Lesson Customization.................................. 100
3.94 Functional Ear Trainer Progress Tracking..................................... 100
3.95 Functional Ear Trainer Custom Quizzes........................................ 101
3.96 Guitar Sight Reading Trainer Main Screen..................................... 103
3.97 Guitar Sight Reading Trainer Lret Groups..................................... 104
3.98 Guitar Sight Reading Trainer Lretboard in Perspective Mode................... 104
3.99 Interval Recognition - Ear Training for Android Interval Recognition......... 105
3.100 Interval Recognition - Ear Training for Android Scale Choices................ 106
3.101 Interval Recognition - Ear Training for Android Song Association............. 106
3.102 Interval Recognition - Ear Training for Android Customization................ 107
3.103 Music Reading Essentials Cards............................................... 108
3.104 Music Reading Essentials Note Recognition.................................... 109
3.105 Music Reading Essentials Progress Results.................................... 109
3.106 Music Theory - Chords in Keys Scale Choices.................................. 110
3.107 Music Theory - Chords in Keys Sample Display................................. Ill
3.108 Music Tutor Test Screen...................................................... 112
3.109 Music Tutor Progress Screen.................................................. 112
3.110 MusicTheory.net Basics Lesson Example........................................ 113
3.111 MusicTheory.net Chord Progression Lesson Example............................. 114
3.112 MusicTheory.net Lesson Example............................................... 114
3.113 MusicTheory.net Tools Example................................................ 115
xiii


3.114 Note Trainer Note Exercise.................................................... 116
3.115 Note Trainer Chord Exercise................................................... 117
3.116 Note Trainer Note Exercise.................................................... 117
3.117 Note Trainer Student Feedback................................................. 118
3.118 Online Ear Trainer 3.0 Intervals Window....................................... 120
3.119 Online Ear Trainer 3.0 Chords Window.......................................... 120
3.120 Online Ear Trainer 3.0 Melodies Window........................................ 121
3.121 Online Ear Trainer 3.0 Interval Window.........................................121
3.122 Right Note - Ear Trainer Home Screen.......................................... 123
3.123 Right Note - Ear Trainer Scrollable Keyboard.................................. 123
3.124 Right Note - Ear Trainer Interval Mode........................................ 124
3.125 Right Note - Ear Trainer Settings............................................. 124
3.125 Teoria Home Screen............................................................ 125
3.126 Teona Tutorials Sections...................................................... 126
3.127 Teoria Exercises Sections..................................................... 126
3.128 Teoria Reference Section...................................................... 127
3.129 Teoria Articles Section........................................................127
3.130 Sing&See Pitch Display Example................................................ 130
3.131 Sing&See Piano Keyboard Display Example....................................... 130
3.132 Sing&See Stave View Display Example........................................... 130
3.133 Sing&See Pitch Screen Display Example ........................................ 131
3.134 Sing&See Spectrogram Display Example.......................................... 131
3.135 Sing&See Real-time Spectrum Display Example................................... 132
xiv


3.136 Sing&See Combination Screen Example.......................................... 132
3.137 eMedia Singing Method Visual Pitch Feedback Screen Shot...................... 133
3.138 Itonia Main Window Screen Shot............................................... 135
3.139 Itonia Options Window Screen Shot............................................ 135
3.140 Erol Singer’s Studio - Voice Lessons Screen Shot............................. 136
3.141 Erol Singer’s Studio - Voice Lessons iPad Screen Shot........................ 137
3.142 Erol Singer’s Studio - Voice Lessons Range Screen Shot....................... 137
3.143 Sing Sharp Pitch Tracking Screen Shot........................................ 139
3.144 Sing Sharp Scores and Reports Examples....................................... 140
3.145 Sing Sharp Vocal Range Example............................................... 140
3.146 Sing-in Tuna Screen Shot..................................................... 141
3.147 Colla Voce Screen Shot....................................................... 142
3.148 SingTrue Screen Shot......................................................... 143
3.149 SingTrue Progress Screen..................................................... 143
3.150 Singer’s Mate Example Song Screen Shot....................................... 144
3.151 Singer’s Mate Transposition Screen Shot...................................... 145
3.152 Singer’s Mate Settings Screen Shot........................................... 145
3.153 Tarini in Tune Screen Shot................................................... 146
3.154 Voice Training Pro - Learn to Sing Exercise Selection Screen Shot........... 147
3.155 Voice Training Pro - Learn to Sing Pitch Tracking Screen Shot............... 148
3.156 Voice Training Pro - Learn to Sing Setting Screen Shot...................... 148
3.157 Voice Training Pro - Learn to Sing Feedback Screen Shot..................... 149
3.158 Voice Training Pro - Learn to Sing Scores Screen Shot....................... 149
xv


3.159 Pitch Perfect Visual Tuner Screen Shots.................................... 150
3.160 Pitch Perfect Visual Tuner Settings Screen Shots........................... 151
3.161 Pitch Graph Screen Shot.................................................... 152
3.162 Canto Screen Shot...........................................................153
3.163 Canta Pitch Tracking Examples.............................................. 154
3.164 Team to Sing Exercise Screen Shot.......................................... 155
3.165 PlayPerfect Exercise Window Screen Shot.................................... 157
3.166 PlayPerfect Recording Settings Screen Shot................................. 158
3.167 PlayPerfect Instrument Transposition Screen Shot........................... 158
3.168 Sing the Right Note Screen Shots........................................... 159
3.169 Singscope Screen Features.................................................. 160
3.170 Singscope Tools Features................................................... 161
3.171 Singscope Settings Features................................................ 161
3.172 60 Top Plat Guitar Ticks Vol. 1 “Jam Track” Window......................... 163
3.173 Band-in-a-Box Main Window.................................................. 166
3.174 Band-in-a-Box Chord and Melody Generator Window............................ 167
3.175 Band-in-a-Box Drums and Fretboard Windows.................................. 168
3.176 Band-in-a-Box Notation Window.............................................. 168
3.177 Chord Pad Sequencer Window................................................. 170
3.178 Chord Pad Sequencer Window................................................. 171
3.179 Chord Pad Sequencer Window................................................. 171
3.180 Chords and Scales Main Window ..............................................172
3.181 Combo - Jazz Music Generator Chord and Settings Windows.................... 173
xvi


3.182 CopyScat Main Window.................................................. 174
3.183 Hot Licks for Alto Saxophone Volume 1 “Lick” Lesson Example........... 182
3.184 Hot Licks for Alto Saxophone Volume 1 “Lick” Selection................ 182
3.185 ilmprov - Bebop Lesson Example........................................ 184
3.186 ilmprov - Bebop Customization Preferences............................. 185
3.187 ilmprov - Bebop “Jam-A-long” Settings................................. 185
3.188 ilmprov - Chord / Scale Compendium Chord Qualities.................... 186
3.189 ilmprov - Chord / Scale Compendium Scale Recommendations.............. 187
3.190 ilmprov - Chord / Scale Compendium Chord Qualities.................... 187
3.191 ilmprov - Contemporary Colors Lessons................................. 188
3.192 ilmprov - Contemporary Colors Lesson Explanation...................... 189
3.193 ilmprov - Contemporary Colors JAM-A-Long.............................. 189
3.194 ilmprov - Fundamentals Main Menu...................................... 190
3.195 ilmprov - Fundamentals Lesson Example................................. 191
3.196 ilmprov - Fundamentals Chord Compendium............................... 191
3.197 ilmprov - Fundamentals JAM-A-Long Window.............................. 191
3.198 ilmprov - Modal Main Menu............................................. 192
3.199 ilmprov - Modal Pentatonic Example.................................... 193
3.200 ilmprov - Modal Lesson Example........................................ 193
3.201 ilmprov - The Minor IIV Lesson Example................................ 194
3.202 ilmprov - The Minor IIV Audio Playback................................ 195
3.203 ilmprov - The Minor IIV JAM-A-Long Window.............................. 195
3.204 Impro-Visor Screen Shot............................................... 197
xvii


3.205 Improv Explorer Chord Selections............................................ 198
3.206 Improv Explorer Features 1.................................................. 199
3.207 Improv Explorer Features 2...................................................200
3.208 Introduction to Jazz Blues Guitar Lesson Example.............................201
3.209 Introduction to Jazz Blues Guitar Lesson Example.............................202
3.210 IReal Pro Importing Charts...................................................204
3.211 IReal Pro Editing Charts.....................................................204
3.212 IReal Pro Tab and Piano Fingerings...........................................205
3.213 IReal Pro Change Tempo.......................................................205
3.214 IReal Pro Transpose Key......................................................206
3.215 Jazz Box Chord Reference.....................................................208
3.216 Jazz Box Scale Reference.....................................................209
3.217 Jazz Box Scale Selection.....................................................209
3.218 Jazz Duets for Alto Sax Main Window..........................................210
3.219 Jazz Duets for Alto Sax Playback Settings....................................211
3.220 Jazz Improv Chord Selection..................................................213
3.221 Jazz Improv Scale Suggestions................................................213
3.222 Jazz Phrasing for Alto Sax Screen Shot.......................................215
3.223 Jazz Phrasing for Tenor Sax Screen Shot......................................217
3.224 Jazz Scale App Screens.......................................................220
3.225 Jazz Theory Quiz Categories Window...........................................221
3.226 Jazz Theory Quiz Question Sample with Keyboard Entry.........................222
3.227 Jazz Theory Quiz Question Sample with Note-Name Button Entry.................222
xviii


3.228 Learn That Song (REMIX Edition) Main Window................................225
3.229 Learn That Song (REMIX Edition) Loop Feature...............................225
3.230 Learn That Song (REMIX Edition) Tapedeck Window............................226
3.231 MusiClock Main Window......................................................229
3.232 MusiClock Guitar Tablature.................................................230
3.233 MusiClock Backing Tracks...................................................230
3.234 MusiClock Scale Transposition.............................................231
3.235 Phrase Trainer 2 Speed Adjustments.........................................233
3.236 Phrase Trainer 2 Pitch Adjustments.........................................233
3.237 Phrase Trainer 2 Loop Settings.............................................234
3.238 Phrase Trainer 2 “Speed Trainer............................................234
3.239 Phrase Trainer 2 “Pitch Trainer............................................234
3.240 Phrase Trainer 2 Parametric EQ.............................................234
3.241 Phrase Trainer 2 Waveform Zoom.............................................234
3.242 Play the Blues Saxophone Play-Along Explanation............................236
3.243 Play the Blues Saxophone Chart Example.....................................236
3.244 ScaleTwister Scale and Chord Examples......................................237
3.245 TimeStretch Main Window....................................................239
3.246 TimeStretch “TimeStretch & Compilation” Window.............................239
3.247 Woodshedr - Jazz Play Along Playback Settings..............................241
3.248 Woodshedr - Jazz Play Along Customization Settings.........................241
3.249 Woodshedr - Jazz Play Along Purchased Song Library.........................242
3.250 Arobas Music Guitar Pro 6 Screen Shot......................................245
xtx


3.251 Arobas Music Guitar Pro 6 Audio Panels...................................245
3.252 Arobas Music Guitar Pro iOS Screen Shots.................................246
3.253 Counterpointer Analysis Example..........................................247
3.254 Crescendo Music Notation Software Main Screen............................248
3.255 Crescendo Music Notation Software Features Montage.......................249
3.256 Crescendo Music Notation Software Android App Screen Shot................250
3.257 Encore Mac OS Screen Shot................................................252
3.258 Encore Windows Screen Shot...............................................252
3.259 Finale 2014 Score Layout Possibilities...................................254
3.260 Finale 2014 Audio / MIDI Mixer...........................................255
3.261 Finale 2014 Audio Aligned with Score Screen Shot.........................255
3.262 Finale 2014 Video Support with SMPTE/MTC Screen Shot.....................256
3.263 Finale PrintMusic Auto-Harmonization Feature.............................258
3.264 Finale PrintMusic Engraving Fonts Examples...............................258
3.265 Finale SongWriter Launch Window Screen Shot..............................260
3.266 Finale NotePad Percussion Notation Sample................................261
3.267 Finale NotePad Guitar Tablature Sample...................................262
3.268 Finale NotePad Setup Wizard Screen Shots.................................262
3.269 Flat Screen Shot.........................................................264
3.270 Forte Premium Audio Sequencer Screen Shot................................266
3.271 Forte Premium Notes Selection Screen Shot................................266
3.272 Forte Premium Lyrics Screen Shot.........................................267
3.273 Fudwig Main Window Screen Shot...........................................271
xx


3.274 Ludwig Styles Selection Choices Screen Shot............................272
3.275 Ludwig Auto-Generating Sight-Reading Screen Shot.......................273
3.276 Ludwig Improvisation Practice Screen Shot..............................274
3.277 Ludwig Choral Harmonization Choices Screen Shot........................275
3.278 Magic Score Guitar Main Window Screen Shot.............................276
3.279 MagicScore Guitar Virtual Inst. Inputs Screen Shot.....................277
3.280 MagicScore Guitar Lyrics Screen Shot...................................277
3.281 MagicScore Maestro 8 Pallets Screen Shot...............................278
3.282 MagicScore Maestro 8 Lyrics and Image Export Screen Shot...............279
3.283 MagicScore Maestro 8 Temp & Sound Editors Screen Shot..................279
3.284 Magic Score School Export Screen Shot..................................280
3.285 Mozart 13 Main Screen Shot.............................................282
3.286 Mozart 13 Tabs Screen Shots............................................283
3.287 MuseScore Start Center Screen Shots....................................285
3.288 MuseScore Drum Notation Sample.........................................286
3.289 MuseScore Tablature Sample.............................................286
3.290 MuseScore Fingers Palette..............................................286
3.291 MusicWorks MIDI and Input Windows Screen Shots.........................288
3.292 MusicWorks Main Window Screen Shot.....................................289
3.293 MusicWorks Color Options Screen Shot...................................289
3.294 MusicTime Deluxe Mac OS Screen Shot....................................291
3.295 MusicTime Deluxe Windows Screen Shot...................................291
3.296 Musink Pro New Project Window..........................................293
xxi


3.297 Musink Pro MIDI Options Windows...............................................293
3.298 Musink Pro Markings Examples Screen Shot......................................294
3.299 Musink Lite Main Window Screen Shot...........................................295
3.300 Notation Composer 3 Real-Time MIDI Recording Controls.........................297
3.301 Notation Composer 3 “New Song Wizard” Screen Shot.............................297
3.302 Notation Composer 3 MIDI Piano Roll View for Editing..........................298
3.303 Notation Composer 3 MIDI Graphic Editing Screen Shot..........................298
3.304 Notation Musician Transcription Options Screen Shot...........................300
3.305 Notation Pad Main Screen Shot.................................................301
3.306 Notation Pad Note Entry Screen Shot...........................................302
3.307 Notation Pad Playback Levels Screen Shot......................................303
3.308 Noteflight Premium Palettes...................................................305
3.309 Noteflight Premium Audio Mixing Panel.........................................306
3.310 Noteflight Premium Instrument Transposing and Printing........................307
3.311 Noteflight Premium Video Syncing Window.......................................308
3.312 Noteworthy Composer Main Window...............................................309
3.313 OneTouch Composer Main Window.................................................310
3.314 OneTouch Composer Conductor’s Score...........................................311
3.315 OneTouch Composer Guitar Fretboard............................................311
3.316 Overture 5 Main Screen........................................................313
3.317 Overture 5 Linear View with MIDI..............................................313
3.318 Overture 5 Touch Screen Enabled...............................................314
3.319 Overture 5 Advanced MIDI Editing Capabilities ................................314
xxii


3.320 Overture 5 Advanced MIDI Editing Capabilities ............................315
3.321 Overture 5 MIDI / Audio Mixer.............................................315
3.322 Presonus Notion 5 Virtual Drumpad Entry....................................317
3.323 Presonus Notion 5 Virtual Fretboard and Tablature Entry....................317
3.324 Presonus Notion 5 Mixer....................................................318
3.325 Presonus Notion 5 EQ Mixer Insert..........................................318
3.326 Notion for iOS Input Methods Like Notion 5.................................320
3.327 Notion for iOS Handwriting Input...........................................321
3.328 Notion for iOS Playback Mixer..............................................321
3.329 Progression 3 Virtual Instruments Input....................................323
3.330 Progression 3 MIDI Editing.................................................323
3.331 PreSonus Progression for iPad Fretboard Entry..............................325
3.332 PreSonus Progression for iPad In-app Instruments...........................326
3.333 PreSonus Progression for iPad Mixer........................................326
3.334 QuickScore Elite Main Window...............................................328
3.335 QuickScore Elite Tablature Entry Window....................................328
3.336 QuickScore Elite Symbols Pop-out Palettes..................................329
3.337 QuickScore Elite Main Window...............................................329
3.338 QuickScore Elite Piano Roll MIDI Editing Window............................330
3.339 QuickScore Elite Main Window...............................................330
3.340 ScoreCloud Pro Audio-to-MIDI Recording Screen Shots........................332
3.341 ScoreCloud Pro Editing Example Screen Shot.................................333
3.342 ScoreCloud Express Audio-to-MIDI Recording Screen Shot.....................335
xxiii


3.343 ScoreCloud Express Editing Window Screen Shot................................335
3.344 ScoreWriter Single-Window Screen Shot........................................337
3.345 ScoreWriter Touch Feature Screen Shot........................................337
3.346 ScoreWriter MIDI Mixer Screen Shot...........................................338
3.347 Sheet Music Scanner Scan Example.............................................340
3.348 Sibelius Virtual Keyboard Note Entry Screen Shot.............................342
3.349 Sibelius Audio Score Note Entry Screen Shot................................342
3.350 Sibelius Notation Palettes...................................................343
3.351 Sibelius Features Screen Shot ...............................................344
3.352 Sibelius MIDI Mixer..........................................................344
3.353 Sibelius Sharing Options.....................................................345
3.354 SmartScore X2 MIDI Edition Screen Shot.......................................347
3.355 SmartScore X2 Guitar Edition Screen Shot.....................................348
3.356 SmartScore X2 Piano Edition Screen Shot......................................349
3.357 SmartScore X2 Piano Edition Screen Shot......................................350
3.358 SmartScore X2 Pro Edition Screen Shot........................................351
3.359 SmartScore X2 Comparison Chart...............................................352
3.360 Songworks Keyboard Window....................................................354
3.361 Songworks Fretboard Window Screen Shot.......................................354
3.362 Staff Sketch Pad Parchment Screen Shot.......................................355
3.363 Hex Main Window Description..................................................357
3.364 AXiS-64 MIDI Controller for Hex..............................................358
3.365 Liquid Music Sketch Line.....................................................360
xxiv


3.366 Liquid Music Sketch Presets...................................................360
3.367 Liquid Music Key Window.......................................................361
3.368 Liquid Music Chords Window....................................................361
3.369 Liquid Music Sketch Line......................................................362
3.370 Liquid Music Sketch Line......................................................362
3.371 Master Tracks Pro Screen Shot.................................................364
3.372 Sekaiju Windows Screen Shot...................................................365
3.373 Ableton Live 9 Session View Window............................................367
3.374 Ableton Live 9 Session View Window............................................368
3.375 Acid Pro 7 Mixing Console.....................................................370
3.376 Acid Pro 7 MIDI Freeze........................................................370
3.377 Acid Pro 7 MIDI Processing and Filters........................................371
3.378 Acid Pro 7 Screen Shot with Video.............................................371
3.379 Acid Music Studio 10 Production Tools.........................................372
3.380 Acid Express Main Window......................................................373
3.381 Anvil Studio Works Loops / Rhythm Window......................................375
3.382 Anvil Studio Works Staff Sheet Edit Window....................................376
3.383 Anvil Studio Works Virtual Fretboard..........................................376
3.384 Anvil Studio Works Audio Window...............................................377
3.385 Ardour MIDI Session Window....................................................379
3.386 Ardour Multi track Session Screen Shot........................................379
3.387 Ardour Plugins Collage........................................................380
3.388 Ardour Mixer Window...........................................................381
xxv


3.389 Ardour Video for Scoring Screen Shot.......................................382
3.390 Bitwig Project Layout Example Screen Shot..................................384
3.391 Bitwig Panel-based User Interface..........................................384
3.392 Bitwig Details Editor......................................................384
3.393 Bitwig Expressive MIDI Editing.............................................385
3.394 Bitwig Device Nesting Example..............................................385
3.395 Cubase Pro 8.5 Multi track Screen Shot.....................................387
3.396 Cubase Pro 8.5 Channel Strip...............................................388
3.397 Cubase Pro 8.5 Mixer.......................................................388
3.398 Cubase Pro 8.5 Notation Screen Shot........................................389
3.399 Cubase Pro 8.5 MIDI Editing Screen Shot....................................389
3.400 Cubase Pro 8.5 VariAudio 2.0 Screen Shot...................................390
3.401 Digital Performer 9 Consolidated Window....................................394
3.402 Digital Performer 9 Control Panel..........................................395
3.403 Digital Performer 9 Chunks Window Examples.................................396
3.404 Digital Performer 9 Recording and Playback Options.........................396
3.405 Digital Performer 9 Step Record Window.....................................397
3.406 Digital Performer 9 Piano Roll MIDI Editor.................................397
3.407 Digital Performer 9 Drum Editor............................................397
3.408 Digital Performer 9 Notation Editor........................................397
3.409 Digital Performer 9 Take and Comp Example..................................398
3.410 Digital Performer 9 Sequence Editor........................................398
3.411 Digital Performer 9 Quickscribe Notation Window and Palettes...............399
xxvi


3.412 Digital Performer 9 Mixer...............................................400
3.413 energyXTMain Window.....................................................401
3.414 energyXT Drum Editor....................................................402
3.415 energyXT Mixer Window...................................................402
3.416 FT Studio 12 Customized Interface Screen Shot...........................404
3.417 FT Studio 12 Audio Clips................................................405
3.418 FT Studio 12 Piano Roll Editor..........................................405
3.419 FT Studio Mobile Tracks Window..........................................407
3.420 FT Studio Mobile Instruments Window.....................................407
3.421 FT Studio Mobile Step Sequencer Window..................................408
3.422 FT Studio Mobile Drum Pads Window.......................................408
3.423 FT Studio Mobile Wave Editor Window.....................................409
3.424 FT Studio Mobile Configurable Keyboard Window...........................409
3.425 GarageBand PedalBoard Effects...........................................411
3.426 GarageBand Main Window Example..........................................411
3.427 GarageBand Audio and Piano Roll Editors.................................412
3.428 GarageBand Score and Drummer Editors....................................413
3.429 GarageBand for iOS Live Loops DJ feature................................414
3.430 GarageBand for iOS Virtual Fretboard....................................414
3.431 Togic Pro X Mixer Screen Shot...........................................416
3.432 Togic Pro X Screen Configuration Example................................416
3.433 Togic Pro X Notation Screen Shot........................................417
3.434 Togic Pro X Flex Pitch Plugin...........................................417
xxvii


3.435 Logic Pro X Alchemy Synthesizer..........................................418
3.436 Logic Pro X MIDI Editor Windows..........................................418
3.437 Logic Pro X 5.1 Surround Mixing Example..................................419
3.438 MixCraft 7 Main Screen Shot..............................................421
3.439 MixCraft 7 Live Performance Screen.......................................421
3.440 MixCraft 7 MIDI Editing Windows..........................................422
3.441 MixCraft 7 Video Editing Screen Shot.....................................423
3.442 MixCraft 7 Plugins Montage...............................................423
3.443 MixCraft 7 Mixer.........................................................423
3.444 MixPad Main Track Screen.................................................425
3.445 MixPad Mixer Window......................................................425
3.446 MixPad MIDI Piano Roll Editing Window....................................426
3.447 MixPad Music Mixer Free Main Window......................................427
3.448 MixPad Music Mixer Free Effects Plugins..................................428
3.449 MuLab Main Window........................................................430
3.450 MuLab Sequence Editor....................................................430
3.451 MuLab Audio Editor.......................................................431
3.452 MuLab Mixer Rack Example.................................................431
3.453 n-Track Studio EX Main Window............................................433
3.454 n-Track Studio EX 3D Spectrum Analyzer...................................433
3.455 n-Track Studio EX MIDI Editing Windows...................................434
3.456 n-Track Studio EX Mixer..................................................435
3.457 n-Track Studio Multitrack Recorder Screen Shot...........................437
xxviii


3.458 n-Track Studio Multitrack Recorder MIDI Editing...........................437
3.459 n-Track Studio Multitrack Recorder Volume and Pan Automation..............438
3.460 ProTools Edit Window......................................................441
3.461 ProTools Mix Window.......................................................441
3.462 ProTools Various Plugins..................................................442
3.463 Reaper Main Window........................................................445
3.464 Reaper Piano Roll MIDI Editor.............................................445
3.465 Reaper Notation MIDI Editor...............................................446
3.466 Reaper Compressor Plugin..................................................446
3.467 Reaper Mixer..............................................................447
3.468 Reaper Video Window.......................................................447
3.469 Reaper Surround Panning...................................................448
3.470 Reaper Routing Options....................................................448
3.471 Reason 9 “Front” and “Back” Windows.......................................450
3.472 Reason 9 Main Window Layout...............................................451
3.473 Reason 9 “Key” MIDI Edit Window...........................................451
3.474 Reason 9 “Drum Editor” MIDI Edit Window...................................452
3.475 Reason 9 Plugin Example...................................................452
3.476 Reason 9 Main Mixer Window................................................453
3.477 Samplitude Pro X2 Track Objects Example...................................455
3.478 Samplitude Pro X2 Customized Main Window Example..........................455
3.479 Samplitude Pro X2 MIDI Editor.............................................456
3.480 Samplitude Pro X2 Notation Editor.........................................456
xxix


3.481 Samplitude Pro X2 “Elastic Audio” Pitch Correction Plugin.................457
3.482 Samplitude Pro X2 Mastering Tools.........................................457
3.483 Sonar Main Window..........................................................459
3.484 Sonar Window Descriptions..................................................460
3.485 Sonar MIDI Drum Map........................................................460
3.486 Sonar ProChannel Plugin Example............................................461
3.487 Sonar Surround Mixing Capability...........................................461
3.488 Studio One Main Window.....................................................463
3.489 Studio One Drag-and-Drop Functionality.....................................464
3.490 Studio One “Arranger Track” Window.........................................464
3.491 Studio One Step Recording..................................................465
3.492 Studio One Notation Window.................................................465
3.493 Studio One Mixer Configurations............................................466
3.494 Studio One Plugins Samples.................................................467
3.495 Tradition “Blue Steel” Interface...........................................469
3.496 Tradition Automation Patterns Window.......................................469
3.497 Tradition Mixer Panel......................................................470
3.498 Tradition “Rack” Plugin Routing............................................471
3.499 WavePad Audio Editing Software Record Window...............................473
3.500 WavePad Audio Editing Software Editing Window..............................473
3.501 WavePad Audio Editing Software Tools Window................................474
3.502 WavePad Audio Editor Free Audio Options....................................475
3.503 WavePad Audio Editor Free Editing..........................................476
xxx


3.504 WavePad Audio Editor Free Effects
476
XXXI


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
After teaching public school music for 15 years, and being a proponent of utilizing available technology to help my students become better musicians, I became aware that many of my colleagues in music education were hesitant if not completely opposed to using technology in their classrooms. Many of them are afraid that technology could replace traditional band, choir, and orchestra programs, while others, particularly those who are not digital natives, are afraid to implement technologies over which they do not have mastery or understanding. Haning (2015) reports in his study of 46 undergraduate music education majors, 43% felt that they were unprepared to effectively use technology in their future teaching positions.
From my own experience, after using the Yamaha MEI (Music In Education) system, setting up a 16-station electronic music lab at Jackson Hole High School in Wyoming, and utilizing school computer labs, I have seen first hand the benefit that technological tools can make in the musicianship of high school students. I chose to attend the Recording Arts program at the University of Colorado Denver for this very reason.
Now that music technology is one of the four major strands for the National Standards for Music 2014, NAFME (2014), I wanted to attend a pedagogical program (such as offered at UC Denver) so that I would better prepare myself as a teacher in utilizing all the technologies a recording engineer must use, and more. I would not have acquired these skills in a traditional music education masters degree.
It has been my experience that most of the best recording engineers are also competent musicians, and as such have the musical skills I will be focusing on in this research. As a pedagogical program, it is a natural extension for me to research all available technologies to
1


help prepare high school students, who are the next generation of college students in recording arts and music programs, with the musical skills that will help them succeed. Even at UC Denver, the professors teach beginning audio production to a majority of music majors, helping them learn how to use technology to compose, record, practice, and evaluate their compositions and performances. My hope is that this research will in some fashion help those students come to recording arts or music programs as more competent musicians, and have more facility in using a variety of music technologies.
Purpose of Study
The purpose of this research is to give the high school music teacher, regardless of discipline, technologically-based tools and techniques they can use in their classrooms on a daily basis to enhance their students’ musicianship skills and make their traditional band, choir, or orchestra program stronger because of it. It also attempts to alleviate their fears of becoming slaves to technology for technology’s sake, but rather to give them concrete ways to use the available technologies to help each student progress in their individual skills. Dorfman (2008), in his study of 552 Ohio music teachers found that only 6.9% of their students enrolled in traditional music programs are using music technology programs of any kind, primarily due to lack of teacher training, teacher comfort with the technology, and available budgets. This research seeks to help teachers overcome some of those obstacles
There exists a vast amount of literature on the topic of music technology as it applies to music education in a variety of peer-reviewed journals and also published books. However, what is lacking is a focused, comprehensive compilation of the software and applications correlated directly to individual musicianship skills. The organization of this paper attempts to make it
2


simple and straightforward for teachers to find the resources they may be looking for, by arranging them in terms of basic musicianship skills.
Scope of Study
Using peer-reviewed journals and published books, the best practices and techniques for utilizing music technology to enhance high school students’ musicianship skills have been researched. To the greatest extent possible, all applicable software available for the major platforms as of May 1, 2016 has been researched. This includes software that can be used on desktop and laptop computers, as well as tablets and smart phones, utilizing iOS, Mac OS, Android, and Windows.
Data Limitations
There are literally thousands of articles and hundreds of books on the subject of music technology. The research herein has been limited to those sources that deal with best practices and techniques specifically applicable to high school music students. An attempt to do a review of all music education software available is not being attempted, as much of it is geared toward elementary and middle school students. There is also an abundance of redundancy in the literature, so every source available will not be cited, but rather the most current and best research available.
There is also very little test data available showing direct correlation between the use of music technology and student advancement with musicianship skills. “The work in music education in studying the application of technology with constructivist approaches is strikingly meager for a field that is so dominated by technology usage. We lack sophisticated studies that examine music learning primarily driven by music technology,” Colwell (2011).
3


Other Limitations
This research is approached primarily from the published body of relevant literature on the topic, rather than conducting teacher interviews with a wide enough sample of multidisciplinary high school music teachers across the United States to be statistically significant. There was also no research of high school music students in regard to their experiences with music technology.
This paper is written with high school music educators in mind, so no attempt will be made to define or explain the musical concepts contained herein. Rather, the emphasis will be on presenting and briefly describing music technologies currently available to assist these music educators with finding and choosing those applications which will benefit their students.
This research is focused on enhancing music students’ musicianship skills who are already involved in a traditional ensemble, such as band, choir, orchestra, or other school ensemble, and will not attempt to address “stand-alone” music technology courses designed for the “non-traditional” music student with no prior musical training. Although the author is a proponent for such courses, it is beyond the scope of this research.
Arrangement of Thesis
For the sake of making this document an easy-to-use resource for classroom music teachers, it is arranged by use of musicianship skills appropriate for high school music students. They are:
1. Time
2. Sight-reading
3. General music theory
4. Singing and playing in tune
4


5. Improvisation
6. Composition
The literature review, Chapter Two, is arranged by how the research deals with these musicianship skills, followed by Chapter Three, providing music technologies current and specific to each of these six musicianship skills.
5


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
The review is organized based on the six musicianship skills found to be common threads throughout the literature and currently available technology. They are:
1. Time (Steady beat)
3. Sight-reading skills
2. General Music Theory
4. Singing and playing in tune
5. Improvisation
6. Composition
Researchers
Time
One of the most basic elements of music is the steady beat, and yet we find a surprising number of high school students without the ability accurately perform, or “feel” a steady beat. Hale (2009) states that, “Although steady beat is taught in the early grades, older students who have not mastered this concept will have little success with subdividing the beat or understanding that some notes are sustained for a specific number of beats.” She goes on to point out other musical shortcomings that students who have not mastered the steady beat will suffer. The fact that this is an issue in music education can be witnessed by its inclusion in four of the book sources for this paper, Brown (2015), Finney & Bumard (2007), Rudolph (2005), and Watson (2011). Each of these books puts forward various technologies which can help students become more proficient with their steady beat, some suggesting specific software programs that address this skill, some suggesting a method that does not take dedicated “steady beat” software to
6


accomplish: using a MIDI sequencer, tapping in the beat to a metronome, for example, quarter notes in 4/4 time, then examining the MIDI Event List, or the graphic representation (most sequencers have both) to see how close to the metronome time the student is performing. This gives a visual representation to the student if they are early, late, or perhaps randomly off from the steady beat. Specific software applications will be discussed in Chapter Three.
Swingler & Brockhouse (2009) put forward a great method for students with physical disabilities to practice and demonstrate steady beat using an alternative MIDI input method, or “gestural controller.” These MIDI controllers “allow the player to perform without any physical contact with the instrument.” They operate by emitting ultrasonic waves which are reflected back to a sensor, and the movements in the field are translated in to MIDI data. The performance area of the gestural controller can often be adjusted, down to a few centimeters, so that, “the invisible instrument can be varied in size to accommodate the movements that the player wishes to perform, or is capable of performing.” Students without the fine motor skills needed to tap on a computer keyboard space bar, for example, are able to input MIDI data with whatever physical gestures they are capable of. Peterson (2006) proposes using the simple technology of playing back recorded beats, or music, to which students can move kinesthetically in response to the beat. Marowitz (2011) while focusing on practice skills, reinforces the fact that technologically assisted practice lets students practice keeping with a steady beat on a regular basis. Ultimately, any technology that expects students to “stay with” a steady beat is practicing this skill, so it is an underlying musical principle pervasive throughout the literature.
Sight-reading
A common challenge among high school music students, whether instrumentalists or vocalists, is the ability to sight-read music accurately. Nothing can slow the progress of an
7


individual musician or entire ensemble more than the lack of each individual’s ability to sight-read the music being given to them, and yet we find an increasing number of prospective undergraduate music students without the ability to read music, Kuehne (2010). This includes both melodically and rhythmically. This ability builds on the skills learned in general music theory and aural skills, which teach the building blocks of this more encompassing skill, and like mastering those skills, requires practice. Music technology can serve as that ever-present teacher and drill-master helping students through guided and progressive practice and assessment to become more accomplished readers, Henry (2014).
Criswell & Menasche (2009) offer some specific software programs that offer sequential sight-reading drill programs for music students, such as SmartMusic and iPAS, (both of which will be discussed in Chapter Three), and espouse their effectiveness in helping students become more proficient sight-readers. Rudolph (2005) draws direct correlations between the National Standards for Music Education, which include “Reading and Notating Music” for high school students, recommending CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) software programs to help students reach those standards. He recommends students using the software to practice reading notes, melodies, and rhythms, and drill and practice software to help develop their music reading skills.
Peterson (2006) suggests using drill and training software for teaching note reading, scales, and intervals, and suggests using several different varieties of programs for stronger reinforcement. He also suggests challenging the students to get the highest scores, on those programs which offer assessments, and using the competitive aspect to motivate the students. He encourages teachers to stay current with the technology, as this kind of drill software is an effective tool for accomplishing the goal of having students well versed in their sight-reading
8


skills. As he says, “If you know the capabilities of music software, then you can design ways for your students to benefit from it.”
General Music Theory
The foundation of the musical language is encompassed within the term, “Music theory.” It is indeed a very broad category, but in the case of this research, which is focusing on the high school music student, we will limit the scope to what is called for in the National Standards for Music Education, 2014, NAFME (2014). These encompass key and time signatures, musical notation, intervals within an octave, note values, and basic rhythms. The teaching of the basics of music theory was perhaps the first and now the most saturated field for music education technologies, primarily because of the fundamental nature of music theory to musicianship. As Brown (2015) says, “Acquiring basic skills in music theory and aural awareness is a core aspect of music education.” As such, there is a plethora of literature addressing music theory technologies. Kuzmich (2009) opines, “Music Technology has changed once boring ear training exercises and theory into an exciting musical challenge,” and goes on to say that once teachers see these programs in action, they will appreciate how powerful and useful they are for students and teachers alike.
Brown (2015) devotes an entire chapter of his book, “Music Technology and Education: Amplifying Musicality” to the specific uses of music technologies in helping students learn their theory skills. This includes drills for music notation, as well as aural skills. He identifies four key activities found in music theory apps, including: 1) Identifying / Naming; 2) Matching; 3) Structuring, and; 4) Demonstration. In addition to these learning strategies, he names five approaches that are used for interactivity with these programs, including: 1) Recognition / Identification; 2) Repetition / Dictation; 3) Prediction; 4) Description, and; 5) Analysis, and
9


encourages teachers to look for these strategies and approaches when choosing music theory software. He concludes his thoughts by saying, “The best programs combine exploration (play) and achievement-based (test) incentives and progression. As always, the teacher’s role in choosing software, setting tasks, and providing learning activities and clarifications is critical for students’ successful use of musical software.” A very comprehensive list of music theory software and apps is provided, all of which will be discussed in Chapter Three.
In “Technology Strategies for Music Education,” Rudolph (2005) claims that, “Teachers should have a broad familiarity with available instructional software,” understanding how to, “install, use, and integrate these programs into their music curriculum taking full advantage of the record-keeping, evaluation, and instructional support CAI software provides.” He says that CAI software can become the “patient practice partner” allowing students to progress at their own pace. Peterson (2006), states that since all well-trained musicians need to be solid in their music fundamentals, drill software is an effective tool to reach that goal.
In "Music Technology: The Computer in Your Student's Pocket," Criswell (2009), the focus is on mobile devices, the many music apps that are currently available for them, and how music teachers can utilize these tools to help teach music theory. Since many students already have smart phones, inexpensive apps can be a great alternative for programs with small budgets for technology. He provides a list of music theory apps that will be discussed in Chapter Three.
There is no shortage of apps and software designed to help music students with their music theory skills, and all will be discussed in Chapter Three.
Singing and Playing in Tune
Until CPU speeds increased and software became more capable of “tracking” pitch in real time, (of vocalists or instrumentalists), this musicianship skill was difficult to aid using
10


technologies, often costing hundreds of thousands of dollars and requiring large amounts of space, Harrison (2014) . Strobe, and later, electronic tuners could be used, but that was just for one pitch at a time, and not conducive to guided practice. Teachers and students with “good ears” could easily tell when someone was playing or singing flat or sharp, but the student not in tune obviously could not. Because of their “challenged” ear, they had to rely on direct feedback from their teachers. Now that technology has advanced, there are many software programs that aid students with their pitch problems, tracking pitch and timing accuracy, and giving the student meaningful feedback, Rudolph, (2005). Most of these programs in one way or another have a graphic representation of where the student is actually singing in relationship to the correct pitch, cuing them visually to adjust their singing or playing accordingly.
Brown (2015) touches on this concept specifically, and recommends to teachers the more comprehensive programs, such as Practica Musica and Auralia, as they provide more accurate feedback to students. In a chapter written by Scott McCoy, “Singing Pedagogy in the twenty-First Century: A Look Toward the Future”, from the book, “Teaching Singing in the 21st Century”, Harrison (2014), he recommends not only using software, “developed especially for real time display of pitch accuracy and timbre,” such as Sing & See. He goes on to say as a voice researcher at The Ohio State University, “I am humbled by my students who instinctively understand the inner workings of advanced voice analysis software; they seem to have instant facility in tasks that took me months, if not years to master. In the digital world, I speak with an accent and an adolescent vocabulary, but that is sufficient for me to see the value of technology as an aid to teaching.” He foresees a future where music teachers regularly use technology as part of their teaching, as often as they use mirrors now, providing concise and accurate feedback for improvement.
11


These types of pitch-tracking apps and software programs are the “infants” of music educational software, and are not as abundant as some of the other types of technological tools, but all currently available programs that can help students learn to sing and play in tune will be discussed in Chapter Three.
In addition to pitch-tracking software, there is also the simple method of recording a rehearsal or performance for student and teacher assessment. Prior to digital recording, this was often done on cassette recorders, but now almost every smart phone has a built-in digital recording feature. Brown (2015), Rudolph (2005), Harrison (2014), Watson (2011), Criswell (2009), Marowitz (2011), Mercer (2008), and Peterson (2006) all encourage the use of digital recording devices, whether apps or Digital Audio Workstation (DAW) recording software, by students to record themselves for self evaluation and feedback from teachers and peers. All of these types of digital recording devices will be discussed in Chapter Three.
Improvisation
The Jamey Aebersold “Jazz-Play-Alongs” are an early example of how music technology (sound recordings on LP’s) could be used to help students learn to improvise. With the technologies available today a variety of methods for students to learn and practice their improvisational skills are available. Even the original Aebersold series has been upgraded to CDs and DVDs, Jazzbooks.com (2016). Programs like Band-in-a-Box allow a student to simply type in the chords of a jazz chart, choose the style, key, and tempo, and instantly be accompanied by a MIDI jazz trio, over and over and over again, in any key or tempo they choose, is just one example of how music technology can help students learn how to improvise, Brown (2015), Watson (2011).
12


In a 2011 research study, Bernhard (2013) discovered that 196 Bachelor of Music Education students reported only having “slight confidence” in teaching vocal or instrumental improvisation, which is where music technology can assist these teachers and their students in learning how to improvise. Nielsen (2013) through his research of student and teacher perceptions of using music technology to enhance creativity concluded that best practices in teaching music, “improvisation using instructional technology should be developed and implemented to enhance this aspect of music education as well as support 21st-century skills development for students.” Watson (2011) summarizes that software and hardware tools can, “stimulate, guide, and help document improvisation efforts as ends unto themselves or as part of the process of building larger creative structures.”
In addition to providing accompaniment for improvisation practice and exploration, listening to and learning from great improvisational artists can be a great tool. O’Donnel (2011), and Green (2013) both suggest using programs like Transcribe for this purpose, which is capable of slowing down the tempo of a recording so a student can pick out the notes of a fast passage more easily. It also allows for transpositions to put it in any desired key. Technology can be used in a variety of ways to enhance students’ improvisational skills, and specific apps and programs will be discussed in Chapter Three.
Composition
Tools for the composer, student or otherwise, have exploded since the advent of MIDI sequencing, and particularly the affordability of Digital Audio Workstations, (DAWs), capable of multi-track recording on a budget. Hardware and software synthesizers give composers a virtually unlimited palette of sounds from which to choose, and DAW’s give them the ability to record as many tracks as their computer can handle. Notation software has also taken a huge
13


burden off composers needing printed music to give to musicians, with the ability to transpose for specific instruments, create individual parts and conductors’ scores, export that to MIDI, or import from MIDI, share back and forth with a DAW, all at a mouse click.
Music software can make composing more accessible to students, and their prior experience as musical performers is not necessarily predictive of how they will achieve using software-based compositional tools, Bolton, (2008). These same tools have enabled student composition to take great leaps forward, primarily by giving them the ability to have instant feedback. For example, a student can write a piece for string quartet, and immediately hear a MIDI or sampled string quartet play it back. This allows students to make adjustments nearly on the fly, and to know exactly what their compositions sound like, Rudolph (2005). Next to music theory, the literature is expansive on the topic of technologies used for composition.
Finney (2007) gives seven specific case studies from around the globe on how technology is being used to assist students in composition, including the use of graphical technologies, electronic collaborations with other students, both intranet and internet, and using DJ-ing software to teach composing from creation to performance. Riley (2013) offers ideas on how students can use GarageBand, specifically with an iPad to sonically realize their compositions. Sibelius, Finale, Musescore, Noteflight, Reflow, Finale Notepad, and NotateMe are all notation programs that have made improvements in navigation, input and playback, and Brown (2015), recommends them for student composers. He also points out the fact that less expensive programs generally have more limited features, and apps for mobile devices are usually more limited than computer software, but may prove to be an advantage for students by not confusing them with too many options.
14


Brown (2015) also gives a very useful and detailed, 16-point technical features guide for teachers on how to choose the right notation software for their students. They include:
• Complexity
• Print Quality
• Input Methods
• Rhythmic Transcription and Rendering
• Staves, Clefs, and Articulations
• Editing and Transformation
• Text and Drawing
• Playback and Audio Rendering
• Display and Page Turning
• Computing Device
• Screen Size and Resolution
• Input Devices
• Playback Quality
• Local and/or Cloud Storage
• Printing
• Equipment Location
Teachers seeking a notation program would be well advised to consider all these elements before making a decision on what would best fit their needs.
DAWs came about as the blending of digital audio recording and MIDI sequencing, and evolved during the 1990s. Some of the most popular DAWs programs for desktop computers are Cubase, Sonar, Logic, Ableton Live, Pro Tools, FL Studio, GarageBand, Digital Performer,
15


Audacity, with Auria, Cubasis, BeatMaker 2, NanoStudio, and GarageBand available for the iPad, Brown (2015), Watson (2011). Because this research is focused on musicianship skills, there will be no attempt to discuss digital audio recording techniques of which DAWs are capable. Rather, attention will be given to their usefulness to the student composer, as an addition and extension to notation programs and their MIDI sequencing capabilities. However, it is important to note that since MIDI data can exist side by side with digital audio, the DAWs ability to produce finished-product digital audio recordings is why, “DAW software is often the core software application used in music education,” Brown (2015).
Wise (2011) calls for a change in traditional thinking about composition, saying that the, “challenge is that of moving technology from its position as an ‘add-on’ in the music curriculum to a position of being embedded within the curriculum.” Nielson (2013) found in his research of a high school music technology program that 9 out of 10 students strongly agreed that the use of technology helped them to become more creative in their compositions. Because of developments in music technology, it has never been easier or more fun for students to compose Watson (2011). He points to advances over the past 20 years which have made these developments possible, stating that “program designers have been making the technical side of the technology more and more invisible so users can get at the creative side more easily,” and, “more and more freeware, shareware, open source, and web applications are being created and offered at little or no cost.” For teachers and students, using technology for composition is “less of an obstacle than ever.”
Notation, sequencing, and DAWs which all overlap each other and can all be useful to the student composer will be discussed in Chapter Three.
16


CHAPTER III
CURRENTLY AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES
Overview
In the following sections of Chapter Three, which are based on six general musicianship skills, every attempt has been made to include an exhaustive list and description of apps and programs for iOS, Mac OS, Android, and Windows that are appropriate for the high school musician. This research does not include reviews or rankings, merely the manufacturers’ statements of what each app and program are designed for and capable of, the platform in which they operate, and the cost as of May, 2016.
This chapter is designed to be a resource for high school music educators to search for music technologies appropriate for their students. The supplemental Tables, which are Excel spread sheets provide this detailed information in a summarized spread sheet, including hyperlinks to URLs for each program, to further assist teachers in easily acquiring the desired software.
Also as an overview, for those adventurous teachers who would like to try their hand at creating their own programs, or challenging their students to do so, mention should be made of two of the top visual programming languages. No attempt will be made to instruct teachers how to use these programs, as they are merely being mentioned as further possibilities.
Pure Data, Pure Data (2016), is a visual programming language designed especially for creating interactive computer music and multimedia, Puckette (2016). It is open source, (and therefore, free), and runs on iOS / Mac OS / Windows / Android. It can be downloaded at http://puredata.info.
17


Max, Max (2016), is another visual programming language for music and multimedia, and has been used to create recordings, performances and installations, Cycling ’74 (2016). It runs on Mac OS and Windows, and can be purchased for $250.00, which is the teacher price, at https://cycling74.com/shop/ - .V4uiulfkiao.
Time
The development of a strong sense of time is paramount and fundamental to a musician’s success, Hale (2009). In this section, music technologies will be shown that are designed to help students develop their sense of steady beat. Drill programs in graded skill acquisition are an effective means of helping students development their sense of a steady beat, Brown (2015). Apps listed will be those available for iOS and Android in order of price. Mac OS or Windows programs that specifically deal with keeping a steady beat were not found. However, for more comprehensive rhythm training, see both the “Sight-Reading” and “General Music Theory” sections in this chapter, as many of the more complete ear training programs and apps have sections incorporated within them specifically for steady beat practice. Included in this section are those apps whose sole purpose is practicing steady beat. The accompanying supplemental document, Table 1, “Time Apps and Programs” gives a concise summary of the programs in this section, along with various data sorting sheets and hyperlinks to each app and program.
18


#1 Keep the Beat
#1 Keep the Beat, #1 Keep the Beat (2015) is an iOS app that sells for $0.99, Barber
(2015). Following is a list of its basic features:
• Provides a song with a strong beat, student taps along on the screen with the steady beat
• Music drops out, student continues tapping the beat (see Fig. 3.1)
• Points are lost for every 2 milliseconds students gets off the beat
• Scores performance, keeps scores, and scores can be shared with friends
Listen to the Rhythm Tap Right on the Beat
O J 8189
The beat is going to fade out in...
4
Improve Your Scores Dominate the Leaderboards
Figure 3.1: #1 Keep the Beat Screen Shots
19


Got Rhythm
Got Rhythm, Got Rhythm (2015) is an iOS app that sells for $0.99, Gilmour Games
(2015). Following is a list of its basic features:
• Provides a song with a strong beat, student taps along on the screen with the steady beat
• Music drops out, student continues tapping the beat (see Fig. 3.2)
• Points are scored for accuracy
• Compare your score with the world on game center
20


iKeepTime
iKeepTime, iKeepTime (2016) is an iOS app that sells for $0.99, ONYX Apps (2016).
Figure 3.1 shows screen shots of the app. Following is a list of its basic features:
• Uses Easy, Medium, and Hard modes to gradually increase difficulty
• Set tempos from 40 bpm to 200 bpm
• Tempo meter displays dragging or rushing tendencies (see Fig. 3.3)
• Accuracy Score includes percentage scores for Overall Accuracy, Perfect, Good, and Missed (see Fig. 3.3)
Beat tap area BPM Performance Meter
Accuracy Scores
Figure 3.3: iKeepTime Screen Shots
21


Pro Metronome
Pro Metronome, ProMetronome (2016) is a free iOS / Android app, EMULab (2016). Like MyTronome, it is essentially just a metronome, with the added “Rhythm Trainer” feature, (an in-app purchase of $0.99) which is able to program “Mute” measures. The app does not give any accuracy feedback, so the student has to self evaluate. Figure 3.4 shows screens shots of the app.
Introducing rhythm trainer
Strengthen your mind's metronome
Rhythm Trainer m-
Play 1 £ + Bars
And i Mute J ? Bars
Muted-Bc rs Visual Effects

Adjustable Mute Measures.
Figure 3.4: Pro Metronome Screen Shots
22


MyTronome
MyTronome, MyTronome (2012) is an iOS app that sells for $1.99 , Bellard (2016). While this is primarily just a metronome app, the training feature it offers is that the student can define a certain number of measures for the metronome to “drop out,” allowing the student to keep playing and see if they can come back in on time with the metronome. The app does not give any accuracy feedback, so the student has to self evaluate. Figure 3.5 shows screens shots of the app.
..ill AT&T 9 5:24 PM D
Sounds
Sound HHHH
Classic
Clave
Bell 1 ✓
Bell 2 ✓
Bell 3
Hooves
“ 162 Tempo (A| oo

40 i
Figure 3.5: MyTronome Screen Shots
23


Timing Trainer Pro
Timing Trainer Pro, Timing Trainer Pro (2014) is an iOS rhythmic skills training program and sells for $2.99, AppicDesign (2014). Following is a list of the basic features:
• Features many customization tools, such as tempo, volume of the “l’s”, choice of note values (see Fig. 3.6), choice of meter (see Fig. 3.7), and length of exercises (see Fig. 3.8)
Features two modes: Practice Mode and Tap Mode
Practice Mode allows the student to rehearse note values before being scored
Tap Mode allows students to tap in the specified note values (see Fig. 3.9), and receive
an evaluation (see Fig. 3.10)
Features a loop setting for endless practice Features three different click sounds
JJ
Figure 3.6: Timing Trainer Pro Note Value Choices
24


Figure 3.7: Timing Trainer Pro Meter Choices
J = 140
1's volume
J
in 3/4 for
in 4/4 for
in 6/8 tor
in 15/16 for
in 4/4 for

Figure 3.8: Timing Trainer Pro Exercise Choices
25


Figure 3.9: Timing Trainer Pro Tap Window
Tap Result
perfect: 2 (11 %)
EB
too early: 15 (79%)
â– 
too late: missed: am wrong: 1 (5%)
1 (5%)
0 (0%)
total score: 27%
Figure 3.10: Timing Trainer Pro Results
26


MIDI Sequencer / Digital Audio Workstation Method
MIDI sequencers and digital audio workstations (DAWs) with MIDI sequencing capabilities, (see “Composing” section for a complete list) can also be used for teachers and students to create their own steady beat drills and feedback, by varying the tempos of the metronome, playing a repeated note on a MIDI input device (or computer keyboard if capable), and examining the MIDI data (commonly called Event List, or “Piano Roll” view) to see how close the student is actually coming to landing exactly on the beat.
Many DAWs today come with the ability to “Find the Beat” of an audio file, so the teacher can import any song with a strong drum beat, have the DAW analyze the audio file, and have the student play the steady beat along with the audio track. This would help make it more relevant to the student, as the student could choose the music to import, but the technique and results would be the same as simply using the metronome.
This is helpful for showing tendencies, such as if a student is consistently early or late, and for informing them if they need to anticipate the beat more because they are late, or if they need to “lay-back”, or wait more for the beat because they are early.
This method is included because many music classrooms have at least one DAW or MIDI sequencer with a keyboard attached, so this would not cost the teacher or student anything to incorporate.
Figure 3.11 shows a screen shot using the DAW ProTools to achieve this method. The student was asked to play a repeated note on a MIDI keyboard to the steady beat, which is set at quarter note = 80bpm. As the “Piano Roll” view reveals, (called, “Notes” view in ProTools), it is visually apparent that the student is consistently ahead of the beat.
27


MIDI performance data from highlighted note from the MIDI track is displayed here. The student played on 2|1|936 (which means measure 2, beat 1, 936 ticks out of 980 ticks for a full beat) so he was 44 ticks early. A perfect performance would have been on 2121000.
2111936- Start 2| 1| 936 End 2| 2| 372 Length 0| 0| 396 J E4 i 80 t 64 '
Cursor 11 3| 493 - J D4 0 fl Dly ID 0 | / J - 80

Tempo Setting
2|1| 000

2|1| 480
2|31 000
btni Grill Lints
GJkit Trurii (Ika raprasauk &D bprrj, par int itmpn sailing nbuvt) iViiGJ Trusk fPiirpia bnrs rtprtstm nnit pikli, sisiri, -iiixi ajialj
Student is consistently early as seen by notes starting before the beat grid lines
Highlighted Note: MIDI Performance Data displayed above
Figure 3.11: ProTools Steady Beat Exercise Screen Shot
28


Sight-reading Skills
One important skill on the path to becoming a consummate musician is the ability to sight-read music. Nothing can assist a band, choir, or orchestra teacher more than an ensemble full of students who are proficient sight-readers. Instead of spending rehearsal time on learning notes and rhythms, groups can focus on the musicality of those notes and rhythms. In this section, I will show music technologies designed to help students develop skills in their vocal and instrumental sight-reading abilities.
It is also important to note that many of the complete music theory programs and ear training programs include lessons and exercises to help student become better sight-readers (see Chapter 3: General Music Theory). Skills such as interval recognition, rhythmic reading and performance, solfege, and many other basic music theory skills are the building blocks of becoming a proficient sight-reader. Listed in this section are those programs that deal specifically with sight-reading, both rhythmically and melodically. They will be organized in this section by price, from high to low. The accompanying supplemental document, Table 2, “Sight-Reading Apps and Programs” gives a concise summary of the programs in this section, along with various data sorting sheets and hyperlinks to each app and program.
29


The Practice Room
The Practice Room, The Practice Room (2015) is an online sight-reading program that sells for $149.95 for a one-year entire school subscription, or $59.95 for an individual subscription. Following is a list of its basic features:
• Features 200 rhythmic reading exercises, 200 sight singing exercises, 200 two-part reading exercises, 200 minor key exercises, 55 exercises with hymns, chorales, and motets, along with interval drills, all in a graded sequence (see Fig. 3.12)
• All exercises have correctly recorded audio so students can evaluate their performance
• Teachers can monitor exercises attempted and time spent on each
• School subscription allows printing of sight-singing materials for class use
• Allows students to access from any computer with internet access, home or school
Sight Singing - Level 5 - Example 19 of 41
You will hear
a count oft and than tha answer track
Figure 3.12: The Practice Room Example Screen shot
30


SmartMusic
SmartMusic, SmartMusic (2016) is an iOS / Mac OS / Windows program designed primarily for student home vocal and instrumental practice that sells for $140.00 for a one-year educator subscription, $99.00 for “Practice Room” subscription (which is essentially a one-seat at-school license), and $40.00 for an individual student subscription, for those students whose teachers have the annual educator subscription MakeMusic, Inc (2016). Although its primary function is to rehearse commercially available band, choir, and orchestra repertoire for school ensembles, it offers a very accurate and useful assessment feature, and is capable of real-time assessments of rhythm and pitch. As such, it can be used not only for practicing repertoire more efficiently, but also as a sight-reading drill program because of its feedback capabilities. Following is a list of its basic features as related to sight-reading:
• Features over 4,000 ensemble titles, and 18,000 solo titles to choose from with background accompaniment
• Features over 60 of the most popular method books for band, choir, and orchestra
• Features 600 sight-reading and sight singing exercises
• Can import any file from Finale
• For each piece, for example, provides pitch and rhythm accuracy assessments for students (see Fig. 3.13; may need to enlarge to see details)
• Gives teachers complete assessment data for each student, including student recordings of assigned assessment (see Fig. 3.14 and 3.15; may need to enlarge to see details)
• An extremely flexible program with hundreds of features (see Fig. 3.16)
31


Built-in click track
Built-in tuner
Change the tempo and loop difficult sections to master technical challenges
Click on a note to see a chart showing the correct fingering
D O
F Horn Bb Horn Double Horn

1 1 â–  1


Hear My Part and Accompaniments
Assessment score Green notes are correct
Red notes are early, late, or have the wrong pitch
Figure 3.13: SmcirtMusic Student Exercise Window Features
Screen shot of
SmartMusic
assessment
Export options for student portfolio
SmartMusic assessment grade can be changed
Teacher evaluates recording and re-assigns if necessary
How much time the student spent on this assignment
Play the student’s recording
Teacher's comments are documented
Figure 3.14: SmartMusic Teacher Student Assessment Window Features
32


Current class and grading period
Customize view and sort by any category
Click to sort in score order
Final grade
Export class information in a variety of formats
Legend
Click on a title for assignment details
Maximum points
Icons give status of assignments at a glance
Figure 3.15: SmcirtMusic Teacher Gradebook Window Features
Sight Reading
After you click "Start Take’...

1. Study 2. Get Ready
Study for up to 30 seconds Perform after the countoff
Figure 3.16: SmcirtMusic Student Interface Features
33


Practice Sight Reading
Practice Sight Reading, Practice Sight Reading (2016) is an online sight-reading program that works with iOS / Android / Mac OS / Windows, and sells for $60.00 for the Deluxe version
(which includes rhythmic and melodic sight reading) for an annual subscription, or is free for the rhythmic only version, Jesse Clark, LLC (2016). Following is a list of the basic features:
• Generates graded rhythmic and melodic sight-reading exercises (see Figs. 3.17 and 3.18), customizable by the student (see Fig. 3.19 and 3.20)
• Does not provide an input method or any time of assessment - students can play back
each example that is performed correctly to self evaluate their performance Can be accessed by any internet capable device
Practice Sight Reading
3/8 meter for 10 measures at level 4
PRACTICE FAQ UPDATES CONTACT SIGN UP
Print Settings Refresh Music
ii 3 ~ b 7 |
■■ 3 ' n » w ~ 7 9 7 9 \
II
t n
j» j» ij
Create
time
signature:
► ©
There will be one measure to count you in.
Change Listen Settings Refresh
Tired of Practicing Just Rhythm?
Sign up for a Deluxe account and practice melodies, custom levels, and more.
Sign up Now for a Free One Week Trial.
Learn more about the Deluxe Version.
See what people are saying about PracticeSightReading.com
Figure 3.17: Practice Sight Reading Rhythm Exercise Screen Shot
34


Bored with just practicing rhythm?
Turn melodies on, choose your clef (Treble, Bass, Alto or Tenor), interval and the range of notes. You can set the custom level to quarter notes to practice sight singing.
Below is 2 measures of level 3:
— *— i i t 0 — *—. • m —n
17 J
rA 1 7 7 7 /
—-— —^
Figure 3.18: Practice Sight Reading Melodic Exercise Example
Custom Levels!
Want to practice just triplets, or perhaps you don't want rests to come up in your exercises? Choose which rhythms show up. This works with Rhythm and Melody modes and with all the time signatures.
Two Eighth Notes
W «7
n â– 
Lr'
r
Eighth Note + Eighth Rest
Add
Eighth Note + Eighth Rest
Add
Four Sixteenth Notes
Two Sixteenth Notes + Eighth Rest
Add
Figure 3.19: Practice Sight Reading Custom Levels Example
Simple & Complex Meters
The following meters are currently available for practice:
Figure 3.20: Practice Sight Reading Available Meters
35


Sight Reading Factory
Sight Reading Factory, Sight Reading Factory (2016) is an iOS / Mac OS / Windows online sight-reading program that sells for $34.99 for a personal plan annual subscription, $34.99 for an educator subscription, and a variable rate for student annual subscriptions (whose teachers have the educator subscription) ranging from $25.99 for one student down to $2.00 per student for 99 students or more. The iOS app is a free download, but students need to have a subscription to access the content, Gracenotes, LLC (2016). . Following is a list of the basic features:
• Features graded, unlimited sight reading exercises written specifically for the ranges of SATB, percussion, strings, guitar, woodwinds, brass, and full ensemble exercises for concert band, choir, string orchestra, and full orchestra (see Fig. 3.21)
• Provides many tools for teachers, including printing exercises, customizing exercises, and the ability to make assignments to students, hear their performance as recorded audio, and make assessments (see Fig. 3.22)
• Allows students to record their performances but does NOT give direct feedback or assessment to students - students upload their audio recording and the teacher assesses and grades the performance
• iOS app allows students to practice and complete assignments from anywhere by using the built-in microphone on their iOS device (see Fig. 3.23)
• Extremely flexible and comprehensive program for school programs
36


„y„, Play Opening Pitch
0:00 GOOD
This free demo allows up to 20 totaL exercises. It loops through 5 exercises for each instrument, level, key signature, and time signature configuration. Subscribers have access to unlimited amounts of sight reading exercises, uniquely composed each time you click 'Another One'.
Subscribe Now
Level 5 | Bb Tenor Saxophone
,—* E= ■f#— p—ji P -mv ' * * ? *
%——> / 1 r h» =— L 1 I mp ■ j }=p-|—4—4 fk « l» if II
g f T rJ- 1# ) j ? J 1 J * tfJ 7 P I1 M
p
Figure 3.21: Sight Reading Factory Exercise Screen Shot
SR 2nd quarter quit Ti>t» >
said yu eancwiAsci tx*. lmi :
Level 2 Bb Trumpet
j i j i« n i j ij. ~ ij
mp
j. J ^ # ^
"/
Figure 3.22: Sight Reading Factory Teacher Assessment Screen Shot
37


Unlimited Sight Reading Exercises
Huge variety of instruments
Violin
Time Difficulty Key
4/4 4 C Major
Pick the Difficulty Best for You
<( Choose Level (i
o
o i J 1 J ). JJJ jjj - - *â–  * 7
v* Dynamics Accidents v Articulations ✓ Ties
no greater leaps than 5ths
Customize Your Practice Sessions
< Custom Difficulty
o J. J
J y
jjj jjj
-• *•
7
M I IIS\
Confirm
Student? Get feedback from your teacher
Figure 3.23: Sight Reading Factory iOS Screen Shots
38


Steps to Reading Music
Steps to Reading Music, Steps to Reading Music (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows sightreading program that sells for $29.99 for a single-computer, multiple-user license, Ars Nova (2016). It is part of the Practica Musica complete music theory program (see Chapter 3: General Music Theory: Practica Musica). Following is a list of the basic features: .
• Features 12 graded exercises with review if students need more help (See Fig. 3.24)
• Exercises are computer generated, so students will never run out of new material
• Provides performance assessment and feedback for rhythmic and melodic exercises
• Provides multiple input options, from computer keyboard, to MIDI keyboard to microphone for singing or playing the pitched melodic exercises
• When students have mastered this curriculum, Ars Nova recommends upgrading to the
full version of Practica Musica for further exercises
;xtbook Ten Rhythm Tapping Exercises__________________________________________________
Example 1.01
Your total score is now 140, with 930 needed. Please tap the rhythm of this melody.
Figure 3.24: Steps to Reading Music Rhythm Tapping Exercise Screen Shot
39


Rhythm Sight Reading Trainer
Rhythm Sight Reading Trainer, Rhythm Sight Reading Trainer (2016) is an iOS rhythm sight-reading app that sells for $2.99, Steenge (2016). Following is a list of the basic features:
• Provides two modes: “Practice Mode” (see Fig. 3.25), where students listen or tap along while the rhythm is played with accuracy instantly displayed visually, and “Test Mode” (see Fig. 3.26), where students hear only the metronome and must tap the rhythm and when finished the accuracy score is displayed
• Features 200 fixed exercises (see Fig. 3.27), and thousands of random exercises based on 20 levels of difficulty, and the ability for students to email their scores
• Offers a swing option for all exercises
• Adjustable metronome with speeds of 20 to 240 bpm
• Offers using the built-in microphone as an input method, so students can clap, verbalize, or play an instrument instead of tapping
L10# 0.64 sec play3x
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 >
80
o
Score 100% Total deviation 0.64 sec Avg 0.01
Figure 3.25: Rhythm Sight Reading Trainer Practice Mode Screen Shot
40


# 0.46 sec
80
100% (80%) Total deviation 0.46 sec Avg 0.01
play 3x 3
12 3 4
Figure 3.26: Rhythm Sight Reading Trainer Test Mode Screen Shot ^ Settings Fixed exercises Done
•°-27 i J i, n j. 38
Eighth note triplets
J 'rilJ 39
#0.16 | J j ] J ] 40
•°-27 % n rh j «
•°261 rh n 42
•°,s 11 rti j 1 «
Figure 3.27: Rhythm Sight Reading Trainer Fixed Exercises Screen Shot
41


Rhythm Teacher
Rhythm Teacher, Rhythm Teacher (2016) is an Android app that teaches rhythm sightreading and is free, Gamya Games (2016). Following is a list of the basic features:
• Features sight-reading rhythm game for practicing graded exercises
• Features polyrhythmic exercises with two lines at the same time, one line played with each thumb (see Fig. 3.28)
• Provides immediate student assessment scores based on rhythmic accuracy
• Covers note and rest durations down to sixteenth notes, and both simple and compound time signatures

Polyrhythmic Example
Figure 3.28: Rhythm Teacher Exercise Screen Shots
42


General Music Theory
While this topic could conceivably encompass all six of the musicianship skill areas identified, for the purposes of this research, focus will be on written music theory and ear training. The literature is saturated with software programs to help students with these skills, and as many as possible will be shown, organized alphabetically with complete programs first, then written theory, ear training, to the apps and programs that deal with one specific skill. The accompanying Table 3, “General Music Theory Apps and Programs” gives a concise summary of the programs in this section, along with various data sorting sheets and hyperlinks to each app and program.
43


Essentials of Music Theory
Essentials of Music Theory, Essentials of Music Theory (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows complete, interactive music theory and ear training course, Alfred Music (2016). Available versions include Essentials of Music Theory (EMT) Volume 1, Student Version which sells for $29.99, EMT Complete, Student Version for $59.99, EMT Volume I, Educator Version for $129.99, EMT Complete, Educator Version for $249.99, EMT Volume 1, Network Edition for 5-users for $349.00, EMT Complete, Network Version for 5-users for $599.00, EMT Complete, Student Web Version, annual fee of $19.99, and EMT complete, Educator Web Version, annual fee of $129.99. Following is a list of the basic features:
• Course is organized in three volumes, and Volume I is offered separately, while the “Complete” version offers all three volumes
• Includes randomized exercises, ear training, and graded reviews for each unit
• Volume I, Lessons 1-25 features lessons on: treble and bass clefs, 4/4, 3/4 & 2/4 time signatures, flats, sharps, and naturals, whole and half steps, dynamic signs, tempo and articulation markings, and up to eighth notes and rests (see Fig. 3.29)
• Volume II, Lessons 26 - 50 features lessons on: major scales, key signatures, circle of fifths, intervals, 3/8 and 6/8 time, triads, and V7 chords
• Volume III, Lessons 51 - 75 features lessons on: 1st and 2nd inversions of triads, figured bass, chord progressions, minor scales and triads, modes, harmonizing & composing melodies, 12-bar blues and blues scale, basic music forms
• Web version allows students to access the program from home, school, or any computer with internet access and Adobe Flash Player.
• Allows teachers to customize lessons and tests
44


Many companion products are also available, such as student and teacher books,
listening CDs, games, and flashcards
Lessons Terms Scores
Lessons Terms Scores
Figure 3.29: Essentials of Music Theory Lesson Screen Shots
45


Music Theory Tutor
Music Theory Tutor, Music Theory Tutor (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows complete, interactive music theory and ear training program that sells for $59.95 for the Music Theory Tutor Volume 1 (Graded 1 through 5) single-user edition, $59.95 for the Music Theory Tutor Volume 11 (Graded 6 through 9) single-user edition, $99.95 for the Music Theory Tutor Complete (compilation of Volumes I and II) single-user edition , $49.95 for the Music Theory Tutor School Edition for a single student individual license, $149.95 for the Music Theory Tutor School Edition for a teacher classroom license which allows projection and SMART board use, $449.00 for a 5-computer lab pack of Music Theory Tutor School Edition, $50.00 for each student for the Music Theory Tutor School Edition Site-License with a minimum of 10 students, and $30.00each student for the Music Theory Tutor School Edition Cloud License, with a minimum of 10 students, eMedia Music Corporation (2016). Following is a list of the basic features:
• Provides over 430 music theory lessons, exercises, and tests
• Graded levels one through nine (not correlated to school grade levels)
• Lessons incorporate both written music theory and basic ear training
• Uses computer microphone for input, singing, humming, or instrumental
• Provides graphs, charts, and lists to measure student progress (see Fig. 3.30)
• “Intelligent Practice” feature which tracks student progress and automatically selects questions to improve weaknesses (see Fig. 3.31)
• Exercises and lessons to teach: rhythmic fundamentals (see Fig. 3.32), counting, simple and compound time signatures, key signatures (see Fig. 3.33), reading music, music notation, scales, intervals, chords, chord progressions, musical form (see Fig. 3.34), solfege, and sight singing
46


Figure 3.30: Music Theory Tutor Progress Statistics Screen Shot
Figure 3.31: Music Theory Tutor Intelligent Practice Screen Shot
47


Figure 3.32: Music Theory Tutor Rhythm Reading Screen Shot
Figure 3.33: Music Theory Tutor Rhythm Reading Screen Shot
48


Figure 3.34: Music Theory Tutor Rhythm Reading Screen Shot
49


Practica Musica
Practica Musica, Practica Musica (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows complete interactive music theory program that sells for $45.00 for the downloadable single-user student edition, $50 for the same delivered on a flashdrive, $100 for the standard edition, which allows multiple users at one computer and includes “Instructor Options”, and $300 for a one-year 30-seat site license, Ars Nova (2016). Following is a list of the basic features:
• Provides 255 individual lessons divided into two categories: ear training and music theory
• All lessons generate material randomly, and will assess and keep records for each user
• Instructor features allow customization and simple record keeping for each student
• Ear Training lessons start with “Single Pitches” and progress through “Chord Progressions” and, “Hearing Form and Texture” (see Fig 3.35)
• Theory Fessons begin with “Pitch Names” and progress through “Harmonic Analysis”, “Notational Devices”, and, “Composition” (see Fig. 3.36)
• For a detailed lessons list: http://www.ars-nova.com/activities.html
• Comes with accompanying digital textbook, “Exploring Theory with Practica Musica” which has more detailed information on the topics, along with listening examples and links to the lessons in Practica Musica software (see Fig 3.37)
• Features “Webstudent” option, which stores all record keeping in the whether student is working from home or at school, and allows students to view progress and communicate with the instructor
50


Textbook Generated Rhythm Dictation
Generated Rhythm Dictation
Your score is now 460, with 2400 needed. Please play or write the melody you hear.
y-r-s—
7 w.
M c L
t)
x
Hear example || Hear my version Set Temped Instructions
o J Ri j* i etc. none jj |, .J JT]
--oh 9 * l| X U, r jj
Figure 3.35: Practica Musica Ear Training Screen Shot
Figure 3.36: Practica Musica Theory Screen Shot
51


Chapter IV. Complex Rhythm
Exploring Theory with Practica Musica
35
Triplets, Duplets, and Tuplets
We’ve seen that all undotted notes divide only in twos, fours, eights, etc. What if you want to fit three equal notes into the time of a single undotted quarter note?
3 3
You can do it by marking each group with the number "3," as follows: J- J J J J,/TLJj LJS
The grouping is called a triplet, and the ”3'' indicates that an undotted note is to be divided into three equal parts. The above illustration shows how you would notate triplets having the time value of a half note, a quarter note, or an eighth note. In the Mozart example, three triplet eighth notes are played in the time of two normal eighth notes, i.e., in the time of a quarter note. The triplet accompaniment is especially effective here, used in contrast to the duple rhythm of the melody:
Figure 9. Triplets in Mozart’s K. 467 Piano Concerto, K.467
Suggested Practica Musica activity: Reading Triplets. Practice reading music examples with triplet rhythms.
Link to software lesson from electronic textbook
Figure 3.37: “Exploring Theory with Practica Musica” Sample Page
52


Musition 5
Musition 5, Musition 5 (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows interactive written music theory program that sells for $99.00 for the downloadable student edition, $29.00 each for the student Cloud edition with a minimum of ten students, $159.00 for the student downloadable edition when bundled with Auralia 5, and $49.00 each for the student Cloud edition when bundled with Auralia 5, minimum of 10 students, Rising Software (2016). They claim Musition and Auralia to be, “The world's most powerful ear training & music theory software.” Following is a list of the basic features:
• Is the written theory component of its companion product, Auralia 5, which is the ear training component of the pair
• Provides 38 topics divided into five groups: Pitch (see Fig 3.38), Rhythm (See Fig. 3.39), Terms & Symbols (see Fig 3.40), Harmony (see Fig 3.41) and Instruments (see Fig 3.42)
• Provides syllabus support for over 15 common international theory syllabi, including AP Music Theory, and also allows teachers to customize their own syllabus
• Allows a wide range of record keeping and assessment for teachers, including student summary, activity log, practice results, test scores and course scores (see Fig. 3.43)
• Allows teachers to design tests, worksheets and courses and assign them to any class (see Fig. 3.44)
• Cloud feature allows students to work from home or school, with results always available to the student and teacher
53


Scale Degrees Drill
©
This is a minor key. What is the scale degree?

7
v o


Scale Degrees
© First Fifth
O Third Sixth
O Fourth Seventh
Submit â–º
^_________________________________________________________________________________________________________/
Figure 3.38: Musition 5, Pitch Category Screen Shot
Meter Recognition Drill
Identify the time signature. ©
Time Signatures
O 2/2 O 3/8
O 4/4 O 6/8
O 5/4 O 9/8
Submit â–º
Figure 3.39: Musition 5, Rhythm Category Screen Shot
54


Ornaments Drill
©
Which of these examples shows how this ornament would be played or interpreted?
Replay 0
Submit â–º
Figure 3.40: Musition 5, Terms and Symbols Category Screen Shot
Chords Drill
What chord is this? ©
Answers
O Diminished O Major (2nd inversion)
O Dominant 7th (1 st inversion) O Major (root position)
© Dominant 7th (2nd inversion) O Sus 4
Submit â–º
Figure 3.41: Musition 5, Harmony Category Screen Shot
55


Instrument Range Drill
©
Select the bar that shows the PROFESSIONAL range of the Bassoon in C.
All notes are written in concert pitch.
Top
Bottom
y — y y — y o —
a fg o ft
VmJ
tj
4V

/ / /

Figure 3.42: Musition 5, Instruments Category Screen Shot
Musition Report Preview
6 0 0 4 !1 ) j 140%B A J V Li I Q Page: 1/1
Test Results Entries
Report selections
Class: All
User: WILSON, TIM (TIM)
Test: Jazz Theory - Level 3
Date range: All
Results from: Attempt: Course: Percentage:
Regular only
Latest
All
All
CLASS Default Class
Test Jazz Theory - Level 3
Student wilson, tim (TIM) Time (m:ss) Question Score Detailed Score
Entry Taken Limit When Score Marks % Score Marks %
1 Intervals Level 3 5 questions Jazz 0:39 2/23/16 11:11 PM 5/5 5/5 100.00 5/5 5/5 100.00
2 Jazz Scales Level 3 5 questions Jazz 1:01 2/23/16 11:12 PM 4/5 20/25 80.00 17/18 24/25 96.00
3 Scale Home Keys Level 3 5 questions Jazz 0:29 2/23/16 11:12 PM 5/5 5/5 100.00 5/5 5/5 100.00
4 Jazz Chord Symbols Level 3 5 questions Jazz 1:03 2/23/16 11:14 PM 5/5 5/5 100.00 5/5 5/5 100.00
5 Jazz Chords Level 3 5 questions Jazz 0:41 2/23/16 11:14 PM 2/5 2/5 40.00 2/5 2/5 40.00
6 Chord/Scale Relationships Level 3 5 questions Jazz 0:48 2/23/16 11:15 PM 4/5 4/5 80.00 4/5 4/5 80.00
Total for this student 30 4:41 25/30 41 / 50 82.00 38/43 45/50 90.00
Figure 3.43: Musition 5, Teacher Test Results Screen Shot
56


Musition
^ & ssr h a S’ 51 ® © HOME PRACTICE PEOPLE MESSAGES SYLLABUS TESTS COURSES REPORTS LIBRARY NOTATION SETTINGS HELP Musition5 ^
Tests
+ 0 := CS Test Details
<* Classes
â–¼ Music Theory
Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5
â–¼ Jazz Theory
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
â–¼ AP* Music Theory
Level 1 Level 2 Exam Level
â–¼ Band Theory
Novice - Level 1 Novice - Level 2 Novice - Level 3 Intermediate - Level 1 Intermediate - Level 2 Intermediate - Level 3 Advanced - Level 1 Advanced - Level 2 Advanced - Level 3
â–º FSMTA
GCSE - Theory Worksheet
â–º Trinity Guildhall
â–º Western Australia
Name: Music Theory-Level 1
Description: This test js designed to cater for beginner music students.
Group: Music Theory
Options: 0 Allow test to be resumed later O Allow tempo to be changed
0 Show correct/incorrect feedback Read-only after being imported
0 Allow students to view entries Maximum attempts: 5 J
Results: 0 Allow students to view results 0 Show results upon completion
@ Show question count and detailed percentage O Show question percentage and detailed percentage O Scores not shown
Entries: Timeslots: Time limit: Copyright:
Contains 16 entries Times are restricted Unlimited
| Entries... |
| Timeslots... |
| Time Limits... |
0 11A O 12A 0 7A O 7B 0 7C O 8A 0 8B O 8C 0 9A 0 9B
0 Default Class
User: WILSON, TIM (TIM) (Cloud school RS2016)
Figure 3.44: Musition 5, Teacher Test Assignment Screen shot
57


Auralia 5
Auralia 5, Auralia 5 (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows complete interactive ear training program that sells for $99.00 for the downloadable student edition, $29.00 each for the student Cloud edition with a minimum of ten students, $159.00 for the student downloadable edition when bundled with Musition 5, and $49.00 each for the student Cloud edition when bundled with Musition 5, minimum of 10 students, Rising Software (2016). They claim Musition and Auralia to be, “The world's most powerful ear training & music theory software.” Following is a list of the basic features:
• Is the ear training component of its companion product, Musition 5, which is the music theory component of the pair
• Provides 43 topics, divided into five groups: Intervals & Scales (see Fig. 3.44), Chords, (see Fig. 3.45), Rhythm (see Fig. 3.46), Harmony & Form (see Fig. 3.47), and, Pitch & Melody (see Fig. 3.48)
• Provides syllabus support for over 15 common international theory syllabi, including AP Music Theory, and also allows teachers to customize their own syllabus
• Allows a wide range of record keeping and assessment for teachers, including student summary, activity log, practice results, test scores, and course scores (see Fig. 3.49)
• Allows teachers to design tests, worksheets, and courses, and assign them to any class (see Fig. 3.50)
• Cloud feature allows students to work from home or school, with results always available to the student and teacher
58


Scale Singing Drill

Sing the scale from the given starting note.
Major: ASCENDING
Progress
OOOOOOOGOOOOO
Press start or the spacebar when you are ready to sing.
Replay 0
Start â–º
Figure 3.44: Auralia 5, Intervals & Scales Category Screen Shot
Chord Comparison Drill
©
Is the second chord the same as the first chord?
Chord 1
Chord 2
Answer
O Same O Different
Replay 0
Submit â–º
Figure 3.45: Auralia 5, Chords Category Screen Shot
59


Rhythm Dictation Drill
Notate the rhythm.
©
hH
J
\
Ml J1 || It |
0 0H
Replay Q |
Submit â–º
Figure 3.46: Auralia 5, Rhythm Category Screen Shot
Part Dictation Drill
Enter the notes for the Bass part. Tonality: Major
©
â–¡0000 â–¡â–¡
DO DEI EH â–¡â–¡ 0 0
Clear My Answer Replay 0
Figure 3.47: Auralia 5, Harmony & Form Category Screen Shot
60


Melodic Dictation Drill
Notate the played melody. Atonic note, chord or perfect cadence will be played before the melody.
©
â–¡EDGES â–¡â–¡â–¡â–¡ ddodeheh â–¡â–¡
Play My Answer â–º
Replay Q |
Submit â–º
Figure 3.48: Auralia 5, Intervals & Scales Category Screen Shot
Auralia Report Preview
S Q. Q Q
u4 <4 ^
Q Page: 1/1
Test Results Entries
Report selections
Class: All
User: WILSON, TIM (TIM)
Test: Trinity Guildhall Aural - Grade 2
Date range: All
Results from: Regular only Attempt: Latest
Course: All
Percentage: All
CLASS Default Class
Test Trinity Guildhall Aural - Grade 2
Student wilson, tim (TIM) Time (m:ss) Question Score Detailed Score
Entry Taken Limit When Score Marks % Score Marks %
1 Melodic Comparison Grade 2 4 questions Trinity Guildhall 0:50 2/23/16 10:34 PM 3/4 15/20 75.00 3/5 12/20 60.00
2 Meter Recognition Grade 2 4 questions Trinity Guildhall 0:11 2/23/16 10:35 PM 2/4 2/4 50.00 2/4 2/4 50.00
3 Pitch Comparison Grade 2 4 questions Trinity Guildhall 0:39 2/23/16 10:35 PM 3/4 3/4 75.00 3/4 3/4 75.00
4 Pulse Tapping Grade 2 4 questions Trinity Guildhall 1:03 2/23/16 10:36 PM 2/4 10/20 50.00 38/40 19/20 95.00
5 Rhythm Comparison Grade 2 4 questions Trinity Guildhall 0:55 2/23/16 10:37 PM 3/4 15/20 75.00 7/11 13/20 65.00
Total for this student 20 3:38 13/20 45/68 66.18 53/64 49/68 72.06
Figure 3.49: Auralia 5, Teacher Test Results Screen Shot
61


Si #R H 0 0* 51 ^ ® ©
Auralia5
Tests
â–¼ Ear Training
Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 ' Jazz Aural Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
’ AP* Music Theory-Aural Exam Level Level 1 Level 2 Band Aural FSMTA
GCSE - Aural Worksheet Trinity Guildhall Aural Western Australia
E i= C3 Test Details
Classes
Name: Ear Training - Level 1
Description: This tes{. jS designed to cater for beginner music students.
Group:
Options:
Entries: Timeslots: Time limit: Copyright:
Ear Training
Q Allow test to be resumed later 0 Allow tempo to be changed 0 Show correct/incorrect feedback ) Read-only after being imported Q Allow students to view entries Maximum attempts: 5 ±
Q Allow students to view results Q Show results upon completion Q Show question count and detailed percentage O Show question percentage and detailed percentage O Scores not shown
Contains 6 entries Available at any time
11A 12A
7A
User: SMITH, BRAD (BRAD.SMITH) (Cloud school RS2016)
Figure 3.50: Auralia 5 Intervals & Scales Category Screen Shot
62


Alfred’s Interactive Musician
Alfred’s Interactive Musician, Alfred’s Interactive Musician (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows ear training program that sells for $39.95 for the student edition, $99.95 for the educator edition which adds teacher functions, and $249.95 for the network edition which allows for 5 simultaneous users, Alfred Music (2016). Following is a list of the basic features:
• Billed as a “musicianship course”
• Features three sections: Pitch Training (see fig. 3.51), Sight-Reading (see Fig. 3.52), and Rhythm (see Fig. 3.53)
• Input is limited to onscreen keyboard or attached MIDI keyboard
• Designed to enhance interval, chord and scale recognition, and to improve sight-reading
• Features multiple levels that are customizable
• Randomizes drills so exercises are never duplicated
• Teachers can create tests and have immediate access to student progress
File Goto... Advanced Options Instrument Audo Setup Zoom Help
INTERVAL EXERCISE
Level 1: Key trf C - 2nd, 3rd
m
Correct
« 1/10
Incorrect
The Interval Exercise mil develop your ability to recognoe a to as Relative Pitot
a yven peoi also referred
7— That last interval was
Major 2nd
\
1
Figure 3.51: Alfred’s Interactive Musician Pitch Exercise Screen Shot
63


Figure 3.52: Alfred’s Interactive Musician Sight-Reading Exercise Screen Shot
File Goto... Advanced Options Instrument Audo Setup Zoom Help
w m w ~mm
i-----3-----1
lJ—«_ jL J- J—
iii
Oops!
You made a mistake.
Look (or the Red X to see where the mistake was made.

1 of 10 C
Accuracy Sustain Mistakes Difficulty Tempo (hpm) L
04 92 1

St
<4\ 29 |Q ^tl| 60 [O-
Reading F.xerrn <1 Hand I
Level 29: Quarter Note Triplets
Figure 3.53: Alfred’s Interactive Musician Rhythm Exercise Screen Shot
64


EarMaster 6
EarMaster 6, EarMaster 6 (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows interactive ear training program that sells for $59.95 for the EarMaster 6 Pro single-user student edition, $69.95 for the Taskmaster 6 Teacher Edition for a single user, $149.00 for the Earmaster 6 Cloud edition for 20-users for one-year, (which also supports iOS), and $249.95 for the Earmaster 6 Lab Pack for a 5-seat site license, EarMaster ApS (2016). Following is a list of the basic features:
• Provides over 2,000 exercises for ear training, sight-singing, and rhythm training at all skill levels
• Activities include: interval comparison (see Fig. 3.54), interval identification, interval singing, chord identification (see Fig. 3.55), chord inversions, chord progressions, scale identification (see Fig. 3.56)„ rhythmic sight-reading, (see Fig. 3.57), rhythm imitation, rhythm error detection, rhythmic dictation, melodic dictation (see Fig. 3.58), melody imitation, and melodic sight-singing
• Teaches students to recognize, transcribe, and sing melodies, scales, chords, intervals, chord progression, and rhythms
• Provides jazz course with swing rhythms, jazz chords, and sight-singing of jazz standards
• Provides detailed statistics to students to monitor their progress
• Allows customization of exercises
• Allows answer entry with multiple-choice buttons, notation staff, on-screen instruments (piano, guitar, bass, violin, cello, mandolin, banjo, and others), solfege syllables, scale degrees, and more
• Students can use a microphone to sing, clap, or play their answers in real time
65


• Can be used with a MIDI keyboard to provide answers
• Plays over 100 different instrument sounds sample from real instruments
Figure 3.54: Ear Master 6 Interval Identification Screen Shot
66


Figure 3.55: Ear Master 6 Chord Identification Screen Shot
Figure 3.56: EarMaster 6 Scale Identification Screen Shot
67
[1©


Figure 3.57: EarMaster 6 Rhythmic Reading Screen Shot
Figure 3.58: EarMaster 6 Melodic Dictation Screen Shot
68


Auralia Chord Recognition
Auralia Chord Recognition, Auralia Chord Recognition (2015) is an iOS app designed to
teach students how to identify chords and their inversions and sells for $1.99, Rising Software
(2016). This is a companion product to Auralia 5. Following is a list of the basic features:
• Teaches students how to recognize the following types of chords: major and minor (all inversions), dominant 7th (all inversions), augmented, diminished, diminished 7th, major and minor 7th and suspended 4th (see Fig. 3.59)
• Chords played as block chords or arpeggiated
• Uses both keyboard and guitar fretboard display and entry methods
• Allows students to track their scores
ft
â–¼ Identify the chord
A CHORD RECOGNITION
Figure 3.59: Auralia Chord Recognition Chord Identification Screen Shot
69


Full Text

PAGE 1

! ! MUSIC TECHNOLOGY IN HIGH SCHOOL MUSIC ED UCATION HOW MUSIC TECHNOLOGY CAN INCREASE MUSICIANSHI P SKILLS IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS by WILLIAM M HUNGATE B.A., University of Wyoming, 1991 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science Recording Arts Program 2016

PAGE 2

! ! "" ! © 2016 WILLIAM M HUNGATE ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

PAGE 3

! ! """ ! This thesis for the Master of Science degree by William M Hungate has been approved for the Recording Arts Program By Lorne Bregitzer, Chair Scott Burgess Michael Schulze July 30, 2016

PAGE 4

! ! "# ! Hungate, William M (M.S., Recording Arts) How Music Technology can Increase Musicianship Skills in High School Students Thesis directed by Associate Professor Lorne Bregitzer ABSTRACT The purpose of this research is to provide a fou ndation to show how music technology can help high school students become better musicians , and to create a current and ne arly exhaustive list of software and applications currently available for all major platforms, giving high school music teachers a resource to find programs appropriate for their students' needs . Current literature on the topic focuses on common and best practices for utilizing music technolo gy in the classroom, but does not describe how the technology can help students improve in specific areas of musicality, nor give a comprehensive resource of all currently available software and apps for each musicians hip skill . The threads examined throughout the literature are how technology can be used to help students with sense of time, sight readin g skills , general music theory, singing and playing in tune, improvisation , and composition. The culmination of this research will provide high school music teachers a comprehensive source from which to draw when looking for technology to help their students with personal musicianship skills , and strengthen their traditional programs in the proces s. The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication. Approved: Lor ne Bregitzer

PAGE 5

! ! # ! ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Lorne Bregitzer, Leslie Gaston, Scott Burgess, Sam McGuire , Pete Buchwald, and Fred Johnson for their outstanding classes and teaching here at UC Denver in the Recording Arts program. Thank you for sharing you knowledge, skills, insights, time and patience with me, and for letting me pursue my passion of using technology as a tool to help high school mus icians further their musicianship skills. In addition, thank you to Michael Schulze from the University of Denver Recording Arts Program for serving on my committee. I would also like to thank Dr. Cheryl Anderson, musical mentor extraordinaire, for inspi ring a squirrely junior high boy to pursue a career in music education, and for standing behind me and supporting me in my path over the last 35 years, which has led me to this program and this thesis. Thank you Cheryl!

PAGE 6

! ! #" ! TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I . IN TRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 1 Purpose of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 2 Scope of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 3 Data Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 3 Other Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 4 Arrangement of the Thesis ................................ ................................ ...................... 4 II . REVIEW OF THE LITERA TURE ................................ ................................ ............... 6 Researchers ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 6 1. Time ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 6 2 . Sight reading ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 7 3. General Music T heory ................................ ................................ ....................... 9 4 . Singing and Playing in T une ................................ ................................ ........... 10 5 . Improvisation ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 12 6 . Composition ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 1 3 III. CURRENTLY AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 17 1. Time ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 18 2. Sight reading ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 29

PAGE 7

! ! #"" ! 3. General Music T heory ................................ ................................ ..................... 43 4. Singing and Playing in T une ................................ ................................ ......... 12 8 5. Improvisation ................................ ................................ ................................ . 162 6. Composition ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 243 IV . CONCLUSIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 477 REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 478

PAGE 8

! ! #""" ! LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. Time Apps and Programs ................................ ................................ ........... Supplemental File 2. Sight Reading Apps and Programs ................................ ............................ Supplemental File 3. General Music T heory Apps and Programs ................................ ............... Supplemental File 4. Sing ing and Playing in Tune Apps and Programs ................................ ...... Supplemental File 5. Improvisation Apps and Programs ................................ ............................. Supplemental File 6. Composition Apps and Programs ................................ ............................... Supplemental File

PAGE 9

! ! "$ ! LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 3.1 #1 Keep the Beat Screen Shots ................................ ................................ ...................... 19 3.2 Got Rhythm Screen Shots ................................ ................................ ............................... 20 3.3 iKeepTime Screen Shots ................................ ................................ ................................ 21 3.4 Pro Metronome Screen Shots ................................ ................................ ........................ 22 3.5 MyTronome Screen Shots ................................ ................................ .............................. 23 3.6 Timing Trainer Pro Note Value Choice ................................ ................................ ........ 24 3.7 Timing Trainer Pro Meter Choices ................................ ................................ ................ 25 3.8 Timing Trainer Pro Exercise Choices ................................ ................................ ........... 25 3.9 Timing Trainer Pro Tap Window ................................ ................................ .................. 26 3.10 Timing Trainer Pro Results ................................ ................................ ........................... 26 3.11 ProTools Steady Beat Exercise Screen Shot ................................ ................................ . 28 3.12 The Practice Room Example Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ..... 30 3.13 SmartMusic Student Exercise Window Features ................................ ........................... 32 3.14 SmartMusic Teacher Student Assessment Window Features ................................ ........ 32 3.15 SmartMusic Teacher Gradebook Window Features ................................ ...................... 33 3.16 SmartMusic Student Interface Features ................................ ................................ ......... 33 3.17 Practice Sight Reading Rhythm Exercise Screen Shot ................................ .................. 34 3.18 Practice Sight Reading Melodic Exercise Ex ample ................................ ...................... 35 3.19 Practice Sight Reading Custom Levels Example ................................ .......................... 35 3.20 Practice Sight Reading Melodic Available Meters ................................ ....................... 35 3.21 Sight Reading Factory Exercise Screen Shot ................................ ................................ 37

PAGE 10

! ! $ ! 3.22 Sight Reading Factory Teacher Assessment Screen Shot ................................ ............. 37 3.23 Sight Reading Fa ctory iOS Screen Shots ................................ ................................ ...... 38 3.24 Steps to Reading Music Rhythm Tapping Exercise Screen Shot ................................ ... 39 3.25 Rhythm Sight Reading Trainer Practice Mode Screen Shot ................................ .......... 40 3.26 Rhythm Sight Reading Trainer Test Mode Screen Shot ................................ ................ 41 3.27 Rhythm Sight Reading Trainer Fixed Exercises Screen Shot ................................ ........ 41 3.28 Rhythm Teacher Exercise Screen Shots ................................ ................................ ......... 42 3.29 Essentials of Music Theory Lesson Screen Shots ................................ .......................... 45 3.30 Music Theory Tutor Progress Statistics Screen Shot ................................ ..................... 47 3.31 Music Theory Tutor Intelligent Practice Screen Shot ................................ .................... 47 3.32 Music Theory Tutor Rhythm Reading Screen Shot ................................ ....................... 48 3.33 Music Theory Tutor Rhythm Reading Screen Shot ................................ ....................... 48 3.34 Music Theory Tutor Rhythm Reading Screen Shot ................................ ....................... 49 3.35 Practica Musica Ear Training Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ... 51 3.36 Practica Musica Theory Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ............ 5 1 3.37 "Exploring Theory with Practica Musica" Sample Page ................................ .............. 52 3.38 Musition 5 , Pitch Category Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ........ 54 3.39 Musition 5 , Rhythm Category Screen Shot ................................ ................................ .... 54 3.40 Musition 5 , Terms and Symbols Category Screen Shot ................................ ................ 55 3.41 Musition 5 , Harmony Category Screen Shot ................................ ................................ . 55 3.42 Musition 5 , Instruments Category Screen Shot ................................ .............................. 56 3.43 Musition 5 , Teacher Test Results Screen Shot ................................ ............................... 56 3.44 Auralia 5, Intervals & Scales Category Screen Shot ................................ ..................... 59

PAGE 11

! ! $" ! 3.45 Auralia 5, Chords Category Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ....... 59 3.46 Auralia 5, Rhythm C ategory Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ...... 60 3.47 Auralia 5, Harmony & Form Category Screen Shot ................................ ...................... 60 3.48 Auralia 5, Intervals & Scales Category Screen Shot ................................ ..................... 61 3.49 Auralia 5 , Teacher Test Results Screen Shot ................................ ................................ . 61 3.50 Auralia 5 Intervals & Scales Category Screen Shot ................................ ...................... 62 3.51 Alfred's Interactive Musician Pitch Exercise Screen Shot ................................ ............ 63 3.52 Alfred's Interactive Musician Sight Reading Exercise Screen Shot ............................. 64 3.53 Alfred's Interactive Musician Rhythm Exercise Screen Shot ................................ ........ 64 3.54 EarMaster 6 Interval Identification Screen Shot ................................ ........................... 66 3.55 EarMaster 6 Chord Identification Screen Shot ................................ ............................. 67 3.56 EarMaster 6 Scale Identification Screen Shot ................................ ............................... 67 3.57 EarMaster 6 Rhythmic Reading Screen Shot ................................ ............................... 68 3.58 EarMaster 6 Melodic Dictation Screen Shot ................................ ................................ 68 3.59 Auralia Chord Recognition Chord Identification Screen Shot ................................ ...... 69 3.60 Auralia Interval Recognition Interval Identification Screen Shot ................................ . 70 3.61 Auralia Interval Singing Sample Lesson Screen Shot ................................ ................... 71 3.62 Auralia Jazz Chords Chord Identification Screen Shot ................................ ................. 72 3.63 Auralia Jazz Scal es Scale Identification Screen Shot ................................ .................... 73 3.64 Auralia Jazz Scales Customization and Results Screen Shots ................................ ....... 74 3.65 Auralia Interval Recognition Interval Identification Screen Shot ................................ . 75 3.66 Auralia Scales Scale Identification Screen Shot ................................ ............................ 76 3.67 ChordFind Game Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ....................... 77

PAGE 12

! ! $"" ! 3.68 Musition Advanced Note Reading Alto Clef Screen Shot ................................ ............. 79 3.69 Musition Instrument Recognition Sample Lessons Screen Shots ................................ . 80 3.70 Musition Intervals Perfect Intervals Lesson Screen Shot ................................ .............. 81 3.71 Musition Intervals Keyboard or F retboard Entry Screen Shot ................................ ..... 82 3.72 Musition Key Signatures Sample Lesson Screen Shot ................................ .................. 83 3.73 Musition Note Reading Treble Clef Notes Screen Shot ................................ ................. 84 3.74 Musition Note Reading Customized Lesson Screen Shot ................................ .............. 84 3.75 Musition Rhythmic Subdivision Lessons Screen Shots ................................ .................. 85 3.76 Musition Rhythm Notation Lessons Screen Shots ................................ ......................... 86 3.77 Musition Rhythm Tapping Rhythm Practice Screen Shot ................................ .............. 87 3.78 Musition Symbols Dynamic Symbols Screen Shot ................................ ........................ 88 3.79 Musition Symbols Score Tracking Screen Shot ................................ ............................. 88 3.80 Piano Chord Dictionary Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ............ 89 3.81 Bass Sight Reading Trainer Scale Lesson ................................ ................................ ..... 91 3.82 Bass Sight Reading Trainer Settings Options ................................ ................................ 91 3.83 Bass Sight Reading Trainer Fretboard in Perspective Mode ................................ ........ 92 3.84 Ear Trainer Exercise Selection ................................ ................................ ...................... 93 3.85 Ear Trainer Vi rtual Keyboard Feedback ................................ ................................ ....... 94 3.86 Ear Trainer Note View and Playback ................................ ................................ ........... 94 3.87 Ear Trainer Scores and Statistics ................................ ................................ .................. 95 3.88 Ear Training Mastery Online Pitch Recognition Exercise ................................ ............ 96 3.89 Ear Training Mastery Online Interval Recognition Exercise ................................ ........ 97 3.90 Ear Training Mastery Online Interval Singing Exercise ................................ ............... 97

PAGE 13

! ! $"" " ! 3.91 Ear Training Mastery Online Rhythmic Identification Exercise ................................ .. 98 3.92 Functional Ear Trainer Learning Mode ................................ ................................ ........ 99 3.93 Functional Ear Trainer Lesson Customization ................................ ........................... 100 3.94 Functional Ear Trainer Progress Tracking ................................ ................................ .. 100 3.95 Functional Ear Trainer Custom Quizzes ................................ ................................ .... 101 3.96 Guitar Sight Reading Trainer Main Screen ................................ ................................ . 103 3.97 Guitar Sight Reading Trainer Fret Groups ................................ ................................ .. 104 3.98 Guitar Sight Reading Trainer Fretboard in Perspective Mode ................................ .... 104 3.99 Interval Recognition Ð Ear Training for Android Interval Recognition ...................... 105 3.100 Interval Recognition Ð Ear Training for Android Scale Choices ................................ 106 3.101 Interval Recognition Ð Ear Training for Android Song Association ........................... 106 3.102 Interval Recognition Ð Ear Training for Android Customization ............................... 107 3.103 Music Reading Essentials Cards ................................ ................................ .................. 108 3.104 Music Reading Essentials Note Recognition ................................ ............................... 109 3.105 Music Reading Essentials Progress Results ................................ ................................ . 109 3.106 Music Theory Ð Chords in Keys Scale Choices ................................ ........................... 110 3.107 Music Theory Ð Chords in Keys Sample Display ................................ ........................ 111 3.108 Music Tutor Test Screen ................................ ................................ .............................. 112 3.109 Music Tutor Progress Screen ................................ ................................ ....................... 112 3.110 MusicTheory.net Basics Lesson Example ................................ ................................ .... 113 3.111 MusicTheory.net Chord Progression Lesson Example ................................ ................ 114 3.112 MusicTheory.net L esson Example ................................ ................................ ............... 114 3.113 MusicTheory.net Tools Example ................................ ................................ ................. 115

PAGE 14

! ! $"# ! 3.114 Note Trainer Note Exercise ................................ ................................ ......................... 116 3.115 Note Trainer Chord Exercise ................................ ................................ ....................... 117 3.116 Note Trainer Note Exercise ................................ ................................ ......................... 117 3.117 Note Trainer Student Feedback ................................ ................................ ................... 118 3.118 Online Ear Trainer 3.0 Intervals Window ................................ ................................ ... 120 3.119 Online Ear Trainer 3.0 Chords Window ................................ ................................ ..... 120 3.120 Online Ear Trainer 3.0 Melodies Window ................................ ................................ .. 121 3.121 Online Ear Trainer 3.0 Interval Window ................................ ................................ .... 121 3.122 Right Note Ð Ear Trainer Home Screen ................................ ................................ ...... 123 3.123 Right Note Ð Ear Trainer Scroll able Keyboard ................................ ........................... 123 3.124 Right Note Ð Ear Trainer Interval Mode ................................ ................................ ..... 124 3.125 Right Note Ð Ear Trainer Settings ................................ ................................ ............... 124 3.125 Teoria Home Screen ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 125 3.126 Teoria Tutorials Sections ................................ ................................ ............................. 126 3.127 Teoria Exercises Sections ................................ ................................ ............................ 126 3.128 Teoria Reference Section ................................ ................................ ............................. 127 3.129 Teoria Articles Section ................................ ................................ ................................ 127 3.130 Sing&See Pitch Display Example ................................ ................................ ................ 130 3.131 Sing&See Piano Keyboard Display Example ................................ .............................. 130 3.132 Sing&See Stave View Display Example ................................ ................................ ..... 130 3.133 Sing&See Pitch Screen Display Example ................................ ................................ ... 131 3.134 Sing&See Spectrogram Dis play Example ................................ ................................ .... 131 3.135 Sing&See Real time Spectrum Display Example ................................ ........................ 132

PAGE 15

! ! $# ! 3.136 Sing&See Combination Screen Example ................................ ................................ ..... 132 3.137 eMedia Singing Method Visual Pitch Feedback Screen Shot ................................ ...... 133 3.138 Itonia Main Window Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ................ 135 3.139 Itonia Options Window Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ........... 135 3.140 Erol Singer's Studio Ð Voice Lessons Screen Shot ................................ ...................... 136 3.141 Erol Singer's Studio Ð Voice Lessons iPad Screen Shot ................................ .............. 137 3.142 Erol Singer's Studio Ð Voice Lessons Range Screen Shot ................................ ........... 137 3.143 Sing Sharp Pitch Tracking Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ....... 139 3.144 Sing Sharp Scores and Reports Examples ................................ ................................ ... 140 3.145 Sing Sharp Vocal Range Example ................................ ................................ ............... 140 3.146 Sing in Tuna Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ............................. 141 3.147 Colla Voce Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ............................... 142 3.148 SingTrue Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 143 3.149 SingTrue Progress Screen ................................ ................................ ............................ 143 3.150 Singer's Mate Exam ple Song Screen Shot ................................ ................................ .. 144 3.151 Singer's Mate Transposition Screen Shot ................................ ................................ .... 145 3.152 Singer's Mate Settings Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ............. 145 3.153 Tarini in Tune Screen Shot ................................ ................................ .......................... 146 3.154 Voice Training Pro Ð Learn to Sing Exercise Selection Screen Shot .......................... 147 3.155 Voice Training Pro Ð Learn to Sing Pitch Tracking Screen Shot ................................ 148 3.156 Voice Training Pro Ð Learn to Sing Setting Screen Shot ................................ ............ 148 3.157 Voice Training Pro Ð Learn to Sing Feedback Screen Shot ................................ ........ 149 3.158 Voice Training Pro Ð Learn to Sing Scores Screen Shot ................................ ............. 14 9

PAGE 16

! ! $#" ! 3.159 Pitch Perfect Visual Tuner Screen Shots ................................ ................................ ..... 150 3.160 Pitch Perfect Visual Tuner Settings Screen Shots ................................ ....................... 151 3.161 Pitch Graph Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ............................. 152 3.162 Canta Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 153 3.163 Canta Pitch Tracking Examples ................................ ................................ .................. 154 3.164 Learn to Sing Exercise Screen S hot ................................ ................................ ............. 155 3.165 PlayPerfect Exercise Window Screen Shot ................................ ................................ . 157 3.166 PlayPerfect Recording Settings Screen Shot ................................ .............................. 158 3.167 PlayPerfect Instrument Transposition Screen Shot ................................ ..................... 158 3.168 Sing the Right Note Screen Shots ................................ ................................ ................. 159 3.169 Singscope Screen Features ................................ ................................ ........................... 160 3.170 Singscope Tools Features ................................ ................................ ............................. 161 3.171 Singscope Settings Features ................................ ................................ ......................... 161 3.172 60 Top Hat Guitar Licks Vol. 1 "Jam Track" Window ................................ ................ 163 3.173 Band in a Box Main Window ................................ ................................ ...................... 166 3.174 Band in a Box Chord and Melody Generator Window ................................ ............... 167 3.175 Band in a Box Drum s and Fretboard Windows ................................ .......................... 168 3.176 Band in a Box Notation Window ................................ ................................ ................ 168 3.177 Chord Pad Sequencer Window ................................ ................................ ................... 170 3.178 Chord Pad Sequencer Window ................................ ................................ ................... 171 3.179 Chord Pad Sequencer Window ................................ ................................ ................... 171 3.180 Chords and Scales Main Window ................................ ................................ .............. 172 3.181 Combo Ð Jazz Music Generator Chord and Settings Windows ................................ .. 173

PAGE 17

! ! $#"" ! 3.182 CopyScat Main Window ................................ ................................ .............................. 174 3.183 Hot Licks for Alto Saxophone Volume 1 "Lick" Lesson Example ............................... 182 3.184 Hot Licks for Alto Saxophone Volume 1 "Lick" Selection ................................ .......... 182 3.185 iImprov Ð Bebop Lesson Example ................................ ................................ ............... 184 3. 186 iImprov Ð Bebop Customization Preferences ................................ ............................... 185 3.187 iImprov Ð Bebop "Jam A long" Settings ................................ ................................ ..... 185 3.188 iImprov Ð Chord / Scale Compendium Chord Qualities ................................ .............. 186 3.189 iImprov Ð Chord / Scale Compendium Scale Recommendations ................................ 187 3.190 iImprov Ð Chord / Sc ale Compendium Chord Qualities ................................ .............. 187 3.191 iImprov Ð Contemporary Colors Lessons ................................ ................................ .... 188 3.192 iImprov Ð Contemporary Colors Lesson Explanation ................................ ................. 189 3.193 iImprov Ð Contemporary Colors JAM A Long ................................ ........................... 189 3.194 iImprov Ð Fundamentals Main Menu ................................ ................................ .......... 190 3.195 iImprov Ð Fundamentals Lesson Example ................................ ................................ .. 191 3.196 iImprov Ð Fundamentals Chord Compendium ................................ ............................ 191 3.197 iImprov Ð Fundamentals JAM A Long Window ................................ ........................ 191 3.198 iImprov Ð Modal Main Menu ................................ ................................ ....................... 192 3.199 iImprov Ð Modal Pentatonic Example ................................ ................................ ......... 193 3.200 iImprov Ð Modal Lesson Example ................................ ................................ ............... 193 3.201 iImprov Ð The Minor II V Lesson Example ................................ ................................ . 194 3.202 iImprov Ð The Minor II V Audio Playback ................................ ................................ .. 195 3.203 iImprov Ð The Minor II V JAM A Long Window ................................ ....................... 195 3.204 Impro Visor Screen Shot ................................ ................................ .............................. 197

PAGE 18

! ! $#""" ! 3.205 Improv Explorer Chord Selections ................................ ................................ .............. 198 3.206 Improv Explorer Features 1 ................................ ................................ ......................... 199 3.207 Improv Explorer Features 2 ................................ ................................ ......................... 200 3.208 Introduction to Jazz Blues Guitar Lesson Example ................................ .................... 201 3.209 Introduction to Jazz Blues Guitar Lesson Example ................................ .................... 202 3.210 iReal Pro Importing Charts ................................ ................................ .......................... 204 3.211 iReal Pro Editing Charts ................................ ................................ .............................. 204 3.212 iReal Pro Tab and Piano Fingerings ................................ ................................ ............ 205 3.213 iReal Pro Change Tempo ................................ ................................ ............................. 205 3.214 iReal Pro Transpose Key ................................ ................................ ............................. 206 3.215 Jazz Box Chord Reference ................................ ................................ ........................... 208 3.216 Jazz Box Scale Reference ................................ ................................ ............................. 209 3.217 Jazz Box Scale Selection ................................ ................................ .............................. 209 3.218 Jazz Duets for Alto Sax Main Window ................................ ................................ ........ 210 3.219 Jazz Duets for Alto Sax Playback Settings ................................ ................................ ... 211 3.220 Jazz Improv Chord Selection ................................ ................................ ....................... 213 3.221 Jazz Improv Scale Suggestions ................................ ................................ .................... 213 3.222 Jazz Phrasing for Alto Sax Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ....... 215 3.223 Jazz Phrasing for Tenor Sax Screen Shot ................................ ................................ .... 217 3.22 4 Jazz Scale App Screens ................................ ................................ ................................ 220 3.225 Jazz Theory Quiz Categories Window ................................ ................................ ......... 221 3.226 Jazz Theory Quiz Question Sample with Keyboard Entry ................................ ........... 222 3.227 Jazz Theory Quiz Question Sample with Note Name Button Entry ............................ 222

PAGE 19

! ! $"$ ! 3.228 Learn That Song (REMIX Edition) Main Window ................................ ...................... 225 3.229 Learn That Song (REMIX Edition) Loop Feature ................................ ........................ 225 3.230 Learn That Song (REMIX Edition) Tapedeck Window ................................ ............... 226 3.231 MusiClock Main Window ................................ ................................ ............................ 229 3.232 MusiClock Guitar Tablature ................................ ................................ ......................... 230 3.233 MusiClock Backing Tracks ................................ ................................ .......................... 230 3.234 MusiClock Scale Transposition ................................ ................................ .................... 231 3.235 Phrase Trainer 2 Speed Adjustments ................................ ................................ .......... 233 3.236 Phrase Trainer 2 Pitch Adjustments ................................ ................................ ............ 233 3.237 Phrase Trainer 2 Loop Settings ................................ ................................ ................... 234 3.238 Phrase Trainer 2 "Speed Trainer ................................ ................................ ................. 234 3.239 Phrase Trainer 2 "Pitch Trainer ................................ ................................ .................. 234 3.240 Phrase Trainer 2 Parametric EQ ................................ ................................ ................. 234 3.241 Phrase Trainer 2 Waveform Zoom ................................ ................................ ............. 234 3.242 Play the Blues Saxophone Play Along Explanation ................................ .................... 236 3.243 Play the Blues Saxophone Chart Example ................................ ................................ ... 236 3.244 ScaleTwister Scale and Chord Examples ................................ ................................ ..... 237 3.245 TimeStretch Ma in Window ................................ ................................ .......................... 239 3.246 TimeStretch "TimeStretch & Compilation" Window ................................ .................. 239 3.247 Woodshedr Ð Jazz PlayAlong Playback Settings ................................ ......................... 241 3.248 Woodshedr Ð Jazz PlayAlong Customization Settings ................................ ................ 241 3.249 Woodshedr Ð Jazz PlayAlong Purchased Song Library ................................ ............... 242 3.250 Arobas Music Guitar Pro 6 Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ..... 245

PAGE 20

! ! $$ ! 3.251 Arobas Music Guitar Pro 6 Audio Panels ................................ ................................ ... 245 3.252 Arobas Music Guitar Pro iOS Screen Shots ................................ ................................ 246 3.253 Counterpointer Analysis Example ................................ ................................ ............... 247 3.254 Crescendo Music Notation Software Main Screen ................................ ...................... 248 3.255 Crescendo Music Notation Software Features Montage ................................ .............. 249 3.256 Crescendo Music Notation Software Android App Screen Shot ................................ . 250 3.257 Encore Mac OS Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ........................ 252 3.258 Encore Windows Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ..................... 252 3.259 Finale 2014 Score Layout Possibilities ................................ ................................ ....... 254 3.260 Finale 2014 Audio / MIDI Mixer ................................ ................................ ................ 255 3.261 Finale 2014 Audio Aligned with Score Screen Shot ................................ ................... 255 3.262 Finale 2014 Video Support with SMPTE/MTC Screen Shot ................................ ...... 256 3.263 Finale PrintMusic Auto Harmonization Feature ................................ ......................... 258 3.264 Finale PrintMusic Engraving Fonts Examples ................................ ............................ 258 3.265 Finale SongWriter Launch Window Screen Shot ................................ ........................ 260 3.266 Finale NotePad Percussion Notation Sample ................................ .............................. 261 3.267 Finale NotePad Guitar Tablature Sample ................................ ................................ .... 262 3.268 Finale NotePad Setup Wizard Screen Shots ................................ ............................... 262 3.269 Flat Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 264 3.270 Forte Premium Audio Sequencer Screen Shot ................................ ............................ 266 3.271 Forte Premium Notes Selection Screen Shot ................................ ............................... 266 3.272 Forte Premium Lyrics Screen Shot ................................ ................................ .............. 267 3.273 Ludwig Main Window Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ............. 271

PAGE 21

! ! $$" ! 3.274 Ludwig Styles Selection Choices Screen Shot ................................ ............................. 272 3.275 Lud wig Auto Generating Sight Reading Screen Shot ................................ ................. 273 3.276 Ludwig Improvisation Practice Screen Shot ................................ ................................ 274 3.277 Ludwig Choral Harmonization Choices Screen Shot ................................ ................... 275 3.278 MagicScore Guitar Main Window Screen Shot ................................ .......................... 276 3.279 MagicScore Guitar Virtual Inst. Inputs Screen Shot ................................ ................... 277 3.280 MagicScore Guitar Lyrics Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ....... 277 3.281 MagicScore Maestro 8 Pallets Screen Shot ................................ ................................ . 278 3.282 MagicScore Maestro 8 Lyrics and Image Export Screen Shot ................................ .... 279 3.283 MagicScore Maestro 8 Temp & Sound Editors Screen Shot ................................ ...... 279 3.284 Magic Score School Export Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ..... 280 3.285 Mozart 13 Main Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ....................... 282 3.286 Mozart 13 Tabs Screen Shots ................................ ................................ ...................... 283 3.287 MuseScore Start Center Screen Shots ................................ ................................ .......... 285 3.288 MuseScore Drum Notation Sample ................................ ................................ ............. 286 3.289 Mus eScore Tablature Sample ................................ ................................ ...................... 286 3.290 MuseScore Fingers Palette ................................ ................................ ........................... 286 3.291 MusicWorks MIDI and Input Windows Screen Shots ................................ ................. 288 3.292 MusicWorks Main Window Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ..... 289 3.293 MusicWorks Color Options Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ...... 289 3.294 MusicTime Deluxe Mac OS Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ..... 291 3.295 MusicTime Deluxe Windows Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ... 291 3.296 Musink Pro New Project Window ................................ ................................ ............... 293

PAGE 22

! ! $$"" ! 3.297 Musink Pro MIDI Options Windows ................................ ................................ ........... 293 3.298 Musink Pro Markings Examples Screen Shot ................................ ............................. 294 3.299 Musink Lite Main Window Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ...... 295 3.300 Notation Composer 3 Real Time MIDI Recording Controls ................................ ...... 297 3.301 Notation Composer 3 "New Song Wizard" Screen Shot ................................ ............. 297 3.302 Notation Composer 3 MIDI Piano Roll View for Editing ................................ ........... 298 3.303 Notation Composer 3 MIDI Graphic Editing Screen Shot ................................ .......... 298 3.304 Notation Musician Transcription Options Screen Shot ................................ ............... 300 3.305 Notation Pad Main Screen Shot ................................ ................................ .................. 301 3.306 Notation Pad Note Entry Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ......... 302 3.307 Notation Pad Playback Levels Screen Shot ................................ ................................ . 303 3.308 Noteflight Premium Palettes ................................ ................................ ........................ 305 3.309 Noteflight Premium Audio Mixing Panel ................................ ................................ .... 306 3.310 Noteflight Premium Instrument Transposing and Printing ................................ .......... 307 3.311 Noteflight Premium Video Syncing Window ................................ .............................. 308 3.312 Noteworthy Composer Main Window ................................ ................................ ......... 309 3.313 OneTouch Composer Main Window ................................ ................................ ........... 310 3.314 OneTou ch Composer Conductor's Score ................................ ................................ ..... 311 3.315 OneTouch Composer Guitar Fretboard ................................ ................................ ........ 311 3.316 Overture 5 Main Screen ................................ ................................ ............................... 313 3.317 Overture 5 Linear View with MIDI ................................ ................................ ............. 313 3.318 Overture 5 Touch Screen Enabled ................................ ................................ ............... 314 3.319 Overture 5 Advanced MIDI Editing Capabilities ................................ ....................... 314

PAGE 23

! ! $$""" ! 3.320 Overture 5 Advanced MIDI Editing Capabilities ................................ ....................... 315 3.321 Overture 5 MIDI / Audio Mixer ................................ ................................ .................. 315 3.322 Presonus Notion 5 Virtual Drumpad Entry ................................ ................................ . 317 3.323 Presonus Notion 5 Virtual Fretboard and Tablature Entry ................................ .......... 317 3.324 Presonus Notion 5 Mixer ................................ ................................ ............................. 318 3.325 Presonus Notion 5 EQ Mixer Insert ................................ ................................ ............ 318 3.326 Notion for iOS Input Methods Like Notion 5 ................................ .............................. 320 3.327 Notion for iOS Handwriting Input ................................ ................................ ............... 321 3.328 Notion for iOS Playback Mixer ................................ ................................ .................... 321 3.329 Progression 3 Virtual Instruments Input ................................ ................................ ..... 323 3.330 Progression 3 MIDI Editing ................................ ................................ ........................ 323 3.331 PreSonus Progression for iPad Fretboard Entry ................................ ......................... 325 3.332 PreSonus Progression for iPad In app Instruments ................................ .................... 326 3.333 PreSonus Progression for iPad Mixer ................................ ................................ ......... 326 3.334 QuickScore Elite Main Window ................................ ................................ .................. 328 3.335 QuickScore Elite Tablature Entry Window ................................ ................................ . 328 3.336 QuickScore Elite Symbols Pop out Palettes ................................ ................................ 329 3.337 QuickScore Elite Main Window ................................ ................................ .................. 329 3.338 QuickScore Elite Piano Roll MIDI Editing Window ................................ ................... 330 3.339 QuickScore Elite Main Window ................................ ................................ .................. 330 3.340 ScoreCloud Pro Audio to MIDI Recording Screen Shots ................................ .......... 332 3.341 ScoreCloud Pro Editing Example Screen Shot ................................ ........................... 333 3.342 ScoreCloud Express Audio to MIDI Recording Screen Shot ................................ ..... 335

PAGE 24

! ! $$"# ! 3.343 ScoreCloud Express Editing Window Screen Shot ................................ ..................... 335 3.344 ScoreWriter Single Window Scre en Shot ................................ ................................ ... 337 3.345 ScoreWriter Touch Feature Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ...... 337 3.346 ScoreWriter MIDI Mixer Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ......... 338 3.347 Sheet Music Scanner Scan Example ................................ ................................ ............ 340 3.348 Sibelius Virtual Keyboard Note Entry Screen Shot ................................ ..................... 342 3.349 Sibelius AudioScore Note Entry Screen Shot ................................ .............................. 342 3.350 Sibelius Notation Palettes ................................ ................................ ............................ 343 3.351 Sibelius Features Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ..................... 344 3.352 Sibelius MIDI Mixer ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 344 3.353 Sibelius Sharing Options ................................ ................................ ............................. 345 3.354 SmartScore X2 MIDI Edition Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ... 347 3.355 SmartScore X2 Guitar Edition Screen Shot ................................ ................................ . 348 3.356 SmartScore X2 Piano Edition Screen Shot ................................ ................................ .. 349 3.357 SmartScore X2 Piano Edition Screen Shot ................................ ................................ .. 350 3.358 SmartScore X2 Pro Edition Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ..... 351 3.359 SmartScore X2 Comparison Chart ................................ ................................ ............... 352 3.360 Songworks Keyboard Window ................................ ................................ .................... 354 3.361 Songworks Fretb oard Window Screen Shot ................................ ................................ 354 3.362 Staff Sketch Pad Parchment Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ..... 355 3.363 Hex Main Window Description ................................ ................................ ................... 357 3.364 AXiS 64 MIDI Controller for Hex ................................ ................................ .............. 358 3.365 Liquid Music Sketch Line ................................ ................................ ............................ 360

PAGE 25

! ! $$# ! 3.366 Liquid Music Sketch Presets ................................ ................................ ........................ 360 3.367 Liquid Music Key Window ................................ ................................ .......................... 361 3.368 Liquid Music Chords Window ................................ ................................ ..................... 361 3.369 Liquid Music Sketch Line ................................ ................................ ............................ 362 3.370 Liquid Music Sketch Line ................................ ................................ ............................ 362 3.371 Master Tracks Pro Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ................... 364 3.372 Sekaiju Windows Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ..................... 365 3.373 Ableton Live 9 Session View Window ................................ ................................ ......... 367 3.3 74 Ableton Live 9 Session View Window ................................ ................................ ......... 368 3.375 Acid Pro 7 Mixing Console ................................ ................................ ......................... 370 3.376 Acid Pro 7 MIDI Freeze ................................ ................................ .............................. 370 3.377 Acid Pro 7 MIDI Processing and Filters ................................ ................................ ...... 371 3.378 Acid Pro 7 Screen Shot with Video ................................ ................................ ............. 371 3.379 Acid Music Studio 10 Production Tools ................................ ................................ ....... 372 3.380 Acid Express Main Window ................................ ................................ ........................ 373 3.381 Anvil Studio Works Loops / Rhythm Window ................................ ............................. 375 3.382 Anvil Studio Works Staff Sheet Edit Window ................................ .............................. 376 3.383 Anvil Studio Works Virtual Fretboard ................................ ................................ .......... 376 3.384 Anvil Studio Works Audio Window ................................ ................................ ............. 377 3.385 Ardour MIDI Ses sion Window ................................ ................................ .................... 379 3.386 Ardour Multitrack Session Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ....... 379 3.387 Ardour Plugins Collage ................................ ................................ ................................ 380 3.388 Ardour Mixer Window ................................ ................................ ................................ 381

PAGE 26

! ! $$#" ! 3.389 Ardour Video for Scoring Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ........ 382 3.390 Bitwig Project Layout Example Screen Shot ................................ ............................... 384 3.391 Bitwig Panel based User Interface ................................ ................................ ............... 384 3.392 Bitwig Details Editor ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 384 3.393 Bitwig Expressive MIDI Editing ................................ ................................ .................. 385 3.394 Bitwig Device Nesting Example ................................ ................................ .................. 385 3.395 Cubase Pro 8.5 Multitrack Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ...... 387 3.396 Cubase Pro 8.5 Channel Strip ................................ ................................ ..................... 388 3.397 Cubase Pro 8.5 Mixer ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 388 3.398 Cubase Pro 8.5 Notation Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ......... 389 3.399 Cubase Pro 8.5 MIDI Editing Screen Shot ................................ ................................ . 389 3.400 Cubase Pro 8.5 VariAudio 2.0 Screen Shot ................................ ................................ 390 3.401 Digital Performer 9 Consolidated Window ................................ ................................ . 394 3.402 Digital Performer 9 Control Panel ................................ ................................ .............. 395 3.403 Digital Performer 9 Chunks Window Examples ................................ ......................... 396 3.404 Digital Performer 9 Recording and Playback Options ................................ ................ 396 3.405 Digital Performer 9 Step Record Window ................................ ................................ .. 397 3.406 Digital Performer 9 Piano Roll MIDI Editor ................................ .............................. 397 3.407 Digital Performer 9 Drum Editor ................................ ................................ ................ 397 3.408 Digital Performer 9 Notation Editor ................................ ................................ ............ 397 3.409 Digital Performer 9 Take and Comp Example ................................ ............................ 398 3.410 Digital Performer 9 Sequence Editor ................................ ................................ .......... 398 3.411 Digital Performer 9 Quickscribe Notation Window and Palettes ............................... 399

PAGE 27

! ! $$#"" ! 3.412 Digital Perfo rmer 9 Mixer ................................ ................................ ........................... 400 3.413 energyXT Main Window ................................ ................................ .............................. 401 3.414 energyXT Drum Editor ................................ ................................ ................................ . 402 3.415 energyXT Mixer Window ................................ ................................ ............................ 402 3.416 FL Studio 12 Customized Interface Screen Shot ................................ ......................... 404 3.417 FL Studio 12 Audio Clips ................................ ................................ ............................ 405 3.418 FL Studio 12 Piano Roll Editor ................................ ................................ .................... 405 3.419 FL Studio Mobile Tracks Window ................................ ................................ ............... 407 3.420 FL Studio Mobile Instruments Window ................................ ................................ ....... 407 3.421 FL Studio Mobile Step Sequencer Window ................................ ................................ . 408 3.422 FL Studio Mobile Drum Pads Window ................................ ................................ ........ 408 3.423 FL Studio Mobile Wave Editor Window ................................ ................................ ..... 409 3.424 FL Studio Mobile Configurable Keyboard Window ................................ .................... 409 3.425 GarageBand PedalBoard Effects ................................ ................................ ................. 411 3.426 GarageBand Main Window Example ................................ ................................ ......... 411 3.427 GarageBand Audio and Piano Roll Editors ................................ ................................ . 412 3.428 GarageBand Score and Drummer Editors ................................ ................................ ... 413 3.429 GarageBand for iOS Live Loops DJ feature ................................ ............................... 414 3.430 GarageBand for iOS Virtual Fretboard ................................ ................................ ....... 414 3.431 Logic Pro X Mixer Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ................... 416 3.432 Logic Pro X Screen Configuration Example ................................ ............................... 416 3.433 Logic Pro X Notation Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ............... 417 3.434 Logic Pro X Flex Pitch Plugin ................................ ................................ ..................... 41 7

PAGE 28

! ! $$#""" ! 3.435 Logic Pro X Alchemy Synthesizer ................................ ................................ ............... 418 3.436 Logic Pro X MIDI Editor Windows ................................ ................................ ............. 418 3.437 Logic Pro X 5.1 Surround Mixing Example ................................ ................................ 419 3.438 MixCraft 7 Main Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ...................... 421 3.439 MixCraft 7 Live Performance Screen ................................ ................................ .......... 421 3.440 MixCraft 7 MIDI Editing Windows ................................ ................................ ............. 422 3.441 MixCraft 7 Video Editing Screen Shot ................................ ................................ ........ 423 3.442 MixCraft 7 Plugins Montage ................................ ................................ ........................ 423 3.443 MixCraft 7 Mixer ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 423 3.444 MixPad Main Track Screen ................................ ................................ ......................... 425 3.445 MixPad Mixer Window ................................ ................................ ............................... 425 3.446 MixPad MIDI Piano Roll Editing Windo w ................................ ................................ . 426 3.447 MixPad Music Mixer Free Main Window ................................ ................................ ... 427 3.448 MixPad Music Mixer Free Effects Plugins ................................ ................................ .. 428 3.449 MuLab Main Window ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 430 3.450 MuLab Sequence Editor ................................ ................................ ............................... 430 3.451 MuLab Audio Editor ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 431 3.452 MuLab Mixer Rack Example ................................ ................................ ....................... 431 3.453 n Track Studio EX Main Window ................................ ................................ ................ 433 3.454 n Track Studio EX 3D Spectrum Analyzer ................................ ................................ .. 433 3.455 n Track Studio EX MIDI Editing Windows ................................ ................................ . 434 3.456 n Track Studio EX Mixer ................................ ................................ ............................. 435 3.457 n Track Studio Multitrack Recorder Screen Shot ................................ ........................ 437

PAGE 29

! ! $$"$ ! 3.458 n Track Studio Multitrack Recorder MIDI Editing ................................ ..................... 437 3.459 n Track Studio Multitrack Recorder Volume and Pan Automation ............................ 438 3.460 ProTools Edit Window ................................ ................................ ................................ 441 3.461 ProTools Mix Window ................................ ................................ ................................ 441 3.462 ProTools Various Plugins ................................ ................................ ............................ 442 3.463 Reaper Main Window ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 445 3.464 Reaper Piano Ro ll MIDI Editor ................................ ................................ ................... 445 3.465 Reaper Notation MIDI Editor ................................ ................................ ...................... 446 3.466 Reaper Compressor Plugin ................................ ................................ .......................... 446 3.467 Reaper Mixer ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 447 3.468 Reaper Video Window ................................ ................................ ................................ 447 3.469 Reaper Surround Panning ................................ ................................ ............................ 448 3.470 Reaper Routing Options ................................ ................................ .............................. 448 3.471 Reason 9 "Front" and "Back" Windows ................................ ................................ ...... 450 3.472 Reason 9 Main Window Layout ................................ ................................ .................. 451 3.473 Reason 9 "Key" MIDI Edit Window ................................ ................................ ........... 451 3.474 Reason 9 "Drum Editor" MIDI Edit Window ................................ ............................. 452 3.475 Reason 9 Plugin Example ................................ ................................ ............................ 452 3.476 Reason 9 Main Mixer Window ................................ ................................ .................... 453 3.477 Samplitude Pro X2 Track Objects Example ................................ ................................ 455 3.478 Samplitude Pro X2 Customized Main Window Example ................................ ............ 455 3.479 Samplitude Pro X2 MIDI Editor ................................ ................................ .................. 456 3.480 Samplitude Pro X2 Notation Editor ................................ ................................ ............. 456

PAGE 30

! ! $$$ ! 3.481 Samplitude Pro X2 "Elastic Audio" Pitch Correction Plugin ................................ ...... 457 3.482 Samplitude Pro X2 Mastering Tools ................................ ................................ ............ 457 3.483 Sonar Main Window ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 459 3.484 Sonar Window Descriptions ................................ ................................ ........................ 460 3.485 Sonar MIDI Drum Map ................................ ................................ ............................... 460 3.486 Sonar ProChannel Plugin Example ................................ ................................ ............. 461 3.487 Sonar Surround Mixing Capability ................................ ................................ .............. 461 3.488 St udio One Main Window ................................ ................................ ........................... 463 3.489 Studio One Drag and Drop Functionality ................................ ................................ .... 464 3.490 Studio One "Arranger Track" Window ................................ ................................ ........ 464 3.491 Studio One Step Recording ................................ ................................ .......................... 465 3.492 Studio One Notation Window ................................ ................................ ...................... 465 3.493 Studio One Mixer Configurations ................................ ................................ ................ 466 3.494 Studio One Plugins Samples ................................ ................................ ........................ 467 3.495 Tracktion "Blue Steel" Interface ................................ ................................ .................. 469 3.496 Tracktion Automation Patterns Window ................................ ................................ ..... 469 3.497 Tracktion Mixer Panel ................................ ................................ ................................ . 470 3.498 Tracktion "Rack" Plugin Routing ................................ ................................ ................ 471 3.499 WavePad Audio Editing Software Record Window ................................ .................... 473 3.500 WavePad Audio Editing Software Editing Window ................................ .................... 473 3.501 WavePad Audio Editing Software Tools Window ................................ ....................... 474 3.502 WavePad Audio Editor Free Audio Options ................................ ............................... 475 3.503 WavePad Audio Editor Free Editing ................................ ................................ ........... 476

PAGE 31

! ! $$$" ! 3.504 WavePad Audio Editor Free Effects ................................ ................................ ............ 476

PAGE 32

! ! % ! CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION After teaching public school music for 15 years, and being a proponent of utilizing available technology to help my students become better musicians, I became aware that many of my colleagues in music education were hesitant if not completely opposed to us ing technology in their classrooms. Many of them are afraid that technology could replace tradition al band, choir , and orchestra programs, while others, particularly those who are not digital natives, are afraid to implement technologies over wh ich they do not have mastery or understanding. Haning (2015) reports in his study of 46 undergraduate music education majors, 43% felt that they were unprepared to effectively use technology in their future teaching positions. From my own experience, after usin g the Yamaha MEI (Music In Education) system, setting up a 16 station electronic music lab at Jackson Hole High School in Wyoming , and utilizing school computer labs, I have seen first hand the benefit that technological tools can make in the musicianship of high school students. I chose to attend the Recording Arts program at the University of Colorado Denver for this very reason. Now that music technology is one of the four major strands for the National Standards for Music 2014, NAFME (201 4), I wanted to attend a pedag ogical program (such as offered at UC Denver) so that I would better prepare myself as a teacher in utilizing all the tech nologies a recording engineer must use , and more. I would not have acquired these skills in a traditional music edu cation masters degree. It has been my experience that most of the best recording engineers are also competent musicians, and as such have the musical skills I will be focu sing on in this research. A s a pedagogical program, it is a natural extension for me to research all available technologies to

PAGE 33

! ! & ! help prepar e high school students, who are the next generation of college students in recording arts and music programs , with the musical skills that will help them succeed . Even at UC Denver, the professors t each beginning audio production to a majority of music majors, helping them learn h ow to use technology to compose, record , practice , and evaluate their compositions and performances. My hope is that this research will in some fashion help those students c ome to recording arts or music programs as more competent musicians, and have more facility in using a variety of music technologies. Purpose of Study The purpose of this research is to give the high school music teacher, regardless of di scipline, technol ogical ly based tools and techniques they can use in their classrooms on a daily basis to enhance their students' musicianship skills and make their traditional band, choir , or orchestra program stronger because of it. I t also attempts to alleviate their fears of becoming slaves to technology for technology's sake, but rather to give them concrete ways to use the available technologies to help each student progress in their individual skills. Dorfman (2008), in his study of 552 Ohio mus ic teachers found that only 6.9% of their students enrolled in traditional music programs are using music technology programs of any kind, primarily due to lack of teacher training, teacher comfort with the technology , and available budgets. This research seeks to help teachers overcome some of those obstacles There exists a vast amount of literature on the topic of music technology as it applies to music education in a variety of peer reviewed journals and also published books . However, what is lacking is a focused, comprehensive compilation of the software and applications correlated directly to individual musicianship skills . T he organization of this paper attempts to make it

PAGE 34

! ! ' ! simple and straightforward for teachers to find the resources they may be lo oking for, by arranging them in terms of basic musicianship skills. Scope of Study Using peer reviewed journals and pub lished books , the best practices and techniques for utilizing music technology to enhance high school students' musicianship skills have been researched. To the greatest extent possible, a ll applicable software available for the major platforms as of May 1, 2016 has been researched . This includes software that can be used on desktop and laptop computers, as well as tablets and smart phones , utilizing iOS, Mac OS, Android , and Windows . Data Limitations There are literally thousands of articles and hundreds of books on the subject of music technology. The research herein has been limited to those sources that deal with best practic es and techniques specifically applicable to high school music students. An attempt to do a review of all music education software available is not being attempted , as much of it is geared toward elementary and middle school students. There is also an ab undance of redundancy in the literature, so every source available will not be cited , but rather the most current and best research available. There is also very little test data available showing direct correlation between the use of music technology and student advancement with musicianship skills. "The work in music education in studying the application of technology with constructivist appro aches is strikingly meager for a field that is so dominated by technology usage. We lack sophisticated studies that examine music learning prima rily driven by music technology," Colwell (2011).

PAGE 35

! ! ( ! Other Limitations This research is approached primarily fro m the published body of relevant literature on the topic, rather than conduct ing teacher interviews with a wide enough sample of multi disc i plinary high school music teachers across the United States to be statistically significant . There was also no rese arch of high school music students in regard to their experiences with music technology. This paper is written with high school music educators in mind, so no attempt will be made to define or explain the musical concepts contained herein. Rather, the em phasis will be on presenting and briefly describing music technologies currently available to assist these music educators with finding and choosing those applications which will benefit their students. This research is focused on enhancing music students' musicianship skills who are already involved in a traditional ensemble, such as band, choir, orchestra , or other school ensemble, and will not attempt to address "stand alone" music technology courses designed for the "non traditional" music stud ent with no prior musical training. Although the author is a proponent for such courses, it is beyond the scope of this research. Arrangement of Thesis For the sake of making this document an easy to use resource for classroom music teachers, it is arranged by use of musicianship skills appropriate for high school music students. They are: 1. Time 2. Sight reading 3. General music theory 4. Singing and playing in tune

PAGE 36

! ! ) ! 5. Improvisation 6. Composition The literature review , Chapter Two , is arranged by how the research deals with these musicianship skills , followed by Chapter Three , providing music technologies current and specific to each of the se six musicianship skills.

PAGE 37

! ! * ! CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The review is organiz ed based on the six musicianship skills found to be common threads throughout the literature and currently available technology. They are: 1. Time (Steady beat ) 3. Sight reading skills 2. General Music Theory 4. Singing and playing in tune 5. Improvisation 6. Composition Researchers Time One of the most basic elements of music is the steady beat, and yet we find a surprising number of high school students without the ability accurately perform, or "feel" a steady beat. Hale (2009) states that, "Although steady beat is taught in the early grades, older students who have not mastered this concept will have little success with subdividing the beat or understanding that some notes are sustained for a specific number of beats ." She goes on to point out other musical shortcomings that students who have not mastered the steady beat will suffer. The fact that this is an issue in music education can be witnessed by its inclusion in four of the book sources for this paper , Brown (2015), Finney & Burnard (2007), Rudolph (2005), and Watson (2011). Each of these books puts forward various technologies which can help students become more proficient with their steady beat, some suggesting specific software programs that address this s kill, some suggesting a method that does not take dedicated "steady beat" software to

PAGE 38

! ! + ! accomplish : using a MIDI sequencer, tapping in the beat to a metronome , for example, quarter notes in 4/4 time, then examining the MIDI Event List , or the graphic repres entation (most sequencers have both) to see how close to the metronome time the student is performing. This gives a visual representation to the student if they are early, late, or perhaps randomly off from the steady beat. S pecific software applications will be discussed in Chapter Three . Swingler & Brockhouse (2009) put forward a great method for students with physical disabilities to practice and demonstrate steady beat using an alternative MIDI input method, or "gestural controller." These MIDI controllers "allow the player to perform without any physical contact with the instrument." They operate by emitting ultrasonic waves which are reflected back to a sensor, and the movements in the field are translated in to MIDI data. The performance area of the gestural controller can often be adjusted, down to a few centimeters, so that, "the invisible instrument can be varied in size to accommodate the movements that the player wishes to perform, or is capable of pe rforming." Students without the fine motor skills needed to tap on a computer keyboard space bar, for example, are able to input MIDI data with whatever physical gestures they are capable of. Peterson (2006) proposes using the simple technology of playing back recorded beats, or music, to which students can move kinesthetically in response to the beat. Marowitz (2011) while focusing on practice skills, reinforces the fact that technologically assisted practice lets students practice keeping with a steady beat on a regular basis. Ultimately, any technology that expects students to "stay with" a steady beat is practicing this skill, so it is an underlying musical principle pervasive throughout the literature. Sight reading A common challenge among high school music students, whether instrumentalists or voc alists, is the ability to sight read music accurately. Nothing can slow the progress of an

PAGE 39

! ! , ! individual musician or entire ensemble more than the lack of each individual's ability to sight rea d the music being gi ven to them, and yet we find an increasing number of prospective undergraduate music students without the ability to read music, Kuehne ( 2010). This includes both melodically and rhythmically. This ability builds on the skills learned in general music theory and aural skills, which teach the building blocks of this more encompassing skill, and like mastering those skil ls, requires practice. M usic technology can serv e as that ever present teacher and drill master helping students through guided and progressive practice and assessment to become more accomplished readers , Henry (2014) . Criswell & Menasche (2009) offer some specific software programs that offer sequential sight reading drill programs for music students, such as SmartMusic and iPAS , (both of whic h will be discussed in Chapter Three ), and espouse their effectiveness in helping students become more proficient sight readers . Rudolph (2005) draws direct correlations between the National Standards for Music Education, which include "Reading and Notating Music" for high school students, recommending CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) software programs to help students reach those standards. He recommends students using the software to practice read ing notes, melodies , and rhythms, and drill and practice software to help develop their music reading skills. Peterson (2006) suggests using drill and training software for teaching note reading, scales , and intervals, and suggests using several different varieties of programs for stronger reinforcement. He also suggests challenging the students to get the highest scores, on those programs which offer assessments, and using the competitive aspect to moti vate the students. He encourages teachers to stay current with the technology, as this kind of drill software is an effective tool for accomplishing the goal of having students well ver sed in their sight reading

PAGE 40

! ! ! skills. As he says, " If you know the capab ilities of music software, then you can design ways for your students to benefit from it." General Music T heory The foundation of the musical language is encompassed within the term, "Music theory." It is indeed a very broad category, but in the case of this research , which is focusing on the high school music student, we will limit the scope to what is called for in the National Standards for Music Education , 2014, NAFME (2014) . These encompass key and time signatures, musical notation, intervals wit hin an octave, note values , and ba sic rhythms . The teaching of the basics of music theory was perhaps the first and now the most saturated field for music education technologies, primarily because of the fundamental nature o f music theory to musicianship. As Brown (2015) says, "Acquiring basic skills in music theory and aural awareness is a core aspect of music education." As such, there is a plethora of literature addressing music theory technologies. Kuzmich (2009) opines, "Music Technology has changed once boring ear training exercises and theory into an exciting musical challenge," and goes on to say that once teachers see the se programs in action, they will appreciate how powerful and useful they are for students and teachers alike. Brown (2015) dev otes an entire chapter of his book, "Music Technology and Education: Amplifying Musicality" to the specific uses of music technologies in helping students learn their theory skills. This includes drills for music notation, as well as aural skills. He ide ntifies four key activities found in music theory apps, including: 1) Identifying / Naming; 2) Matching; 3) Structuring, and; 4) Demonstration. In addition to these learning strategies, he names five approaches that are used for interactivity with these p rograms, including: 1) Recognition / Identification; 2) Repetition / Dictation; 3) Prediction; 4) Description, and; 5) Analysis, and

PAGE 41

! ! %. ! encourages teachers to look for these strategies and approaches when choosing music theory software. He concludes his thou ghts by saying, "The best programs combine exploration (play) and achievement based (test) incentives and progression. As always, the teacher's role in choosing software, setting tasks, and providing learning activities and clarifications is critical for students' successful use of musical software." A very comprehensive list of music theory software and apps is provided, all of which will be discussed in Chapter Three. In "Technology Strategies for Music Education," Rudolph (2005) claims that, "Teache rs should have a broad familiarity with available instructional software," understanding how to, "install, use, and integrate these programs into their music curriculum taking full advantage of the record keeping, evaluation, and instructional support CAI software provides." He says that CAI software can become the "pat ient practice p artner " allowing students to progress at their own pace. Peterson (2006), states that since all well trained musicians need to be solid in their music fundamentals, drill sof tware is an effective tool to reach that goal. In "Music Technology: The Computer in Your Student's Pocket," Criswell (2009), the focus is on mobile devices, the many music apps that are currently available for them, and how music teachers can utilize these tools to help teach music theory . Since many students already have smart phones, inexpensive apps can be a great alternative for programs with small budgets for technology. He provides a list of music theory apps that will be discussed in Chapter Th ree. There is no shortage of apps and software designed to help music students with their music theory skills, an d all will be discussed in Chapter Three. Singing and Playing in T une Until CPU sp eeds increased and software beca me more capable of "trac king" pitch in real time , ( of vocalists or instrumentalists ) , this musicianship skill was difficult to aid using

PAGE 42

! ! %% ! technologies , often costing hundreds of thousands of dollars and requiring large amounts of space, Harrison (2014) . Strobe, and later , electr onic tuners could be used, but that was just for one pitch at a time, and not conducive to guided practice. Teachers and students with "good ears" could easily tell when someone was playing or singing flat or sharp, but the student not in tune obviously c ould not. Because of their "challenged" ear, they had to rely on direct feedback from t heir teachers . Now that technology has advanced, there are many software programs that aid students with their pitch problems , tracking pitch and timing accuracy , and giving the student meaningful feedback, Rudolph, (2005) . Most of these programs in one way or another have a graphic representation of where the student is actually singing in relationship to the correct pitch, cuing them visually to adjust their sin ging or playing accordingly. Brown (2015) touches on this concept specifically, and recommends to teachers the more comprehensive programs, such as Practica Musica and Auralia , as they provide more accurate feedback to students . In a chapter written by S cott McCoy, "Singing Pedagogy in the twenty First Century: A Look Toward the Future", from the book, " Teaching Singing in the 21st Century" , Harrison (2014), he recommends not only using software, "developed especially for real time display of pitch accura cy and timbre," such as Sing & See . He goes on to say as a voice researcher at The Ohio State University, "I am humbled by my students who instinctively understand the inner workings of advanced voice analysis software; they seem to have instant facility in tasks that took me months, if not years to master. In the digital world, I speak with an accent and an adolescent vocabulary, but that is sufficient for me to see the value of technology as an aid to teaching." He foresees a future where music teachers regularly use technology as part of their teaching, as often as they use mirrors now, providing concise and accurate feedback for improvement.

PAGE 43

! ! %& ! These type s of pitch tracking apps and software programs are the "infants" of music educational software, and a re not as abundant as some of the other types of technological tools, but all currently available programs that can help students learn to sing and play in tune will be discussed in Chapter Three. In addition to pitch tracking software, there is also the simple method of recor ding a rehearsal or performance for student and teacher assessment. Prior to digital recording, this was often done on cassette recorders, but now almost every smart phone has a built in digital recording feature. Brown (2015), Rudo lph (2005), Harrison (2014), Watson (2011), Criswell (2009), Marowitz (2011), Mercer (2008), and Peterson (2006) all encourage the use of digital recording devices, whether apps or Digital Audio Workstation (DAW) recording software, by students to record t hemselves for self evaluation and feedback from teachers and peers. All of these types of digital recording devices will be discussed in Chapter Three. Improvisation The Jamey Aebersold "Jazz Play Alongs" are an early example of how music technology (sound recordings on LP's) could be used to help students learn to improvise. With the technologies available today a variety of methods for students to learn and practice their improvisational skills are available . Even the original Aebersold series has been upgraded to CDs and DVDs , Jazzbooks.com (2016) . Programs like Band in a Box allow a student to simply type in the chords of a jazz chart, choose the style, key , and tempo, and instantly be accompanied by a MIDI jazz trio, over and over and over agai n, in any key or tempo they choose , is just one example of how music technology can help students learn how to improvise , Brown (2015) , Watson (2011) .

PAGE 44

! ! %' ! In a 2011 research study, Bernhard (2013) discovered that 196 Bachel or of Music Education students rep orted only having "slight confidence" in teaching vocal or instrumental improvisation, which is where music technology can assist these teachers and their students in learning how to improvise . Nielsen (2013) through his research of student and teacher perceptions of using music technology to enhance creativity concluded that best practices in teaching music, "improvisation using instructional technology should be developed and implemented to enhance this aspect of music education as well as support 21 st century skills development for students." Watson (2011) summarizes that software and hardware tools can, "stimulate, guide , and help document improvisation efforts as ends unto themselves or as part of the process of building larger creative structures." In addition to providing accompaniment for improvisation practice and exploration, listening to and learning from great improvisational artists can be a great tool. O'Donnel (2011) , and Green (2013) both suggest using programs like Transcribe for this p urpose , which is capable of slowing down the tempo of a recording so a student can pick out the notes of a fast passage more easily. It also allows for transpositions to put it in any desired key. Technology can be used in a variety of ways to enhance st udents' improvisationa l skills, and specific apps and programs will be discussed in Chapter Three. Composition Tools for the composer, student or otherwise, have exploded since the advent of MIDI sequencing, and particularly the affordability of Digital Audio Workstations, (DAW s ) , capable of multi track recording on a budget. Hardware and software synthesizers give composers a virtually unlimited palette of sounds from which to choose, and DAW's give them the ability to record as many tracks as their comp uter can handle. Notation software has also taken a huge

PAGE 45

! ! %( ! burden off composers needing printed music to give to musicians, with the ability to transpose for specific instruments, create individual parts and conductors' scores, export that to MIDI, or impor t from MIDI, share back and forth with a DAW, all at a mouse click. Music software can make composing more accessible to students, and their prior experience as musical performers is not necessarily predictive of how they will achieve using software bas ed compositional tools, Bolton, (2008). These same tools have enabled student composition to take great leaps forward, primarily by giving them the abi lity to have instant feedback. For example, a student can write a piece for string quartet, and immedia tely hear a MIDI or sampled str ing quartet play it back . This allows students to make adjustments nearly on the fly, and to know exactly what their compositions sound like , Rudolph ( 2005) . Next to music theory, the literature is expansive on the topic of technologies used for composition. Finney (2007) gives seven specific case studies from around the globe on how technology is being used to assist students in composition, including the use of graphical technologies, electronic collabor ations with other s tudents, both intranet and internet, and using DJ ing software to teach composing from creation to performance . Riley (2013) offers ideas on how students can use GarageBand , specifically with an iPad to sonically realize their compositions. Sibelius , Finale , Musesco re , Noteflight , Reflow , Finale Notepad , and NotateMe are all notation programs that have made improvements in navigation, input and playback, and Brown (2015), recommends them for student composers. He also points out the fact that less exp ensive programs generally have more limited features, and apps for mobile devices are usually more limited than computer software, but may prove to be an advantage for students by not confusing them with too many options.

PAGE 46

! ! %) ! Brown (2015) also gives a very useful and detailed, 16 point technical features guide for teachers on how to choose the right notation software for their students. They include: • Complexity • Print Quality • Input Methods • Rhythmic Transcription and Rendering • Staves, Clefs, an d Articulations • Editing and Transformation • Text and Drawing • Playback and Audio Rendering • Display and Page Turning • Computing Device • Screen Size and Resolution • Input Devices • Playback Quality • Local and/or Cloud Storage • Printing • Equipment Location Teachers seeking a notation program would be well advised to consider all these elements before making a decision on what would best fit their needs. DAWs came about as the blending of digital audio recording and MIDI sequencing, and evolved during the 1990s. Some of the most popular DAWs programs for desktop computers are Cubase , Sonar , Logic , Ableton Live , Pro Tools , FL Studio , GarageBand , Digital Performer ,

PAGE 47

! ! %* ! Audacity , with Auria , Cubasis , BeatMaker 2 , NanoStudio , and GarageBand avai lable for the iPad, Brown (2015) , Watson (2011) . Because this research is focused on musicianship skills, there will be no attempt to discuss digital audio recording techniques of which DAWs are capable . Rather , attention will be given to their usefulness to the student composer, as an addition and extension to notation programs and their MIDI sequencing capabilities. However, it is important to note that since MIDI data can exist side by side with digi tal audio, the DAWs ability to produce finished product digital audio recordings is why, "DAW software is often the core software application used in music education," Brown (2015). Wise (2011) calls for a change in traditional thinking about composition, saying that the, " challenge is that of moving technology from its position as an Ôadd on' in the music curriculum to a position of being embedded within the curriculum." Nielson (2013) found in his research of a high school music technology program that 9 out o f 10 students strongly agreed that the use of technology helped them to become more creative in their compositions. Because of developments in music technology, it has never been easier or more fun for students to compose Watson ( 2011). He points to adva nces over the past 20 years which have made these developments possible, stating that "program designers have been making the technical side of the technology more and more invisible so users can get at the creative side more easily," and, "more and more f reeware, shareware, open source, and web applications are being created and offered at little or no cost." For teachers and students, using technology for composition is "less of an obstacle than ever." Notation, sequencing , and DAWs which all overlap e ach other and can all be useful to the student composer will be discussed in Chapter Three.

PAGE 48

! ! %+ ! CHAPTER III CURRENTLY AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES Overview In the following sections of Chapter Three , which are based on six general musicianship skills, every attempt has been made to include an exhaustive list and description of apps and programs for iOS, Mac OS, Android , and Windows that are appropriate for the high school musician . This research does not include reviews or ranking s , merely the manufacturers' statements of what each app and program are designed for and capable of, the platform in which they operate, and the cost as of May, 2016. This chapter is designed to be a resource for high school music educators to search for music technologies approp riate for their students. The supplemental Tables, which are Excel spread sheets provide this detailed information in a summarized spread sheet, including hyperlinks to URLs for each program, to further assist teachers in easily acquiring the desired soft ware. Also as an overview, for those adventurous teachers who would like to try their hand at creating their own programs , or challenging their students to do so , mention should be made of two of the top visual programming languages. No attempt will be made to instruct teache rs how to use these programs, as t hey are merely being mentioned as further possibilities. Pure Data , Pure Data (2016), is a visual programming language designed especially for creating interactive computer music and multimedia , Puc kette (2016) . It is open source, (and therefore, free), and runs on iOS / Mac OS / Windows / Android. It can be downloaded at http://puredata.info .

PAGE 49

! ! %, ! Max , Max (2016), is another visual programming language for music and multimedia, and has been used to create recordings, performances and installations, Cycling '74 (2016). It runs on Mac OS and Windows, and can be purchased for $250.00, which is the teache r price, at https://cycling74.com/shop/ .V4uiu1fkiao . Time The development of a strong sense of time is paramount and fundamental to a musician's success , Hale (2009) . In this section, music technologies will be shown that are design ed to help students develop their sense of steady beat . Drill programs in graded skill acquisition are an effective means of helping students development their sense of a steady beat , Brown (2015) . Apps listed will be those available for iOS and Android in order of price. Mac OS or Windows programs that specifically deal with keeping a steady beat were not found. However , for more comprehensive rhythm training, see both the "Sight Reading" and "General Music T heory" sections in this chap t er , as many of the more complete ear training programs and apps have sections incorporated within them specifically for steady beat practice. Included in this section are those apps whose sole purpose is practicing steady beat . The accompanying supplemental document, Table 1, "Time Apps and Programs " gives a concise summary of the programs in this section, along with various data sorting sheets and hyperlinks to each app and program.

PAGE 50

! ! %! #1 Keep the Beat #1 Keep the B eat, #1 Keep the Beat (2015) is an iOS app that sells for $0.99, Barber (2015). Following is a list of its basic features: • Provides a song with a strong beat, student taps along on the screen with the steady beat • Music drops out, student continues tappi ng the beat (see Fig. 3.1) • Points are lost for every 2 milliseconds students gets off the beat • Scores performance, keeps scores, and scores can be shared with friends Figure 3.1: #1 Keep the Beat Screen Shots

PAGE 51

! ! &. ! Got Rhythm Got Rhythm , Got Rhythm (2015) is an iOS a pp that sells for $0.99, Gilmour Games (2015). Following is a list of its basic features: • Provides a song with a strong beat, student taps along on the screen with the steady beat • Music drops out, student continues tapping the beat (see Fig. 3.2) • Points are scored for accuracy • Compare your score with the world on game center Figure 3.2: Got Rhythm Screen Shots

PAGE 52

! ! &% ! iKeepTime iKeepTime , iKeepTime (2016) is an iOS app that sells for $ 0 .99, ONYX Apps (2016) . F igure 3 .1 shows screen shots of the app . Following is a list of its basic features: • Uses Easy, Medium , and Hard modes to gradually increase difficulty • Set tempos from 40 bpm to 200 bpm • Tempo meter displays dragging or rushing tendencies (see Fig. 3.3 ) • A ccuracy Score includes percentage scores for Overall Accuracy, Perfect, Good , and Missed (see Fig. 3.3 ) Figure 3 .3 : iKeepTime Screen Shots /012!213!1401!!!!!!/56!!!!!!50478491:;0!60204 ! <;;=41;>!?;840@ !

PAGE 53

! ! && ! Pro Metronome Pro Metronome, ProMetronome (2016) is a free iOS / Android app, EMULab (2016). Like MyTronome , it is essentially just a metronome, with the added "Rhythm Trainer" feature, (an in app purchase of $0.99) which is able to program "Mute" measures. The app does not give any accuracy feedback, so the student h as to self evaluate. Figure 3.4 shows screens shots of the app. Figure 3.4 : Pro Metronome Screen Shots < AB=@21CD0!6=20!601@=40@E !

PAGE 54

! ! &' ! MyTronome MyTronome , MyTronome (2012 ) is an iOS app that sells for $1.99 , Bellard (2016). While this is primarily just a metronome app, the training feature it offers is that the student can define a certain number of measure s for the metronome to "drop out," allowing the student to keep playing and see if they can come back in on time with the metronome. The app does not give any accuracy feedback, so the student has to self evaluate. Figure 3.5 shows screens shots of the app. Figure 3.5 : MyTronome Screen Shots
PAGE 55

! ! &( ! Timing Trainer Pro Timing Trainer Pro , Timing Trainer Pro (2014) is an iOS rhythmic skills training program and sells for $2.99, AppicDesign (2014). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features many customization tools, such as tempo, volume of the "1's", choice of note values (see Fig. 3.6 ), choice of meter (see Fig. 3.7 ), and length of exercises (see Fig. 3.8 ) • Features two modes: Practice Mode and Tap Mode • Practice M ode allows the student to rehearse note values before being scored • Tap Mode allows students to tap in the specified note values (see Fig. 3.9 ), and receive an evaluation ( see Fig. 3.10 ) • Features a loop setting for endless practice • Features three different click sounds Figure 3.6 : Timing Trainer Pro Note Value Choices

PAGE 56

! ! &) ! Figure 3.7 : Timing Trainer Pro Meter Choices Figure 3.8 : Timing Trainer Pro Exercise Choices

PAGE 57

! ! &* ! Figure 3.9 : Timing Trainer Pro Tap Window Figure 3.10 : Timing Trainer Pro Results

PAGE 58

! ! &+ ! MIDI Sequencer / Digital Audio Workstation Method MIDI s equencers and digital audio workstations (DAWs) with MIDI sequencing capabilities , (see "Composing" section for a complete list) can also be used for teachers and students to create their own steady beat drills and feedback, by varying the tempos of the metronome, playing a repeated note on a MIDI input device (or computer keyboard if capable), and examining the MIDI data (commonly called Event List, or "Piano Roll" view) to see how close the student is actually coming to landing exactly on the beat . Many DAWs today come with the ability to "Find the Beat" of an audio file, so the teacher can import any song with a strong drum be at, have the DAW analyze the audio file, and have the student play the steady beat along with the audio track. This would help make it more relevant to the student, as the student could choose the music to import, but the technique and results would be th e same as simply using the metronome. This is helpfu l for showing tendencies , such as if a student is consistently early or late, and for informing them if they need to anticipate the beat more because they are late, or if they need to "lay back", or wait more for the beat because they are early . This method is included because many music classrooms have at least one DAW or MIDI sequencer with a keyboard attached, so this would not cost the teacher or student anything to incorporate. Figure 3.11 shows a screen shot using the DAW ProTools to achieve this method. The student was asked to play a repeated note on a MIDI keyboard to the steady beat, which is set at quarter note = 80bpm. As the "Piano Roll" view reveals, (called, "Notes" view in ProTools ), it is visually apparent that the student is consistently ahead of the beat.

PAGE 59

! ! &, ! Figure 3.11 : ProTools Steady Beat Exercise Screen Shot !"#$%&'"(()*+ & ,-)./&!01./&23)*"&0"$0"4"*(4&56&7$#8&$"0&(9"&("#$%&4"(()*+&17%:"; & <"1(&=0)>&3)*"4 & ?@A@&!01./&2BC0$-"&7104&0"$0"4"*(&*%("&$)(.98&4(10( 8 & 1*>&"*>; & 6IJI!30478491:;0!A121!7489!K"LKD"LK20A!:820!7489!2K0!6IJI!241;M!"@!A"@3D1>0A!K040E ! NK0!@2=A0:2!3D1>0A!8:!&O%O-'*!PQK";K!901:@!901@=40!&R!C012!%R!-'*!2";M@ ! 8=2!87!-,.!2";M@!784 ! 1!7=DD!C012S!@8!K0!Q1@!((!2";M@!014D>E!!0A!1C8#0 ! ?2=A0:2!"@!;8:@"@20:2D>!014D>!1@!@00:! C>!:820@!@2142":L!C07840!2K0!C012!L4"A! D":0@ !

PAGE 60

! ! &! Sight reading Skills One important skill on the path to becoming a consummate musician is the ability to sight read music. Nothing can assist a band, choir, or orchestra teacher more than an ensemble full of students who are proficient sight readers. Instead of spending reh earsal time on learning notes and rhythms, groups can focus on the musicality of those notes and rhythms. In this section, I will show music technologies designed to help students develop skills in their vocal and instrumental sight reading abilities. It is also important to note that many of the complete music theory programs and ear training programs include lessons and exercises to help student become better sight readers (see Chapter 3: General Music Theory). Skills such as interval recognition, rhy thmic reading and performance, solfege, and many other basic music theory skills are the building blocks of becoming a proficient sight reader. Listed in this section are those programs that deal specifically with sight reading, both rhythmically and melod ically. They will be organized in this section by price, from high to low. The accompanying supplemental document, Table 2, "Sight Reading Apps and Programs " gives a concise summary of the programs in this section, along with various data sorting sheets and hyperlinks to each app and program.

PAGE 61

! ! '. ! The Practice Room The Practice Room , The Practice Room (2015 ) is an online sight reading program that sells for $149.95 for a one year entire school subscription, or $59.95 for an individual subscription . Following is a list of its basic features: • Features 200 rhythmic reading exercises, 200 sight singing exercises, 200 t wo part reading exercises, 200 minor key exercises, 55 exercises with hy mns, chorales , and motets, along with interval drill s , all in a graded sequence (see Fig. 3.12 ) • All exercises have correctly recorded audio so students can evaluate their performance • Teachers can monitor exercises attempted and time spent on each • School subscription allows printing of sight singin g materials for class use • Allows students to access from any computer with internet access, home or school Figure 3.12 : The Practice Room Example Screen shot

PAGE 62

! ! '% ! SmartMusic SmartMusic, SmartMusic (2016 ) is an iOS / Mac OS / Windows program designed primarily for student home vocal and instrumental practice that sells for $140.00 for a one year educator subscription, $99.00 for "Practice Room" subscription (which is essentially a one seat at school license), and $40.00 for an individ ual student subscription , for those students whose teachers have the annual educator subscription MakeMusic, Inc (2016) . Although its primary function is to rehearse commercially available band, choir , and orchestra repertoire for school ensembles, it off ers a very accurate and useful assessment feature, and is capable of real time assessments of rhythm and pitch. As such, it can be used not only for practicing repertoire more efficiently, but also as a sight reading drill program because of its feedback capabilities. Following is a list of its basic features as related to sight reading : • Features over 4,000 ensemble title s, and 18,000 solo titles to choose from with background accompaniment • Features over 60 of the most popular method books for b and, choir , and orchestra • Features 600 sight reading and sight singing exercises • Can import any file from Finale • For each piece , f or example, provides pitch and rhythm accuracy assessments for students (see Fig. 3.13 ; may need to enlarge to see details ) • Gives teachers complete assessment data for each student, including student recordings of a ssigned assessment (see Fig. 3.14 and 3.15 ; may need to enlarge to see details ) • An extremely flexible program with hundreds of features (see Fig. 3.16 )

PAGE 63

! ! '& ! Figure 3.13 : SmartMusic Student Exercise Window Features Figure 3.14 : SmartMusic Teacher Student Assessment Window Features

PAGE 64

! ! '' ! Figure 3.15 : SmartMusic Teacher Gradebook Window Features Figure 3.16 : SmartMusic Student Interface Features

PAGE 65

! ! '( ! Practice Sight Reading Practice Sight Reading, Practice Sight Reading (2016) is an online sight reading program that works with iOS / Android / Mac OS / Windows , and sells for $60.00 for the Deluxe version (which includes rhythmic and melodic sight reading) for an annual subscription, or is free for the rhythmic only version, Jesse Clark, LLC (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Generates graded rhythmic and melodic sight reading exercises (see Fig s . 3.17 and 3.18 ) , customizable by the student (see Fig. 3.19 and 3.20 ) • Does not provide an input method or any time of assessment Ð students can play back each example that is performed correctly to self evaluate their performance • Can be accessed by any internet capable device Figure 3.17 : Practice Sight Reading Rhythm Exercise Screen Shot

PAGE 66

! ! ' ) ! Figure 3.18 : Practice Sight Reading Melodic Exercise Example Figure 3.1 9 : Practice Sight Reading Custom Levels Example Figure 3.20 : Practice Sight Reading Available Meters

PAGE 67

! ! '* ! Sight Reading Factory Sight Reading Factory, Sight Reading Factory (2016) is an iOS / Mac OS / Windows online sight reading program that sells for $34.99 for a personal plan annual subscription, $34.99 for an educator subscription, and a variable rate for student annual subscriptions (whose teachers have the educator subscription) ranging from $25.99 for one student down to $2.00 per student for 99 students or more. The iOS app is a free download, but students need to have a subscription to access the content, Gracenotes, LLC (2016). . Following is a list of the basic features: • Features graded, unlimited sight reading exercises written specifically for the ranges of SATB, percussion, strings, guitar, woodwinds, brass, and full ensemble exercises for concert band, choir, string orchestra , and full orchestra (see Fig. 3.21 ) • Provides many tools for teachers, including printing exercises, customizing exercises, and the ability to make assignments to students, hear their performance as recorded audio, and make assessments (see Fig. 3.22 ) • Allows studen ts to record their performances but does NOT give direct feedback or assessment to students Ð students upload their audio recording and the teacher assesses and grades the performance • iOS app allows students to practice and complete assignments from anywhere by using the built in microphone on their iOS device (see Fig. 3.23 ) • Extremely flexible and comprehensive program for school programs

PAGE 68

! ! '+ ! Figure 3.21 : Sight Reading Factory Exercise Screen Shot Figure 3.22 : Sight Reading Factory Teacher Assessment Screen Shot

PAGE 69

! ! ', ! Figure 3.23 : Sight Reading Factory iOS Screen Shot s

PAGE 70

! ! '! Steps to Reading Music Steps to Reading Music, Steps to Reading Music (2016 ) is a Mac OS / Windows sight re ading program that sells for $29.99 for a single computer, multiple user license , Ars Nova (2016). It is part of the Practica Musica complete music theory program (see Chapter 3: General Music Theory: Practica Musica ). Following is a list of the ba sic features: . • Features 12 graded exercises with review if students need more help (See Fig. 3 .24 ) • Exercises are computer generated, so students will never run out of new material • Provides performance assessment and feedback for rhythmic and me lodic exercises • Provides multiple input options, from computer keyboard, to MIDI keyboard to microphone for singing or playing the pitched melodic exercises • When students have mastered this curriculum, Ars Nova recommends upgrading to the full version of Practica Musica for further exercises Figure 3.24 : Steps to Reading Music Rhythm Tapping Exercise Screen Shot

PAGE 71

! ! (. ! Rhythm Sight Reading Trainer Rhythm Sight Reading Trainer, Rhythm Sight Reading Trainer (2016) is an iOS rhythm sight reading app that sells for $2.99, Steenge (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Provides two modes: "Practice Mode" (see Fig. 3. 25 ) , where students listen or tap along whil e the rhythm is played with accuracy instantly displayed visually, and "Test Mode" (see Fig. 3.26 ) , where students hear only the metronome and must tap the rhythm and when finished the accuracy score is displayed • Features 200 fixed exercises ( see Fig. 3.27 ) , and thousands of random exercises based on 20 levels of difficulty , and the ability for students to email their scores • Offers a swing option for all exercises • Adjustable metronome with speeds of 20 to 240 bpm • Offers using the built in microphone as an input method, so students can clap, verbalize , or play an instrument instead of tapping Figure 3.25 : Rhythm Sight Reading Trainer Practice Mode Screen Shot

PAGE 72

! ! (% ! Figure 3.26 : Rhythm Sight Reading Trainer Test Mode Screen Sho t Figure 3.27 : Rhythm Sight Reading Trainer Fixed Exercises Screen Shot

PAGE 73

! ! (& ! Rhythm Teacher Rhythm Teacher, Rhythm Teacher (2016) is an Android app that teaches rhythm sight reading and is free, Gamya Games (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features sight reading rhythm game for practicing graded exercises • Features polyrhythmic exercises with two lines at the same time, one line played with each thumb (see Fig. 3.28 ) • Provides immediate student assessment scores based on rhythmic accuracy • Covers note and rest durations down to sixteenth notes, and both simple and compound time signatures Figure 3.28 : Rhythm Teacher Exercise Screen Shots ')*+-"&3)*"&DE1#$-" & B%-F09F(9#). & DE1#$-" &

PAGE 74

! ! (' ! General Music Theory While this topic could conceivably encompass all six of the musicianship skill areas identified, for the purposes of this research, focus will be on written music theory and ear training. The literature is saturated with software programs to help students with these skills, and as many as possible will be shown, organized alphabetically with complete programs first, then written theory, ear training, to the apps and programs that deal with one specific skill. The accompanying Table 3, "General Music Theory Apps and Programs " gives a concise summary of the programs in this section, along with various data sorting sheets and hyperlinks to each app and program.

PAGE 75

! ! (( ! Essential s of Music Theory Essential s of Music Theory, Essentials of Music Theory (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows complete, interactive music theory and ear training course, Alfred Music (2016). Available versions include Essential s of Music Theory (EMT) Volume I, Student Version which sells for $29.99, EMT Complete, Student Version for $59.99, EMT Volume I, Educator Version for $129.99, EMT Co mplete, Educator Version for $249.99, EMT Volume I, Network Edition for 5 users for $349.00, EMT Complete, Network Version for 5 users for $599.00, EMT Complete, Student Web Version , annual fee of $19.99, and EMT complete, Educator Web Version , annual fee of $129.99. Following is a list of the basic features: • Course is organized in three volumes, and Volume I is offered separately, while the "Complete" version offers all three volumes • Includes randomized exercises, ear training , and graded re views for each unit • Volume I, Lessons 1 25 features lessons on: treble and bass clefs, 4/4, 3/4 & 2/4 time signatures, flats, sharps , and naturals, whole and half steps, dynamic signs, tempo and articulation markings, and up to eighth notes and rests (see Fig. 3.29 ) • Volume II, Lessons 26 Ð 50 features lessons on: major scales, key signatures, circle of fifths, intervals, 3/8 and 6/8 time, triads , and V7 chords • Volume III, Lessons 51 Ð 75 features lessons on: 1 st and 2 nd inversions of triads, figured bass, chord progressions, minor scales and triads, modes, harmonizing & composing melodies, 12 bar blues and blues scale, basic music forms • Web version allows students to acce ss the program from home, school, or any computer with internet access and Adobe Flash Player. • Allows teachers to customize lessons and tests

PAGE 76

! ! () ! • Many companion products are also available, such as student and teacher books, listening CDs, g ames , and flashcards F igure 3.29 : Essential s of Music Theory Lesson Screen Shots

PAGE 77

! ! (* ! Music Theory Tutor Music Theory Tutor, Music Theory Tutor (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows complete, interactive music theory and ear training program that sells for $59.95 for the Music Theory Tutor Volume I (Graded 1 through 5) single user edition, $59.95 for the Music Theory Tutor Volume II (Gr aded 6 through 9) single user edition, $99.95 for the Music Theory Tutor Complete (compilation of Volumes I and II) single user edition , $49.95 for the Music Theory Tutor School Edition for a single student individual license, $149.95 for the Music Theory Tutor School Edition for a teacher classroom license which allows projection and SMART board use, $449.00 for a 5 computer lab pack of Music Theory Tutor School Edition , $50.00 for each student for the Music Theory Tutor School Edition Site License with a minimum of 10 students, and $30.00each student for the Music Theory Tutor School Edition Cloud License, with a minimum of 10 students, eMedia Music Corporation (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Provides over 430 music theory lessons, exercises , and tests • Graded levels one through nine (not correlated to school grade levels) • Lessons incorporate both written music theory and basic ear training • Uses computer microphone for input, singing, humming, or instrumental • Provides gra phs, charts , and lists to measure student progress (see Fig. 3.30 ) • "Intelligent Practice" feature which tracks student progress and automatically selects questions to improve weaknesses (see Fig. 3.31 ) • Exercises and lessons to teach: rhythmic fundamentals ( see Fig. 3.32 ), counting, simple and compound time signatures, key signatures (see Fig. 3.33 ), reading music, music notation, scales, intervals, chords, chord progressions, musical form (see Fig. 3.34 ), solfege , and sight singing

PAGE 78

! ! (+ ! Figure 3.30 : Music Theory Tutor Progress Statistics Screen Shot F igure 3.31 : Music Theory Tutor Intelligent Practice Screen Shot

PAGE 79

! ! (, ! F igure 3.32 : Music Theory Tutor Rhythm Reading Screen Shot F igure 3.33 : Music Theory Tutor Rhyth m Reading Screen Shot

PAGE 80

! ! (! Figu re 3.34 : Music Theory Tutor Rhythm Reading Screen Shot

PAGE 81

! ! ). ! Practica Musica Practica Musica, Practica Musica (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows complete interactive music theory program that sells for $45.00 for the downloadable s ingle user student edition, $50 for the same delivered on a flashdrive, $100 for the standard edition, which allows multiple users at one computer and includes "Instructor Options", and $300 for a one year 30 seat site license, Ars Nova (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Provides 255 individual lessons divided into two categories: ear training and music theory • All lessons generate material randomly, and will assess and keep records for each user • Instructor features allow custo mization and simple record keeping for each student • Ear Training lessons start with "Single Pitches" and progress through "Chord Progressions" and, "Hearing Form and Texture" ( see Fig 3.35 ) • Theory Lessons begin with "Pitch Names" and prog ress th rough "Harmonic Analysis " , "Notational Devices" , and, "Composition " (see Fig. 3.36 ) • For a detailed lessons list: K223VGGQQQE14@ W :8#1E;89G1;2"#"2"0@EK29D • Comes with accompanying digital textbook, "Exploring Theory with Practica Musica" which has more detailed information on the topics, along with listening examples and links to the lessons in Practica Musica software (see Fig 3.37 ) • Features " Webstudent" option, which stores all record keeping in the whether student is working from home or at school, and allows students to view progress and communicate with the instructor

PAGE 82

! ! )% ! Figure 3.35 : Practica Musica Ear Training Scr een Shot Figure 3.36 : Practica Musica Theory Screen Shot

PAGE 83

! ! )& ! Figure 3.37 : "Exploring Theory with Practica Musica" Sample Page X":M!28!@872Q140!D0@@8:!7489!0D0;248:";!20$2C88M !

PAGE 84

! ! )' ! Musition 5 Musition 5, Musition 5 (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows interactive written music theory program that sells for $99.00 for the downloadable student edition, $29.00 each for the student Cloud edition with a minimum of ten students, $159.00 for the student downloadable edi tion when bundled with Auralia 5 , and $49.00 each for the student Cloud edition when bundled with Auralia 5 , minimum of 10 students, Rising Software (2016). They claim Musition and Auralia to be, "The world's most powerful ear training & music theory soft ware." Following is a list of the basic features: • Is the written theory component of its companion product, Auralia 5 , which is the ear training component of the pair • Provides 38 topics divided into five groups: Pitch (see Fig 3.38 ), Rhyth m (See Fig. 3.39 ), Terms & Symbols (see Fig 3.40 ), Harmony (see Fig 3.41 ) and Instruments (see Fig 3.42 ) • Provides syllabus support for over 15 common international theory syllabi, including AP Music Theory, and also allows teachers to customize their own syllabus • Allows a wide range of record keeping and assessment for teachers, including student summary, activity log, practice results, test scores and course scores (see Fig. 3.43 ) • Allows teachers to design tests, worksheets and courses and assign them to any class (see Fig. 3.44 ) • Cloud feature allows students to work from home or school, with results always available to the student and teacher

PAGE 85

! ! )( ! Figure 3.38 : Musition 5 , Pitch Category Screen S hot Figure 3.39 : Musition 5 , Rhythm Category Screen S hot

PAGE 86

! ! )) ! Figure 3.40 : Musition 5 , Ter ms and Symbols Category Screen S hot Figure 3.41 : Musition 5 , Harmony Category Screen S hot

PAGE 87

! ! )* ! Figure 3.42 : Musition 5 , Instruments Category Screen S hot Figure 3.43 : Musition 5 , Teacher Test Results Screen S hot

PAGE 88

! ! )+ ! Figure 3.44 : Musition 5 , Teacher Test Assignment Screen shot

PAGE 89

! ! ), ! Auralia 5 Auralia 5, Auralia 5 (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows complete interactive ear training program that sells for $99.00 for the downloadable student edition, $29.00 each for the student Cloud edition with a minimum of ten students, $159.00 for the student downloadable edit ion when bundled with Musition 5 , and $49.00 each for the student Cloud edition when bundled with Musition 5 , minimum of 10 students, Rising Software (2016). They claim Musition and Auralia to be, "The world's most powerful ear training & music theory sof tware." Following is a list of the basic features: • Is the ear training component of its companion product, Musition 5 , which is the music theory component of the pair • Provides 43 topics, divided into five groups: Intervals & Scales (see Fig. 3. 44 ), Chords, (see Fig. 3.45 ), Rhythm (see Fig. 3.46 ), Harmony & Form (see Fig. 3.47 ), and, Pitch & Melody (see Fig. 3.48 ) • Provides syllabus support for over 15 common international theory syllabi, including AP Music Theory, and also all ows teachers to customize their own syllabus • Allows a wide range of record keeping and assessment for teachers, including student summary, activity log, practice results, test scores , and course scores (see Fig. 3.49 ) • Allows teachers to desig n tests, worksheets , and courses , and assign them to any class (see Fig. 3.50 ) • Cloud feature allows students to work from home or school, with results always available to the student and teacher

PAGE 90

! ! )! Figure 3.44 : Auralia 5, Intervals & Scales Category Screen Shot Figure 3.45 : Auralia 5, Chords Category Screen Shot

PAGE 91

! ! *. ! Figure 3.46 : Auralia 5, Rhythm Category Screen Shot Figure 3.47 : Auralia 5, Harmony & Form Category Screen Shot

PAGE 92

! ! *% ! Figure 3.48 : Auralia 5, Intervals & Scales Category Screen Shot Figure 3.49 : Auralia 5 , Teacher Test Results Screen Shot

PAGE 93

! ! *& ! Figure 3.50 : Auralia 5 Intervals & Scales Category Screen Shot

PAGE 94

! ! *' ! Alfred's Interactive Musician Alfred's Interactive Musician, Alfred's Interactive Musician (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows ear training program that sells for $39.95 for the student edition, $99.95 for the educator edition which adds teacher functions, and $249.95 for the network edition which allows for 5 simultaneou s users, Alfred Music (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Billed as a "musicianship course" • Features three sections: Pitch Training (see fig. 3.51 ), Sight Reading (see Fig. 3.52 ), and Rhythm (see Fig. 3.53 ) • Input is limited to onscreen keyboard or attached MIDI keyboard • Designed to enhance interval, chord and scale recognition, and to improve sight reading • Features multiple levels that are customizable • Randomizes drills so exercises are never duplicated • Teachers ca n create tests and have immediate access to student progress Figure 3.51 : Alfred's Interactive Musician Pitch Exercise Screen Shot

PAGE 95

! ! *( ! Figure 3.52 : Alfred's Interactive Musician Sight Reading Exercise Screen Shot Figure 3.53 : Alfred's Interactive Musician Rhythm Exercise Screen Shot

PAGE 96

! ! *) ! EarMaster 6 EarMaster 6, EarMaster 6 (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows interactive ear training program that sells for $59.95 for the EarMaster 6 Pro single user student edition, $69.95 for the Taskmaster 6 Teacher Edition for a single user, $149.00 for the Earmaster 6 Cloud edition for 20 users for one year, (which also supports iOS), and $249.95 for the Earmaster 6 Lab Pack for a 5 seat site license, EarMaster ApS (2016). Following is a list o f the basic features: • Provides over 2,000 exercises for ear training, sight singing , and rhythm training at all skill levels • Activities include: interval comparison (see Fig. 3.54 ), interval identification, interval singing, chord identific ation (see Fig. 3.55 ), chord inversions, chord progressions, scale identification (see Fig. 3.56 ),, rhythmic sight reading, (see Fig. 3.57 ), rhythm imitation, rhythm error detection, rhythmic dictation, melodic dictation (see Fig. 3.58 ) , melody imitation , and melodic sight singing • Teaches students to recognize, transcribe , and sing melodies, scales, chords, intervals , chord progression , and rhythms • Provides jazz course with swing rhythms, jazz chords , and sight singing of ja zz standards • Provides detailed statistics to students to monitor their progress • Allows customization of exercises • Allows answer entry with multiple choice buttons, notation staff, on screen instruments (piano, guitar, bass, violin, cello , mandolin, banjo , and others), solfege syllables, scale degrees , and more • Students can use a microphone to sing, clap , or play their answers in real time

PAGE 97

! ! ** ! • Can be used with a MIDI keyboard to provide answers • Plays over 100 different instrument sounds sample from real instruments Figu re 3.54 : EarMaster 6 Interval Identification Screen Shot

PAGE 98

! ! *+ ! Figure 3.55 : EarMaster 6 Chord Identification Screen Shot Figure 3.56 : EarMaster 6 Scale Identification Screen Shot

PAGE 99

! ! *, ! Figure 3.57 : EarMaster 6 Rhythmic Reading Screen Shot Figure 3.58 : EarMaster 6 Melodic Dictation Screen Shot

PAGE 100

! ! *! Auralia Chord Recognition Auralia Chord Recognition, Auralia Chord Recognition (2015) is an iOS app designed to teach students how to identify chords and their inversions and sells for $1.99, Rising Software (2016). This is a companion product to Auralia 5 . Following is a list of the basic features: • Te aches students how to recognize the following types of chords: major and minor (all inversions), dominant 7 th (all inversions), augmented, diminished, diminished 7 th , major and minor 7 th and suspended 4 th (see Fig. 3.59 ) • Chords played as bloc k chords or arpeggiated • Uses both keyboard and guitar fretboard display and entry methods • Allows students to track their scores Figure 3.59 : Auralia Chord Recognition Chord Identification Screen Shot

PAGE 101

! ! +. ! Auralia Interval Recognition Auralia Interval Recognition, Auralia Interval Recognition (2015) is an iOS app designed to teach students how to recognize intervals, display them on a score and sells for $1.99, Rising Software (2016). This is a companion product to Auralia 5 . Following is a list of t he basic features: • Teaches students how to recognize simple, compound, harmonic , and melodic intervals in a series of graded lessons (see Fig. 3.60 ) • Teaches students to recognize intervals in melodies • Uses both keyboard and guitar fretboard e ntry methods • Allows students to track their scores and features comprehensive lessons Figure 3.60 : Auralia Interval Recognition Interval Identification Screen Shot

PAGE 102

! ! +% ! Auralia Interval Singing Auralia Interval Singing, Auralia Interval Singing (2015) is a n iOS app designed to teach students how to sing and recognize intervals and sells for $1.99, Rising Software (2016). This is a companion product to Auralia 5 . Following is a list of the basic features: • Teaches students how to sing and recognize inter vals in a series of graded lessons (see Fig. 3.61 ) • Allows students to choose their voice type, customize their vocal range, and have questions asked as text, on a keyboard , or guitar fretboard • Allows students to track their scores and features comprehensive lessons Figure 3.61 : Auralia Interval Singing Sample Lesson Screen Shot

PAGE 103

! ! +& ! Auralia Jazz Chords Auralia Jazz Chords, Auralia Jazz Chords (2015) is an iOS app designed to teach students how to identify the basic chords used in jazz and sells for $1.99, Rising Software (2016). This is a companion product to Auralia 5 . Following is a list of the basic features: • Teaches students how to recognize the following types of chords: major, minor, major and minor 7 th , 9 th , 11 th and their variations, augmented, diminished, diminished 7 th , half diminished 7 th , suspended 4 th , add2 and add9 (see Fig. 3.62 ) • Chords played as block chords, arpeggiated, stacked or "voiced" • Uses both keyboard and guitar fretboard display and e ntry methods • Allows students to track their scores Figure 3.62 : Auralia Jazz Chords Chord Identification Screen Shot

PAGE 104

! ! +' ! Auralia Jazz Scales Auralia Jazz Scales, Auralia Jazz Scales (2015) is an iOS app designed to teach students how to recognize and play jazz scales and sells for $1.99, Rising Software (2016). This is a companion product to Auralia 5 . Following is a list of the basic features: • Teaches students how to recognize and play the following types of scales: major, natural, harmonic , and melodic minor, modes of major and melodic minor, symmetrical, bebop, blues , and pentatonic, both ascending and descending (see Fig. 3 .63 ) • Uses both keyboard and guitar fretboard entry methods • Allows students to create custom levels an d track their scores (see Fig. 3.64 ) Figure 3.63 : Auralia Jazz Scales Scale Identification Screen Shot

PAGE 105

! ! +( ! Figure 3.64 : Auralia Jazz Scales Customization and Results Screen Sho ts

PAGE 106

! ! +) ! Auralia Pitch Comparison Auralia Pitch Comparison, Auralia Pitch Comparison (2015) is an iOS app designed for beginning music students or music students having difficulty with "higher Ð lower" pitch recognition and sells for $0.99, Rising Software (2016). This is a companion product to Auralia 5 . Follow ing is a list of the basic features: • Teaches students how to compare 2 played pitches, both alone , and as the first and last notes of a melody, in a series of graded lessons (see Fig. 3.65 ) • Allows students to track their scores Figure 3.65 : A uralia Interval Recognition Interval Identification Screen Shot

PAGE 107

! ! +* ! Auralia Scales Auralia Scales, Auralia Scales (2015) is an iOS app designed to teach students how to recognize scales and sells for $1.99, Rising Software (2016). This is a companion produ ct to Auralia 5 . Following is a list of the basic features: • Teaches students how to recognize the following types of scales: major, natural, harmonic and melodic minor, modes of major and melodic minor, symmetrical, both ascending and descend ing (see Fig. 3.66 ) • Uses both keyboard and guitar fretboard display methods • Allows students to create custom levels and track their scores Figure 3.66 : Auralia Scales Scale Identification Screen Shot

PAGE 108

! ! ++ ! ChordFind ChordFind, ChordFind (2016) is a Windows game program designed to teach students chord recognition and sells for $49.00, PG Music (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Game is set up like a word search, and as the student enters the correct notes for the given chord, the letters disappear from the screen (see Fig. 3.67 ) • Major and minor chords only • Features two modes: "Note Mode" and "Key Mode" • Note Mode has the student select a series of adjacent notes in a grid and choose the chord that a ll those notes belong to. • Key Mode asks the student to find chords that all belong to the same key signature • Object of the game is to finish in as few moves as possible Figure 3.67 : ChordFind Game Screen Shot

PAGE 109

! ! +, ! Guitar Chord Dictionary Guitar Chord Dictionary , Guitar Chord Dictionary (2016) is a Windows program designed to help guitar find and learn various chords and sells for $19.00, PG Music (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Students choose the root not e and the type of chord, and the selected chord will be displayed on the guitar fretboard • Chord Selection area is where students select the desired chord from a list of common chord types, as well as jazz, folk , and pop/rock style chords • Ch ord Display area shows the notes that the chord contains, and possible variations • Guitar Fretboard area displays the notes of the chord on the fretboard • Reverse Chord Finder feature allows students to enter notes on the fretboard, and the progra m display a list of chords that contain those notes • Chord Voicings Selection allows student to choose the style of voicings desired, from folk, pop , or jazz • No screen shots were available for this program

PAGE 110

! ! +! Musition Advanced Note Reading Musiti on Advanced Note Reading, Musition Advanced Note Reading (2015) is an iOS app designed to teach students more advanced note reading skills and sells for $1.99, Rising Software (2016). This is a companion product to Musition 5 . Following is a list of the basic features: • Teaches alto (see Fig. 3.68 ), tenor, treble and bass clefs, ledger lines, accidentals and double accidentals • Allows students to create custom levels, track their scores and provides meaningful feedback Figure 3.68 : Musition Advanced Note Reading Alto Clef Screen Shot

PAGE 111

! ! ,. ! Musition Instrument Recognition Musition Instrument Recognition, Musition Instrument Recognition (2015) is an iOS app designed to teach beginning music students to recognize instruments by ear and s ells for $1.99, Rising Software (2016). This is a companion product to Musition 5 . Following is a list of the basic features: • Teaches students to recognize instruments by ear and provides over 200 audio examples (see Fig. 3.69 ) • Allows student s to track their scores and features comprehensive lessons Figure 3.69 : Musition Instrument Recognition Sample Lessons Screen Shots

PAGE 112

! ! ,% ! Musition Intervals Musition Intervals, Musition Intervals (2015) is an iOS app designed to teach students how to write and identify intervals, and sells for $1.99, Rising Software (2016). This is a companion product to Musition 5 . Following is a list of the basic features: • Teaches the fol lowing interval types in graded lessons: simple, compound, diatonic (see Fig. 3.70 ), chromatic, augmented, diminished, double, triple , and quadruple • Allows students to answer on the staff , or multiple choice • Allows students to use on screen keyboard , or guitar fretboard ( see Fig. 3.71 ) • Allows students to track their scores and features comprehensive lessons Figure 3.70 : Musition Intervals Perfect Intervals Lesson Screen Shot

PAGE 113

! ! ,& ! Figure 3.71 : Musition Intervals Keyboard or Fretbo ard Entry Screen Shot

PAGE 114

! ! ,' ! Musition Key Signatures Musition Key Signatures, Musition Key Signatures (2015) is an iOS app designed to teach students key signatures up to seven sharps and flats , and sells for $1.99, Rising Software (2016). This is a companion p roduct to Musition 5 . Following is a list of the basic features: • Teaches students how to identify and enter key signatures up to seven sharps and flats (see Fig. 3.72 ) • Teaches students how to identify the relative major / minor for each key signature • Allows students to track their scores and features comprehensive lessons Figure 3.72 : Musition Key Signatures Sample Lesson Screen Shot

PAGE 115

! ! ,( ! Musition Note Reading Musition Note Reading, Musition Note Reading (2015) is an iOS app designed to tea ch beginning music students the basics of note reading and sells for $1.99, Rising Software (2016). This is a companion product to Musition 5 . Following is a list of the basic features: • Teaches treble and bass clefs (see Fig. 3.73 ), ledger lines, acci dentals and double accidentals • Allows students to create custom levels (see Fig. 3.74 ), track their scores and provides meaningful feedback Figure 3.73 : Musition Note Reading Treble Clef Notes Screen S hot Figure 3.74 : Musition Note Reading Customized Lesson Screen Shot

PAGE 116

! ! ,) ! Musition Rhythmic Subdivision Musition Rhythmic Subdivision, Musition Rhythmic Subdivision (2015) is an iOS app designed to teach beginning music students relative rhythmic durations and notation, and sells for $0.99, Rising Software (2016). This is a companion product to Musition 5 . Following is a list of the ba sic features: • Teaches whole to 32 nd notes, rests, dotted note values, and USA and UK terminology (see Fig. 3.75 ) • Allows students to track their scores and features comprehensive lessons Figure 3.75 : Musition Rhythmic Subdivision Lessons Screen Shot s

PAGE 117

! ! ,* ! Musition Rhythm Notation Musition Rhythm Notation, Musition Rhythm Notation (2015) is an iOS app designed to teach beginning music students rhythmic notation and sells for $0.99, Rising Software (2016). This is a companion product to Musition 5 . Following is a list of the basic features: • Teaches notes, rests, dotted values, USA and UK rhythmic terminology (see Fig. 3.76 ) • Allows students to track their scores and features comprehensive lessons Figure 3.76 : Musition Rhythm Notation Lessons Screen Shot s

PAGE 118

! ! ,+ ! Musition Rhythm Tapping Musition Rhythm Tapping, Musition Rhythm Tapping (2015) is an iOS app designed to teach students the basics of note values, give them practice performing rhythms , and sells for $2.99, R ising Software (2016). This is a companion product to Musition 5 . Following is a list of the basic features: • Teaches note values down to 32 nd notes, rests , and dotted notes, multiple meters, melodic and percussive rhythms (see Fig. 3.77 ) , duplets, triplets, quintuplets, sextuplets , and septuplets • Allows students to create custom levels, track their scores and provides meaningful feedback Figure 3. 77 : Musition Rhythm Tapping Rhythm Practice Screen Shot

PAGE 119

! ! ,, ! Musition Symbols Musition Symbols, Musition Symbols (2015) is an iOS app designed to teach the symbols for written music theory and sells for $0.99, Rising Software (2016). This is a companion product to Musition 5 . Following is a list of the basic features: • Teaches s ymbols for time and tempo, dynamics (see Fig. 3.78 ), pitch, rhythm, style, flow of the music , and ornaments • Allows students to create custom levels, track their scores (se e Fig. 3.79 ), and provides meaningful feedback Figure 3.78 : Musition Symbols Dynamic Symbols Screen S hot Figure 3.79 : Musition Symbols Score Tracking Screen S hot

PAGE 120

! ! ,! Piano Chord Dictionary Piano Chord Dictionary , Piano Chord Dictionary (2016) is a Windows program designed to help students find and learn various chords , and sells for $19.00, PG Music (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Students choose the root note and the type of chord, and the selected chord will be displayed on the on screen piano keyboard (see Fig. 3.80 ) • Chord Selection area is where students select the desired chord from a list of common chord types, as well as jazz, folk , and pop/rock style chords • Chord Display area shows the notes that the chord contains, and possible variations • Piano Keyboard area displays the notes of the chord on the on screen keyboard • Reverse Chord Finder feature allows students to enter notes on the keyboard, and the program display a list of chords that contain those notes • Chord Voicings Selection allows student to choose the style of voicings Figure 3.80 : Piano Chord Dictionary Sc reen S hot

PAGE 121

! ! -. ! Bass Sight Reading Trainer Bass Sight Reading Trainer , Bass Sight Reading Trainer (2015) is an iOS bass guitar note learning app and sells for $1.99, Steenge (2015). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features four modes of use which are locating a note on the fretboard based on the note in the staff, locating the note on the fretboard based on the note name and pitch, finding the name of the note on the staff without the fretboard, and finding the name of the note presented on the fretboard (see Fig. 3.81 ) • Frets are groups to restrict the number of notes pr esented at one time • Fret groups are: 0 3, 4 6, 7 Ð 9, 10 Ð 12, and all, (0 Ð 12) (see Fig. 3.82 ) • Fret group is highlighted as an area on the fretboard • Features a progress indicator of the students sight reading skills for each fret group • Pr ovides support for left handed bass guitar • Features customization, allowing notes to be tested restrictions, choosing from nearly 20 scales and 10 different roots, shrinking the fretboard area, alternate tunings, and the option to have the fre tboard show in perspective (see Fig. 3.83 )

PAGE 122

! ! -% ! Figure 3.81 : Bass Sight Reading Trainer Scale Lesson Figure 3.82 : Bass Sight Reading Trainer Settings Options

PAGE 123

! ! -& ! Figure 3.83 : Bass Sight Reading Trainer Fretboard in Perspective Mode

PAGE 124

! ! -' ! Ear Trainer Ear Trainer , Ear Trainer (2016) is an iOS ear training app and sells for $3.99, thoor software AB (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features over 160 individual exercises in ear training, covering the following categories: interval comparison, interval identification, chord identification, chord inversions, chord progressions, scales, note relative to chord, and relative pitch (see Fig. 3.84 ) • Provides visual feedback on virtual keyboard, which is playable (see Fig. 3.85 ) • Provides note view with studio sound quality (see Fig. 3.86 ) • Keeps students' scores and provides statistics (see Fig. 3.87 ) Figure 3.84 : Ear Trainer Exercise Selection

PAGE 125

! ! -( ! Figure 3.85 : Ear Trainer Virtual Keyboard Feedback Figure 3.86 : Ear Trainer Note View and Playback

PAGE 126

! ! -) ! Figure 3.87 : Ear Trainer Scores and Statistics

PAGE 127

! ! -* ! Ear Training Mastery Online Ear Training Mastery Online , Ear Training Mastery Online (2013) is an online ear training program that is free to use, Szwarcsoft (201 3). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features exercises in basic higher or lower pitch recognition ( see Fig. 3.88 ), note names on the staff, intervals, chords, rhythmic elements, and melodic dictation • Interval exercises include compa rison, recognition (see Fig. 3.89 ), recognition test, and singing intervals using the built in microphone (see Fig. 3.90 ) • Chord exercises include recognition, recognition testing, and singing in chords • Dictations of rhythm include short rhythms identification (s ee Fig. 3.91 ) • Melodic dictation plays melodies of varying length for identification Figure 3.88 : Ear Training Mastery Online Pitch Recognition Exercise

PAGE 128

! ! -+ ! Figure 3.89 : Ear Training Mastery Online Interval Recognition Exercise Figure 3.90 : Ear Training Mastery Online Interval Singing Exercise

PAGE 129

! ! -, ! Figure 3.91 : Ear Training Mastery Online Rhythmic Identification Exercise

PAGE 130

! ! ! Functional Ear Trainer Functional Ear Trainer , Functional Ear Trainer (2016) is an iOS / Mac OS / Wi ndows / Android ear training program that is free to download, Benbassat (2016). Its main focus is teaching students how to recognize tones in the context of major and minor scales, with the intent to have them become proficient at melodic dictation and tr anscription. Following is a list of the basic features: • Features two modes: learning mode and practice mode ( see Fig. 3.92 ) • Features lessons customization ( see Fig. 3.93 ), and progress tracking ( see Fig. 3.94 ) • Focuses entirely on being able to id entify a scale tone within a major or minor context • Provides custom quizzes ( see Fig. 3.95 ) Figure 3.92 : Functional Ear Trainer Learning Mode

PAGE 131

! ! %.. ! Figure 3.93 : Functional Ear Trainer Lesson Customization Figure 3.94 : Functional Ear Trainer Progress Tracking

PAGE 132

! ! %.% ! Fi gure 3.95 : Functional Ear Trainer Custom Quizzes

PAGE 133

! ! %.& ! Guitar Sight Reading Trainer Guitar Sight Reading Trainer , Guitar Sight Reading Trainer (2015) is an iOS guitar note learning app and sells for $1.99, Steenge (2015). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features four modes of use which are locating a note on the fretboard based on the note in the staff, locating the note on th e fretboard based on the note name and pitch, finding the name of the note on the staff without the fretboard, and finding the name of the note presented on the fretboard (see Fig. 3.96 ) • Frets are groups to restrict the number of notes present ed at one time • Fret groups are: 0 3, 4 6, 7 Ð 9, 10 Ð 12, and all, (0 Ð 12) (see Fig. 3.97 ) • Fret group is highlighted as an area on the fretboard • Features a progress indicator of the students sight reading skills for each fret group • Provides support for left handed guitar • Features customization, allowing notes to be tested restrictions, choosing from nearly 20 scales and 10 different roots, shrinking the fretboard area, over 15 alternate tunings, and the option to have th e fretboard show in perspective (see Fig. 3.98 )

PAGE 134

! ! %.' ! Figure 3.96 : Guitar Sight Reading Trainer Main Screen

PAGE 135

! ! %.( ! Figure 3.97 : Guitar Sight Reading Trainer Fret Groups Figure 3.98 : Guitar Sight Reading Trainer Fretboard in Perspective Mode

PAGE 136

! ! %.) ! Interval Recognition Ð Ear Training for Android Interval Recognition Ð Ear Training for Android , Interval Recognition Ð Ear Training for Android (2016) is an Android ear training app and is free, Marchant (2016). For $1.40, students can download an ad free version. Followin g is a list of the basic features: • Features ascending, descending , and harmonic intervals (see Fig. 3.99 ), along with phrases and scales (see Fig. 3.100 ) • Provides interval association with songs, which is a very unique feature (see Fig. 3.101 ) • Provides the ability to set tempo, instrument, volume, pitch range, interval , and note choices (see Fig. 3.102 ), and the responses to correct or incorrect answers • Features a "Tuning Tester", to see if the student can identify whether a note is sharp or flat Figure 3.99 : Interval Recognition Ð Ear Training for Android Interval Recognition

PAGE 137

! ! %.* ! Figure 3.100 : Interval Recognition Ð Ear Training for Android Scal e Choices Figure 3.101 : Interval Recognition Ð Ear Training for Android Song Association

PAGE 138

! ! %.+ ! Figure 3.102 : Interval Recognition Ð Ear Training for Android Customization

PAGE 139

! ! %., ! Music Reading Essentials Music Reading Essentials , Music Reading Essentials (2015) is an iOS beginning note / rhythm / interval / symbols reading app and sells for $2.99, Apricot Digital Publishing, LLC (2015). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features four sets of flash cards divided into st ages with increasing difficulty, including notes, rhythms, intervals , and symbols (see Fig. 3.103 ) • Provides simple recognition quizzing (see Fig . 3.104 ) • Features a "shuffling" algorithm that shows the cards that students did not answer cor rectly more often, for focused practice and remediation • Provides a "Results" screen which shows student progress, as well as what needs to be worked on (see Fig . 3.105 ) Figure 3.103 : Music Reading Essentials Cards

PAGE 140

! ! %.! Figure 3.104 : Music Reading Essentials Note Recognition Figure 3.105 : Music Reading Essentials Progress Results

PAGE 141

! ! %%. ! Music Theory Ð Chords in Keys Music Theory Ð Chords in Keys , Music Theory Ð Chords in Keys (2015) is an iOS / Android chord training app and sells for $3.99 for the iOS version, and $3.81 for the Android version, Stuart Bahn (2015). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features chord training for the four most common scales, major, natural minor, harmonic minor, and melodic minor (see Fig. 3.106 ) • Features dictionary like functioning, as it randomly generates questions based on user choices, but does not offer an input method • Includes all of the diatonic triad and seventh chords in all keys • Displays only note names, no notation (see Fig. 3.107) • Displays requested scale degree, chord spelled out, and the scale for the key • Intended to be a self quizzing app, so provides no progress tra cking or feedback Fig ure 3.106 : Music Theory Ð Chords in Keys Scale Choices

PAGE 142

! ! %%% ! Figure 3.107 : Music Theory Ð Chords in Keys Sample Display

PAGE 143

! ! %%& ! Music Tutor Music Tutor , Music Tutor (2016) is an iOS / Android beginning note reading app and sells for $1.99, JSplash Studios Pvt. Ltd. (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features note identification quizzes for treble or bass clef, or both (see Fig. 3.108 ) • Features practice settings of one, five , or ten minutes • Provides progress trackin g after each test, as well as providing a list of the exact mistakes that were made (see Fig. 3.109 ) Figure 3.108 : Music Tutor Test Screen Figure 3.109 : Music Tutor Progress Screen

PAGE 144

! ! %%' ! MusicTheory.net MusicTheory.net , MusicTheory.net (2016) is an online complete music theory program and is free, musictheory.net, LLC (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features three main sections, including Lessons, Exercises, and Tools • The Lessons section contain s the following sections: The Basics (see Fig. 3.110 ), Rhythm and Meter, Scales , and Key Signatures, Intervals, Chords, Diatonic Chords, Chord Progressions (see Fig. 3.111 ), and Neopolitan Chords • The Exercises section contains the following s ections: Staff Identification, Keyboard Identification, Fretboard Identification, Ear Training (see Fig. 3.112 ), and an Exercise Customizer for teachers • The Tools sections features the following sections: Calculators, and Utilities (see Fig. 3.113 ) • This is an amazingly rich prog ram, especially considering it is free to use Figure 3.110 : MusicTheory.net Basics Lesson Example

PAGE 145

! ! %%( ! Figure 3.111 : MusicTheory.net Chord Progression Lesson Example Figure 3.112 : MusicTheory.net Lesson Example

PAGE 146

! ! %%) ! Figure 3.113 : MusicTheory.net Tools Example

PAGE 147

! ! %%* ! Note Trainer Note Trainer , Note Trainer (2015) is an iOS note learning app and sells for $0.99, thoor software AB (2015). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features exercises in reading n otes (see Fig. 3.114 ), and chords (see Fig. 3.115 ), with levels ranging from beginner to advanced • Provides visual feedback on virtual keyboard, which is playable, and note view • Provides time challenge mode and customizable exercises (see Fig. 3.116 ) • Keeps students' scores, provides statistics, and lets students know when they should repeat an exercise or move on (see Fig. 3.117 ) Figure 3.114 : Note Trainer Note Exercise

PAGE 148

! ! %%+ ! Figure 3.115 : Note Trainer Chord Exercise Figure 3.116 : Note Trainer Note Exercise

PAGE 149

! ! %%, ! Figure 3.117 : Note Trainer Student Feedback

PAGE 150

! ! %%! Online Ear Trainer 3.0 Online Ear Trainer 3.0 , Online Ear Trainer 3.0 (2016) is an online call and response ear training program and is free to use online, iwasdoingalright.com (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features random generation of intervals, chords, melodies , and chord progressions for cal l and response play back or sing back • Features many customizable options, including tempo, play mode, key center, starting cadence, display options , and repeat count • The Intervals section features selection of all intervals within an octave, an d also compound intervals (see Fig. 3.118 ) • The Chords section features common chords through 9 th chords, including inversions, note direction, harmonic or melodic, and root note selection (see Fig. 3.119 ) • The Melodies section features short or long melodies, along with note and scale options (see Fig. 3.120 ) • The Progressions section features chord selection, preset common progression selection, or custom progressions in any way, with customizable accompaniment (see Fig. 3.121 ) • There is no feedback to students, as all these sections merely auto generate examples that are to be played back by ear

PAGE 151

! ! %&. ! Figure 3.118 : Online Ear Trainer 3.0 Intervals Window Figure 3.119 : Online Ear Trainer 3.0 Chords Window

PAGE 152

! ! %&% ! Figure 3.120 : Onli ne Ear Trainer 3.0 Melodies Window Figure 3.121 : Online Ear Trainer 3.0 Interval Window

PAGE 153

! ! %&& ! Right Note Ear Trainer Right Note Ð Ear Trainer , Right Note Ð Ear Trainer (2012) is an iOS ear training app and sells for $6.99, Jachmann (2012). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features four exercise modes: Interval, Interval in context, Pitch , and Melody (see Fig. 3.122 ) • Features highly customizable sett ings • Provides lessons for all modes, from beginner to expert • Provides an easily scrollable keyboard for answer entry (see Fig. 3.123 ) • Features microphone answer input, so students can play an instrument or sing their answer in to the app • I ntervals mode features all intervals up to two octaves, melodic and harmonic intervals, and tempo selection (see Fig. 3.124 ) • Intervals in context mode lets students hear intervals in context, instead of just two notes • Pitch mode features no te range selection with scale , and first and last possible note • Melody mode can play from two to six notes, with note range selection, maximum interval limit setting, option to show or hide the first note, random note values, and tempo selecti on (see Fig. 3.125 )

PAGE 154

! ! %&' ! Figure 3.122 : Right Note Ð Ear Trainer Home Screen Figure 3.122: Right Note Ð Ear Trainer Scrollable Keyboard

PAGE 155

! ! %&( ! Figure 3.??: Right Note Ð Ear Trainer Interval Mode Figure 3.??: Right Note Ð Ear Trainer Settings

PAGE 156

! ! %&) ! Teoria Teoria , Teoria (2014) is an online complete music theory program and can be used for free, Rodriguez Alvira (2014). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features four areas: Tutorials, Exercises, Reference, and Articles (see Fig. 3.125 ) • Tutoria ls include sections on reading music, scales, harmonic functions, intervals, chords , and musical forms (see Fig. 3.126 ) • Exercises include ear training for intervals, notes, chords, scales, melodies, rhythmic dictation, jazz, and key ear traini ng, as well as music theory exercises covering intervals, reading, key signatures, scales, chords, harmonic functions, transposing instruments, and jazz (see Fig. 3.127 ) • Reference includes a searchable dictionary of musical terms (see Fig. 3.1 28 ) • Articles features a large collection of writings on analysis and theory, analysis by composer, instruments, and music history (see Fig. 3.129 ) Figure 3.125 : Teoria Home Screen

PAGE 157

! ! %&* ! Figure 3.126 : Teoria Tutorials Sections Figure 3.127 : Teoria Exercises Sections

PAGE 158

! ! %&+ ! Figure 3 .128 : Teoria Reference Section Figure 3.129 : Teoria Articles Section

PAGE 159

! ! %&, ! Singing and Playing in Tune Technology has provided some amazing tools to help students learn to sing and play more accurately in tune. With the increased speeds of computing processors, accurately tracking pitch is possible in any platform. In this section, technologies designed t o help students sing and play in tune will be explored. Apps and programs will be sorted by price, high to low. Many programs "cross over" the musicianship skills, such as SmartMusic and Steps to Reading Music , which are discussed in Chapter Three: Si ght Reading, and will not be reiterated in this section. The accompanying Table 4, "Singing and Playing in Tune Apps and Programs " gives a concise summary of the programs in this section, along with various data sorting sheets and hyperlinks to each app an d program.

PAGE 160

! ! %&! Sing&See Sing&See, Sing&See (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows program designed to help students learn to sing in tune, Cantovation Ltd. (2016). Available versions are the student version , which sells for $49.00, and the professional version (which includes advanced features) which sells for $99.00. Following is a list of the basic features: • "Pitch Trace" display which shows the sung pitch as a continuously moving line superimposed over a piano keyboard, and allows the student to see how their pitch changes from note to note (see Fig. 3.130 ) • "Piano Keyboard" display is a graphic representation of a standard piano keyboard and shows the student what note they are singing by highlighting it in red (see Fig. 3.131 ) • "Stave View" display shows the sun pitch directly on the musical staff (see Fig. 3.132 ) • "Pitch Screen" combines the above three displays in to one (see Fig. 3.133 ) • "Spectrogram Display" is only available in the professional version, and shows the harm onics of the sung note (see Fig. 3.134 ) • "Real time Spectrum" display is only available in the professional version, and shows the strength of each harmonic in the voice (see Fig. 3.135 ) • "Combination Screen" is only available in the professional version, and combines the "Pitch Screen" with the "Spectrogram" and "Spectrum" displays (see Fig. 3.136 ) • Professional version also allows for recording and later playback of performances for comparison • Comprehensive and versatile program with highly accurate pitch tracking

PAGE 161

! ! %'. ! Figure 3.130 : Sing&See Pitch Display Example Figure 3.131 : Sing&See Piano Keyboard Display Example Figure 3.132 : Sing&See Stave View Display Example

PAGE 162

! ! %'% ! Figure 3.133 : Sing&See Pitch Screen Display Example Figure 3.134 : Sing&See Spectrogram Display Example

PAGE 163

! ! %'& ! Fig ure 3.135 : Sing&See Real time Spectrum Display Example Figure 3.136 : Sing&See Combination Screen Example

PAGE 164

! ! %'' ! eMedia Singing Method eMedia Singing Method, eMedia Singing Method (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows complete singing method program which also features pitch tracking throughout all its lessons, and sells for $59.95, eMedia Music Corporation (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Feature s 13 chapters with over 230 vocal lessons, including matching pitch • Provides visual feedback via colors to let students know if they are singing flat, sharp or in tune (green notes being correct) (see Fig. 3.137 ) • Provides performance evaluation for each exercise with specific feedback on mistakes , and assigns an overall score, and allows students and teachers to track progress • Features a digital recorder for student self evaluation and comparison Figure 3.137 : eMedia Singing Method Visual Pitch Feedback Screen Shot ,%00".(&$)(.9"4&9)+9-)+9(">&)*&+0""* G& 4910$&%0&H-1(&)*&%(9"0&.%-%04 &

PAGE 165

! ! %'( ! Itonia Itonia, Itonia (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows / Android program which records and visually displays pitch, originally designed for assisting string players with their intonation, and sells for $25.00, Agin (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Reco rds and then visually represents pitch (from any instrument or voice essentially), as a continuous scroll with pitches referenced to a keyboard representation (see Fig. 3.138 ) • Students can visually see articulations, slides, shifts, vibrato, and amplitude • If the student plays in tune, the trace is white, sharp trace shows red, and flat trace shows blue • Allows students to choose between just, Pythagorean , or equal temperament intonations, adjust the reference pitch (e.g. A = 440Hz), and adjust the key, major or minor, instrument range , and other variables (see Fig. 3.139 ) • Allows students to record, edit , and export their performances as normal .WAV files • Extremely ac curate pitch tracking

PAGE 166

! ! %') ! Figure 3.138 : Itonia Main Window Screen Shot Figure 3.139 : Itonia Options Window Screen Shot

PAGE 167

! ! %'* ! Erol Singer's Studio Ð Voice Lessons Erol Singer's Studio Ð Voice Lessons , Erol Singer's Studio Ð Voice Lessons (2015) is an iOS app that is a complete singing method course which features pitch tracking and visualization, and sells for $14.99, Erol Studios Inc (2015). Following is a list of the basic features: • All exercises included give the student instant fee dback, showing the student's actual pitch as a continuous blue line, with the correct notes represented as bubbles, and a percentage of correct pitch performance displayed for each note, solid blue being 0% (meaning the student missed it ent irely) (see Figs. 3.40 and 3.141 ) • Features Beginning, Intermediate , and Advanced levels, and provides 72 lessons along with 60 ear training exercises • Allows students to customize the exercises for their voice type (see Fig. 3.142 ) Figure 3.140 : Erol Singer's Studio Ð Voice Lessons Screen Shot

PAGE 168

! ! %'+ ! Figure 3.142 : Erol Singer's Studio Ð Voice Lessons iPad Screen S hot Figure 3.143 : Erol Singer's Studio Ð Voice Lessons Range Screen Shot

PAGE 169

! ! %', ! Sing Sharp Sing Sharp , Sing Sharp (2016) is an iOS / Android app that is a voice training method which features pitch tracking and visualization, and sells for $9.99 for an annual membership for iOS, and $7.99 for annual membership in the Android platform, Harmony Network Group Limited (2016). (The app download is free, but limited without the annual membership.) Following is a list of the basic features: • Features real time pitch detection on warm ups, exercises , and songs (see Fig. 3.143 ) • Provides 10 levels and over 1,000 ear training and vocal control exercises , all while tracking student pitch accuracy , and keeping accuracy scores (see Fig. 3.144 ) • Features "sing chronize note bars" from the students iTune library, in a karaoke style, all the while tracking p itch accuracy • Allows students to check and practice their vocal range (see Fig. 3.145) • Allows students to practice, record, playback, save, share , and customize their songs

PAGE 170

! ! %'! Figure 3.143 : Sing Sharp Pitch Tracking Screen Shot

PAGE 171

! ! %(. ! Figure 3.144 : Sing Sharp Scores and Reports Examples Figure 3.145 : Sing Sharp Vocal Range Example

PAGE 172

! ! %(% ! Sing in Tuna Sing in Tuna , Sing in Tuna (2015) is an iOS app that performs pitch tracking and visualization, and sells for $9.99 for an annual membership for iOS, and $9.99, Hotpaw Productions (2015). Following is a list of the basic features: • Uses the built in mic to track instrumental or vocal pitches, monophonic only, and displays them visually in the main screen (see Fi g. 3.146 ) • Green color tracking line means the student is +/ 20 cents of accurate pitch, sharp is red , and flat is blue • This app produces no sound and displays no music Ð it only listens and visually tracks pitch in equal temper a ment F igurer 3.146 : Sing in Tuna Screen Shot

PAGE 173

! ! %(& ! Colla Voce Colla Voce , Colla Voce (2015) is an iOS app that performs pitch tracking and visualization, and sells for $8.99, First Formant (2015). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features a 3 D keyboard graphic, with a continuous pitch graph (see Fig. 3 .147 ) • Piano keys can actually be played by touching them on the screen • Keyboard notes light up when the student sings that pitch, yellow for in tune, green for sharp , and red for flat • The pit ch graph follows the students pitch exactly, and creates a new dotted line when the student changes pitches • Students can replay their performances in 5, 10 , or 20 second segments to hear their performance as they evaluate their pitch visually as well • "Auto Accompany" feature plays the piano notes (which are in tune) so the student can compare that with their performance Figure 3.147 : Colla Voce Screen Shot

PAGE 174

! ! %(' ! SingTrue SingTru e , SingTrue (2015) is an iOS app that performs pitch tracking and visualization, along with some vocal instruction and ear training , and sells for $7.99, Easy Ear Training Limited (2015). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features over 30 exer cises for learning to match pitch using built in mic • Provides a pitch to match, asks the student to sing the pitch and hold it, and as student adjusts the pitch is tracked in a target in real time (see Fig. 3.148 ) • Scores each exercise so studen ts can track progress over time (see Fig. 3.149 ) • Students can share their scores on Facebook, Twitter , or email Figure 3.148 : SingTrue Screen Shot Figure 3.149: SingTrue Progress Screen

PAGE 175

! ! %(( ! Singer's Mate Singer's Mate , Singer's Mate (2016) is an iOS app that uses the Music XML lead sheet format, performs pitch tracking and visualization , and sells for $2.99, App Elations LLC (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Allows students to practice from lead sh eets in Music XML format by tracking and superimposing the student's pitch over notes of the song in real time (see Fig. 3.150 ) • Song notes also are labeled with the appropriate solfege syllables • Allows importing of any song in Music XML format , and can transpose any song in to the range of the student (see Fig 3.151 ) • Other users setting such as tempo and note width to help students customize the app (see Fig. 3.152 ) Figure 3.150 : Singer's Mate Example Song Screen Shot

PAGE 176

! ! %() ! Figure 3.151 : Singer's Mate Transposition Screen Shot Figure 3.152 : Singer's Mate Settings Screen Shot

PAGE 177

! ! %(* ! Tartini in Tune Tartini in Tune , Tartini in Tune (2014) is an iOS app that performs pitch tracking and visualization , and sells for $2.99, Epskamp (2014). Following is a list of the basic features: • For instrumentalists or vocalists • Tracks pitch in real time and displays as notes on sheet music (see Fig. 3.153 ) • Scrollable and zoomable history shows students exac tly what they played • Supports all major clefs with correct flat and sharp placement • Includes a vibrato analysis tool Figure 3.153 : Tarini in Tune Screen Shot

PAGE 178

! ! %(+ ! Voice Training Pro Ð Learn to S ing Voice Training Pro Ð Learn to Sing , Voice Training Pr o Ð Learn to Sing (2016) is an iOS / Android app that performs pitch tracking and visualization, along with some vocal instruction and ear training , and sells for $2.99, Learn to Master Ltd. (2016). There is also the free version, Voice Training Ð Learn t o Sing , which displays ads. Removing the ads for $2.99 makes it the "Pro" version Ð there are no other differences. Following is a list of the basic features: • Features 7 different types of exercise s , all that track pitch and record student scores (see Fig. 3.154 ) • Displays and plays pitches using a 3 D piano keyboard graphic, with a dial to show the student what pitch they are singing, and how sharp or flat they may be (see Fig. 3.155 ) • Has a wide range of settings so students can customize for their ability and vocal range (see Fig. 3.156 ) • Provides accuracy feedback to student for each exercise (see Fig. 3.157 ) • Keeps records of student scores in all activities (see fig. 3. 158 ) Figure 3.154 : Voice Training Pro Ð Learn to Sing Exercise Selection Screen Shot

PAGE 179

! ! %(, ! Fi gure 3.155 : Voice Training Pro Ð Learn to Sing Pitch Tracking Screen Shot F igure 3.156 : Voice Training Pro Ð Learn to Sing Setting Screen Shot

PAGE 180

! ! %(! F igure 3.157 : Voice Training Pro Ð Learn to Sing Feedback Screen Shot F igure 3.158 : Voice Training Pro Ð Learn to Sing Scores Screen Shot

PAGE 181

! ! %). ! Pitch Perfect Visual Tuner Pitch Perfect Visual Tuner , Pitch Perfect Visual Tuner (2012) is an iOS app that performs p itch tracking and visualization , and sells for $1.99, Epskamp (2014). The "Lite" version is free and only has treble clef with no transpositions. Following is a list of the basic features: • For instrumentalists or vocalists to help them learn to center and sustain a steady pitch • Display the pitch being played real time on the selected staff and transposition , and changes color with student intonation; green when in tune, blue when sharp, yellow when flat (see Fig. 3.159 ) • Displays real time student pitch frequency (see Fig. 3.159 ) • Students choose appropriate clef and transposition for any instrument (s ee Fig. 3.160 ) Figure 3.159 : Pitch Perfect Visual Tuner Screen Shots

PAGE 182

! ! %)% ! Figure 3.160 : Pitch Perfect Visual Tuner Settings Screen Shots

PAGE 183

! ! %)& ! Pitch Graph Pitch Graph , Pitch Graph (2013) is an iOS app that performs pitch tracking and graphic visualization , and sells for $0.99, Britz (2013). Following is a list of the basic features: • For instrumentalists an d vocalists • Calculates frequency up to 40 times per second with a sensitivity to a thousandth of a cent for high accuracy • Displays student pitch on 3D accelerated graph (see Fig 3.161 ) • Pitch plotting line is green for correct intonation, red for sharp , and orange for flat • Features scrolling and replay for student evaluation Figure 3.161 : Pitch Graph Screen Shot

PAGE 184

! ! %)' ! Canta Canta , Canta (2016) is a Windows program that provides pitch tracking for singers during note reading, and is free, Chaume t Software (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Allows upload of any MIDI file for practice • Tracks the student's pitch and superimposes over the MIDI notes, so students can visually see when they are in or out of tune (see Fig s. 3.162 and 3.163 ) • Records student performances in to .WAV files for student or teacher evaluation • Allows zooming in on graph for more accurate evaluation • Displays lyrics when they come with the MIDI files Figure 3.162 : Canta Screen Shot

PAGE 185

! ! %)( ! Figure 3.163 : Canta Pitch Tracking Examples

PAGE 186

! ! %)) ! Learn to Sing Learn to Sing , Learn to Sing (2016) is an iOS / Android app that teaches some basic vocal technique , performs pitch tracking and graphic visualization , and is free, Almeida (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features 46 exercises in three different sections • Exercises include pitch matching, scales , and short melodies • Exercises track student pitch and provide a score based on pit ch accuracy (see Fig. 3.164 ) Figure 3.164 : Learn to Sing Exercise Screen Shot

PAGE 187

! ! %)* ! PlayPerfect PlayP erfect , PlayP erfect (2016) is a Windows program that provides pitch tracking during note reading, and is free, NCH Software (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Designed for all instrumentalists • Upload any MIDI file or score created by Crescendo Music Notation Software for practice examples • Notes change color when played correctly Ð green if correct, red if incorrect, but there is no differentiation between flat or sharp (see Fig. 3.165 ) • Scores are based on correct vs incorrect notes • Multiple users can be set up, and users can compete for highest score • Performances are recorded as MP3 files and can be emailed to teachers (see Fig. 3.166 ) • Performance reports give students and teachers an overall score and statistics on each practice session • Can do any instrumental transposition (see Fig. 3.167 )

PAGE 188

! ! %)+ ! Figure 3.165 : PlayPerfect Exercise Window Scr een Shot

PAGE 189

! ! %), ! Figure 3.166 : PlayPerfect Recording Settings Screen Shot Figure 3.167 : PlayPerfect Instrument Transposition Screen Shot

PAGE 190

! ! %)! Sing the Right Note Sing the Right Note , Sing the Right Note (2011) is a Windows program that provides pitch matching practice for singers, and is free, Marsden (2011). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features Vocal Range settings for students • Randomly selects a note to display and play on the staff on the left, and the note t he student sings is displayed on the staff on the right (see Fig. 3.168 ) • Student note turns green when the student has correctly matched the pitch Figure 3.168 : Sing the Right Note Screen Shots

PAGE 191

! ! %*. ! Singscope Singscope , Singscope (2015) is an iOS app that provides pitch tracking and graphic visualization for singers, and is free, Springwell Music LLC (2015). It does cost $0.99 to remove the ads. Following is a list of the basic features: • Tracks and draws pitch graph in real time, as well as waveform display (see Fig. 3.169 ) • Supports pan and zoom for the pitch graph , and waveform display • Can play back student performances and keeps recordings in the "History" folder for later review, along with other features (see Fig. 3.170 ) • Offers a variety of choices in "Settings" (see Fig. 3.171 ) Figure 3.169 : Singscope Screen Features

PAGE 192

! ! %*% ! Figure 3.170 : Singscope Tools Features Figure 3.171 : Singscope Settings Features

PAGE 193

! ! %*& ! Improvisation One of the most difficult skills to teach singers and instrumentalists is how to improvise well in the jazz and rock genres. In this section technologies will be presented that are designed to help students develop skills in vocal and instrumental jazz im provisation. While video instructional courses in improvisation are extremely beneficial to student musicians, they will not be included in this section, as there are a plethora of instructional video series that can now be played on any mobile device or computer, but are not an interactive app or a program, and therefore do not fit within the parameters of this research. Programs and apps will be organized alphabetically in this section. The accompanying Table 5, "Improvisation Apps and Programs" gives a concise summary of the programs in this section, along with various data sorting sheets and hyperlinks to each app and program.

PAGE 194

! ! %*' ! 60 Top Hat Guitar Licks Vol. 1 60 Top Hat Guitar Licks Vol. 1, 60 Top Hat Guitar Licks Vol. 1 (2014) is an iOS guitar imp rovisation app that sells for $1.99, mDecks Music (2014). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features short licks that students can make a part of their improvisations • These licks can be used for Rock, pop, jazz, blues , and contemporary musi c • Features a tutorial video for each lick, along with sheet music and tablature, and also provides a "Jam Track" that students can practice along with and vary the tempo as they progress (see Fig. 3.172 ) Figure 3.172 : 60 Top Hat Guitar Licks Vol. 1 "Jam Track" Window

PAGE 195

! ! %*( ! Band in a Box 2016 Band in a Box 2016, Band in a Box 2016 (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows auto accompaniment, auto soloist / notation program that sells for $129.00 for the Pro version, $269.00 for the Mega PAK version, $469.00 for the UltraPlusPAK version, $569.00 for the EverythingPAK version, and $669.00 for the Audiophile Edition version, PG Music Inc. (2016). 5 seat educational lab packs are available for the Pro , MegaPAK , and EverythingPAK versions. T he differences between the versions are the styles and "extras" that come with each, and will be discussed below. This program was the first of its kind, being able to auto generate MIDI accompaniments and solos, and has continued to make improvements and enhancements. There still is really nothing like it on the market. Following is a list of the basic features common to all versions: • Basic operation is that the student types in standard chord symbols, (C, Fm7, Bb13b9, etc. ), chooses a "style" f rom the list, and BIAB auto generates an accompaniment of piano, bass, drums, guitar , and strings or horns (see Figs . 3.173 and 3.174 ) • Features "RealDrums", which replaces MIDI drums with actual recordings of drummers, from 1 to 8 bars, not just samples (see Fig. 3.175 ) • Features "RealTracks", which replace the MIDI tracks with actual recordings of top studio players from 1 to 8 bars, including the styles of jazz, rock, blues, country, folk, Celtic, Latin , and bluegrass • Features "R ealStyle", which allows students to hear songs played by real instruments for a dramatic improvement in sound and musicality • Features 3 rd party loop support, so students can add any loops to any BIAB track, or add a MIDI track

PAGE 196

! ! %*) ! • Features "Chords from MP4," or "Auto Chord Wizard" automatically figures out the chords from any AIFF, MP3, M4A, or other audio file , and displays them in BIAB • Features a Mixer window , which allows students to quickly set volumes, panning, reverb, tone, and patches, and can be placed anywhere on the screen • Features notation printing, both of lead sheets and standard notation of accompaniment tracks and melodies (see Fig. 3.176 ) • For improvisation, this is a great tool for a stud ent to enter the chords to a lead sheet, have BIAB auto generate a professional sounding rhythm section accompaniment, and allow the student to sing or play over the changes, controlling key, tempo , and style • There are many other features to BIAB, but these are the basics Following is a list of the differences between the versions: Feature Pro MegaPAK UltraPlusPAK Everything PAK Audiophile Edition Price $129.00 $269.00 $469.00 $569.00 $669.00 Hours of Studio Recording 220 400 2500 2500 2500 Bonus RealTracks, "49PAK" no no YES YES YES RealTracks 200 in 38 bands 370 in 60 bands 2000 (all) 2000 (all) 2000 (all) 1000 Dubstep, Modern and Top 40 Loops YES YES YES YES YES MIDI SuperTracks 46 96 165 (All) 165 (All) 165 (All) Artist Performances 22 63 145 (All) 145 (All) 145 (All) MIDI Styles 400 2300 (All) 2300 (All) 2300 (All) 2300 (All) MIDI Soloist 150 300 300 300 300

PAGE 197

! ! %** ! Feature Pro MegaPAK UltraPlusPAK Everything PAK Audiophile Edition MIDI Melodist 100 200 (All) 200 (All) 200 (All) 200 (All) 21 Nature Sounds and Percussion Loops YES YES YES YES YES BIAB Video Tutorial PAK no no no YES YES MIDI Songs and Lessons PAK no no no YES YES Uncompressed AIFF files for ALL RealTracks & RealDrums no no no no YES Figure 3.173 : Band in a Box Main Window

PAGE 198

! ! %*+ ! Figure 3.174 : Band in a Box Chord and Melody Generator Window

PAGE 199

! ! %*, ! Figure 3.175 : Band in a Box Drums and Fretboard Windows Figure 3.176 : Band in a Box Notation Window

PAGE 200

! ! %*! Chord Pad Chord Pad, Chord Pad (2016) is a Windows auto accompaniment generating program that sells for $22.78, DesktopMetronome (2016). This program is slightly similar to Band in a Box, but only generates MIDI accompaniments, and provides no notation features. Following is a list of the basic f eatures: • Simply enter chords in the blocks (which represent measures) in the sequencer page, choose a style, and the program auto generates rhythm section backing tracks (see Fig. 3.177 ) • Features a Styles page for students to choose style, meter, etc. of the piece (see Fig. 3.178 ) • Features a Mixer page for students to choose the general MIDI instruments used for the rhythm section and adjust effects (see Fig. 3.178 ) • Tap function allows students to set tempo by tapping it in • Over 250 styles to choose from • Great tool for students to practicing singing or play over changes • Allows exporting as WAV, MP3, WMA , or MIDI files

PAGE 201

! ! %+. ! Figur e 3.177 : Chord Pad Sequencer Window

PAGE 202

! ! %+% ! Figure 3.178 : Chord Pad Sequencer Window Figure 3.179 : Chord Pad Sequencer Window

PAGE 203

! ! %+& ! Chords and Scales Chords and Scales, Chords and Scales (2016) is a Windows interactive chord and scale teaching program that sells for $24.98, DesktopMetronome (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features both a piano keyboard and a guitar fretboard (see Fig. 3.180 ) • Provides 63 guitar chord types and arpeggios • Provides 83 scale types, common and exotic, and modal variations of each scale • Provides 57 different tunings • Shows equivalent scales to teach enharmonic equivalents • Hear any chord, arpeggio , or scale • Find chord names by inputting notes on the fretboard or keyboard Figure 3.180 : Chords and Scales Main Window

PAGE 204

! ! %+' ! Combo Ð Jazz Music Generator Combo Ð Jazz Music Generator, Combo Ð Jazz Music Generator (2015) is an iOS jazz accompaniment auto generator app that is free, Livesey (2015). Following is a list of the basic features: • Basic operation is the student inputs a chord chart, (G7, Bb 7, etc. ), and the app generates a rhythm section accompaniment track • There are no style options, only jazz • Students can adjust key, measures per phrase, song form, repeats, and choose from four instruments for the accompaniment and melody (see Fig. 3.181 ) • Simple practice too l for playing over a jazz rhythm section Figure 3.181 : Combo Ð Jazz Music Generator Chord and Settings Windows

PAGE 205

! ! %+( ! CopyScat CopyScat, CopyScat (2016) is a Windows vocal removing / rehearsal program that sells for $49.00, PG Music Inc. (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features stereo WAV file import, or CD track extraction of a prerecorded song with a vocal line present, and "removes" the vocal track • Allows the student singer to then practice over the backing tracks and record their own performance with the backing tracks only (see Fig. 3.182 ) • Allows export of a WAV file of the student performance mixed with the backing tracks • Allows for fine tuning of the original vocal removal process, to mitigate the qua lity loss to the backing tracks in the process • Great tool for singers to use to rehearse over professional backing tracks Figure 3.182 : CopyScat Main Window

PAGE 206

! ! %+) ! Essential Blues Guitar Volumes 1 & 2 Essential Blues Guitar Volumes 1 & 2, Essentials Blues Guitar Volumes 1 & 2 (2016) is a Windows blues guitar improvisation teaching and rehearsal program that sells for $29.00 for each volume, PG Music Inc. (2016). It is designed to work with Band in a Box to add all those features, but can also be use d as a stand alone program. Following is a list of the basic features: • Features blues guitarist Danny Casavant playing and describing exactly how he is playing, in video, notation , and tablature formats with the notation and tablature printab le • Provides notation / tablature scrolling, so students can see exactly what he is playing • Features stereo separation, so the guitar is on the left , and the bass and drums are on the right, so the student can practice with just the backing track s • All examples were recorded with a MIDI guitar, so the tab shows exactly what was being played • All examples files can be opened in Band in a Box to use all those additional features for accompaniments • Volume 1 features 101 lessons focus ing on "riffs" • Volume 2 features 20 complete 4 to 5 minute blues songs • No screen shots were available online

PAGE 207

! ! %+* ! Essential Jazz Guitar Volumes 1, 2 & 3 Essential Jazz Guitar Volumes 1, 2 & 3, Essentials Rock Guitar Volumes 1, 2 & 3 (2016) is a Windows jazz guitar improvisation teaching and rehearsal program that sells for $29.00 for each volume, PG Music Inc. (2016). It is designed to work with Band in a Box to add all those features, but can also be used as a stand alone program. Following is a list of the basic features: • Features rock guitarist Oliver Gannon playing and describing exactly how he is playing, in video, notation , and tablature formats , with the notation and tablature printable • Provides notation / tablature scroll ing, so students can see exactly what he is playing • Features stereo separation, so the guitar is on the left , and the bass and drums are on the right, so the student can practice with just the backing tracks • All examples were recorded with a MID I guitar, so the tab shows exactly what was being played • All examples files can be opened in Band in a Box to use all those additional features for accompaniments • Volume 1 features 101 lessons focusing on "High Comping" • Volume 2 features 101 lessons focusing on "Low Comping" • Volume 3 features 20 complete 4 to 5 minute jazz songs • No screen shots were available online

PAGE 208

! ! %++ ! Essential Rock Guitar Volumes 1 & 2 Essential Rock Guitar Volumes 1 & 2, Essentials Rock Guitar Volumes 1 & 2 (201 6) is a Windows rock guitar improvisation teaching and rehearsal program that sells for $29.00 for each volume, PG Music Inc. (2016). It is designed to work with Band in a Box to add all those features, but can also be used as a stand alone program. Follo wing is a list of the basic features: • Features rock guitarist Harris Van Berkel playing and describing exactly how he is playing, in video, notation , and tablature formats with the notation and tablature printable • Provides notation / tabla ture scrolling, so students can see exactly what he is playing • Features stereo separation, so the guitar is on the left , and the bass and drums are on the right, so the student can practice with just the backing tracks • All examples were recorded with a MIDI guitar, so the tab shows exactly what was being played • All examples files can be opened in Band in a Box to use all those additional features for accompaniments • Volume 1 features 101 lessons focusing on "riffs" • Volume 2 features 20 complete 4 to 5 minute rock songs • No screen shots were available online

PAGE 209

! ! %+, ! GuitarStar Volume 1: Rockin' Riffs GuitarStar Volume 1: Rockin' Riffs , GuitarStar Volume 1: Rockin' Riffs (2016) is a Windows rock guitar improvisation teaching and r ehearsal program that sells for $39.00, PG Music Inc. (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features a variety of rhythm section grooves, (drums, bass , and rhythm guitar), in several genres • Allows the student to trigger the various riffs using the computer keyboard during the grooves • Riffs are displayed as notation, tablature, and an on screen fretboard, so students can see exactly what is being played • Provides video tutorials of Harris Van Berkel playing and describ ing each riff • Poor documentation online • No screen shots were available online

PAGE 210

! ! %+! GuitarStar Volume 2: Rockin' Riffs for the Beginner GuitarStar Volume 2: Rockin' Riffs for the Beginner , GuitarStar Volume 2: Rockin' Riffs for the Beginner (2016) is a Windows rock guitar improvisation teaching and rehearsal program that sells for $39.00, PG Music Inc. (2016). This is similar to Volume 1, but the riffs are easier, geared towards beginners. Following is a list of the basic features: • Features a varie ty of rhythm section grooves, (drums, bass , and rhythm guitar), in several genres • Allows the student to trigger the various riffs using the computer keyboard during the grooves • Riffs are displayed as notation, tablature, and an on screen fr etboard, so students can see exactly what is being played • Provides video tutorials of Harris Van Berkel playing and describing each riff • Poor documentation online • No screen shots were available online

PAGE 211

! ! %,. ! GuitarStar: Brent Mason Country GuitarStar Brent Mason Country , GuitarStar Brent Mason Country (2016) is a Windows country guitar improvisation teaching and rehearsal program that sells for $49.00, PG Music Inc. (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features 150 country guitar riffs, 4 hours of video lessons with Brent Mason, and 2 hours of audio recordings • Riffs are displayed as notation, tablature, and an on screen fretboard, so students can see exactly what is being played, as it is being played • Allows the student to trigger the various riffs using the computer keyboard • Allows students to watch videos half speed for easier learning • Features styles such as chicken pickin', hammer ons , and double stops, pull offs, honky tonk barroom, counter rhy thm, rockabilly, descending triads, and more • Poor documentation online • No screen shots were available online

PAGE 212

! ! %,% ! Hot Licks for Alto Saxophone Volumes 1 & 2 Hot Licks for Alto Saxophone Volumes 1 & 2 , Hot Licks for Alto Saxophone Volumes 1 & 2 (2014) is an iOS alto saxophone improvisation teaching and rehearsal program that sells for $12.99 for each volume, Fishman (2014). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features a customizable user interface • Allows student to view the "licks" as nota tion only, or to use the accompaniment "play along" track • Features automatic page turning that syncs with the "play along" track • Features an interactive call and response format, so each lick is played twice in a row so the student can hear the lick, and then play along (see Fig. 3.183 ) • Features "Rhythm Only" setting, so student can play along with the accompaniment only • Each "play along" track features a slow and fast tempo • Provides customiza tion of each lick, based on the timbre, register , and is playable for the alto sax Ð for example, the C7 lick is different than the B7 lick, etc . • Features a 12 key approach, so every track takes students through all twelve keys Volume 1 features: • 168 licks over 5 of the more basic and common jazz chord progressions (see Fig. 3.184 ) Volume 2 features: • 120 licks (#'s 169 through 289, continuation from Volume 1), over 9 of the complicated jazz chord progressions

PAGE 213

! ! %,& ! Figure 3.183 : Hot Licks f or Alto Saxophone Volume 1 "Lick" Lesson Example Figure 3.184 : Hot Licks for Alto Saxophone Volume 1 "Lick" Selection

PAGE 214

! ! %,' ! Hot Licks for Tenor Saxophone Volumes 1 & 2 Hot Licks for Tenor Saxophone Volumes 1 & 2 , Hot Licks for Tenor Saxophone Volumes 1 & 2 (2014) is an iOS alto saxophone improvisation teaching and rehearsal program that sells for $12.99 for each volume, Fishman (2014). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features a customizable user interface • Allows student to view the "licks" as notation only, or to use the accompaniment "play along" track • Features automatic page turning that syncs with the "play along" track • Features an interactive call and response format, so each lick is played twice in a row so the student can hear the lick, and then play along • Features "Rhythm Only" setting, so student can play along with the accompaniment only • Each "play along" track features a slow and fast tempo • Provides customizat ion of each lick, based on the timbre, register , and is playable for the alto sax Ð for example, the C7 lick is different than the B7 lick, etc. • Features a 12 key approach, so every track takes students through all twelve keys Volume 1 features: • 168 licks over 5 of the more basic and common jazz chord progressions Volume 2 features: • 120 licks (#'s 169 through 289, continuation from Volume 1), over 9 of the complicated jazz chord progressions • No screen shots included because the inter face is identical to Hot Licks for Alto Saxophone , just with content written for tenor instead of alto sax

PAGE 215

! ! %,( ! iImprov Bebop iImprov Bebop , iImprov Bebop (2015) is an iOS / Android bebop style improvisation teaching and rehearsal app that sells f or $3.99, Jazz Apps Mobile (2015). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features 9 comprehensive lessons , and 8 "Jam A long" tunes to practice over • Each lesson contains a detailed explanation and exercises, transposable notation , and temp o adjustable audio examples (see Fig. 3.185 ) • Topics included are half step placement, developing longer phrases, turnarounds , and chord substitutions, a breakdown of the "Confirmation" sequence, and various approaches to playing over "I Got Rh ythm" changes • Music notation is available in either treble or bass clef, and the student can customize by entering the instrument transposition (see Fig. 3.186 ) • Features individual JAM A longs for each key, mixer control for the instruments, and tempo control for each tune (see Fig. 3.187 ) Figure 3.185 : iImprov Ð Bebop Lesson Example

PAGE 216

! ! %,) ! Figure 3.186 : iImprov Ð Bebop Customization Preferences Figure 3.187 : iImprov Ð Bebop "Jam A long" Settings

PAGE 217

! ! %,* ! iImprov Ð Chord / Scale Compendium iImprov Ð Chord / Scale Compendium , iImprov Ð Chord / Scale Compendium (2011) is an iOS / Android reference app that provides a visual and audio representation of the most useful scale to chord choices for jazz improvisation, and sells for $0.99, Jazz Apps Mobile (2011). Following is a list of the basic features: • Organizes 25 different chord qualities into three families: Major, Minor , and Dominant (see Fig. 3.188 ) • Displays selected quality in standard notation with a key selection wheel, and recommends up to 5 scales (see Fig. 3.189 ) • Features a "Play" button which plays the selected chord and scale • Music notation is available in either treble or bass clef, and the student can customize by entering the instrument transposition (se e Fig. 3.190 ) Figure 3.188 : iImprov Ð Chord / Scale Compendium Chord Qualities

PAGE 218

! ! %,+ ! Figure 3.189 : iImprov Ð Chord / Scale Compendium Scale Recommendations Figure 3.190 : iImprov Ð Chord / Scale Compendium Chord Qualities

PAGE 219

! ! %,, ! iImprov Ð Contemporary Colors iImprov Ð Contemporary Colors , iImprov Ð Contemporary Colors (2015) is an iOS / Android post bebop era jazz chord improvisation teaching and rehearsal app that sells for $3.99, Jazz Apps Mobile (2015). Designed to help students with the type of contempora ry jazz chords found in songs by Wayne Shorter, Chick Corea, Herbie Hancock, and other composers whose changes venture outside those found in the "Standards." Following is a list of the basic features: • Features 5 comprehensive lessons over diminished, whole tone , augmented, Lydian augmented , and harmonic minor scales to play over these contemporary progressions (see Fig. 3.191 ) • Each lessons has an explanation, exercises, patterns, demos and "Jam A long" tunes to practice over (se e Fig. 3.192 ) • Music notation is available in either treble or bass clef, and the student can customize by entering the instrument transposition • Features individual JAM A longs for each key, mixer control for the instruments, and tempo control for each tune (see Fig. 3.193 ) Figure 3.191 : iImprov Ð Contemporary Colors Lessons

PAGE 220

! ! %,! Figure 3.192 : iImprov Ð Contemporary Colors Lesson Explanation Figure 3.193 : iImprov Ð Contemporary Colors JAM A Long

PAGE 221

! ! %-. ! iImprov Ð Fundamentals iImprov Ð Fundamentals , iImprov Ð Fundamentals (2014) is an iOS / Android beginning jazz improvisation teaching and rehearsal app that sells for $4.99, Jazz Apps Mobile (2014). Designed to give students the basic tools necessary for beginni ng jazz improvisation. Following is a list of the basic features: • Features many lessons, covering topics such as scale and chord construction, diatonicism, resolution, the cycle, form , and the blues (see Fig. 3.194 ) • Each lesson includes exercises as well as written and audio examples (see Fig. 3.195 ) • Music notation is available in either treble or bass clef, and the student can customize by entering the instrument transposition • Features a scale to chord compendium and a basic ear training module (see Fig. 3.196 ) • Features individual JAM A longs for each key, mixer control for the instruments, tempo control for each tune (see Fig. 3.197 ) Figure 3.194 : iImprov Ð Fundamentals Main Menu

PAGE 222

! ! %-% ! Fig ure 3.195 : iImprov Ð Fundamentals Lesson Example Figure 3.196 : iImprov Ð Fundamentals Figure 3.197 : iImprov Ð Fundamentals Chord Compendium JAM A Long Window

PAGE 223

! ! %-& ! iImprov Ð Modal iImprov Ð Modal , iImprov Ð Modal (2014) is an iOS / Android modal jazz improvisation teaching and rehearsal app that sells for $3.99, Jazz Apps Mobile (2014). Designed to give students the tools necessary to improvise over modal tunes, specifically minor modal. Following is a list of the basic features: • Features many lessons (see Fig. 3.198 ), covering topics such as the theory of note to chord relations, use of modal scales , and how to use pentatonic scales (see Fig. 3.199 ) • Each lesson includes exercises as wel l as written and audio examples (see Fig. 3.200 ) • Music notation is available in either treble or bass clef, and the student can customize by entering the instrument transposition • Features a scale to chord compendium and a basic ear training mod ule • Features individual JAM A longs for each key, mixer control for the instruments, tempo control for each tune Figure 3.198 : iImprov Ð Modal Main Menu

PAGE 224

! ! %-' ! Figure 3.199 : iImprov Ð Modal Pentatonic Example Figure 3.200 : iImprov Ð Modal Lesson Example

PAGE 225

! ! %-( ! iImprov Ð The Minor II V iImprov Ð The Minor II V , iImprov Ð The Minor II V (2014) is an iOS / Android jazz improvisation teaching and rehearsal app, focusing on improvising over the minor II V progression that sells for $3.99, Jazz App s Mobile (2014). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features a full explanation of the concepts involved, along with detailed theory of note to chord relations • Each lesson includes exercises as well as written and audio examples (see F ig. 3.201 ) • Music notation is available in either treble or bass clef, and the student can customize by entering the instrument transposition • Features audio playback of scales played over the appropriate chords (see Fig. 3.202 ) • Features indiv idual JAM A longs for each key, mixer control for the instruments, tempo control for each tune (see Fig. 3.203 ) Figure 3.201 : iImprov Ð The Minor II V Lesson Example

PAGE 226

! ! %-) ! Figure 3.202 : iImprov Ð The Minor II V Audio Playback Figure 3.203 : iImprov Ð T he Minor II V JAM A Long Window

PAGE 227

! ! %-* ! Impro Visor Impro Visor , Impro Visor (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows music notation / auto accompaniment and improvisation program that is "open source" , and is the refore free, Keller (2016). It s purpose is to give students and understanding of solo constructions and tune chord changes. This program is similar to Band in a Box, with fewer features. Following is a list of the basic features: • Features chord chart input via computer keyboard (C, F7, etc.) • Automatic note colorations shows notes that are consonant or dissonant with chords and scales (see Fig. 3.204 ) • Features over 50 different accompaniment styles for the rhythm section, which includes piano, bass, and drums • Features an extensive scale and chord repertoire • Can be used for self study, classroom, or play along, featuring a loop mode of any section • Solos and heads can be exported as MIDI or MusicXML files • Can also be used for transcription • Provides "lick generation" which autom atically creates solos over the entered chord chart • This is a very powerful program, especially considering that it is free

PAGE 228

! ! %-+ ! Figure 3.204 : Impro Visor Screen Shot

PAGE 229

! ! %-, ! Improv Explorer Improv Explorer , Improv Explorer (2016) is an iOS guitar improvisation app that sells for $1.99, Buskens & Associates Inc. (2016). The seller states: "An improvisational learning tool for medium to advanced guitarists based on the visual representation of note choice patterns." Following is a list of the basic features: • Features an extensive selection of common jazz chord progressions (see Fig. 3.205 ) • Visually shows the guitarist possible notes to play for each chord, using the guitar fretboard (see Fig. 3.206 ) • Allows the student to enter custom c hord progressions as well • Students can change the tempo and set the exercise for any key • Teaches students how to link ideas with common tones (see Fig. 3.207 ) Figure 3.205 : Improv Explorer Chord Selections

PAGE 230

! ! %-! Figure 3.206 : Improv Explorer Features 1

PAGE 231

! ! &.. ! Figure 3.207 : Improv Explorer Features 2

PAGE 232

! ! &.% ! Introduction to Jazz Blues Guitar Introduction to Jazz Blues Guitar , Introduction to Jazz Blues Guitar (2014) is an iOS jazz blues guitar improvisation instructional app that sells for $19.99, Leafcutter Stud ios Ltd. (2014). The basic design of this app is an interactive e book. Following is a list of the basic features: • Features seven chapters full of jazz blues chords, licks, progressions, scales , and arpeggios • Features over 115 audio examples to accompany the tab and notation, with highlighted notes that are synced to the audio (see Figs . 3.208 and 3.209 ) • Provides full backing tracks, so the student can practice the material in a realistic way • Inclu des the styles of Joe Pass, Wes Montgomery, Kenny Burrell, Lenny Breau, Freddie Green, Ed Bickert , and others • Teaches scales in multiple fingerings for pentatonic, blues scales, mixolydian modes, bebop scales , and the 7b9b13 scale Figure 3.2 08 : Introduction to Jazz Blues Guitar Lesson Example

PAGE 233

! ! &.& ! Figure 3.209 : Introduction to Jazz Blues Guitar Lesson Example

PAGE 234

! ! &.' ! iReal Pro iReal Pro , iReal Pro (2016) is an iOS / Android / Mac OS auto accompaniment generator, lead sheet creator and library , and sells for $12.99 for the app, and $19.99 for the Mac OS version, Technimo LLC (2016). This program is similar to Band in a box . Following is a list of the basic features: • Provides creation, editing, storing, printing , and sharing of chord charts • Auto generates accompaniments based on the chord charts for piano (or guitar), bass, and drums • Features 47 different accompaniment styles, such as swing, country, rock, funk, Latin, and more • Features importing thousands of charts from the free online forums (see Fig. 3.210 ) • Students can also create charts from scratch, or edit any downloaded charts (see Fig. 3.211 ) • Features guitar and ukulele tabs, along with piano fingerings (see Fig. 3.212 ) • Includes 50 exercises for practic ing common chord progressions • Features global transposition for horn players to Eb, Bb, F, and G • Features exporting as PDF, MusicXML, WAV, AAC , and MIDI files • Allows students to practice improvisation over any tune, at any tempo (see Fig. 3.213 ), in any key (see Fig. 3.214 )

PAGE 235

! ! &.( ! Figure 3.210 : iReal Pro Importing Charts Figure 3.211 : iReal Pro Editing Charts

PAGE 236

! ! &.) ! Figure 3.212 : iReal Pro Tab and Piano Fingerings Figure 3.213 : iReal Pro Change Tempo

PAGE 237

! ! &.* ! Figure 3.214 : iReal Pro Transpose Key

PAGE 238

! ! &.+ ! Jazz Box Jazz Box , Jazz Box (2012) is an iOS jazz chord and scale reference app , and sells for $0.99, De novo Digital, LLC (2012). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features a chord reference of 38 jazz chords in any key, bas s or treble clef (see Fig 3.215 ) • Features a scale reference of 31 jazz scales in any key, bass or treble clef (see Fig 3.216 ) • Search for scales that can be played over a given chord clef (see Fig 3.217 ) • Provides tips from jazz professionals on how to manage different chord and scale combinations • Reference a library of scale and chord theory basics

PAGE 239

! ! &., ! Figure 3.215 : Jazz Box Chord Reference

PAGE 240

! ! &.! Figure 3.216 : Jazz Box Scale Reference Figure 3.217 : Jazz Box Scale Selection

PAGE 241

! ! &%. ! Jazz Duets 1 & 2 for Alto Sax Jazz Duets 1 & 2 for Alto Sax , Jazz Duets 1 & 2 for Alto Sax (2015) is an iOS beginning jazz alto sax app and sells for $4.99 for each volume, Artist Ahead GmbH (2015). The stated purpose of the app is to help beginning students to improve their groove skills, swing style, timing, sight reading , and improvisation. Following is a list of the basic features: • Features play along songs that have demo versions for each part (see Fig 3.218 ) • Provides versions for two alto saxophones, or alto and tenor saxophones • Provides leadsheet version s for alto and tenor saxophone • Features auto scrolling sheet music, so audio is synced with notation • Provides example videos to show the te chniques of playing • Play along mode features audio recording of a real band Ð not MIDI • Tempo adjustable between 20bpm and 240bpm (see Fig 3.219 ) • Provides links to Wikipedia for further information • Volume 1 features 3 duets • Volume 2 features 3 more duets, a continuation in skill level from Volume 1 Figure 3.218 : Jazz Duets for Alto Sax Main Window

PAGE 242

! ! &%% ! Figure 3.219 : Jazz Duets for Alto Sax Playback Settings

PAGE 243

! ! &%& ! Jazz Duets 1 & 2 for Tenor Sax Jazz Duets 1 & 2 for Tenor Sax , Jazz Duets 1 & 2 for Tenor Sax (2015) is an iOS beginning jazz tenor sax app and sells for $4.99 for each volume, Artist Ahead GmbH (2015). The stated purpose of the app is to help beginning students to improve their groove skills, swing style, timing, si ght reading , and improvisation. Following is a list of the basic features: • Features play along songs that have demo versions for each part • Provides versions for two tenor saxophones, or alto and tenor saxophones • Provides leadsheet version s for a lto and tenor saxophone • Features auto scrolling sheet music, so audio is synced with notation • Provides example videos to show the techniques of playing • Play along mode features audio recording of a real band Ð not MIDI • Tempo adjustable between 20bpm and 240bpm • Provides links to Wikipedia for further information • Volume 1 features 3 duets • Volume 2 features 3 more duets, a continuation in skill level from Volume 1 • No screen shots included as the interface and features are identical to Jazz Duets 1 & 2 for Alto Sax

PAGE 244

! ! &%' ! Jazz Improv Jazz Improv , Jazz Improv (2015) is an iOS beginning jazz scale reference app and is free, Tapan Srivastava (2015). Following is a list of the basic features: • Allows students to input a jazz chord, and the app provides various scale and arpeggio suggestions that will match that chord (see Figs. 3.220 and 3.221 ) Figure 3.220 : Jazz Improv Chord Selection Figure 3.221 : Jazz Improv Scale Suggestions

PAGE 245

! ! &%( ! Jazz Phrasing for Alto Sax Volumes 1 & 2 Jazz Phrasing for Alto Sax Volumes 1 & 2 , Jazz Phrasing for Alto Sax Volumes 1 & 2 (2016) is an iOS jazz phrasing instructional app and sells for $9.99 for Volume 1 , and $12.99 for Volume 2 , Fishman (2016). This app is designed to teach stu dents the essence of mainstream jazz vocabulary through pieces that demonstrate the use of sequence and voice leading to make a musical statement. Following is a list of the basic features: • Features melodic and catchy songs to teach phrasing (see Fig . 3.222 ) • Features automatic page turning for hands free use • Provides play along tracks, selectable between having Greg Fishman demonstrating the melody, or just the rhythm section for student practice • Features idiomatically correct voicing, wit h each saying in a comfortable register • Features a "Style & Analysis" section which provides clear and concise explanations of sequence, variation, and voice leading • Features a "Thematic Index", which lets students compare the opening themes of all songs in an "at a glance" format • Volume 1 features 10 melodic songs, which are precursory to Volume 2 • Volume 2 features 10 melodic songs, and are a skill level continuation of Volume 1

PAGE 246

! ! &%) ! Figure 3.222 : Jazz Phrasing for Alto Sax Screen Shot

PAGE 247

! ! &%* ! Jazz Phrasing for Tenor Sax Volumes 1 & 2 Jazz Phrasing for Tenor Sax Volumes 1 & 2 , Jazz Phrasing for Tenor Sax Volumes 1 & 2 (2016) is an iOS jazz phrasing instructional app and sells for $9.99 for Volume 1 , and $12.99 for Volume 2, Fishman (2016 ). This app is designed to teach students the essence of mainstream jazz vocabulary through pieces that demonstrate the use of sequence and voice leading to make a musical statement. Following is a list of the basic features: • Features melodic and catc hy songs to teach phrasing (see Fig . 3.223 ) • Features automatic page turning for hands free use • Provides play along tracks, selectable between having Greg Fishman demonstrating the melody, or just the rhythm section for student practice • Features idiomatically correct voicing, with each saying in a comfortable register • Features a "Style & Analysis" section which provides clear and concise explanations of sequence, variation, and voice leading • Features a "Thematic Index", which l ets students compare the opening themes of all songs in an "at a glance" format • Volume 1 features 10 melodic songs, which are precursory to Volume 2 • Volume 2 features 10 melodic songs, and are a skill level continuation of Volume 1

PAGE 248

! ! &%+ ! Figur e 3.223 : Jazz Phrasing for Tenor Sax Screen Shot

PAGE 249

! ! &%, ! Jazz Saxophone Etudes Volume 1, 2 & 3, Alto Jazz Saxophone Etudes Volume 1, 2 & 3, Alto , Jazz Saxophone Etudes Volume 1, 2 & 3, Alto (2016) is an iOS jazz improvisation instructional app and sells for $12.99 for each volume, Fishman (2016). This app is designed to teach students a melodic approach to soloing with authentic jazz vocabulary. Following is a list of the basic features: • Features melodic and catchy etudes, each sta nd 32 bar songs • Feat ures automatic page turning for hands free use • Provides play along tracks, selectable between having Greg Fishman demonstrating the melody, or just the rhythm section for student practice • Features idiomatically correct voicing, with each saying in a comfortable register • Provides a wide variety of tempos, ranging from ballad, (66 bpm), to fast bebop, (184 bpm) • Provides a customized user interface that provides the full digital version of the book, as well as detailed theoretical an d style analysis of some of the compositional devices used in the etudes • Volume 1 features 12 melodic etudes with a wide range of tempos, precursory to Volume 2 • Volume 2 features 12 melodic etud es with a wide range of tempos , and are a skill level continuation of Volume 1 • Volume 3 features 12 melodic etudes, focusing on medium tempos • No screen shots included, as the interface is identical to Jazz Phrasing for Alto Sax

PAGE 250

! ! &%! Jazz Saxophone Etudes Volume 1, 2 & 3, Tenor Jazz Saxophone Etudes Volume 1, 2 & 3, Tenor , Jazz Saxophone Etudes Volume 1, 2 & 3, Tenor (2016) is an iOS jazz improvisation instructional app and sells for $12.99 for each volume, Fishman (2016). This app is designed to teach students a melodic approa ch to soloing with authentic jazz vocabulary. Following is a list of the basic features: • Features melodic and catchy etudes, each stand 32 bar songs • Features automatic page turning for hands free use • Provides play along tracks, selectable between having Greg Fishman demonstrating the melody, or just the rhythm section for student practice • Features idiomatically correct voicing, with each saying in a comfortable register • Provides a wide variety of tempos, ranging from ballad, (66 bpm), t o fast bebop, (184 bpm) • Provides a customized user interface that provides the full digital version of the book, as well as detailed theoretical and style analysis of some of the compositional devices used in the etudes • Volume 1 featur es 12 melodic etudes with a wide range of tempos, precursory to Volume 2 • Volume 2 features 12 melodic etud es with a wide range of tempos , and are a skill level continuation of Volume 1 • Volume 3 features 12 melodic etudes, focusing on medium tempos • No screen shots included, as the interface is identical to Jazz Phrasing for Tenor Sax

PAGE 251

! ! &&. ! Jazz Scale Jazz Scale, Tenor , Jazz Scale (2016) is an iOS jazz scale reference app and sells for $0.99, ISCR EAM (2011). Following is a list of the basic features: • Allows students to choose a chord type, scale type, and the app displays an appropriate scale to use for improvisation (see Fig . 3.224 ) Figure 3.224 : Jazz Scale App Screens

PAGE 252

! ! &&% ! Jazz Theory Quiz Jazz Theory Quiz , Jazz Theory Quiz (2013) is an iOS jazz theory teaching and quiz app, that sells for $2.99, Jazz Apps Mobile (2013). This app is designed to be a culmination of all the iImprov jazz apps, and all the material contained in th e quizzes is contained in those six apps. Following is a list of the basic features: • Features five different categories of jazz theory knowledge, including functions, chords, diatonic chords, scales, and intervals (see Fig. 3.225 ) • Each quiz ran domly generates questions form these five categories • Provides customizable quiz length, and hints that can be turned on or off • Features customization of quizzes to focus on specific keys, chords, scales, intervals, or any combination of those • Each questions allows two attempts for the correct answer, after which time the correct answer is displayed • Input via virtual piano keyboard (see Fig. 3.226 ), or note name buttons (see Fig. 3.227 ) Figure 3.225 : Jazz Theory Quiz Categories Window

PAGE 253

! ! &&& ! Figure 3.226 : Jazz Theory Quiz Question Sample with Keyboard Entry Figure 3.227 : Jazz Theory Quiz Question Sample with Note Name Button Entry

PAGE 254

! ! &&' ! JazzU JazzU, JazzU (2016) is a Windows jazz guitar and piano teaching and rehearsal progr am that sells for $49.00, PG Music Inc. (2016). It is designed to cover traditional, Dixieland, swing, bebop, Latin, modern , and fusion genres. Following is a list of the basic features: • Features interactive audio lessons, which provide verbal and play ing instructions, as well as actual fretboard, keyboard , and notation displays • Features MIDI practice files so students can practice on their own, in any key, at any tempo • Features study sheets which combine notation, graphics, and text with additional information that can be printed • Features a guitar chord dictionary, and a piano chord dictionary, which shows students the various voicings for each chord on eit her a fretboard or piano keyboard • Guitar section features 20 lessons by Oliver Gannon • Piano section features 20 lessons by Miles Black • Both piano and guitar sections focus on chords • No screen shots were available online

PAGE 255

! ! &&( ! Learn That Song (REMIX Edition) Learn That Song (REMIX Edition) , Learn That Song (REMIX Edition (2016) is an iOS transcription / learn by ear app, that sells for $4.99, Jazz Apps Mobile (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Provides the ability for students to slow audio files down up to 25% of the original speed, and also speed up to 200% without changing the pitch (see Fig. 3.228 ) • Provides key adjustment by up to 12 semitones up or down • Provides a loop feature f or sections, or for the entire song, so that students can work on a specific section (see Fig. 3.229 ) • Provides the ability for students to train in multiple keys all from the same audio file • Features waveform display and scrolling • Features ta pe player function, to rewind and fast forward (see Fig. 3.230 ) • Features playback of songs from the Music app, Dropbox, Mail, Airdrop, iTunes File Sharing, MP3, AAC, M4A, AIFF , and WAV • Great tool for transcribing jazz solos, or trying to learn th em by ear

PAGE 256

! ! &&) ! Figure 3.228 : Learn That Song (REMIX Edition) Main Window Figure 3.229 : Learn That Song (REMIX Edition) Loop Feature

PAGE 257

! ! &&* ! Figure 3.230 : Learn That Song (REMIX Edition) Tapedeck Window

PAGE 258

! ! && + ! Master Flatpick Guitar Solos Master Flatpick Guitar Solos, Master Flatpick Guitar Solos (2016) is a Windows flatpick guitar improvisation interactive teaching and rehearsal program that sells for $49.00, PG Music Inc. (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features 51 s ongs that display notes on the virtual fretboard synced with the music • Provides "mainstream" playing, based on typical chord progressions • Each song features three or more full choruses of music • Features optional guide notes that display scale tone s in the correct key, with note names provided to aid in note / fret recognition • All songs and solos can be slowed down, or stepped through one note at a time • Solos may be printed out for further study • Students can play along with accompanyin g instruments as they learn the solos • All songs also come as Band in a Box files, so that students can take advantage of all those options as well • No screen shots were available online

PAGE 259

! ! &&, ! Master Jazz Guitar Solos, Volumes 1 4 Master Jazz Guitar Solos, Volumes 1 4, Master Jazz Guitar Solos, Volumes 1 4 (2016) is a Windows jazz guitar improvisation interactive teaching and rehearsal program that sells for $49.00, PG Music Inc. (2016). Following is a list of the basic features : • Features 50 songs in each volume, (200 total) that display notes on the virtual fretboard synced with the music • Provides "mainstream" playing, based on typical chord progressions • Each song features six full choruses of music, the first thre e in Phrygian, the next three in Aeolian, or the reverse • Features optional guide notes that display scale tones in the correct key, with note names provided to aid in note / fret recognition • All songs and solos can be slowed down, or stepped through one note at a time • Solos may be printed out for further study • Students can play along with accompanying instruments as they learn the solos • All songs also come as Band in a Box files, so that students can take advantage of all those options as well • No screen shots were available online

PAGE 260

! ! &&! MusiClock MusiClock, MusiClock (2015) is am iOS jazz guitar / piano scales teaching and rehearsal program that sells for $4.99, perTunes Oy (2015). This app teaches major, natural minor, m ajor , and minor pentatonic, melodic and harmonic minor, blues, and dominant bebop scales. Following is a list of the basic features: • Features a unique wheel, or, "clock" design that rotates to reveal note names to the various scales (see Fig. 3.231 ) • Features guitar fretboard display of scales as well as the piano keyboard (see Fig. 3.232 ) • Can really be used by any musician • Provides over 1,000 easy to read guitar charts • Provides professional backing tracks for every song (see Fig. 3.233 ) • Provides 12 different keys for every scale and backing tracks (see Fig. 3.234 ) Figure 3.231 : MusiClock Main Window

PAGE 261

! ! &'. ! Figure 3.232 : MusiClock Guitar Tablature Figure 3.233 : MusiClock Backing Tracks

PAGE 262

! ! &'% ! Figure 3.234 : MusiClock Scale Transposition

PAGE 263

! ! &'& ! Phrase Trainer 2 Phrase Trainer 2, Phrase Trainer 2 (2016) is a Windows transcription / learn by ear program that sells for $22.78, DesktopMetronome (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features the ability to chan ge the speed of audio files from 50% of original speed, to 200% of original speed without changing the pitch (see Fig. 3.235 ) • Features the ability to change the pitch plus or minus 12 semitones, and allows for fine tuning accurate to one cent (see Fig. 3.236 ) • Provides defining as many loops per song as desired (see Fig. 3.237 ) • Features the "Speed Trainer", which allows the student to set a gradually increasing speed on a looped section, until the desired speed is reached (see Fig. 3.238 ) • Features "Pitch Trainer", which allows the student to raise or lower the pitch a given semitone for each loop, to practice in a variety of keys (see Fig. 3.239 ) • Features a parametric EQ, to filter out an instrument, such as bass, in addit ion to the 10 band graphic equalizer (see Fig. 3.240 ) • Provides a large waveform display with zoom in capabilities (see Fig. 3.241 ) • Can play MP3, WAV, WMA, FLAC, AAC, M4A, OGG , and MIDI files • Can export, with any changes made, to WAV, MP3, OGG , or WMA • A great tool for transcribing solos, or learning solos by ear

PAGE 264

! ! &'' ! Figure 3.235 : Phrase Trainer 2 Speed Adjustments Figure 3.236 : Phrase Trainer 2 Pitch Adjustments

PAGE 265

! ! &'( ! Figure 3.237 : Phrase Trainer 2 Loop Settings Figure 3.238 : Phrase Tra iner 2 "Speed Trainer" Figure 3.239 : Phrase Trainer 2 "Pitch Trainer" Figure 3.240 : Phrase Trainer 2 Parametric EQ Figure 3.241 : Phrase Trainer 2 Waveform Zoom

PAGE 266

! ! &') ! Play the Blues Saxophone, Volumes 1 & 2 Play the Blues Saxophone, Volumes 1 & 2 , Play the Blues Saxophone, Volumes 1 & 2 (2016) is an iOS blues improvisation app for alto saxophone and sells for $4.99 for each volume, Artist Ahead GmbH (2016). The stated purpose of the app is to help students learn how to play the blues in an exciting and practical way. Following is a list of the basic features: • Covers blues improvisation, the blues scales in all keys, the blues pattern, binary and ternary phrasing, and 3 and 4 note patterns • Features play along tracks in styles such as fun k, rumba, hip hop, slow rock, swing, soul, shuffle , and jazz blues (see Fig 3.242 ) • Features auto scrolling sheet music, so audio is synced with notation • Provides pop up graphics and exercises • Tempo adjustable between 20bpm and 240bpm • Prov ides links to Wikipedia for further information • Volume 1 features 69 pages consisting of 2 example videos, 8 play alongs including demo tracks, 66 practice tracks, and 42 zoomable graphics (see Fig 3.243 ) • Volume 2 features 77 pages consisting of 1 example video, 12 play alongs including demo tracks, 62 practice tracks, 39 zoomable graphics, and is a continuation in skill level from Volume 1

PAGE 267

! ! &'* ! Figure 3.242 : Play the Blues Saxophone Play Along Explanation Figure 3. 243 : Play the Blues Saxophone Chart Example

PAGE 268

! ! &'+ ! ScaleTwister ScaleTwister, ScaleTwister (2016) is an iOS jazz chord / scales reference app and sells for $4.99, ScaleTwister (2016). This app allows students to transpose 30 of the most important scales and chords in to all 12 ke ys. Following is a list of the basic features: • Provides a variety of scale types, grouped by major, minor , and dominant 7 th scales (see Fig. 3.244 ) • Very incomplete description on the website Fig ure 3.244 : ScaleTwister Scale and Chord Examples

PAGE 269

! ! &', ! TimeStretch TimeStretch, TimeStretch (2016) is a Windows transcription / learn by ear program that sells for $29.95, eMedia Music Corp. (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features the ability to change the speed of audio files from 60% of original speed, to 190% of original speed without changing the pitch (see Fig. 3.245 ) • Features the ability to change the pitch plus or minus 12 semitones, and allows for fine tuning accurate to one cent • Provides one loop section • Features a graphic EQ, to emphasize or filter out an instrument • Provides a large stereo waveform display • Can play MP3, WAV, WMA files, and rip tracks from CD's • Can export, with any c hanges made, to WAV, MP3, or WMA • Can also burn CD's with changes made, configured in the "TimeStretch and Compilation" window (see Fig. 3.246 ) • A great tool for transcribing solos, or learning solos by ear

PAGE 270

! ! &'! Figure 3.245 : TimeStretch Main Window Figure 3.246 : TimeStretch "TimeStretch & Compilation" Window

PAGE 271

! ! &(. ! Woodshedr Jazz PlayAlong Woodshedr Ð Jazz PlayAlong , Woodshedr Ð Jazz PlayAlong (2016) is an iOS jazz rhythm section accompaniment app and sells for $6.99, Highway 1 Design (2016). The st ated purpose of the app is, "Practice and learn to improvise to your favorite tunes with real musicians!" Following is a list of the basic features: • Features real audio recordings of jazz tunes, (not MIDI files) • Features lead sheets for each tune • Features piano, bass, drums , and s ax for each song, with volume control / mute button for each, so students can practice soloing or comping on any of those instruments (see Fig 3.247 ) • Features automatic page turning for hands free use • Pr ovides default instrument transposition and clef choice (see Fig 3.248 ) • Features a record option, so students can record their performances alongside the play alongs, with the built in mic • It appears that 6 songs come free with the app, but ther eafter, each song purchased is $0.99, and there is no documentation as to what the songs are that are available for purchase (see Fig 3.249 )

PAGE 272

! ! &(% ! Figure 3.247 : Woodshedr Ð Jazz PlayAlong Figure 3.248 : Woodshedr Ð Jazz PlayAlong Playback Settings Customization Settings

PAGE 273

! ! &(& ! Figure 3.249 : Woodshedr Ð Jazz PlayAlong Purchased Song Library

PAGE 274

! ! &(' ! Composition The most obvious and original use of music technology was to aid composers in the creation of musical compositions. As such, there is truly a plethora of software programs and apps, ranging from simple notation programs to full feature digital audio works tations. In this section, I will show technologies designed to help students compose by using notation software, MIDI sequencers, digital audio workstations (DAWs), and the blending of these three which many programs offer. I will organize this section b y first introducing notation programs alphabetically, then MIDI sequencing programs alphabetically, concluding with DAWs alphabetically. The accompanying Table 6, "Composition: Apps and Programs Spread Sheet" gives a concise summary of the programs in th is section, along with various data sorting sheets and hyperlinks to each app and program.

PAGE 275

! ! &(( ! Arobas Music Guitar Pro 6 Arobas Music Guitar Pro 6, Arobas Music Guitar Pro 6 (2016) is an iOS / Android / Mac OS / Windows notation / sequencing program that sells for $6.99 for the apps , and $59.95 for the computer programs, Arobas Music (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Designed specifically for composers who are guitarists • Features three different notation types: sheet music, tablatu re , and slash (see Fig. 3.250 ) • Provides chords and scales dictionaries to aid in composing • Provides multitrack scores to add guitar, bass, drums, piano, voice, strings, brass , and more • Provides 5 virtual instruments for input and for visual p layback • Can add lyrics to vocal tracks • Provides over 100 instrument sounds, including guitars, basses, exotic guita r s, drums and percussion, pianos and synths , orchestral , and big band instruments • Has three separate audio panels for each trac k,: soundbank, effects chain and mastering section (see Fig 3.251 ) • Allows export of files as MIDI, MusicXML, PNG, PowerTab, ASCII, WAV audio files and PDF • Is not a DAW, as it does not have the ability to record sound Ð only to export it • App versions feature tab reader, monotrack notepad, and other reduced features (see Fig 3.252 )

PAGE 276

! ! &() ! Figure 3.250 : Arobas Music Guitar Pro 6 Screen Shot Figure 3.251 : Arobas Music Guitar Pro 6 Audio Panels

PAGE 277

! ! &(* ! Figure 3.252 : Arobas Music Guitar Pro iOS Screen Shots

PAGE 278

! ! &(+ ! Counterpointer Counterpointer, Counterpointer (2014) is a Mac OS / Windows counterpoint analysis and exercise program that sells for $65.00, Ars Nova Software LLC (2014). Following is a list of the basic feature s: • Offers evaluation of both species and free counterpoint • Provides notation tools for entering and saving music • Can print or export as MIDI files • Exercises in species counterpoint Fux and cantus firmus, realizing Roman numerals, figured ba ss , and free counterpoint • Shows students errors based on the chosen style rules (see Fig. 3.253 ) • Scores can be linked to Practica Musica , as this is a companion product Figure 3.253 : Counterpoint er Analysis Example

PAGE 279

! ! &(, ! Cresendo Music Notation Software Cresendo Music Notation Software, Cresendo Music Notation Software (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows basic notation program (with a free companion Android app) that sells for $60.00, NCH Software (2016). Following is a list of the basi c features: • Features note by note, hand entry Ð provides no other input methods (see Fig. 3.254 ) • Provides basic notation features such as notes and rests down to sixteenths, dynamics, articulations, drag and move notes, text and lyrics, adjustab le score attributes (see Fig 3.255 ) • Provides MIDI playback and export (NOT import), and score printing • Android companion app seems to offer the same features, but is free (see Fig. 3.256 ) Figure 3.254 : Crescendo Music Notation Software Main Screen

PAGE 280

! ! &(! Figure 3.255 : Crescendo Music Notation Software Features Montage

PAGE 281

! ! &). ! Figure 3.256 : Crescendo Music Notation Software Android App Screen Shot

PAGE 282

! ! &)% ! Encore Encore, Encore (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows advanced notation program that sells for $199.99 for the education price, regularly $279.99, Passport Music Software, LLC (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features MIDI and MusicXML import and export • Directly transcribes li ve input from MIDI instruments and MIDI software in real time • Complete scoring features, with notes and rests down to 128 th 's, large collection of articulations and marks, multiple verse lyrics and text, guitar tablature , and a full compliment of guitar markings, leadsheet style chord charts, expressions marking that actually affect MIDI playback, a variety of tools such as slurs, trills, 8va sections, and many more (see Figs. 3.257 and 3.258 ) • Mac and Windows files are swappable • TrueType and PostScript support • Garritan Personal Studio ready; VSTi host; full DLS and Soundfon t support • Assignable instrument transpositions and single part extraction, with "C" score capabilities • Completely assignable MIDI ch annels and instruments for each part, up to eight per staff • Plays back MIDI interpretations of dynamics, hairpins, repeats, endings , and articulations • There is not too much this program can not do in music notation

PAGE 283

! ! &)& ! Figure 3.257 : Encore Mac OS Screen Shot Figure 3.258 : Encore Windows Screen Shot

PAGE 284

! ! &)' ! Finale 2014 Finale 2014, Finale 2014 (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows advanced notation program that sells for $350.00 for the education price, regularly $600.00, MakeMusic, Inc. (2016). Thi s program is widely regarded as the premium notation program. Following is a list of the basic features: • Provides a variety of note entry options, such as computer keyboard, mouse, MIDI keyboard or device, MIDI importation, MusicXML, Smartscore, s canning , or any Finale family files • Unlimited lyric verses with automatic spacing to match notes • Flexible entering, creating, copying , and moving of dynamics, tempo indications, and other text and markings • Enter chord symbols by typing in the name or via MIDI input • Extremely flexible score layout possibilities (see Fig. 3.259 ) • Playback features more than 425 Garritan Sounds, 100 sounds from Tapspace Virtual Drumline, a general MIDI set, full support for all VST / AU instrument s and effects, recording and playback of actual audio, editable MIDI files, "TempoTap" to control tempo nuances, a mixer ( see Fig. 3.260 ), and "Human Playback" which gives all notes musical nuance • Sharing features include unsurpassed prin ting possibilities, MP3, WAV, AIFF, MIDI, MusicXML, EPUB, PDF, SmartMusic accompaniments, and sharing with any Finale family product • A large compliment of education features, including worksheets, exercises, exclusive SmartMusic support, "Studio View" for teaching and practicing composition and others

PAGE 285

! ! &)( ! • Recording, importing , and playback of audio tracks (see Fig. 3.261 ) • Integrated video can set frame rates, write time code into your score, and send SMPTE/MTC to external devices (see Fig. 3.262 ) Figure 3.259 : Finale 2014 Score Layout Possibilities

PAGE 286

! ! &)) ! Figure 3.260 : Finale 2014 Audio / MIDI Mixer Figure 3.261 : Finale 2014 Audio Aligned with Score Screen Shot

PAGE 287

! ! &)* ! Figure 3.262 : Finale 2014 Video Support with SMPTE/MTC Screen Shot

PAGE 288

! ! &)+ ! Finale PrintMusic Finale PrintMusic, Finale PrintMusic (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows limited notation program, ("lighter" version of Finale 2014 ) , and sells for $119.95, MakeMusic, Inc. (2016). Special pricing f or lab packs is also available. Following is a list of the basic features: • Very similar to Finale 2014 , just without some of the more advanced features • Note entry methods include mouse and keyboard, MIDI step entry , or real time MIDI, with or without metronome using "Hyperscsribe", built in SmartScore Lite scanner, or importing MIDI or MusicXML files • Playback features the standard General MIDI 128 instrument soundbank, along with support for third party VST/AU instruments, but does not come with the Garritan or Tapspace sound banks • Features Band in a Box auto harmonization tool (see Fig. 3.263 ) • Does not come with video support, the ability to record or import audio, the ability to edit MIDI data, or "TempoTap" for tempo changes • Contains five music fonts for more customization (see Fig. 3.264 ) • Sharing features include professional quality printing, exporting as MP3, WAV, AIFF, MIDI, MusicXML , PDF, JPEG, PNG, TIFF, EPS, and sharing FILES with any Finale family product • Will not export as SmartMusic accompaniments

PAGE 289

! ! &), ! Figure 3.263 : Finale PrintMusic Auto Harmonization Feature Figure 3.264 :

PAGE 290

! ! &)! Finale SongWriter Finale SongWriter, Finale SongWriter (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows limited notation program, (the lightest version of Finale 2014 ) , and sells for $49.95, MakeMusic, Inc. (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Specifically designed notation software for song writers to create lead sheets and piano vocal scores • Note entry options are keyboard and mouse, MIDI step entry, real time MIDI entry with metronome only, ("Hyperscribe" not available in this program), and importing MIDI and MusicXML files • Playback sounds are only the standard 128 General MIDI instruments, with no support for third party sound banks • Sharing features include professional quality printing, exporting as MP3, WAV, AIFF, MIDI, MusicXML , sharing FILES with any Final e family product, but no PDF or other graphics format exporting • Maximum of eight staves • Features a helpful "Launch Window" (see Fig. 3.265 )

PAGE 291

! ! &*. ! Figure 3.265 : Finale SongWriter Launch Window Screen Shot

PAGE 292

! ! &*% ! Finale NotePad Finale NotePad, Finale NotePad (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows limited notation program, (stripped down version of Finale 2014 ) , that is free, MakeMusic, Inc. (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Allows up to 8 staves • Note entry by mouse, importing MIDI or MusicXML files, or step time using a MIDI keyboard • Markings, lyrics, percussion notation (see Fig. 3. 266 ), and tablature (see Fig. 3.267 ) entered by keyboard and mouse • Provides the 128 instrument General MIDI instrument set for playback • Provides printing scores and exporting to MIDI, MusicXML or any other Finale family product • "Setup Wizard" sets up scores automatically for students (see Fig. 3.268 ) • Designed to be a "student" version of Finale, so teachers, for exa mple, can send an assignment file to all of their students, and since NotePad is free, it is a much cheaper alternative Figure 3.266 : Finale NotePad Percussion Notation Sample Figure 3.267 : Finale NotePad Guitar Tablature Sample

PAGE 293

! ! &*& ! Figure 3.268 : Finale NotePad Setup Wizard Screen Shots

PAGE 294

! ! &*' ! Flat Flat, Flat (2016) is an online collaborative basic notation program compatible with iOS / Android / Mac OS / Windows and sells for $1.50 per education license, Tutteo Ltd. (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Will work in any internet connected browser, and even offers an offline feature that will sync back up your score when you are online again • Allows real time collaboration between students, so that an entire class of student s could be working on the same score at the same time (see Fig. 3.269 ) • Also allows for collaborations with other schools, etc. • Note entry with keyboard and mouse, or MIDI keyboard for step entry • Provides articulations, dynamics, lyrics , and c hord charts • Print or share music with the online community, or with the class' private website • The strongest feature of this program is the uniqueness of the collaborative features • Google for Education partner, so will work seamlessly with that program

PAGE 295

! ! &*( ! Figure 3.269 : Flat Screen Shot ?2=A0:2@!Y8DD1C8412":L! ":!401D W 2"90 ! I:3=2!60:=@ !

PAGE 296

! ! &*) ! Forte Premium Forte Premium, Forte Premium (2016) is a Windows complete notation program and sells for $150.00 for a teacher license, $110.00 for a student license, regularly $229.00, Forte Notation (2016). There are also a variety of site licenses that can be arranged with the company. This is the full featured version, and the company also makes "lighter" versions, such as Forte Home , Forte Basic , and Forte Free, which will be discussed on the following pages. For a thorough comparison chart, go to: http://www.fortenotation.com/en/files/Forte_ FeatureComparison_EN.pdf . Following is a list of the basic features: • Note entry via built in scann er, keyboard and mouse, step time or real time MIDI device, import MIDI, MusicXML, Finale , and Capella files • Note entry also possible via USB mic or mic input on computer Ð sing or play a single melodic line, and Forte Premium will notate it • Record or import audio tracks to play in conjunction with your composition with the "Audio Sequencer" (see Fig. 3.270 ) • 32 staves maximum, four voices per stave, 16 lyric verses per stave • Features "FORTE Player", a comprehensive orchestral sound library, used for playback, instead of your computer's built in General MIDI sounds • Features assignable drum notation, complete tablature, ornament signs, 12 different noteheads, guit ar fretboard , and lyrics (see Figs . 3.271 and 3.272 ) • Recording features punch in/out and loop • Transposition by instrument and part extraction • Customizable page designs and score layouts for professional quality printed scores • Export as MP3, WA V, MusicXML, MIDI

PAGE 297

! ! &** ! Figure 3.270 : Forte Premium Audio Sequencer Screen Shot Figure 3.271 : Forte Premium Notes Selection Screen Shot

PAGE 298

! ! &*+ ! Figure 3.272 : Forte Premium Lyrics Screen Shot

PAGE 299

! ! &*, ! Forte Home Forte Home, Forte Home (2016) is a Windows notation program and sells for $99.00, Forte Notation (2016). There is no special education price for this version. This is a "lighter" version of Forte Premium , so focus will be given to what is not included in this version. Following is a list of the basic features an d deletions from Forte Premium : • Note entry does not have the built in scanner or keyboard input, but does feature mouse entry, step time and real time MIDI entry, MIDI, MusicXML , and Finale files • No audio to notation feature and does not record or import audio • Only 16 staves maximum, two voices per stave, 6 lyric verses per stave • "FORTE Player" is optional, $49.00, support for third party VST sound banks • Features drum notation (not individually assignable), guitar and bass tablature, ornament signs, 12 different noteheads, guitar fretboard , and lyrics • Transposition by interval and key only Ð no instrument transposition or part extraction • Fewer customizable page designs and score layouts • Export as MP3, WAV, MIDI, not Mu sicXML

PAGE 300

! ! &*! Forte Basic Forte Basic, Forte Basic (2016) is a Windows notation program and sells for $24.00, Forte Notation (2016). There is no special education price for this version. This is a very light version of Forte Premium , specifically designed for students and beginners. Following is a list of the basic features: • Note entry by mouse or step time MIDI, imports MIDI , and MusicXML files • Features four staves maximum, with two voices for each stave and two lyric verses per stave • "FORTE Player" is optional, $49.00, support for third party VST sound banks • Features drum notation (not individually assignable), guitar and bass tablature, limited ornament signs, 5 different noteheads, and lyrics • Transposition by interval • Expor t as WAV or MIDI files Forte Free Forte Free, Forte Free (2016) is a Windows notation program that is free, Forte Notation (2016). This is designed to give those interested in Forte Premium a trial, without all the advanced features. Following is a list of the basic features: • Note entry is mouse only • Features 1 staff only, 2 voices per track, and one lyric verse per staff • Computer's built in synth for playback •Basic drum notation , and guitar and bass tablature

PAGE 301

! ! &+. ! Ludwig Ludwig, Ludwig (2016) i s a Windows melodic notation and auto generating melodic and harmonizing program and sells for $74.78, ChessBase GmbH (2016). This is a very flexible program, which fits solidly into Sight Reading, Improvisation, and Composition. Following is a list of the basic features: • Provides melodic input only, via keyboard and mouse or MIDI input • Imports MIDI files, detects the melody track and analyzes the chords • Melodies are then auto harmonized by the program, based on student style choices, very si milar to Band in a Box (see Fig. 3.273 ) • Provides a wide selection of styles from which to choose (see Fig.3.274 ) • Can input lyrics and print lead sheets, entire band arrangements, or extract parts • Can enter a leadsheet with melody and chords, and t he program can make an ensemble or big band arrangement of the chart • Can auto generate melodies based on student parameters, for infinite sight reading practice possibilities (see Fig. 3.275 ) • Can mute the melody of any song, loop it, change the keys, etc., for students to practice improvisation over Ð these can be standards, or progressions auto generating by the program (see Fig. 3.276 ) • Features a four or five part choral arrang ement feature, which allows students to enter a melody and have the program auto generate the other three parts using correct choral harmonization rules and techniques (see Fig 3.277 ) • Provides a mixer for export of MP3 or WAV files • Saves as MIDI files, and MusicXML for use in other notation programs

PAGE 302

! ! &+% ! Figur e 3.273 : Ludwig Main Window Screen Shot

PAGE 303

! ! &+& ! Figure 3.274 : Ludwig Styles Selection Choices Screen Shot

PAGE 304

! ! &+' ! Figure 3.275 : Ludwig Auto Generating Sight Reading Screen Shot

PAGE 305

! ! &+( ! Figure 3.276 : Ludwig Improvisation Practice Screen Shot

PAGE 306

! ! &+) ! Figure 3.277 : Ludwig Choral Harmonization Choices Screen Shot

PAGE 307

! ! &+* ! MagicScore Guitar MagicScore Guitar, MagicScore Guitar (2015) is a Windows notation program designed especially for guitarists and sells for $39.95, Maestro Music Software (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Provides note entry via MIDI device in real or step time (see Fig. 3.278) , virtual fretboard, virtual keyboard (see Fig. 3.279) , and import s MIDI, MusicXML, gp4, and KAR • Features MIDI Tempo Editor, Piano Roll Editor, Velocity Editor, MIDI Events Editor • Can sync tabs and notes, so a change to one changes the other • Can add lyrics to melody lines to create and print leadsheets (se e Fig. 3.280) • Import and embed, and export MP3 and WAV audio files • Features some dynamics and expression tools Figure 3.278 : MagicScore Guitar Main Window Screen Shot

PAGE 308

! ! &++ ! Figure 3.279 : MagicScore Guitar Virtual Inst. Inputs Screen Shot Figure 3.280 : MagicScore Guitar Lyrics Screen Shot

PAGE 309

! ! &+, ! MagicScore Maestro 8 MagicScore Maestro 8, MagicScore Maestro 8 (2016) is a Windows complete notation program and sells for $59.95, Maestro Music Software (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Provides 12 different note input methods, along with importation of MIDI and MusicXML files • Unlimited number of staves with part extraction and transpositions • Features a wide selection of notes, symbols, chords, modify, expressions, and inter vals (see Fig. 3.281 ) • Exports as PDF, GIF, TIFF, PNG, JPEG, BMP, WMF as well as WAV, MP3, MusicXML, MIDI, and engraver quality printing (see Fig. 3.282 ) • Can easily be used by educators to create worksheets and parts • Can import audio, and features both tempo and sound editors (see Fig 3.283 ) Figure 3.281 : MagicScore Maestro 8 Pallets Screen Shot

PAGE 310

! ! &+! Figure 3.282 : MagicScore Maestro 8 Lyrics and Image Export Screen Shot Figure 3.283 : MagicScore Maestro 8 Temp & Sound Editors Screen Shot

PAGE 311

! ! &,. ! MagicScore School MagicScore School, MagicScore School (2016) is a Windows notation program and is a "lighter" version of MagicScore Maestro 8 specifically designed for students and sells for $19.95, Maestro Music Software (2016). The company also offer s educational discounts and asks that they be contacted directly to negotiate those prices. Following is a list of the basic features: • Provides note entry via real or step time MIDI, virtual keyboard, and MIDI and MusicXML files • Does not provide all the MIDI editing tools found in the Maestro version • Exports to web, audio , or image file (see Fig.3.284 ) • Jazz swing playback feature, along with jazz notation font • Simple copy, cut , and paste features • In general, a simpl ified version of Maestro 8 Figure 3.284 : Magic Score School Export Screen Shot

PAGE 312

! ! &,% ! Mozart 13 Mozart 13, Mozart 13 (2016) is a Windows complete notation program and sells for $155.00, Mozart Music Software (2016). A site license is also available for $799.00 , for all the computers in a school. A free reader program for Windows, Mozart Reader is also available for download. Following is a list of the basic features: • Provides note entry via computer keyboard, virtual piano keyboard or MIDI instrument, real or step time, and can import MIDI, NIFF , and MusicXML files • Features a large array of notes, tempo marking, expressions, dynamic markings, string bowing markings, pedal marks for piano, chord symbols, and clefs (see Fig. 3.285 ) • Input of a bove organized in tabs (see Fig. 3.286 ) • Implements instrument transpositions and part extraction • Has a maximum of 64 staves for the score • Features drum notation and guitar tablature • Provides TrueType musical symbols font for professional qualit y printing, in Mozart Classic font and Mozart Jazz Font • Supports MIDI assignments for playback on any MIDI device • MIDI volumes associated with dynamic markings are configurable • Flexible score formats

PAGE 313

! ! &,& ! Figure 3.285 : Mozart 13 Main Screen Shot

PAGE 314

! ! &,' ! Figure 3.286 : Mozart 13 Tabs Screen Shots

PAGE 315

! ! &,( ! MuseScore MuseScore, MuseScore (2016) is a Mac OS / Windows complete notation program that is "open source" , and therefore free, MuseScore BVBA (2016). Reader and playback apps, called MusicScore Songbook are available for iOS, ($1.99), and for Android, (free). This program is often considered as the open source rival to Finale and Sibelius . Following is a lis t of the basic features: • Provides note entry via computer keyboard, or MIDI input, step time only Ð no real time input available • Features a "Start Center" at start up, allowing students to choose a template for a new project, or open a pre vious project (see Fig. 3.287 ) • Imports MIDI, MusicXML, Capella, Overture , and Guitar Pro files • Provides palettes for a large variety of notations, including articulations and ornaments, bends, brackets, clefs, drum notation (see Fig. 3.288 ), gra ce notes, hairpins, tablature, (see Fig. 3.289 ), time signatures, and more • Exports files as PDF, PNG, SVG, WAV, FLAC, Ogg Vorbis, MP3, MusicXML , and MIDI, as well as full printing features • Extensive MIDI playback support • Provides text, l yrics, figured bass, chord symbols, rehearsal marks , and fingering, (see Fig 3.290 ) • Features layout customization for scores • Features instrument transposition and part extraction • Many, many other features Ð this is very similar to Finale or S ibelius

PAGE 316

! ! &,) ! Figure 3.287 : MuseScore Start Center Screen Shots

PAGE 317

! ! &,* ! Figure 3.288 : MuseScore Drum Notation Sample Figure 3.289 : MuseScore Tablature Sample Figure 3.290 : MuseScore Fingers Palette

PAGE 318

! ! &,+ ! MusicWorks MusicWorks, MusicWorks (2016), is a Windows notation program that is in Beta version, and therefore is currently free, Tierra Media (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Provides note entry via computer keyboard and mouse, MIDI instrument step or re al time , and importation of MIDI files • Features a wide range of MIDI playback and recording options (see Fig. 3.291 ) • Unlimited number of staves • Large selection of notation palettes (see Fig. 3.292 ) • Customizable score layouts and printing o ptions, including notes in color (see Fig. 3.293 ) • Does not have instrument transposition, but via the print dialogue, part extraction can be achieved • Provides guitar tabs, chords, drum notation , and lyrics • Many other features not well do cumented on their website

PAGE 319

! ! &,, ! Figure 3.291 : MusicWorks MIDI and Input Windows Screen Shots

PAGE 320

! ! &,! Figure 3.292 : MusicWorks Main Window Screen Shot Figure 3.293 : MusicWorks Color Options Screen Shot

PAGE 321

! ! &-. ! MusicTime Deluxe MusicTime Deluxe, MusicTime Deluxe (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows basic notation program that sells for $69.99 education price, regularly $84.99, Passport Music Software, LLC (2016). A 5 seat Lab Pack is also available for $265.59, and a site license for 10 or more seats is $48.99 for each seat. This is a "lighter" version of Encore . Following is a list of the basic features: • Features MIDI and Master Tracks Pro import and export • Directly transcribes live input from MIDI instruments and MIDI software in real time • C omplete scoring features, with notes and rests down to 128 th 's, large collection of articulations and marks, multiple verse lyrics and text, guitar tablature , and a full compliment of guitar markings, lead sheet style chord charts, expressions ma rkings, a variety of tools such as slurs, trills, 8va sections, and many more (see Figs. 3.294 and 3.295 ) • 16 staves maximum (one of the biggest differences between this and Encore ) • Print out scores as they look on the page • Transposition only diatonically or by key signature Ð no instrumentation transpositions • Completely assignable MIDI channels and instruments for each part, up to eight per staff • Plays back MIDI interpretations of dynamics, hairpins, repeats, endings , and articulations

PAGE 322

! ! &-% ! Figure 3.294 : MusicTime Deluxe Mac OS Screen Shot Figure 3.295 : MusicTime Deluxe Windows Screen Shot

PAGE 323

! ! &-& ! Musink Pro MusicPro, Musink Pro (2016), is a Windows basic notation program that sells for $60.00, Musink Limited (2016). Musink L ite is the "lighter" free version, and its description follows this. Following is a list of the basic features: •Features a useful "New Project" window at start up (see Fig. 3.296 ) • Features note entry via keyboard and mouse, MIDI device step or real time, and MIDI file importation • Features a large selection of MIDI commands, including imbedding MIDI volume changes on the score t hat will not print (see Fig. 3.297 ) • Emphasis on extensive drum notation tools (program written by a percussi onist!) • Normal set of marking and notation options (see Fig. 3.298 ) • Template set with customizable and savable templates • Publish to PDF, PNG , or XPS for professional quality printing of scores Figure 3.296 : Musink Pro New Project Window

PAGE 324

! ! &-' ! Figure 3.297 : Musink Pro MIDI Options Windows

PAGE 325

! ! &-( ! Figure 3.298 : Musink Pro Markings Examples Screen Shot

PAGE 326

! ! &-) ! Musink Lite Music Lite, Musink Lite (2016), is a Windows, very basic notation program and is free, Musink Limited (2016). Musink Lite is the "lighter" version of Musink Pro . Same features as Musink Pro (see Fig. 3.299 ), but does NOT include: • Importing MIDI files • Recording in real or step time from a MIDI device • Integrated MIDI commands • Template editor and exporting • Advanced publishing options Figure 3.299 : Musink Lite Main Window Screen Shot

PAGE 327

! ! &-* ! Notation Composer Notation Composer, Notation Composer (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows basic notation program that sells for $98.99, Notation Software Germany ( 2016). Discounts are available for multiple licenses. Notation Musician is the "lighter" version, and its description follows this. Also available is the Notation Player 3 , which is a free download, and merely plays the files. Following is a list of the basic features: • Note entry via mouse and computer keyboard , and MIDI device step and real time (see Fig. 3.300 ) • Imports MIDI files and transcribes them, including detection of swing rhythms, grace notes , trills , and tremolos, autom atically analyzing and displaying chord names •Features a "New Song Wizard" when starting from scratch (see Fig. 3.301 ) • Outputs a variety of formats, such as lead sheet, piano/vocal, part extraction • Features a variety of notations, including ornamen ts, accents, articulations, dynamics, crescendos, slurs, pedal marks, clefs, free text anywhere in the score, lyrics, repeats, and endings • Customizable formatting for entire score and individual parts • Full editing capabilities of imported M IDI files • Provides a large selection of MIDI controls for playback, including "piano roll" window (see Fig. 3.302 ), velocity controls, quantization, ornament performance editing, and graphic editing of song temp, volume, pan, pedal, pitch bend , and any other MIDI controller data (see Fig. 3.303 ) • Exports WAV, MIDI , and MusicXML files • Print dialogue allows printing of conductor's score, a single part, or any combination of

PAGE 328

! ! &-+ ! individual parts Figure 3.300 : Notation Composer 3 Real Time MIDI Recording Controls Figure 3.301 : Notation Composer 3 "New Song Wizard" Screen Shot

PAGE 329

! ! &-, ! Figure 3.302 : Notation Composer 3 MIDI Piano Roll View for Editing Figure 3.303 : Notation Composer 3 MIDI Graphic Editing Screen Shot

PAGE 330

! ! &-! Notation Musician Notation Musician, Notation Musician (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows MIDI file to notation program that sells for $59.99, Notation Software Germany (2016). Discounts are available for multiple licenses. This is the "lighter" version of Notation C omposer. Also available is the Notation Player 3 , which is a free download, and merely plays the files. Following is a list of the basic features: • Note entry is not possible with this version • Imports MIDI files and transcribes them, includi ng detection of swing rhythms, grace notes , trills , and tremolos, automatically analyzing and displaying chord names (see Fig. 3.304 ) • Outputs a variety of formats, such as lead sheet, piano/vocal, part extraction • Features a variety of notat ions, including ornaments, accents, articulations, dynamics, crescendos, slurs, pedal marks, clefs, free text anywhere in the score, lyrics, repeats, and endings, but does NOT allowing editing of any of these • Exports MIDI and Karaoke files onl y • Print dialogue allows printing of conductor's score, a single part, or any combination of individual parts • This program's primary function is to notate MIDI files with great accuracy, and not to edit the notation or MIDI playback • Not i ntended as a stand alone notation program, as note entry is not possible

PAGE 331

! ! '.. ! Figure 3.304 : Notation Musician Transcription Options Screen Shot

PAGE 332

! ! '.% ! Notation Pad Notation Pad, Notation Pad (2016), is an iOS/ Android basic notation app that is free, Zhang Song (2016). In app purchases are for adding instrument playback sounds, with the entire extras package selling for $9.99. Following is a list of the basic features: • Has the ability to read, compose, edit, and playback scores up to 8 staves (see Fig. 3.305 ) • Easy note entry (see Fig. 3.306 ) • Features a variety of note types, down to 128 th notes • Provides chords, a variety of key and time signatures, adjustable tempos, ties, slurs, many types of ornaments, and a wide range of dynamics • P layback supports over 100 instruments, which can be purchased in app, and features adjustable playback levels for each track (see Fig. 3.307 ) • Exports files as MusicXML. MIDI, PDF, PNG Figure 3.305 : Notation Pad Main Screen Shot

PAGE 333

! ! '.& ! Figure 3.306 : Notation Pad Note Entry Screen Shot

PAGE 334

! ! '.' ! Figure 3.307 : Notation Pad Playback Levels Screen Shot

PAGE 335

! ! '.( ! Noteflight Premium / Noteflight Learn / Noteflight Basic Noteflight Premium, Noteflight Premium (2016), is an online notation program that works in any browser on any computer , and costs $49.00 annually for a single subscription, Noteflight LLC (2016). Noteflight Learn , Noteflight Learn (2016) is the same as Noteflight Premium , specifically designed for ed ucation al environments, adding additional tools for teachers, and costs $69.00 annually for a 10 student license, Noteflight LLC (2016). Noteflight Basic, Noteflight Basic (2016) is the free, "stripped down" version, Noteflight LLC (2016). Following is a list of the basic features all versions contain: • Note entry via mouse and computer keyboard, and MIDI device in step time only • Features easy to use palettes for notation entry, text and lyrics (see Fig. 3.308 ) • Can be used on computers, tablets, phone s , and other mobile devices • Import and export MusicXML, MIDI , and WAV files Following is a list of the additional features the Premium version contains: • Create an unlimited number of scores, and listen to them using 85 high quality sampled instr uments • Features advanced options such as color, font choices, adjusting instrument levels with the audio mixing panel (see Fig 3.309 ), printing and transposition by individual instrument part (see Fig 3.310 ), recording live audio in to score, syncing with video (see Fig. 3.311 ), and many more Following is a list of the addition features the Learning version contains: • Can organize students and teachers into classes and groups • Can create a secure CO PPA compliant school community to protect students' privacy • Create lessons using activity templates

PAGE 336

! ! '.) ! • Integrate with Learning Management Systems via the LTI standard • Purchase content libraries for band, choir , and orchestra Figure 3.308 : Noteflight Premium Palettes

PAGE 337

! ! '.* ! Figure 3.309 : Noteflight Premium Audio Mixing Panel

PAGE 338

! ! '.+ ! Figure 3.310 : Noteflight Premium Instrument Transposing and Printing

PAGE 339

! ! '., ! Figure 3.311 : Noteflight Premium Video Syncing Window

PAGE 340

! ! '.! Noteworthy Composer Noteworthy Composer, Noteworthy Composer (2016), is a Windows, basic notation program and sells for $49.00, Noteworthy Software, Inc. (2016). Noteworthy Composer Viewer is a free program that only allows viewing, playing, and printing of scores created in Noteworthy Composer . Following is a list of the basic features: • Features note entry via mouse and keyboard, virtual piano keyboard, or MIDI device in step or real time • Has a bas ic set of notation, dynamics, text , and lyric palettes • Features playback through external MIDI devices, highlighting notes as they are played • Features full score printing, or printing of extracted parts • Imports and exports MIDI files • Supports diatonic and key transposition, but not individual instruments • Customizable work window (see Fig. 3.312 ) Figure 3.312 : Noteworthy Composer Main Window

PAGE 341

! ! '%. ! OneTouch Composer OneTouch Composer, OneTouch Composer (2016), is a Windows, basic notation program and sells for $39.95, Maestro Music Software (2016). It is specifically designed for Windows tablets, to be an "on the road", "one touch" app, using many of the same features as MagicScore Mae stro 8, but also functions on Windows laptops and desktops. Following is a list of the basic features: • Features note entry via mouse or touch, virtual piano keyboard , and virtual guitar fretboard • Large music notation sheet for ease of use on tablets • Availability of all functions from the main window in one touch (see Fig. 3.313 ) • Export music as PDF, MIDI, MusicXML , and Karaoke • Can produce full conductor scores (see Fig 3.314 ), add lyrics and text, similar to MagicScore Maestro 8 but in a format designed for a tablet (see Fig. 3.315 ) Figure 3.313 : OneTouch Composer Main Window

PAGE 342

! ! '%% ! Figure 3.314 : OneTouch Composer Conductor's Score Figure 3.315 : OneTouch Composer Guitar Fretboard

PAGE 343

! ! '%& ! Overture 5 Overture 5, Overture 5 (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows, advanced notation / MIDI sequencing program and sells for $149.00 for the academic price, normally $249.00, Sonic Scores (2016). It is also available in an educational site license for $80.00 per seat for 5 to 29 seats. Following is a list of the basic features: • Features a "Single Window" interface, so all palettes are visible on the main screen (see Fig. 3.316 ) • Provides a full professional selection of notation palettes • Provides 128 staves, with 8 voices per stave • Note entry via mouse and keyboard, or MIDI device, real or step time • Features a linear view that displays notation and piano roll MIDI data in sync in the same window (see Fig. 3.317 ) • Provides support for touch interface (s ee Fig. 3.318 ) • Features advanced MIDI editing capabilities (see Figs . 3.319 and 3.320 ) • Provides support for 64 Bit VST 3 instruments for third party instrument samples • Features an audio/MIDI mixer that for each staff has volume, pan, 4 VST insert slots and 4 sends, solo and mute buttons (see Fig. 3.321 ) • Imports and exports MusicXML, MIDI , and a variety of graphic image formats • Unfortunately, their website does not provide a user's manual or detailed features descriptions, which is w hy this summary is rather vague

PAGE 344

! ! '%' ! Figure 3.316 : Overture 5 Main Screen Figure 3.317 : Overture 5 Linear View with MIDI

PAGE 345

! ! '%( ! Figure 3.318 : Overture 5 Touch Screen Enabled Figure 3.319 : Overture 5 Advanced MIDI Editing Capabilities 1

PAGE 346

! ! '%) ! Figure 3.320 : Overture 5 Advanced MIDI Editing Capabilities 2 Figure 3.321 : Overture 5 MIDI / Audio Mixer

PAGE 347

! ! '%* ! PreSonus Notion 5 PreSonus Notion 5, PreSonus Notion 5 (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows, advanced notation / MIDI sequencing program and sells for $74.95, Pre Sonus Audio Electronics, Inc. (2016). It is also available in a "lighter" form for iOS, called PreSonus Notion for iOS , which sells for $14.99 , and will be summarized following this. Following is a list of the basic features: • Note entry via mouse an d keyboard, virtual piano keyboard, virtual fretboard, virtual drumpad (see Fig. 3.322 ), and MIDI device in step or real time • Provides a professional range of notation palettes, including dynamics, chords, tablature (see Fig. 3.323 ), articula tions , and ornaments • Provides unlimited number of staves • Imports MIDI and MusicXML files • Files can be shared, edited , and synced across platforms , and to iPad / iPhone • Imports video in a variety of formats and syncs for seamless scoring project s • Playback sounds include samples from the London Symphony Orchestra, Neil Zaza, Victor Wooten , and Roy "Futureman" Wooten • Import audio and mix with the score • Can process audio using the built in software mixer (see Fig. 3.324 ), and features reverb, guitar amp simulator, EQ (see Fig.3 .325 ), compressor and limiter, so it has many DAW features as well • Can export as MIDI, MusicXML, WAV, and also export directly to PreSonus Studio 1 • Print conductor's scores or extract instrument parts in the correct key • This is a full featured program and truly a high bred between notation and sequencing

PAGE 348

! ! '%+ ! Figure 3.322 : Presonus Notion 5 Virtual Drumpad Entry Figure 3.323 : Presonus Notion 5 Virtual Fretboard and Tablature Entry

PAGE 349

! ! '%, ! Figure 3.32 4 : Presonus Notion 5 Mixer Figure 3.325 : Presonus Notion 5 EQ Mixer Insert

PAGE 350

! ! '%! PreSonus Notion for iOS PreSonus Notion for iOS, PreSonus Notion for iOS (2016), is an iOS advanced notation / MIDI sequencing companion app to PreSonus Notion 5 , and sells fo r $14.99, PreSonus Audio Electronic, Inc. (2016). It is a slightly "lighter" version of Notion 5, and many in app purchases are possible. Following is a list of the basic features: • The features of this app are nearly identical to PreSonus Notion 5, w ithout the DAW type features (see Fig. 3.326 ) • Features the same note entry functions, but for an in app purchase of $7.99, the "Handwriting" option can be added (see Fig. 3.327 ) • Features Bluetooth MIDI device real and step time entry • Adding the "All Sounds" bundle will give this version the same instrument samples as Notion 5, and is an in app purchase of $29.99 • Features a mixer for playback (see Fig. 3.328 ) • Can sync files between the iPad and any Mac or Windows computer via DropBox, iCloud, or iTunes sharing, so you are always working with the most current version • Imports .notion, MIDI, MusicXML , and Guitar Pro files • Exports / emails, notion, PDF, MusicXML, WAV, AAC , and MIDI files • Can print to AirPrint enabled printers

PAGE 351

! ! '&. ! Figure 3.326 : Notion for iOS Input Methods L ike Notion 5

PAGE 352

! ! '&% ! Figure 3.327 : Notion for iOS Handwriting Input Figure 3.328 : Notion for iOS Playback Mixer

PAGE 353

! ! '&& ! PreSonus Progression 3 PreSonus Progression 3, PreSonus Progression 3 (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows, notation / MIDI sequencing program and sells for $49.95, PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc. (2016). This is a "lighter" version of PreSonus Notion 5 , and is designed specifically for guitarists and drumm ers. It is also available in an even lighter form for iOS, called PreSonus Progression for iOS , which sells for $4.99 , and will be summarized following this. Following is a list of the basic features and differences from Notion 5 : • Note entry via mou se and keyboard, virtual piano keyboard, virtual fretboard (that can switch from 6 string to bass), virtual drumpad (see Fig. 3.329 ), and MIDI device in step or real time • Provides a wide range of notation palettes, including dynamics, chords, tablature, articulations , and ornaments • Provides unlimited number of staves • Imports MIDI and MusicXML files • Files can be shared, edited , and synced across platforms , and to iPad / iPhone • Does NOT support video or audio importing • Playba ck sounds do NOT include Notion 5 sample library, but do support third party VST plugins and external MIDI devices • Can process audio using the built in software mixer , and features reverb, guitar amp simulator, EQ, compressor , and limiter • P rovides graphic MIDI editing (see Fig. 3.330 ) • Can export as MIDI, MusicXML, WAV • Print conductor's scores or print separate instrument parts

PAGE 354

! ! '&' ! Figure 3.329 : Progression 3 Virtual Instruments Input Figure 3.330 : Progression 3 MIDI Editing

PAGE 355

! ! '&( ! PreSonus Progression for iPad PreSonus Progression for iPad, PreSonus Progression for iPad (2016), is an iPad only notation / MIDI sequencing app and sells for $4.99, PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc. (2016). This is a companion version of PreSon us Progression 3 , and is designed specifically for guitarists and drummers. In app purchases are available for better instrument playback sounds, but only guitar sets, for $0.99 each. Following is a list of the basic features and differences from Progres sion 3 : • Note entry via touch, virtual piano keyboard, virtual fretboard (that can switch from 6 string to bass) (see Fig. 3.331 ), virtual drumpad , and Bluetooth MIDI device in step time only • Provides basic notation choices, with enhanced guitar notation options • Imports MIDI and MusicXML files • Files can be shared, edited , and synced across platforms , and to iPad • Playback sounds, (other than acoustic guitar and bass guitar) must be purchased in app (see Fig. 3.332 ) • Provides a mixer for playback (see Fig. 3.333 ) • Can export as MIDI, MusicXML, WAV , or .notion • Print conductor's scores or print separate instrument parts

PAGE 356

! ! '&) ! Figure 3.331 : PreSonus Progression for iPad Fretboard Entry

PAGE 357

! ! '&* ! Figure 3.332 : PreSonus Progression for iPad In app Instruments Figure 3.333 : PreSonus Progression for iPad Mixer

PAGE 358

! ! '&+ ! QuickScore Elite QuickScore Elite, QuickScore Elite (2016), is a Windows, notation / MIDI sequencing / DAW program and sells for $179.95, Sion Software (2016). This program is a blending of notation, sequencing , and digital audio workstation. Following is a list of the basic features: • Note entry via mouse and keyboard, virtual piano keyboard, MIDI device in step or real time entry, audio (mon o AND polyphonic) to MIDI, or importing MIDI, MusicXML, NIFF , or Guido files (see Fig. 3.334 ) • Features up to 48 staves, 7 sets of lyrics per stave, drum notation, adjustable staves and spacings, tablature (see Fig. 3.335 ), auto accompaniment g eneration, auto chord generation • Complete set of musical symbols (see Fig. 3.336 ), including groupings, fingerings, articulations, slurs, repeats, crescendos, decrescendos, dynamics, line, circle and box drawing • Exports TIFF, BMP, EMF, EPS, MP3 , and WAV files • Mixes up to 96 audio input and output channels at up to 192kHz sampling rate, with automation, VSTi instrument, and many other standard DAW features (see Fig. 3.337 ) • Synchronizes with digital movies for film scoring • Us es DirectX or ASIO audio drivers • MIDI features include up to 48 tracks, and editing windows that include Score, Piano Roll (see Fig. 3.338 ), Controller, Audio, Event List, Song, Track Sheet, MIDI Mixer, Audio Mixer (see Fig. 3.339 ), and comme nts • Well integrated blending of notation, sequencing , and DAW features

PAGE 359

! ! '&, ! Figure 3.334 : QuickScore Elite Main Window Figure 3.335 : QuickScore Elite Tablature Entry Window

PAGE 360

! ! '&! Figure 3.336 : QuickScore Elite Symbols Pop out Palettes Figure 3.337 : QuickScore Elite Main Window

PAGE 361

! ! ''. ! Figure 3.338 : QuickScore Elite Piano Roll MIDI Editing Window Figure 3.339 : QuickScore Elite Main Window

PAGE 362

! ! ''% ! ScoreCloud Pro / ScoreCloud Plus / ScoreCloud Free ScoreCloud Pro, ScoreCloud Pro (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows basic notation program and sells for $139.00 for an annual subscription, DoReMIR Music Research AB (2016). ScoreCloud Plus , ScoreCloud Plus (2016) is a "light er" version, and sells for an annual subscription of $49.00. ScoreCloud Free , ScoreCloud Free (2016), is a very light version for Mac OS / Windows, and is free. There is also a companion iOS app, ScoreCloud Express which will be discussed following this. Following is a list of the basic features all versions contain: • Note entry primarily through a connected microphone via Audio to MIDI feature, which is the main feature of this program (see Fig. 3.340 ) • Note entry also possible through MIDI, re al and step time, and mouse and keyboard manual entry • Automatically detects and analyzes chords and repeats • Intuitive editing capabilities (see Fig. 3.341 ) • Can easily sync files across all devices Following is a list of the basic features t he Plus and Pro versions contain: • Unlimited songs saved in the cloud • Printing to printer or export to PDF • Import and export MIDI files Following is a list of the basic features only contained in the Pro version: • Export to MusicXML • Batch MID I analysis •Saving songs to local file system (not allowed on other versions)

PAGE 363

! ! ''& ! Figure 3.340 : ScoreCloud Pro Audio to MIDI Recording Screen Shots

PAGE 364

! ! ''' ! Figure 3.341 : ScoreCloud Pro Editing Example Screen Shot

PAGE 365

! ! ''( ! ScoreCloud Express ScoreCloud Express, ScoreCloud Express (2016), is an iOS basic notation program and sells for $2.99 for the basic app, and $23.88 for an annual subscription, DoReMIR Music Research AB (2016). This is a companion product for ScoreCloud Pro and Plus , and has similar functions to the Plus version with the annual subscription. Following is a list of the basic features: • Monophonic only note entry through the built in microphone via Audio to MIDI feature, which is the main feature of this program (see Fig. 3.342 ) • Monop honic note entry also possible via manual entry • Basic editing capabilities (see Fig. 3.343 ) • Can easily sync files across all devices • Unlimited songs saved in the cloud (with annual subscription) • Does not allow printing • In summary, this app is designed to allow students to sing or play a monophonic melody, have it transcribed automatically, edit any mistakes, save it to the cloud, and then edit it further with one of the desktop versions, such as ScoreCloud Plus or ScoreCloud P ro

PAGE 366

! ! '') ! Figure 3.342 : ScoreCloud Express Audio to MIDI Recording Screen Shot Figure 3.343 : ScoreCloud Express Editing Window Screen Shot

PAGE 367

! ! ''* ! ScoreWriter ScoreWriter, ScoreWriter (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows, basic notation / MIDI sequencing program and sells for $45.00 for the academic price, normally $69.00, Sonic Scores (2016). It is also available in an educational site license for $40.00 per seat for 5 to 29 seat s. This is the "lighter" version of Overture 5 . Following is a list of the basic features: • Features a "Single Window" interface, so all palettes are visible on the main screen (see Fig. 3.344 ) • Provides a basic selection of notation palettes • Provides 16 staves, with 4 voices per stave • Note entry via mouse and keyboard, or MIDI device, real or step time • Provides support for touch interface (see Fig. 3.345 ) • Features basic MIDI editing capabilities • Features an audio/MIDI mixer tha t for each staff has volume, pan, 4 VST insert slots and 4 sends, solo and mute buttons (see Fig. 3.346 ) • Imports and exports MusicXML and MIDI files • Unfortunately, their website does not provide a user's manual or detailed features descriptions, which is why this summary is rather vague

PAGE 368

! ! ''+ ! Figure 3.344 : ScoreWriter Single Window Screen Shot Figure 3.345 : ScoreWriter Touch Feature Screen Shot

PAGE 369

! ! '', ! Figure 3.346 : ScoreWriter MIDI Mixer Screen Shot

PAGE 370

! ! ''! Sheet Music Scanner Sheet Music Sc anner, Sheet Music Scanner (2016), is an iOS music scanning and playback app and sells for $3.99, Xemsoft Ltd.(2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Scans a single sheet of music, or analyzes a PDF or graphic image of notation from the image library , and plays it back (see Fig. 3.347 ) • Allows students to choose starting bar, pitch standard, and tempo between 50bpm and 230bpm • Supports multiple voices, e.g. both piano hands • Provides the following instrument choices: Acoustic B ass, Bagpipes, Banjo, Bass Guitar, Cello, Choir, Clarinet, Double Bass, Flute, Guitar Classical, Clean, Distortion, Mandolin, Organ, Rock Organ, Piano, Recorder, Tenor Sax, Trombone, Trumpet, Tuba, Viola, Violin • Supports all standard no tation symbols • Recogn izes tied notes, so it does not replay them • Export to MIDI via iCloud, DropBox, Google Drive, One Drive

PAGE 371

! ! '(. ! Figure 3.347 : Sheet Music Scanner Scan Example

PAGE 372

! ! '(% ! Sibelius Sibelius, Sibelius (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows, premier, advanced notation program and sells for $299.00 for a perpetual license at the academic price, Avid Technologies, Inc. (2016). Educational institutions may also opt for the annual subscription of $99.00 wit hout purchasing. It is also available with the "Ultimate Bundle" which includes PhotoScore, NotateMe Ultimate , and AudioScore Ultimate, which sells for $599.00. Sibelius is considered one of the industry standard notation programs, rivaling Finale . Following is a list of the basic features: • Note entry via mouse and keyboard, virtual piano keyboard (see Fig. 3.348 ), virtual guitar fretboard, MIDI device in step or real time, import MIDI and MusicXML files • "Ultimate Bundle" provides ot her input options, PhotoScore via scanning, NotateMe via iOS or Android device handwriting app, and AudioScore Ultimate (see Fig. 3.349 ) which allows audio to MIDI recording and transcription • Provides an exhaustive and professional supply of n otation palettes, most of which are customizable as well (see Figs . 3.350 and 3.351 ) • Scores and parts of any size or complexity Ð as many staves as you need • Transposition by instrument, key signature or diatonically • Extensive MIDI editing cap abilities and MIDI Mixer (see Fig. 3.352 ) • Playback through "Sibelius Sounds", a full range of professional quality instruments • Supports video for scoring • Features an unrivaled set of publishing / printing options • Features extensive export optio ns (see Fig. 3.353 ), including Avid's Scorch , audio recording export, email as .sib or .pdf, SVG, EPS, PNG, JPG, BMP, TIFF, GIF, PDF,

PAGE 373

! ! '(& ! MIDI, MusicXML, share directly with ProTools , share to YouTube , Facebook , or Soundcloud , and export as a v ideo file • As with Finale , there really is not much you can not do with Sibelius Figure 3.348 : Sibelius Virtual Keyboard Note Entry Screen Shot Figure 3.349 : Sibelius AudioScore Note Entry Screen Shot

PAGE 374

! ! '(' ! Figure 3.350 : Sibelius Notation Palettes

PAGE 375

! ! '(( ! Figure 3.351 : Sibelius Features Screen Shot Figure 3.352 : Sibelius MIDI Mixer

PAGE 376

! ! '() ! Figure 3.353 : Sibelius Sharing Options

PAGE 377

! ! '(* ! Sibelius First Sibelius First, Sibelius First(2016), is a Mac OS / Windows basic notation program and sells for $119.95 for a perp etual license at the academic price, Avid Technologies, Inc. (2016). This is the "lighter" version of Sibelius . No screen shots will be included, as the layout and look is the same as Sibelius , it just has much fewer features. Following is a list of the basic features and differences from Sibelius : • Note entry via mouse and keyboard, virtual piano keyboard, virtual guitar fretboard, MIDI device in step or real time, import MIDI and MusicXML files • Provides a limited and basic supply of notatio n palettes • Scores and parts of standard and non customizable sizes Ð 16 staves maximum • Transposition by key signature or diatonically only • Basic MIDI editing capabilities and MIDI Mixer • Playback through "Sibelius First Sounds", a set of basic i nstrument sounds • Supports video for scoring • Features basic publishing / printing options • Export options limited to Avid's Scorch , audio recording export, email.pdf, MIDI, MusicXML, share directly with ProTools , share to YouTube , Facebook or Soundcloud , and export as a video file • In summary, this version takes out much of the customization that Sibelius offers, and this is therefore a much more basic notation program, however maintaining many of the main features of Sibelius

PAGE 378

! ! '(+ ! SmartScore X2, MIDI, Guitar, Piano, Songbook , and Pro Editions SmartScore X2 is a Mac OS / Windows program that sells for between $49.95 and $399.95, depending on the edition, Musitek Corporation (2016). It is a scanning and notation program. Following is a list of the basic features of each edition: MIDI Edition , $49.95, Smart Score X2 MIDI Edition (2016), (see Fig. 3.354 ) • Can scan multiple pages of printed sheet music or processes any PDF file , and it reconstructs on screen in seconds, ready for playback and clean up • View and edit MIDI data in both notation & fami liar Piano Roll, Overview , and Event L ist format • Export MIDI files to other programs • Outputs only to MIDI file format (Type 1 or Type 0) • No printing or MusicXML output; no text, lyric, TAB , or percussion recognition Fig ure 3.354 : SmartScore X2 MIDI Edition Screen Shot

PAGE 379

! ! '(, ! Guitar Edition, $79.95, SmartScore X2 Guitar Edition (2016), (see Fig. 3.355 ) • Can scan multiple pages of guitar sheet music, TAB , or notation, and it reconstructs on screen in seconds, rea dy for playback and clean up • Converts TAB to notation , and notation to TAB • ! Can change playback properties of tempo, dynamic and articulation markings, legatos, trills , and other symbols • Can print, export to Finale , MIDI, XML, or record audio to CD • Only 1 staff, no text or lyrics Figure 3.355 : SmartScore X2 Guitar Edition Screen Shot

PAGE 380

! ! '(! Piano Edition , $79.95, SmartScore X2 Piano Edition (2016), ( see Fig. 3.356 ) • Captures nearly all nuances including articulations, dynamics, tempo, key , and time changes • Can separate contrapuntal parts, (e.g. SATB) • Can transpose, print, and output MIDI, XML , and burn audio to CD • Only 2 staves, no text, lyrics, TAB , or percussion Figure 3.356 : SmartScore X2 Piano Edition Screen Shot

PAGE 381

! ! '). ! Songbook Edition , $199.95, SmartScore X2 Songboo k Edition (2016), (see Fig. 3.357 ) • Can scan printed sheet music or process PDF files. • Can transpose entire score or individuals parts • Reads text, lyrics, tabs , and percussion • Can print or ex port to MIDI, XML, Finale, or burn audio to CD • Identical to Pro Edition, except only 3 staves allowed, typical Piano / Vocal Score format Figure 3.357 : SmartScore X2 Piano Edition Screen Shot

PAGE 382

! ! ')% ! Pro Edition , $399.95, SmartScore X2 Pro Edition (2016), (see Fig. 3.358 ) • Contains everything featured in all other editions, with unlimited staves Figure 3.358 : SmartScore X2 Pro Edition Screen Shot

PAGE 383

! ! ')& ! Figure 3.359 below is a side by side feature and price comparison of all five of the SmartScore X2 editions, Musitek Corporation (2016). Figure 3.359 : SmartScore X2 Comparison Chart

PAGE 384

! ! ')' ! Songworks Songworks, Songworks (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows, basic notation program and sells for $60.00, Ars Nova Software, LLC (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Note entry using the keyboard (see Fig 3.360 ), or fretboard window (see Fig 3.361 ), w ith keyboard and mouse, MIDI step or real time entry, and step time entry with a USB microphone • Supports unlimited staves, but only 16 separate MIDI channels, utilize the computers' built in General MIDI sounds • Provides a basic set of nota tion palettes, down to 64 th notes and rests • Extremely flexible formatting choices, from "tiny notes" to "huge notes" • Chord symbols are audible with a variety of playback patterns to choose from, akin to Band in a box • Chords can also be auto g enerated based on a melody, and converted to notation • Provides melodic and harmonic creation to help students' creativity • Provides instrument naming and transpositions, including part extraction • Imports and exports MusicXML and MIDI files • Provi des composition tools, such as tonal transposition, inversion, reverse, reverse inversion, etc. • Files can be swapped between Mac and Windows version

PAGE 385

! ! ')( ! Figure 3.360 : Songworks Keyboard Window Figure 3.361 : Songworks Fretboard Window Screen Shot

PAGE 386

! ! ') ) ! Staff Sketch Pad Staff Sketch Pad, Staff Sketch Pad (2016), is an iOS handwritten notation app that requires the iPad and Apple Pencil , and sells for $2.99, Pinpoint Solutions, Inc. (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Allows students to hand write music directly on staff paper with Apple Pencil and erase with their fingertips (s ee Fig. 3.362 ) • Choices include parchment or white paper, and 8 or 12 staves per page • Provides folder organization and multiple page scores • Print or email scores as PDF files • Does NOT convert handwritten notation into MusicXML or MIDI Figure 3.362 : Staff Sketch Pad Parchment Screen Shot

PAGE 387

! ! ')* ! Hex Hex, Hex (2014), is a Mac OS / Windows, multi track MIDI sequencer that facilitates music composition in microtonal tunings and is freeware with a "small" donation requested, Dynamic Tonality (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Utilizes a la ttice roll in place of the traditional piano roll to enable unfamiliar microtonal scales to be intuitively visualized, and their tuning to be dynamically manipulated (see Fig. 3.363 ) • The light buttons/lanes can be thought of as generalized "di atonic" notes, and the dark buttons/lanes as generalized "chromatic" notes • Allows students to draw, edit , and move notes with the mouse, snap notes to beat lines, and use multiple time signatures • Allows looping, unlimited undo/redo, copy, cut, and paste commands • Provides over 200 microtonal tuning presets • Designed to work well with alternative MIDI controllers such as the AXiS 64 by C Thru Music (see Fig. 3.364 )

PAGE 388

! ! ')+ ! 1. The hexagonal lattice represents the available notes, similar to a piano roll. 2. Drag the tuning slider to transform the lattice and change the tuning. 3. Click the tuning value, which displays the precise tuning in cents, to enter any exact value. 4. Double click in the envelope to insert a new node for automat ing changes to the tuning and lattice shear. 5. The sequencer displays the notes of a sequence. Click inside a note lane and drag to the right to create a new note. Click and drag on top of a note to adjust its velocity, or on the right of a note to adjust its length. Figure 3.363 : Hex Main Window Description

PAGE 389

! ! '), ! Figure 3.364 : AXiS 64 MIDI Controller for Hex

PAGE 390

! ! ')! Liquid Music Liquid Music, Liquid Music (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows, multi track MIDI sequencer / song generator that auto generates melodies, harmonies , and beats based on lines drawn and parameters set, Wave DNA Ltd. (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features 5 layers of musical controls, which let then let students merely "draw" shapes for me lodies, harmonies , and rhythms to follow (see Fig. 3.365 ) • "Sketch" layer lets students merely click and draw shapes to control the parameters of the melody and harmonies (see Fig. 3.366 ) • "Key" layer lets students choose the key and the scale including major and minor , and all modes imaginable (see Fig. 3.367 ) • "Chords" layer has two features: "Chord Suggester" which makes recommendations based on your melody, and the "Chord S equencer" can provide chords randomly (see Fig. 3.368 ) • "Voices" layer lets students decide how thick or complicated to make the melodies and chords (see Fig. 3.369 ) • "Rhythm" layer is a essentially a drum machine, based on their rhythm softw are, Liquid Rhythm , and allows students to create unique, elaborate beats with full customization (see Fig. 3.370 ) • Great tool for quick music production

PAGE 391

! ! '*. ! Figure 3.365 : Liquid Music Sketch Line Figure 3.366 : Liquid Music Sketch Presets

PAGE 392

! ! '*% ! Fi gure 3.367 : Liquid Music Key Window Figure 3.368 : Liquid Music Chords Window

PAGE 393

! ! '*& ! Figure 3.369 : Liquid Music Sketch Line Figure 3.370 : Liquid Music Sketch Line

PAGE 394

! ! '*' ! Master Tracks Pro Master Tracks Pro, Master Tracks Pro (2016), is a Windows, basic multi track MIDI sequencer that sells for $59.99 for the educational price, $69.99 regularly, Wave DNA Ltd. (2016). A 5 seat lab pack for education is also available for $245.99. Following is a list of the bas ic features: • Features 64 tracks maximum with independent track looping (see Fig. 3.371 ) • Use virtually any MIDI synthesizer, and customize with editable Device List • Can assign any controller, (volume, reverb, chorus, pan) to any recordable fader for automated mix down • MIDI entry in step or real time • Multi port support allows for up to 256 MIDI channels • Offers many graphic editing options, along with the standard cut, copy , and paste • Sync to SMPTE via MIDI time code • Supports all SMPTE formats for video and film production • Import and export MIDI files • Edit and print music on a Grand Staff in the Notation Editor

PAGE 395

! ! '*( ! Figure 3.371 : Master Tracks Pro Screen Shot

PAGE 396

! ! '*) ! Sekaiju Sekaiju, Sekaiju (2016), is a Windows MIDI sequencer that is open source and therefore, free, kuzu / openmidiproject (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features track list, piano roll, event list, and musical scorer windows which support multiple track concurrent editing (see Fig. 3.372 ) • Provides support for 16 MIDI in and out ports • Real time MIDI recording with metronome which can be input to multiple tracks • Imports and export MIDI files • SMPTE sync at any rate is possible • All MIDI data is editable, including meta event and system exclusive events • Provides unlimited undo and redo Figure 3.372 : Sekaiju Windows Screen Shot

PAGE 397

! ! '** ! Ableton Live 9 Ableton Live 9, Ableton Live 9 (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows DAW especially geared toward live performance and sells for $499 .00 for the Suite version, education price, $269.00 for the Standard version, education price, and $99.00 for the Intro version (no special education price), Ableton AG (2016). Following is a list of the basic features all versions contain: • Features unique "Session View" for quick, intuitive composition, flexible performance , and improvisation Ð (see Fig. 3.373 ) • Nondestructive editing with unlimited undo • Multitrack recording up to 32 bit / 192 kHz • Powerful MIDI sequencing tools for softw are and hardware instruments • Unlimited instruments, audio effects , and MIDI effects per project • VST and Audio Unit support • Features time signature changes, multiple automation lanes, track freeze, automatic plug in delay compensation (see Fig . 3.374 ) • MIDI remote control instant mapping, out to hardware synths and MIDI Clock / sync • Supports WAV, AIFF, MP3, Ogg Vorbis, and FLAC files • Intro version only: Maximum of 16 audio and MIDI tracks, with maximum 4 audio inputs and outputs, 7 00 sounds, 3 instruments , and 27 effects Following is a list of the basic features found in the Standard and Suite versions: • Unlimited number of audio and MIDI tracks, as well as unlimited scenes • Standard version only: 1100 sounds, 3 instruments , a nd 38 effects • 12 send and return tracks • Maximum 256 audio inputs and outputs

PAGE 398

! ! '*+ ! • Complex warp modes, audio slicing, audio to MIDI, video import and export, Serato Scratch Live integration for DJ features, Groove Pool , and extract groove Following is a list of the basic features found only in the Suite version: • A collection of high quality software instruments, including Analog, Collision, Electric, Operator, Sampler, Tension , and a host of others • Other utilities such as "External Instrument" to integrate external hardware synth into live sets, "Drum Rack" for layering samples, "Impulse" drum sampler, "Simpler" an easy to use sampler, and "Instrument Rack" to combine multiple instruments into a single device • 21 utilities for live performance • 3000+ sounds, 9 instruments , and 41 effects Figure 3.373 : Ableton Live 9 Session View Window

PAGE 399

! ! '*, ! Figure 3.374 : Ableton Live 9 Session View Window

PAGE 400

! ! '*! Acid Pro 7 Acid Pro 7, Acid Pro 7 (2016), is a Windows DAW geared towards loop based music production and sells for $149.95, Sony Creative Software Inc. (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features unlimited number of audio and MIDI tracks • Audio recording up to 2 4 bit, 192 kHz sample rate • Provides recording and mixing, MIDI sequencing and looping functionality • "Pick, paint , and play" concept, providing quick music creation • Supports VST instruments • Audio and MIDI mixing console , and Bus Track Meters (see Fig 3.375 ) • MIDI track freeze (see Fig. 3.376 ), recording and playback, piano roll and event list editing, filtering , and processing (see Fig. 3.377 ), and MIDI file exporting • 5.1 surround film style panning and mixing • ASIO driver support • Comes with Garritan Aria sounds, Pro Effects Rack, and Sonoma Wire Works KitCore Drums • Supports full video capabilities for scoring (see Fig. 3.378 )

PAGE 401

! ! '+. ! Figure 3.375 : Acid Pro 7 Mixing Console Figure 3.376 : Acid Pro 7 MIDI Freeze

PAGE 402

! ! '+% ! Figure 3.377 : Acid Pro 7 MIDI Processing and Filters Figure 3.378 : Acid Pro 7 Screen Shot with Video

PAGE 403

! ! '+& ! Acid Music Studio 10 Acid Pro 7, Acid Pro 7 (2016), is a Windows basic DAW geared towards loop based music production and sells for $59.95, Sony Creative Soft ware Inc. (2016). This is a "lighter" version of Acid Pro 7 . Following is a list of some of the features it has and does not have as compared to Acid Pro 7 : • No support for external control surfaces • It does support unlimited tracks, and recording u p to 24 bit, 192 kHz sample rate • Does not have the "Media Manager" • No input busses, Groove Mapping , or 5.1 mixing • Does not support Rewire, and does not generate MIDI Time Code or clock • Does not come with all the sampled sound libraries • Essentially the same looping and production features as Pro 7 in a stripped down version (see Fig. 3.379) Figure 3.379 : Acid Music Studio 10 Production Tools

PAGE 404

! ! '+' ! Acid Express Acid Express, Acid Express (2016), is a Windows, very basic DAW geared tow ards loop based music production and is free, Sony Creative Software Inc. (2016). This is the "lightest" version of Acid Pro 7 , and might be a good "starter" DAW for students. Following is a list of some of the features it has and does not have as compare d to Acid Pro 7 and Acid Music Studio 10 : • Only 10 tracks maximum (see Fig. 3.380 ) • Recording maximum of 16 bit, 48 kHz sample rate • Video scoring track included • Extremely limited audio and MIDI mixing and processing • No VST support, and does not come with any sample libraries • Can only export files to Acidplanet.com Ð (no CD burning, or WAV of MP3 creation) Figure 3.380 : Acid Express Main Window

PAGE 405

! ! '+( ! Anvil Studio Works / Anvil Studio (free) Anvil Studio Works, Anvil Studio Works (2016), is a Windows, basic DAW more heavily geared toward MIDI than Audio, and sells for $99.00, Willow Software (2016). This includes all the options, and sets it apart from the free version, Anvil Studio . Following is a list of the b asic features: • Unlimited MIDI Tracks • Staff, lyrics, piano roll, percussion, loops (see Fig. 3.381 ), audio , and events editors (see Fig. 3.382 ) • Imports only .MID and WAV files • Note entry via MIDI device, virtual fretboard (see Fig. 3.383 ) , virtual piano keyboard, or note dragging on the staff • Can add standard notation markings, such as dynamics and repeats • ASIO, VST , and VSTi support • Free version only allows 1, 1 minute audio track; Works version allows recording up to 8 tracks simultaneously , and playing back a total of 16 audio tracks (see Fig. 3.384 ) • Provides some basic audio effects • Features auto harmonizing, sing a note step entry, sequencing as MIDI master or slave • Can print sheet music for individual track or conductors' score • In summary, a MIDI sequencer with some limited audio capabilities • Free version is identical, with NONE of the audio features Ð essentially a MIDI sequencer

PAGE 406

! ! '+) ! Figure 3.381 : Anvil Studio Works Loops / Rhythm Window

PAGE 407

! ! '+* ! Fig ure 3.382 : Anvil Studio Works Staff Sheet Edit Window Figure 3.383 : Anvil Studio Works Virtual Fretboard

PAGE 408

! ! '++ ! Figure 3.384 : Anvil Studio Works Audio Window

PAGE 409

! ! '+, ! Ardour Ardour, Ardour (2016), is a Mac OS, advanced DAW which is open source, with a suggested mini mum annual subscription of $12.00, Davis (2016). The annual subscription provides upgrades as they are available, but essentially the program is free. This is perhaps the most powerful open source DAW available. Following is a list of the basic features: • Powerful MIDI sequencing and editing capabilities (see Fig. 3.385 ) • Supports any audio hardware recognized by Core Audio • Unlimited multichannel tracks (see Fig. 3.386 ), unlimited buses, plugins (see Fig. 3.387 ), inserts , and sends (see Fig. 3.388 ) • Tracks can be mono, stereo, or multichannel • Can import WAV, BWF, AIFF, CAF, FLAC files , and others • Features non destructive, non linear editing with unlimited undo/redo • Provides support for scoring by importing video, displaying timeline of thumbnails, and locking the audio and MIDI regions to the video (see Fig . 3.389 ) • Route anything to anywhere with the matrix style patching / routing window • Mixer channel strips provide many features, including automation, mix groups, AU plugins • Exports to WAV, AIFF, CAF, BWF, FLAC, Ogg Vorbis, and others • Supports Multichannel (>2) file exports, with any number of channels • The CPU and audio interface are the only limits • In summary, this is a very powerful DAW, especially con sidering it is open source

PAGE 410

! ! '+! Figure 3.385 : Ardour MIDI Session Window Figure 3.386 : Ardour Multitrack Session Screen Shot

PAGE 411

! ! ',. ! Figure 3.387 : Ardour Plugins Collage

PAGE 412

! ! ',% ! Figure 3.388 : Ardour Mixer Window

PAGE 413

! ! ',& ! Figure 3.389 : Ardour Video for Scoring Screen Shot

PAGE 414

! ! ',' ! Bitwig Studio Bitwig Studio, Bitwig Studio (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows, loop based DAW (similar to Ableton Live) , and sells for $269.99 for the educational price, regularly $299.00, Bitwig GmbH (2016). This software is f ocused on live or in studio clip based music production and DJ ing. Following is a list of the basic features: • Unlimited audio, MIDI, instrument and effects tracks (see Fig. 3.390 ) • Sample rates up to 192 kHz • Features a flexible panel based use r interface (see Fig. 3.391 ) • Features a "Detail Editor", allowing the student to stretch, split, pitch, pam, copy, reverse, add, move , and re arrange audio within a clip (see Fig. 3.392 ) • Provides expressive MIDI support, with per note expression s such as velocity, gain, pan, timbre, and pressure, and Multidimensional Polyphonic Expression which takes advantage of the precise features of the most advanced MIDI controllers (see Fig. 3.393 ) • Features "Device Nesting", where one device can be placed in another, in another, and so on (see Fig. 3.394 ) • Provides VST plug in and hardware support • Can open multiple projects simultaneously, and has support for up to 3 monitors • Features clip and track automation • Provides 28 audio effects devices, 11 instrument devices, 10 container devices, and 14 modulators, generators, note FX and routers to make this a powerhouse out of the box

PAGE 415

! ! ',( ! Figure 3.390 : Bitwig Project Layout Example Scr een Shot Figure 3.391 : Bitwig Panel based User Interface Figure 3.392 : Bitwig Details Editor

PAGE 416

! ! ',) ! Figure 3.393 : Bitwig Expressive MIDI Editing Fig ure 3.394 : Bitwig Device Nesting Example

PAGE 417

! ! ',* ! Cubase Pro 8.5 Cubase Pro 8.5, Cubase Pro 8.5 (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows, professional advanced DAW, and sells for $329.99 education price, regularly $549.99, Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH (2016). This is considered an industry standard program, rivaling programs like ProTools . S teinberg states this version is for, "Professional producers, mixing engineers, composers." It comes in two "lighter" versions, Artist 8.5 , and Elements 8 , which will be discussed following this summary. Following is a list of the basic features: • Pr ovides unlimited audio, instrument , and MIDI tracks, with 256 physical inputs and outputs, 64 VST slots, with 32 bit, 192 kHz Steinberg audio engine with 5.1 surround support (see Fig. 3.395 ) • Mix console features integrated channel strip (see Fig. 3.396 ), full drag and drop support, plugin search function, customizable view sets, sidechain inputs, EBU compliant loudness metering, VCA faders for complex mixing and automation workflows, and 256 group channels (see Fig. 3.397 ) • Control Room feature, which allows creation of monitoring setups and performer mixes • Key and drum editor for note, chord , or beat creation and editing • Professional music notation, score editing , and printing features with over 100 notatio n symbols, making this truly a blending of notation, sequencing , and DAW programs (see Fig. 3.398 ) • Full instrument expression control on a single note level , and intuitive handling of articulations and dynamics, along with a wide range of MIDI editing features (see Fig. 3.399 )

PAGE 418

! ! ',+ ! • Features 73 high end audio effect plugins, 8 virtual instruments, 18 MIDI plugins usable in 4 MIDI plugin insert slots • Full audio editing toolset, real time time stretching and pitch shifting, lanes and comping, dedicated punch points, track edit groups, and "VariAudio 2.0", a MIDI style note editing of monophonic audio tracks and automatic voicing harmonization (see Fig. 3.400 ) • Full video support for film scoring • Many, many more featu res Figure 3.395 : Cubase Pro 8.5 Multitrack Screen Shot

PAGE 419

! ! ',, ! Figure 3.396 : Cubase Pro 8.5 Channel Strip Figure 3.397 : Cubase Pro 8.5 Mixer

PAGE 420

! ! ',! Figure 3.398 : Cubase Pro 8.5 Notation Screen Shot Figure 3.399 : Cubase Pro 8.5 MIDI Editing Screen Shot

PAGE 421

! ! '-. ! Figure 3.400 : Cubase Pro 8.5 VariAudio 2.0 Screen Shot

PAGE 422

! ! '-% ! Cubase Artist 8.5 Cubase Artist 8.5, Cubase Artist 8.5 (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows, advanced DAW, and sells for $179.99 education price, regularly $299.99, Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH (2 016). This is a "lighter" version of Cubase Pro 8.5 , and Steinberg states this version is for, "Seasoned musicians, project studio owners, bands." No screen shots will be provided, as the interface is identical to Cubase Pro 8.5 . Following is a list of t he basic features: • Provides 64 audio, 32 instrument , and 128 MIDI tracks, with 32 physical inputs and outputs, 32 VST slots, with 32 bit, 192 kHz Steinberg audio engine • Mix console features integrated channel strip, full drag and drop s upport, plugin search function, customizable view sets, sidechain inputs, and 32 group channels • Key and drum editor for note, chord , or beat creation and editing • Professional music notation, score editing , and printing features with over 100 notation symbols, making this truly a blending of notation, sequencing and DAW programs • Full instrument expression control on a single note level, along with a wide range of MIDI editing features • Features 53 audio effect plugins, 8 virtu al instruments, 18 MIDI plugins usable in 4 MIDI plugin insert slots • Full audio editing toolset, real time time stretching and pitch shifting, lanes and comping, and dedicated punch points • Full video support for film scoring

PAGE 423

! ! '-& ! Cubase Elements 8 Cubase Elements 8, Cubase Elements 8 (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows DAW, and sells for $66.99 education price, regularly $99.99, Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH (2016). This is the "lightest" version of Cubase Pro 8.5 , and Steinberg states thi s version is for, "Home recordists, bands, singer/songwriters, creative musicians." No screen shots will be provided, as the interface is identical to Cubase Pro 8.5 . Following is a list of the basic features: • Provides 48 audio, 24 instrument and 64 MIDI tracks, with 24 physical inputs and outputs, 16 VST slots, with 32 bit, 192 kHz Steinberg audio engine • Mix console features integrated channel strip, full drag and drop support, plugin search function, customizable view sets, and 16 gr oup channels • Basic key and drum editor for note, chord , or beat creation and editing • Basic music notation, score editing , and printing • Full instrument expression control on a single note level, along with a wide range of MIDI editing fe atures • Features 44 audio effect plugins and 3 virtual instruments • Basic audio editing toolset with real time time stretching and pitch shifting

PAGE 424

! ! '-' ! Digital Performer 9 Digital Performer 9, Digital Performer 9 (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows, professional, advanced DAW, and sells for $499.00, MOTU, Inc. (2016). A 5 seat lab pack is also available for educational institutions, and sells for $1,475.00. Digital Performer is considered a professi onal, industry standard DAW, especially in TV and film scoring arenas, and rivals programs like ProTools and Cubase . Following is a list of the basic features: • Features unlimited audio tracks, MIDI tracks, sequences, songs, V racks , and undo his tory • Features unlimited number of physical inputs / outputs Ð completely hardware dependent • Provides 198 mono busses, 99 stereo busses , and 20 sends per channel • Records audio up to 32 bit, 192 kHz sample rate, and supports up to 10.2 channel formats • Provides plugin support for AU, VST , and MAS • "Consolidated Window" lets students customize the layout, with all editors only a tab away (see Fig. 3.401 ) • "Control Panel" features customizable quick access to all features (see Fig. 3.402 ) • "Chunks" provides quick access to unlimited sequences (see Fig. 3.403 ) • Provides advanced recording and playback features (see Fig. 3.404 ) • Features a wide range of MIDI editing and recording options, including step time entry (see Fig. 3.405 ), piano roll editor (see Fig. 3.406 ), drum editor (see Fig. 3.407 ), and notation editor (see Fig. 3.408 ) • Provides flexible and intuitive take and comping features (see Fig. 3.409 )

PAGE 425

! ! '-( ! • "Sequence Editor" provides an overview of all MIDI, au dio , and instrument tracks (see Fig. 3.410 ) • "Quickscribe notation windows makes this program a completely blending of notation, sequencing , and DAW programs, and provides a variety of notation tools and options to print a variety of score s and individual parts, and export as MusicXML files (see Fig. 3.411 ) • Features a state of the art mixer for MIDI, audio, and instrument tracks, side by side, in channel configurations up to 10.2 surround, with unlimited plugins (see Fig. 3.412 ) • Pitch automation can correct pitches manually or by quantizing, transpose or harmonize a mono line, or convert audio to MIDI data. • Many, many more features Ð this is an amazingly flexible and powerful program Figure 3.401 : Digital Performer 9 Consolidated Window

PAGE 426

! ! '-) ! Figure 3.402 : Digital Performer 9 Control Panel (in sections to fit page)

PAGE 427

! ! '-* ! Figure 3.403 : Digital Performer 9 Chunks Window Examples Figure 3.404 : Digital Performer 9 Recording and Playback Options

PAGE 428

! ! '-+ ! Figure 3.405 : Digital Performer 9 Step Record Window Figure 3.406 : Digital Performer 9 Piano Roll MIDI Editor Figure 3.407 : Digital Performer 9 Drum Editor Figure 3.408: Digital Performer 9 Notation Editor

PAGE 429

! ! '-, ! Figure 3.409 : Digital Performer 9 Take and Comp Example Figure 3.410 : Digital Performer 9 Sequence Editor

PAGE 430

! ! '-! Figure 3.411 : Digital Performer 9 Quickscribe Notation Window and Palettes

PAGE 431

! ! (.. ! Figure 3.412 : Digital Performer 9 Mixer

PAGE 432

! ! (.% ! energyXT energyXT, energyXT (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows, loop based, basic DAW, and sells for $43.36, XT Software (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Features unlimited audio and MIDI tracks for playback (see Fig. 3.413 ) • Audio inputs/outputs are hardware dependent, and can record up to 32 bit, 192 kHz sample rate • Supports VST instruments and effects • Clip based automation of mixer and VST plugin parameters • High quality pitch shifting and time stretching • P rovides some customization of editor windows (see Fig. 3.414 ) • Mixer provides trim, volume, pan, mute, solo , and a 4 band EQ for each track (see Fig. 3.415 ) • Unlimited group channels • Comes with a large selection of loops and instruments • Web site has poor documentation Figure 3.413 : energyXT Main Window

PAGE 433

! ! (.& ! Figure 3.414 : energyXT Drum Editor Figure 3.415 : energyXT Mixer Window

PAGE 434

! ! (.' ! FL Studio 12 FL Studio 12, FL Studio 12 (2016), is a Windows, loop based, clip based DAW, and sells for $737.00 for the All Plugins version, $299.00 for the Signature version, $199.00 for the Producer version, and $99.00 for the Fruity version, Image Line Software (2016). The main f ocus of this program is software instruments, and not multi track recording. The main differences between the versions are the number of plugins each comes with, and will be discussed below. Following is a list of the basic features common to all four ve rsions: • Supports ASIO drivers, audio recording , and editable track length (except Fruity version) • Interface panels are customizable and movable (see Fig. 3.416 ) • Features automation and pattern clips (see Fig. 3.417 ) • Supports MIDI keyboar d s and controller input, SysEx, MMC, and can import and export MIDI files • Features 103 insert / send tracks, 10 effects slots per track, and full inter track audio routing and side chaining • Features a step sequencer, piano roll (see Fig. 3 .418 ), and event editors • Provides Directsound support, 103 external audio inputs and outputs, can export mixer stems, and can render projects to WAV, MP3 , or OGG • Can import a large variety of audio file formats • Supports VST 1, 2 & 3 instruments / effects plugins • Features automation clip generator, and envelope and keyboard controllers • Fruity version features 80 of the addition tools, plugins , and software instruments • Producer version features 88 of the addition tools, plugins , and software instruments

PAGE 435

! ! (.( ! • Signature version features 96 of the addition tools, plugins , and software instruments • All Bundles version features all 105 of the addition tools, plugins , and software instruments Figure 3.416 : FL Studio 12 Customized Interface Screen Shot

PAGE 436

! ! (.) ! Figure 3.417 : FL Studio 12 Audio Clips Figure 3.418 : FL Studio 12 Piano Roll Editor

PAGE 437

! ! (.* ! FL Studio Mobile FL Studio Mobile, FL Studio Mobile (2016), is an iOS / Android, lighter version of FL Studio 12, DAW, and sell s for $19.99 for the iOS version, and $16.49 for the Android version, Image Line Software (2016). These are companion products to FL Studio 12, but are capable of standing alone for more simple projects. These are very powerful apps. Following is a list of the basic features: • Up to 24 tracks recording simultaneously (see Fig. 3.419 ) • 99 track sequencer • 133 high quality instruments, drum kits , and sliced loop beats (see Fig. 3.420 ) • All instruments have FL Studio 12 counterparts for streamlined file transfers • MiniSynth with 70 presets • Step sequencer, for rapid percussion programming and sliced loop reworking (see Fig. 3.421 ) • Drum pads (see Fig. 3.422 ) • Wave editor (see Fig. 3.423) , provides cut, trim, normalize, reverse, insert silence, and 3 face in / out curves • Pro vides a sampler where custom kit s and instruments can be created from a wide variety of file formats • Configurable virtual piano keyboard (see Fig. 3.424 ) • 10 effects, including reverb, delay, EQ, filter, amp , phaser, bit crusher, compressor, limiter, and stereo widener • Imports and exports a wide range of file types • Many other features Ð a very powerful DAW app

PAGE 438

! ! (.+ ! Figure 3.419 : FL Studio Mobil e Tracks Window Figure 3.420 : FL Studio Mobile Instruments Window

PAGE 439

! ! (., ! Figure 3.421 : FL Studio Mobile Step Sequencer Window Figure 3.422 : FL Studio Mobile Drum Pads Window

PAGE 440

! ! (.! Figure 3.423 : FL Studio Mobile Wave Editor Window Figure 3.424 : FL Studio Mobile Configurable Keyboard Window

PAGE 441

! ! (%. ! GarageBand GarageBand, Garageband (2016), is an iOS / Mac OS, loop based, clip based DAW, and sells for $4.99 for either version, Apple, Inc. (2016). GarageBand relies heavily on software instruments, and is no t designed for multi track recording, although it is possible to a limited extent. Following is a list of the basic features for Mac OS: • Features up to 255 tracks of audio and / or software instruments • Provides a surprising array of software instr uments, loops , and effects (see Fig. 3.425 ) • The GarageBand Window is laid out efficiently, so everything is accessible from one window, and is also customizable (see Fig. 3.426 ) • Provides editors for audio, piano roll editor for MIDI (see Fig. 3. 427 ), score editor , and drummer editor (see Fig. 3.428 ) • Import a variety of file formats, including MIDI and audio loops and files • Individual software instrument parts can be printed in standard music notation, but not an entire score Ð jus t one part at a time • Supports Audio Units plugins instruments and effects • Mixed projects can be exported to AAC, MP3, or AIFF , or send to iTunes, made in to a ringtone, sent to iCloud, Media Browser, AirDrop, MailDrop, SoundCloud , or burned to a CD • Can be used to teach music lessons Garageband for iOS is very similar, with the following features: • Only 32 channels possible • Features "Live Loops" for performance applications (see Fig. 3.429 ) • Provides virtual piano keyboard and virtual fretboard input methods (see Fig. 3.430 )

PAGE 442

! ! (%% ! Figure 3.425 : GarageBand PedalBoard Effects Figure 3.426 : GarageBand Main Window Example

PAGE 443

! ! (%& ! Figure 3.427 : GarageBand Audio and Piano Roll Editors

PAGE 444

! ! (%' ! Figure 3.428 : GarageBand Score and Drummer Editors

PAGE 445

! ! (%( ! Figure 3.429 : GarageBand for iOS Live Loops DJ feature Figure 3.430 : GarageBand for iOS Virtual Fretboard

PAGE 446

! ! (%) ! Logic Pro X Logic Pro X, Logic Pro X (2016), is a Mac OS, professional, advanced DAW, and sells for $199.99, Apple, Inc. (2016). LogicRemote is a companion product that is free, and provides playback of Logic instruments, navigation of projects, and mixing sessions. Following is a list of the basic features: • Features up to 255 audio channels, 255 s oftware instrument channels, 255 aux channels, 64 busses , and up to 99 external MIDI tracks • Mixer features 15 inserts for audio plugins, 8 inserts for MIDI plugins, 8 sends per channels, and 32 groups for audio, software instruments , or MIDI c hannels (see Fig. 3.431 ) • 200 step undo history • 90 recallable screen configurations, which are customizable (see Fig. 3.432 ) • Audio recording up to 24 bit, 192 kHz sample rate • Notation score editor provides up to 16 independent voices per part, with a very large array of notation markings, providing professional quality printing and MusicXML export (see Fig. 3.433 ) • 67 effects plugins, 19 software instrument plugin s, 9 MIDI plugins, 17 instrument and effect plugins with true surround support (see Fig. 3.434 ) • 3,256 patches, 4,647 Apple loops, 864 EXS24 Sampler instruments, and more • Features the very popular "Alchemy" software synthesizer (see Fig. 3.435 ) • Provides enhanced MIDI piano roll editor, along with score editor and step editor (see Fig. 3.436 ) • Provides extensive control surface support, for just about every surface manufactured

PAGE 447

! ! (%* ! • Provides support for almost any sound card or audio IO ava ilable • Support for all standard surround configurations, up to 7.1 (see Fig. 3.437 ) • Can open Garageband files, and has similar interfaces Figure 3.431 : Logic Pro X Mixer Screen Shot Figure 3.432 : Logic Pro X Screen Configuration Example

PAGE 448

! ! (%+ ! Figure 3. 433 : Logic Pro X Notation Screen Shot Figure 3.434 : Logic Pro X Flex Pitch Plugin

PAGE 449

! ! (%, ! Figure 3.435 : Logic Pro X Alchemy Synthesizer Figure 3.436 : Logic Pro X MIDI Editor Windows

PAGE 450

! ! (%! Figure 3.437 : Logic Pro X 5.1 Surround Mixing Example

PAGE 451

! ! (&. ! Mixcraft 7 Mixcraft 7, Mixcraft 7 (2016), is a Windows, advanced, and somewhat loop based DAW, and sells for $164.95 for the Pro Studio edition, and $89.95 for the regular version, Acoustica, Inc. (2016). The Pro Studio edition provides more plugins, but is otherwise the same . Following is a list of the basic features: • Features unlimited tracks, and up to 32 bit, 192 kHz sample rate, dependent on the audio interface being used (see Fig. 3.438 ) • Features a Live Performance Panel for DJ ing applications (see Fig. 3.439 ) • Provides MIDI step editor, piano roll editor, and printable music notation (see Fig. 3.440 ) • Supports basic video editing and syncing for film production work (see Fig. 3.441 ) • Provides 15 software instruments, (20 for the Pro Studio edition) , and 25 effects plugins, (50 for the Pro Studio edition), with over 7,500 loops, sound effects and samples (see Fig. 3.442 ) • Provides 8 performance sets, (unlimited in the Pro Studio version) • Automate any pa rameter of any eff ect in the mix er (regular version only pan and volume) (see Fig. 3.443 ) • Record multiple audio and MIDI tracks simultaneously, with loop recording and multiple takes • Import WAV, AIF, OGG, WMA, MP3 , and MIDI files

PAGE 452

! ! (&% ! Figure 3.438 : MixCraft 7 Main Screen Shot Figure 3.439 : MixCraft 7 Live Performance Screen

PAGE 453

! ! (&& ! Figure 3.440 : MixCraft 7 MIDI Editing Windows

PAGE 454

! ! (&' ! Figure 3.441 : MixCraft 7 Video Editing Screen Shot Figure 3.442 : MixCraft 7 Plugins Montage Figure 3.443 : MixCraft 7 Mixer

PAGE 455

! ! (&( ! MixPad MixPad, MixPad (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows, basic DAW, and sells for $99.00 for the Master's edition, and $59.95 for the Home version, NCH Software (2016). The Home edition is essentially the same, but does not provide support for VST plugins , and is limited to 12 tracks only. MixPad Music Mixer Free is also available for iOS and Android, and will be discussed following this. Following is a list of the basic features: • Features unlimited tracks, and up to 24 bit, 96 kHz sample rate, depend ent on the audio interface being used (see Fig. 3.444 ) • Records single of multiple tracks simultaneously, audio and MIDI • Imports any audio file format • Mixer provides EQ, compression, reverb , and other effects, along with a royalty free so und effects and music library with hundreds of clips (see Fig. 3. 445 ) • Export in WAV, MP3, burn to CD, or many other formats • Import MIDI files, record and edit MIDI with full support for VSTi Instruments in piano roll and drum editor windows (no notation) (see Fig. 3.446 ) • Fairly basic MIDI and audio recording program

PAGE 456

! ! (&) ! Figure 3.444 : MixPad Main Track Screen Figure 3.445 : MixPad Mixer Window

PAGE 457

! ! (&* ! Figure 3.446 : MixPad MIDI Piano Roll Editing Window

PAGE 458

! ! (&+ ! MixPad Music Mixer Free MixPad Music Mixer Free, MixPad Music Mixer Free (2016), is an iOS / Android, basic DAW, and is free, NCH Software (2016). However, to have full features, including removing ads, unlimited recording time, unlimited tracks, all export formats , and all effe cts total $9.99 in app purchases. Following is a list of the basic features: • Mix an unlimited number of audio tracks (see Fig. 3.447 ) • Record single or multiple tracks simultaneously (not MIDI Ð only audio) • Load any audio file; more supported for mats than any other mixer • Add audio effects including EQ, compression, reverb , and more (see Fig. 3.448 ) • Provides a royalty free sound effects and music library with hundreds of clips • Supports sample rates from 6 kHz to 96 kHz • Save in any fil e type, from studio quality WAV files to high compression formats Figure 3.447 : MixPad Music Mixer Free Main Window

PAGE 459

! ! (&, ! Figure 3.448 : MixPad Music Mixer Free Effects Plugins

PAGE 460

! ! (&! MuLab MuLab, MuLab (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows DAW, and sells for $76.71, MuTools (2016). It is focused on flexible routing and software synths. Following is a list of the basic features: • Record and mix an unlimited number of audio and MIDI tracks (see Fig. 3.44 9 ) • Provides flexible tracks and sub tracks that support audio, MIDI , and automation • Features an easy modular architecture, which is one of its most unique features • Provides modular routing of all mixer signals for ultimate flexibility • Features the MuSynth , which is a high end synth and sampler • Features the MuDrum module with combined analog and sample sounds • Comes with MuSampla, MuPad , and MultiSampla sample players • Features a step sequencer and arpeggiator (see Fig. 3.450 ) • Supports audio and MIDI VST plugins • Provides deep modular editing, making it possible to build custom synths and effects • Supports detailed audio and MIDI editing (see Fig. 3.451 ) • Export as AIFF or WAV files • Mixer is a series of rack modules, assigned from each track (see Fig. 3.452 ) • This program is ideal for students heavily focused on software synths

PAGE 461

! ! ('. ! Figure 3.449 : MuLab Main Window Figure 3.450 : MuLab Sequence Editor

PAGE 462

! ! ('% ! Figure 3.451 : MuLab Audio Editor Figure 3.452 : MuLab Mixer Rack Example

PAGE 463

! ! ('& ! n Track Studio EX n Track Studio EX, n Track Studio EX (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows advanced DAW, and sells for $110.07, n Track Software (2016). The "lighter" version, n Track Studio , sells for $54.48. There are also companion apps for iOS and Android which will be discussed following this. Following is a list of the basic features common to both versions: • Record and mix an unlimited number of audio and MIDI tracks (see Fig. 3.453 ) • Supp ort sampling frequencies beyond 192 kHz • Supports unlimited VST, VST3, DirectX, AU, and Rewire plugins • Provides free upgrades to all future version 8 releases • 2 computer license for Studio , 5 computer license for Studio EX • Supports importing and exporting of most file formats, and MIDI • Each audio track has a 20 band EQ, and a full 2D and 3D spectrum analyzer (see Fig. 3.454 ) • Supports multiple sound cards for multitrack recording and output • Provides MIDI editing tools, including pian o roll and step sequencer (see Fig. 3.455 ) • Mixer provides up to 32 aux channels with automated sends and returns (see Fig. 3.456 ) Following is a list of the basic features specific to the Studio EX version: • Support video sync for film scoring, SMPTE / MTC or MIDI Clock sync • Sample level editing • Surround mixing up to 7.1 format

PAGE 464

! ! ('' ! Figure 3.453 : n Track Studio EX Main Window Figure 3.?454 : n Track Studio EX 3D Spectrum Analyzer

PAGE 465

! ! ('( ! Figure 3. 455 : n Track Studio EX MIDI Editing Windows

PAGE 466

! ! (') ! Figure 3.456 : n Track Studio EX Mixer

PAGE 467

! ! ('* ! n Track Studio Multitrack Recorder n Track Studio Multitrack Recorder, n Track Studio Multitrack Recorder (2016), is an iOS / Android DAW, and sells for $18.99 for t he iOS version, and $19.98 for the Android version, n Track Software (2016). Following is a list of the basic features common to both versions: • Record and mix an unlimited number of audio and MIDI tracks, depending on the device speed (see Fig. 3. 457 ) • Can multitrack record up to 4 tracks simultaneously , and supports up to 48 audio inputs when connected to external USB audio interface (may requires additional hardware to connect interface) • Records MIDI tracks and provides editing in piano roll, and supports external MIDI keyboards (see Fig. 3.458 ) • Features built in multi instrument MIDI synth • 24 bit, 192 kHz sample rate possible • Provides volume and pan envelopes automation (s ee Fig. 3.459 ) • Supports import and export of WAV, AIF, and M4A audio files • Provides sync with other apps via MIDI clock and MTC • Provides EQ with spectrum analyzer, reverb, echo, chorus, flanger, tremolo, pitch shift, phaser, tube amp , and com pressions effects for any track • The basic idea of this product is to be able to do field recording with a mobile device, and then transfer it back to the Mac OS or Windows version for detailed editing and mixing, although it certainly can stan d alone for simple projects

PAGE 468

! ! ('+ ! Figure 3.457 : n Track Studio Multitrack Recorder Screen Shot Figure 3.458 : n Track Studio Multitrack Recorder MIDI Editing

PAGE 469

! ! (', ! Figure 3.459 : n Track Studio Multitrack Recorder Volume and Pan Automation

PAGE 470

! ! ('! PowerTracks Pro Audio PowerTracks Pro Audio, PowerTracks Pro Audio (2016), is a Windows basic DAW, and sells for $49.00, PG Music Inc. (2016). There are two other versions of the program which are exactly the same, but include some additional software. Th ey are, PowerTracks PowerPAK which includes 1 Ð 10 RealDrum sets and sells for $79.00, and PowerTracks MultiPAK , which includes RealDrum sets 1 Ð 29, and also "MultiTracks Volumes 1 & 2, (which is a eclectic collection of multitrack recordings of known son gs Ð NOT loops), and sells for $179.00. There was not one screen shot on their website, so no images are available for this program. Their website has a few videos to inform the reader of what the interface looks like. Following is a list of the basic f eatures common to all versions: • Record and mix up to 48 of audio and MIDI tracks • Features the "Audio Chord Wizard", which automatically figures out the chords being played in MP3, WAV , and WMA files • Loads and saves MusicXML Files • Feature s MIDI editing capabilities with piano roll window, event list , and notation window, and provides looping • Can print basic scores • Features virtual keyboard and virtual fretboard • Features TC Helicon Vocal Harmonize to add harmonies or pitch cor rection • Features "RealDrums" which generates audio drum tracks that are real recordings • Provides video support • Supports VST plugins • Many other basic features

PAGE 471

! ! ((. ! ProTools ProTools, ProTools (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows, professional, advanced DAW, and sells for $299.00 for the perpetual license for education, or $8.25 a month for the education price, Avid Technology, Inc. (2016). ProTools is widely regarded as the industry standard for multitrack recording. Following is a list of the basic features: • Record and mix up to 128 audio tracks at 48 kHz, (32 at 192 kHz), with 32 maximum audio inputs, 32 maximum simultaneous recording tracks • Features 512 Instrument and MIDI tra cks, 128 aux tracks, unlimited buses, and 1 video track • Features two main windows: Edit Window (see Fig. 3.460 ), and Mix Window (see Fig. 3.461 ) • ASIO, Core Audio , and Eucon support for control surface integration • Supports AAX Native and AudioSuite plugins • Provides over 60 virtual instruments, effects, sound processing , and utility plugins (see Fig. 3.462 ) • Provides professional, industry standard composing, recording, sequencing, editing , and mixing tools • Features loop r ecording and comping • Provides MIDI editor, and Sibelius score editor, along with track freeze, commit , and bounce • Provides input monitoring, VCA mixing, and AFL/PFL solo bus • There is not too much ProTools can not accomplish in the DAW world

PAGE 472

! ! ((% ! Figure 3.460 : ProTools Edit Window Figure 3.461 : ProTools Mix Window

PAGE 473

! ! ((& ! Figure 3.462 : ProTools Various Plugins

PAGE 474

! ! ((' ! ProTools First ProTools First, ProTools First (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows basic DAW, and is free, Avid Technology, Inc. (2016). It is a very light version of ProTools . No screen shots will be included, as the interfaces are identical. Following is a list of the basic features: • R ecord and mix up to 16 audio tracks at 48 kHz, (16 at 96 kHz maximum), with 4 maximum audio inputs, 4 maximum simultaneous recording tracks • Features 16 Instrument and MIDI tracks, 16 aux tracks, unlimited buses, but no video support • Featur es two main windows: Edit Window and Mix Window • ASIO, Core Audio , and Eucon support for control surface integration • Supports AAX Native and AudioSuite plugins • Provides over 20 virtual instruments, effects, sound processing , and utility plugins • Provides professional, industry standard composing, recording, sequencing, editing and mixing tools • Features loop recording and comping • Provides MIDI editor • A simple and basic version of ProTools without all the advanced editing tools and h igh end plugins

PAGE 475

! ! ((( ! Reaper Reaper, Reaper (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows advanced DAW, and sells for $60.00, Cockos Inc. (2016). It offers a wide array of customization of interfaces and shortcuts for the user. Following is a list of the basic features : • Record and mix unlimited audio and MIDI tracks, only dependent on hardware and computer speed • Features an extremely customizable interface (see Fig. 3.463 ) • Provides thorough MIDI hardware and software support, along with powerful MIDI editing tools, including piano roll (see Fig. 3.464 ), and notation editor (see Fig. 3.465 ) • Supports VST, VST3, AU, DX , and JS instrument and effects plugins • Provides hundreds of studio quality effects for audio and MIDI (see Fig. 3.466 ) • Features automation, modulation, grouping, VCA, surround capability, control surface support , and custom skins and layouts • Mixer features unlimited effects sends, and the ability to show and hide instruments, effects , and sends, and full aut omation of all parameters (see Fig. 3.467 ) • Supports a variety of video formats, and provides LTC and MTC sync for scoring (see Fig. 3.468 ) • Features surround mixing, from 5.1 surround to 9.1 ITU R (see Fig. 3.469 ) • Provides an amazing variety o f routing options (see Fig. 3.470 )

PAGE 476

! ! (() ! Figure 3.463 : Reaper Main Window Figure 3.464 : Reaper Piano Roll MIDI Editor

PAGE 477

! ! ((* ! Figure 3.465 : Reaper Notation MIDI Editor Figure 3.466 : Reaper Compressor Plugin

PAGE 478

! ! ((+ ! Figure 3.467 : Reaper Mixer Figure 3.468 : Reaper Vi deo Window

PAGE 479

! ! ((, ! Figure 3.469 : Reaper Surround Panning Figure 3.470 : Reaper Routing Options

PAGE 480

! ! ((! Reason 9 Reason 9, Reason 9 (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows advanced DAW, and sells for $399.00, and the "lighter" version, Reason Essentials 9 , $69.00, Propellerhead Software, (2016). Essentials 9 has the sam e functionality, it just does not come with all the instruments and effects. The focus of this program is a rich array of high quality software instruments and effects. Following is a list of the basic features: • Record and mix unlimited audio, instrument and MIDI tracks, only depende nt on hardware and computer speed (see Fig. 3.471 ) • Main window features browser, transport, sequencer, rack , and main mixer panels (see Fig. 3.472 ) • Provides thorough MIDI hardware and software support, along with powerful MIDI editing tools, including piano roll, ("Key Edit Mode") (see Fig. 3.473 ), and drum editor (see Fig. 3.474 ) • Provides a massive factory sound bank with patches, samples, and loops • Provides hundreds of studio quality effects for audio and MIDI (see Fig. 3.4 75 ) • Mixer is modeled after an SSL console, and features 8 effects sends, 4 band EQ, insert effect slot, dynamics with compressor and gate, low and high pass filter, spectrum analyzer, group and parallel channels, and full automation of all par ameters (see Fig. 3.476 ) • Does not support video or surround mixing • Essentials comes with 16 of the 35 instrument and effects plugins that the full version features, and is the main difference between the two versions

PAGE 481

! ! (). ! Figure 3.471 : Rea son 9 "Front" and "Back" Windows

PAGE 482

! ! ()% ! Figure 3.472 : Reason 9 Main Window Layout Figure 3.473 : Reason 9 "Key" MIDI Edit Window

PAGE 483

! ! ()& ! Figure 3.474 : Reason 9 "Drum Editor" MIDI Edit Window Figure 3.475 : Reason 9 Plugin Example

PAGE 484

! ! ()' ! Figure 3.476 : Reason 9 Main Mixer Window

PAGE 485

! ! ()( ! Samplitude Pro X2 Samplitude Pro X2, Samplitude Pro X2 (2016), is a Windows, professional, advanced DAW, and sells for $399.00, and the Suite version sells for $599.00, MAGIX Software GmbH, (2016). The Suite version contains many more of the high end effects and instruments plugins, but the functionality is essentially the same. The focus of this program is on "objects", both audio and MIDI, and on sample based synths as the name would imply, and as such lends itself to loop based mus ic production. Following is a list of the basic features: • Supports up to 999 audio tracks, 999 MIDI tracks, unlimited VST plugins, and sample rates up to 32 bit, 384 kHz (see Fig. 3.477 ) • Interface is very customizable (see Fig. 3.478 ) • Provides up to 256 inputs / outputs, depending on audio interfaces used • Provides unlimited number of objects per track, with 64 plugins possible per track • Provides MIDI hardware and software support, along with powerful MIDI editing tools, inclu ding piano roll (see Fig. 3.479 ), drum editor, and notation editor • Notation editor supports score layout and printing (see Fig. 3.480 ) • Provides a large sound bank with patches, samples, and loops • Provides many high end effects for audio and MIDI, including track / object freeze (see Fig. 3.481 ) • Supports many control surfaces • Supports video, SMPTE, MTC , MMC, and 5.1 surround mixing • Features a wide array of mastering tools, making Samplitude a start to finish DAW (see Fig. 3.482 )

PAGE 486

! ! ()) ! Figure 3.477 : Samplitude Pro X2 Track Objects Example Figure 3.478 : Samplitude Pro X2 Customized Main Window Example

PAGE 487

! ! ()* ! Figure 3.479 : Samplitude Pro X2 MIDI Editor Figure 3.480 : Samplitude Pro X2 Notation Editor

PAGE 488

! ! ()+ ! Figure 3.481 : Samplitude Pro X2 "Elastic Audio" Pitch Correction Plugin Figure 3.482 : Samplitude Pro X2 Mastering Tools

PAGE 489

! ! (), ! Sonar Sonar, Sonar (2016), is a Windows, professional, advanced DAW, and sells for $349.00 for the Platinum edition, education price, $129.00 for the Profession al edition, education price, and $69.00 for the Artist edition, education price, Cakewalk, Inc. (2016). 5 seat education licenses are available for each version, with the Platinum edition being $1,149.00, the Professional edition for $449.00, and the Artist edition for $239.00. Are three versions are functionally identical, but the Platinum and Professional versions come with more plugins, which will be detailed below. The focus of this program is on plugins and a modular, customizable interface. Fo llowing is a list of the basic features common to all versions: • Supports unlimited audio tracks, unlimited MIDI tracks, unlimited simultaneous inputs / outputs, and sample rates up to 64 bit, 384 kHz (see Fig. 3.483 ) • Support for Windows multi t ouch, and Groove Clip Support • Interface is customizable for a variety of workflow situations and user preferences (see Fig. 3.484 ) • Features FX racks, "Speed" comping and take lanes, smart tool, smart grid, mix recall, and expandable ProChan nel • Features Melodyne Essential (not Artist version), which both allows for pitch correction, and audio to MIDI, so students can sing or play in a monophonic line and have it translated to MIDI and notation • Provides MIDI hardware and software support, along with powerful MIDI editing tools, including piano roll, drum map (see Fig. 3.485 ), event list, and notation editor with tab and fret view • Notation edi tor provides a solid selection of notat ion palettes including lyrics, and

PAGE 490

! ! ()! provides score layout and printing capabilities • Provides a large sound bank with patches, samples, and loops • Provides many high end effects for audio and MIDI (see Fig. 3.486 ) • Supports many control surfaces • Supports video, SMPTE, MTC, and up to 8.1 surround mixing, making it great for scoring (see Fig. 3.487 ) • This is only scratching the surface of the features of this very powerful DAW Differences between the versions are summarized below: • Artis t version comes with 12 instruments, 27 effects , and 8 ProChannel Modules • Professional version comes with 19 instruments, 50 effects , and 13 ProChannel Modules • Platinum version comes with 23 instruments, 57 effects , and 19 ProChannel Modules Fi gure 3.483 : Sonar Main Window

PAGE 491

! ! (*. ! A. Control Bar B. Inspector pane C. Track pane D. Clips pane E. Video Thumbnail pane F. Browser G. MultiDock Figure 3.484 : Sonar Window Descriptions Figure 3.485 : Sonar MIDI Drum Map

PAGE 492

! ! (*% ! Figure 3.486 : Sonar ProChannel Plugin Example Figure 3.487 : Sonar Surround Mixing Capability

PAGE 493

! ! (*& ! Studio One Studio One, Studio One (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows, professional, advanced DAW, and sells for $229.95 for the Professional edition, education price, $ 79.95 for the Artist edition, education price, and the Prime edition, which is very limited, is free, PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc. (2016). Education site licenses are available, but the company must be contacted directly for pricing. Are three versions are functionally similar, but the Professional version com es with more plugins than the Artist version, which will be detailed below. The Prime version does not come wi th a lot of content, and does not include many of the more advanced features of the other two versions. Although this is a very flexible DAW, man y of its tools and interfaces lend it toward being focused on loop based production. Following is a list of the basic features common to the Professional and Artist versions: • Provides unlimited audio tracks, unlimited MIDI tracks, unlimited virtual in struments, buses , and FX channels, and sample rates up to 64 bit, 384 kHz (see Fig. 3.488 ) • Features a customizable single window work environment • Features drag and drop functionality (see Fig. 3.489 ), along with multi touch support • Features t he "Arranger Track" (see Fig. 3.490 ), with "Scratch Pads" for testing arrangement ideas without changing the "Arranger Track" • Provides Melodyne Essentials, and Elastique 3.0 real time pitch and time stretching, resampling , and normalization • Provides mastering tools with automatic mix updating, Redbook CD burning and digital release • Provides MIDI solid support, with step recording (see Fig. 3.491 ), piano roll view, and a large array of MIDI effects

PAGE 494

! ! (*' ! • Notation window uses PreSonu s' Notion notation software, so the notation and score printing capabilities of this DAW are superior (see Fig. 3.492 ) • Features one of the best mixing environments available, with the "Mix Engine FX" and Native Fat Channel , among other mixing tools (see Fig. 3.493 ) • Supports many control surface units • Exports and imports in all major file formats • Supports AU, VST2, VST3 , and Rewire plugins, and comes with a large supply of instrument and effects plugins (see Fig. 3.494 ) • Many more features in this powerful DAW Following is the differences between the Professional and Artist versions: • Artist version provides 30 effects, 5 instruments , and 1 MIDI effects plugins • Professional version provides 41 effects, 7 instruments , and 4 MIDI effects plugins, as well as more advanced mixing and mastering capabilities Figure 3.488 : Studio One Main Window

PAGE 495

! ! (*( ! Figure 3.489 : Studio One Drag and Drop Functionality Figure 3.490 : Studio One "Arranger Track" Window

PAGE 496

! ! (*) ! Figure 3.491 : Studio One Step Recording Figure 3.492 : Studio One Notation Window

PAGE 497

! ! (** ! Figure 3.493 : Studio One Mixer Configurations

PAGE 498

! ! (*+ ! Figure 3.494 : Studio One Plugins Samples

PAGE 499

! ! (*, ! Tracktion Tracktion, Tracktion (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows DAW, and sells for $60.00 for both the Tracktion 6 and Tracktion 7 versions , with Tracktion 4 being the very light version which is free, Tracktion Corporation (2016). The difference between the 6 and 7 versions is a n overhaul of the interface, but they are functionally identical. This is a clip based, loop based music production DAW, that comes with virtually no software instruments or effects, which is why the low price point. Following is a list of the basic feat ures common to both 6 and 7 versions: • Provides unlimited audio tracks and unlimited MIDI tracks • Maximum audio bit, sample rate , and maximum number of audio and MIDI inputs / outputs could not be determined from the available literature • Feat ures "Blue Steel" single window user interface for smooth workflow (see Fig. 3.495 ) • Features "Automation Patterns", which can apply a common pattern to any automated parameter through a clip or sequence (see Fig. 3.496 ) • Features a unique ve rtical mixing environment with non standard volume controls on the right side of the screen (see Fig. 3.497 ) • Provides a flexible "Rack" environment for effects and plugins routing (see Fig. 3.498 ) • Features basic audio and MIDI recording and edit ing tools, such as audio comping, Melodyne Essential, step sequencer , and freeze point technology, • Provides tools for quick clip and loop insertion and editing, such as time stretching and clip layer effects • Provides Video sync • Documentation for this product was very vague

PAGE 500

! ! (*! Figure 3.495 : Tracktion "Blue Steel" Interface Figure 3.496 : Tracktion Automation Patterns Window

PAGE 501

! ! (+. ! Figure 3.497 : Tracktion Mixer Panel

PAGE 502

! ! (+% ! Figure 3.498 : Tracktion "Rack" Plugin Routing

PAGE 503

! ! (+& ! WavePad Audio Editing Software WavePad Audio Editing Software, WavePad Audio Editing Software (2016), is a Mac OS / Windows, stereo digital audio recording and editing program, and sells for $39.99 for the standard version, and $79.99 for the Master's Edition , NCH Soft ware (2016). Following is a list of the basic features: • Can record stereo or mono digital audio in sample rates from 8 to 32 bits, and from 6kHz to 95kHz (see Fig. 3.499 ) • Can import audio files such as WAV , MP3 , VOX , GSM , WAM , real audio, AU , AIF , FLAC , OGG, and others • Provides basic editing features such as cut, copy, paste, delete , insert, silence, and auto trim (see Fig. 3.500 ) • Features effects such a amplify, normalize, equalizer, envelope, reverb, echo , and reverse • Provides tools such as spectral analysis, speech synthesis, (text to speech), and voice changer (see Fig. 3.501 ) • Features audio restor ation including noise reduction, and click and pop removal • Works directly with MixPad Multi Track Audio Mixer , and can easily trade files with the iOS and Android apps • Master's Edition comes with support for VST plugins (Windows), and the full SFX Library

PAGE 504

! ! (+' ! Figure 3.499 : WavePad Audio Editing Software Record Window Figure 3.500 : WavePad Audio Edi ting Software Editing Window

PAGE 505

! ! (+( ! Figure 3.501 : WavePad Audio Editing Software Tools Window

PAGE 506

! ! (+) ! WavePad Audio Editor Free WavePad Audio Editor Free, WavePad Audio Editor Free (2016), is an iOS / Android stereo digital audio recording and editing program, and is a free download, NCH Software (2016). However, to turn off ads and unlock all the features, it is $14.99. Following is a list of the basic fe atures: • Can record stereo or mono digital audio in sample rates from 8 to 32 bits, and from 8kHz to 44.1kHz (see Fig. 3.502 ) • Can import audio files such as WAV, MP3, VOX, GSM, WAM, real audio, AU, AIF, FLAC, OGG, and others • Provides ba sic editing features such as cut, copy, paste, delete , insert, silence, and auto trim (see Fig. 3.503 ) • Features effects such a amplify, normalize, equalizer, envelope, reverb, echo , and reverse (see Fig. 3.504 ) Figure 3.502 : WavePad Audio Editor Free Audio Options

PAGE 507

! ! (+* ! Figure 3.503 : WavePad Audio Editor Free Editing Figure 3.504 : WavePad Audio Editor Free Effects

PAGE 508

! ! (++ ! CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS It has been shown that there is a vast array of music technology available to benefit the high school musician, much more than the average public sch ool music teacher could ever hope to keep up to date on. As stated, this is the purpose of the research Ð to provide music teachers a resource guide, b ased on the six general musicianship skills identified, to find the types of software that could benefit their programs as a whole, and also for students with specific musical needs. The next step the author hopes to take is to use this research as a foun dation to built a website that teachers and students can access to search for appropriate music technologies for their needs. In order to do so, more detail will be incorporated for each program or app. For example, in the "Composition" section, when eva luating DAW's, a standardized set of attributes could be added, such as: Number of Inputs; Number of Outputs; Number of Simultaneous Audio Tracks; Number of Simultaneous MIDI Tracks; VST Support; AU Support; Notation Printing Support; etc. This would allow for a quick and accurate side by side comparison of all programs and apps being considered , in a user configurable search database . The website could be updated quarterly, and from time to time, the author could do a review of a particular program or a pp, or solicit reviews from teachers and students using the programs and apps. This website could be used free of charge, but monetized through advertising from the manufacturers, who of course would like their products listed on such a website. Support could also be explored from groups like the National Association for Music Educators.

PAGE 509

! ! (+, ! REFERENCES Books Harrison, Scott D., Jessica O'Bryan, and SpringerLink (Online service). Teaching Singing in the 21st Century . 1; 2014; ed. 14. Vol. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014. Web. Brown, Andrew R. Music Technology and Education: Amplifying Musicality . Second Edition. ed. New York; London; Routledge, 2015. Print. Colwell, Richard, Peter Richard Webster, and MENC, the National Association for Music Education (U.S.). MENC Handbook of Research on Music Learning, Vol. 1: Strategies . New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print. Colwell, Richard, Peter Richard Webster, and MENC, the National Association for Music Education (U.S.). MENC Handbook of Research on Music Learning, Vol. 2: Applications . New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print. Finney, John, and Pamela Burnard. Music Education with Digital Technology . First Edition. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2007. Print. Green, Lucy, and Ebooks Corporation. Hear, Listen, Play: How to Free Your Student's Aural, Improvisation and Performance Skills . New York City: Oxford University Press, 2013. Web. Rudolph, Thomas E. Technology Strategies for Music Education . 2nd ed. Wyncote, PA: Techn ology Instit ute for Music Educators, 2005. Print. Watson, Scott. Using Technology to Unlock Musical Creativity . US: Oxford University Press, 2011. Web. Journal Articles and Websites Bernhard, H. Christian, II. "Music Education Majors' Confidence in Teaching Improvisation." Journal of Music Teacher Education (Online) 22.2 (2013): 65 72. Web. Bolton, Jan. "Technologically Mediated Composition Learning: Josh's Story." British Journal of Music Education 25.1 (2008): 41. Web. Criswell, Chad. "Music Technology: The Computer in Your Student's Pocket." Teaching Music 17.2 (2009): 26 7. Web.

PAGE 510

! ! (+! Criswell, Chad, and Emile Menasche. "Redefining Music Technology: A Rough Guide to a Universe of Possibilities." Teaching Music 16.5 (2009): 30. Web. Dorfman, Jay. "Technology in Ohio's School Music Programs: An Exploratory Study of Teacher use and Integr ation." Contributions to Music Education 35 (2008): 23 46. ProQuest. Web. Hale, Connie L. "Six Key Principles for Music Assessment." Music Educators Journal 95.4 (2009): 27 31. Web. Haning, Marshall. "Are they Ready to Teach with Technology? an Investigation of Technology Instruction in Music Teacher Education Programs." Journal of Music Teacher Education (Online) 25.3 (2016): 78 90. Web. Henry, Michele. "Vocal Sight Reading Assessme nt: Technological Advances, Student Perceptions, and Instructional Implications." Update Applications of Research in Music Education 33.2 (2015): 58 64. Web. JazzBooks.com. "Jamey Aebersold Jazz:." Jamey Aebersold Jazz: . Jazzbooks.com, n.d. Web. 3 May 2 016. Kuehne, Jane M. "Sight Singing: Ten Years of Published Research." Update: Applications of Research in Music Education 29.1 (2010): 7 14. Web. Kuzmich, John. "Music Theory & Ear Training Software." Choral Director 6.5 (2009): 28 31. Web . Kuzmich, J ohn, Jr. "Technology: Music Theory Enhanced AP Music Theory Instruction." Choral Director 9.4 (2012): 28 32. Web. Marowitz, David R. "A High Tech Makeover for School Music: Bring Your Ensembles into the Modern Age with Music Technology." Teaching Music 19.2 (2011): 28. Web. Mercer, Andrew. "Music Makers: Music Technology Recording Digital Audio." Canadian Music Educator 49.4 (2008): 52 3. Web. MozÂŽe, Ben. "Music Technology Labs." Phi Delta Kappan 86.5 (2005): 0_3. Web. NAFME. 2014 Music Standards ( Composition / Theory) . Reston: National Association for Music Educators, 2014. PDF.

PAGE 511

! ! (,. ! NAFME. 2014 Music Standards (Ensemble) . Reston: National Association for Music Educators, 2014. PDF. NAFME. 2014 Music Standards (Music Technology) . Reston: National Association for Music Educators, 2014. PDF. Nielsen, Lance D. "Developing Musical Creativity: Student and Teacher Perceptions of a High School Music Technology Curriculum." Update: Applications of Research in Music Education 31.2 (2013 ): 54 62. Web. O'Donnell, Eric. "Taking Advantage of Technology in Your Practice Routine." Jazz Advice 11 July 2011: n. pag. Print. Peterson, Hal. "Technology Tips and Tricks for Music Educators." General Music Today (Online) 19.3 (2006): 36 43. Web. R iley, Patricia. "Teaching, Learning, and Living with iPads." Music Educators Journal 100.1 (2013): 81 6. Web. Swingler, Tim, and John Brockhouse. "Getting Better all the Time: Using Music Technology for Learners with Special Needs." Australian Journal of Music Education .2 (2009): 49 57. Web. Wise, Stuart, Janinka Greenwood, and Niki Davis. "Teachers' use of Digital Technology in Secondary Music Education: Illustrations of Changing Classrooms." British Journal of Music Education 28.2 (2011): 117 34. Web. Apps and Software Programs and Documentation #1 Keep the Beat . Computer software. ITunes.com . Vers. 1.1. Luke Barber, 5 Nov. 2015. Web. 22 May 2016. . 60 Top Hat Guitar Licks Vol. 1 . Computer software. m Decks.com . Vers. 1.0. m Decks Music, 15 June 2014. Web. 3 July 2016. . Ableton AG. Ableton Live 9 Intro . Program documentation. Ableton.com . Vers. 9.5. Ableton AG, 2016. Web. 20 May 2016. . Ableton AG. Ableton Live 9 Standard . Program documentation. Ableton.com . Vers. 9.5. Ableton AG, 2016. Web. 20 May 2016. .

PAGE 512

! ! (,% ! Ableton AG. Ableton Live 9 Suite . Program documentation. Ableton.com . Vers. 9.5. Ableton AG, 2016. Web. 20 May 2016. . Ableton Live 9 Intro . Computer software. Ableton.com . Vers. 9.5. Ableton AG, 2016. Web. 20 May 2016. . Ableton Live 9 Standard . Computer software. Ableton.com . Vers. 9.5. Ableton AG, 2016. Web. 20 May 2016. . Ableton Live 9 Suite . Computer software. Ableton.com . Vers. 9.5. Ableton AG, 2016. Web. 20 May 2016. . Acid Music Studio 10 . Computer software. SonyCreativeSoftware.com . Vers. 10. Sony Creative Software Inc., 2016. Web. 12 June 2016. . Acid Pro 7 . Computer software. SonyCreativeSoftware.com . Vers. 7. Sony Creative Software Inc., 2016. Web. 12 June 2016. . Acid Xpress . Computer software. SonyCreativeSoftware.com . Vers. 7. Sony Creative Software Inc., 2016. Web. 12 June 2016. . Acoustica, Inc. Mixcraft 7 . Program documentation. Acoustic.com . Vers. 7. Acoustica, Inc., 2016. Web. 22 June 2016. . Acoustica, Inc. Mixcraft Pro Studio 7 . Program documentation. Acoustic.com . Vers. 7. Acoustica, I nc., 2016. Web. 22 June 2016. . Agin, Gerald J. Itonia . Program documentation. Itonia.com . Vers. 1.3.5. Gerald J. Agin, 2016. Web. 25 May 2016. . Alfred's Interactive Musician . Computer software. Alfred.com . Alfred Music, 2016. Web. 20 May 2016. . Alfred Music. Alfred's Interactive Musician . Program documentation. Alfred.com . Alfred Music, 2016. Web. 20 May 2016. . Alfred Music. Essential s of Music Theory . Program documentation. Alfred.com . Vers. 3. Alfred M usic, 2016. Web. 20 May 2016. < http://www.alfred.com/emt> .

PAGE 513

! ! (,& ! Almeida, Edivaldo. Learn to Sing . Program documentation. ITunes.com . Vers. 1.6. Edivaldo Almeida, 1 June 2016. Web. 5 June 2016. . Anvil Studio Works . Computer software. AnvilStudio.com . Vers. 2016.04.01. Willow Software, 2016. Web. 8 June 2016. < http://www.anvilstudio.com>. App Elations LLC. Singer's Mate . Program documentation. SingersMate.com . Vers. 1.1. App Elations LLC, 28 Apr. 2016. Web. 2 June 2016. < http://www.singersmate.com/index.php >. AppicDesign. Timing Trainer Pro . Computer softwar e. AppicDesign.MichaelTSchuggnall.com . Vers. 1.3.3. AppicDesign, 2 Apr. 2014. Web. 8 July 2016. . Apple, Inc. GarageBand . Program documentation. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 10.1.2. Ap ple, Inc., 16 May 2016. Web. 8 June 2016. . Apple, Inc. Logic Pro X . Program documentation. Apple.com . Vers. 10.2.4. Apple, Inc., 30 June 2016. Web. 1 July 2016. . Apricot Digital Publishing, LLC. Music Reading Essentials . Computer software. ApricotPublishing.com . Vers. 3.0. Apricot Digital Publishing, LLC, 20 Apr. 2015. Web. 8 July 2016. . Ardour . Computer software. Ardor.org . Vers. 4.7. Paul Davis, 2016. Web. 7 June 2016. . Arobas Music. Arobas Music Guitar Pro . Program documentation. Guitar Pro.com . Vers. 1.7.1. Arobas Music, 6 June 2016. Web. 10 June 2016. . Arobas Music. Arobas Music Guitar Pro 6 . Program documentation. Guitar Pro.com . Vers. 6. Arobas Music, 2016. Web. 10 June 2016. . Arobas Music Guit ar Pro . Computer software. Guitar Pro.com . Vers. 1.7.1. Arobas Music, 6 June 2016. Web. 10 June 2016. .

PAGE 514

! ! (, ' ! Arobas Music Guitar Pro 6 . Computer software. Guitar Pro.com . Vers. 6. Arobas Music, 2016. Web. 10 June 2016. . Ars Nova Software LLC. Counterpointer . Program documentation. Ars Nova.com . Vers. 2.040. Ars Nova Software LLC, 28 June 2014. Web. 14 May 2016. Ars Nova Software, LLC. Practica Musica . Program documentation. Ars nova.com . Vers. 6. Ars Nova Software, LLC, 2016. Web. 5 May 2016. . Ars Nova Software, LLC. Songworks . Program documentation. Ars Nova.com . Vers . 3.114. Ars Nova Software, LLC, 2016. Web. 14 June 2016. . Ars Nova Software, LLC. Steps To Reading Music . Program documentation. Ars nova.com . Vers. 6. Ars Nova Software, LLC, 2016. Web. 5 May 2016. . Artist Ahead GmbH. Jazz Duets 1 for Alto Sax . Program documentation. Facebook.com . Vers. 2.0. Artist Ahead GmbH, 25 Feb. 2015. Web. 24 June 2016. . Artist Ahead GmbH. Jazz Duets 2 for Alto Sax . Program documentation. Facebook.com . Vers. 2.0. Artist Ahead GmbH, 26 Feb. 2015. Web. 24 June 2016. . Artist Ahead GmbH. Jazz Due ts 1 for Tenor Sax . Program documentation. Facebook.com . Vers. 2.0. Artist Ahead GmbH, 2 Apr. 2015. Web. 24 June 2016. . Artist Ahead GmbH. Jazz Duets 2 for Tenor Sax . Program documentation. Facebook.com . Vers. 2.0. Artist Ahead GmbH, 4 Mar . 2015. Web. 24 June 2016. < https://itunes.apple.com/br/app/jazz duets 2 for tenor sax/id882698882?l=en&mt=8 >. Artist Ahead GmbH. Play the Blues Saxophone Volume 1 . Program document ation. Facebook.com . Vers. 2.0. Artist Ahead GmbH, 11 Feb. 2016 . Web. 24 June 2016. . Artist Ahead GmbH. Play the Blues Saxophone Volume 2 . Program documentation. Facebook.com . Vers. 2.0. Artist Ahead GmbH, 12 Feb. 2016. Web. 24 June 2016. .

PAGE 515

! ! (,( ! Aural ia 5 . Computer software. RisingSoftware.com . Vers. 5. N.p., 2016. Web. 8 May 2016. < https://www.risingsoftware.com/auralia/> . Auralia Chord Recognition . Computer software. RisingSoftware.com . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 11 Nov. 2015. Web. 10 May 2016. . Auralia Interval Recognition . Computer software. RisingSoftware.com . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 10 Nov. 2015. Web. 10 May 2016. . Auralia Interval Singing . Computer software. RisingSoftware .com . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 11 Nov. 2015. Web. 10 May 2016. . Auralia Jazz Chords . Computer software. RisingSoftware.com . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 10 Nov. 2015. Web. 10 May 2016. < https://www.risingsoftware.com/articles/application/auralia jazz chords/> . Auralia Jazz Scales . Computer software. RisingSoftware.com . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 10 Nov. 2015. Web. 10 May 2016. . Auralia Pitch Comparison . Computer software. RisingSoftware.com . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 11 Nov. 2015. Web. 10 May 2016. . Auralia Scales . Computer software. RisingSoftware.co m . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 10 Nov. 2015. Web. 10 May 2016. . Avid Technology, Inc. ProTools . Program documentation. Avid.com . Vers. 12. Avid Technology, Inc., 2016. Web. 2 June 2016. < http://www.avid.com/pro tools>. Avid Technology, Inc. ProTools First . Program documentation. Avid.com . Vers. 12. Avid Technology, Inc., 2016. Web. 2 June 2016. < http://www.avid.com/pro tools first>. Avid Technology , Inc. Sibelius . Program documentation. Avid.com . Vers. 8. Avid Technology , Inc., 2016. Web. 14 June 2016. . Avid Technology , Inc. Sibelius First . Program documentation. Avid.com . Avid Technology , Inc., 2016. Web. 14 June 2016. .

PAGE 516

! ! (,) ! Bahn, Stuart. Music Theory Chords in Keys . Computer software. StuartBahn.com . Vers. 3.0. Stuart Bahn, 22 Aug. 2015. Web. 8 July 2016. . Ballard, Adam. MyTronome . Computer software. MyTronome on the App Store . Vers. 1.1. ITunes, n.d. Web. May 2016. . Band in a Box . Computer software. PGMusic.com . Vers. 2016. PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 22 May 2016. < http://www.pgmusic.com>. Barber, Luke. #1 Keep the Beat . Program documentation . ITunes.com . Vers. 1.1. Luke Barber, 5 Nov. 2015. Web. 22 May 2016. . Bass Sight Reading Traine r . Computer software. Sites.Google.com . Vers. 3.6. Rolf Steenge, 2 Oct. 2015. Web. 8 May 2016. . Benbassat, Alain. Functional Ear Trainer . Computer software. Miles.be . Vers. 2.1.13. Alain Benbassat, 2016. Web. 8 July 2016. . Bitwig GmbH. Bitwig Studio . Program documentation. Bitwig.com . Vers. 1.3.11. Bitwig GmbH, 2016. Web. 17 June 2016. . Bit wig Stud io . Computer software. Bitwig.com . Vers. 1.3.11. Bit wig GmbH, 2016. Web. 17 June 2016. . Britz, Martin. Pitch Graph . Program documentation. MartinBritz.blogspot.com . Vers. 10.1. Martin Britz, 11 Sept. 2013. We b. 4 June 2016. . Brunson, Jeanne. Pitch Perfect Visual Tuner . Program documentation. ITunes.com . Vers. 2.0.1. Jeanne Brunson, 26 Nov. 2012. Web. 2 June 2016. . Buskens & Associates Inc. Improv Explorer . Program documentation. Bushkens.ca . Vers. 2.0. Buskens & Associates Inc., 2 May 2016. Web. 5 July 2016. . Cakewalk, Inc. Sonar Artist . Program documentation. Cakewalk.com . Vers. 2016.6. Cakewalk, Inc., 2016. Web. 1 July 2016. .

PAGE 517

! ! (,* ! Cakewalk, Inc. Sonar Platinum . Program documentation. Cakewalk.com . Vers. 2016.6. Cakewalk, Inc., 2016. Web. 1 July 2016. . Cakewalk, Inc. Sonar Professional . Program documentation. Cakewalk.com . Vers. 2016.6. Cakewalk, Inc., 2016. Web. 1 July 2016. . Canta . Computer software. SingInTune.org . Vers. 1.11. Chaum et Software, 2016 . Web. 27 May 2016. . Chaumet Software. Canta . Program documentation. SingInTune.org . Vers. 1.11. Chaumet Software, 2016. Web. 27 May 2016. . Colla Voce . Computer software. CollaVoceApp.com . Vers. 1.0. First Formant, 21 Sept. 2015. Web. 26 May 2016. . Cantovation Ltd. Sing&See . Program documentation. SingAndSee.com . Cantovation Ltd., 2016. Web. 20 May 2016. < https://www.singandsee.com>. ChessBase GMBH. Ludwig . Program doc umentation. Write Music.com . Vers. 3.0. ChessB ase Gmb H, 2016. Web. 18 June 2016. . ChordFind . Computer software. PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 May 2016. . Chord Pad . Computer software. DesktopMetronome.com . DesktopMetronome, 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. . Chords and Scales . Computer software. DesktopMetronome.com . DesktopMetronome, 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. . Counterpointer . Computer software. Ars Nova.com . Vers. 2.040. Ars Nova Software LLC, 28 June 2014. Web. 14 May 2016. . Cresendo Music Notation Software . Computer software. NCH.com.au . Vers. 1.1. NCH Software, 2016. Web. 5 June 2016. . Cubase Artist 8.5 . Computer software. Steinberg.net . Vers. 8.5. Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH, 2016. Web. 8 June 2 016. .

PAGE 518

! ! (,+ ! Cubase Elements 8 . Computer software. Steinberg.net . Vers. 8. Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH, 2016. Web. 8 June 2016. . Cubase Pro 8.5 . Computer software. Steinberg.net . Vers. 8.5. Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH, 2016. Web. 8 June 2016. . Cockos Inc. Reaper . Program documentation. Reaper.fm . Vers. 5.211. Cockos I nc., 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. < http://www.reaper.fm/index.php>. Combo Jazz Music Generator . Computer software. ITunes.com . Vers. 1.0.0. Peter Livesey, 11 Jan. 2015. Web. 28 May 2016. < https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/combo jazz music generator/id937982691?mt=8>. CopyScat . Computer software. PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 26 June 2016. . Coutinho, Rosano. Learn That Song (REMIX Edition) . Pro gram documentation. Rosano.ca . Vers. 2.6.5. Rosano Coutinho, 18 May 2016. Web. 28 June 2016. . Cycling '74. Max . Computer software. Cycling74.com . Vers. 7.2. Cycling '74, 2016. Web. 14 July 2016. . Davis, Paul. Ardour . Program documentation. Ardor.org . Vers. 4.7. Paul Davis, 2016. Web. 7 June 2016. . De Novo Digital, LLC . Jazz Box Program documentation. DeNovoDigital.biz . Vers. 1.0. De Novo Digital , LLC, 20 July 2012. Web. 28 June 2016. . DesktopMetronome. Chord Pad . Program documentation. DesktopMetronome.com . DesktopMetronome, 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. < http://www.desktopmetronome.com/c5/index.php/products/chord_sequencer/>. DesktopMetronome. Chords and Scales . Program documentation. DesktopMetronome.com . DesktopMetronome, 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. .

PAGE 519

! ! (,, ! DesktopMetronome. Phrase Trainer 2 . Program documentation. DesktopMetronome.com . Vers. 2. DesktopMetronome, 2016. Web. 6 July 2016. . Digital Perfor mer 9 . Computer software. Motu.com . Vers. 9.02. MOTU, Inc., 2016. Web. 13 June 2016. . DoReMIR Music Research AB. ScoreCloud Express . Program documentation. ScoreCloud.com . DoReMIR Music Research AB, 2016. Web. 22 June 2016. < http://scorecloud.com>. DoReMIR Music Research AB. ScoreCloud Free . Program documentation. ScoreCloud.com . DoReMIR Music Research AB, 2016. Web. 22 June 2016. < http://scorecloud.com>. DoReMIR Music Research AB. ScoreCloud Plus . Program docu mentation. ScoreCloud.com . DoReMIR Music Research AB, 2016. Web. 22 June 2016. . DoReMIR Music Research AB. ScoreCloud Pro . Program documentation. ScoreCloud.com . DoReMIR Music Research AB, 2016. Web. 22 June 2016. < http://scorecloud.com>. Dynamic Tonality. Hex . Program documentation. DynamicTonality.com . Vers. 2.1.1. Dynamic Tonality, 2016. Web. 10 June 2016. . Easy Ear Training Limited. SingTrue . Program documentation. SingT rue.co . Vers. 1.2. Easy Ear Training Limited, 21 Jan. 2015. Web. 24 Apr. 2016. . EarMaster 6 . Computer software. EarMaster.com . Vers. 6. Ear Master ApS, 2016. Web. 15 May 2016. < http://www.earmaster.com/products/ear training sight sing ing/earmaster 6.html > . Ear Master ApS. EarMaster 6 . Program documentation. EarMaster.com . Vers. 6. Ear Master ApS, 2016. Web. 15 May 2016. . Ear Trainer . Computer software. Dev4phone.com . Vers. 4.0.1. thoor s oftware AB, 30 June 2016. Web. 5 July 2016. . Ear Training Mastery Online . Computer software. EarTrainingMastery.com . Szwarcsoft, 2013. Web. 8 June 2016. .

PAGE 520

! ! (,! e Media Music Corporation. EMedia Singing Method . Program documentation. EMediaMusic.com . e Media Music Corporation, 2016. Web. 20 May 2016. . eMedia Music Corporation. Music Theory Tutor . Program documentation. eMediaMusic.com . eMedia Music Corporation, 2016. Web. 18 May 2016. . eMedia Singing Method . Computer software. EMediaMusic.com . eMedia Music Corporation, 2016. Web. 20 May 2016. . eMedia Music Corporation. TimeStretch . Program documentation. EMediaMusic.com . eMedia Mu sic Corporation, 2016. Web. 20 May 2016. . Encore . Computer software. PassportMusic.com . Vers. 5. Passport Music Software, LLC, 2016. Web. 6 June 2016. . energyXT . Computer software. energy XT.com . Vers. 3.0. XT Software, 2016. Web. 8 June 2016. . Epskamp, Simon, and Phil McLeod. Tartini in Tune . Program documentation. ITunes.com . Vers. 1.1.2. Simon Epskamp & Phil McLeod, 13 Aug. 2014. Web. 2 June 2016. . Erol Singer's Studio Ð Voice Lessons . Computer software. ErolStudios.com . Vers. 1.9. Erol Studios Inc., 16 Jan. 2015. Web. 21 May 2016. . Erol Studios Inc. Erol Singer's Studio Ð Voice Lessons . Program documentation. ErolStudios.com . Vers. 1.9. Erol Studios Inc., 16 Jan. 2015. Web. 21 May 2016. . Essential Blues Guitar Volume 1 . Computer software. PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. .

PAGE 521

! ! (-. ! Essential Blues Guitar Volume 2 . Computer software. PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. . Essential Jazz Guitar Volume 1 . Computer software. PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc. , 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. . Essential Jazz Guitar Volume 2 . Computer software. PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. . Essential Jazz Guitar Volume 3 . Computer software. PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. . Essential Rock Guitar Volume 1 . Computer software. PGMu sic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. . Essential Rock Guitar Volume 2 . Computer software. PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. < http://www.pgmusic.com/videoguitarlessonsessentialrockguitar.win.features.htm>. Essential s of Music Theory . Computer software. Alfred.com . Vers. 3. Alfred Music, 2016. Web. 20 May 2016. . EUMLab Xanin Technology GmbH. Pro Metronome . Computer software. Pro Metronome Android Apps on Google Play . Vers. 0.12.29. Google, n.d. Web. May 2016. . EUMLab Xanin Technology GmbH. Pro Metronome . Co mputer software. Pro Metronome Tempo Keeping with Beat, Subdivision and Polyrhythm for Musicians . Vers. 3.13.2 . iTunes, n.d. Web. May 2016. . First Formant. Colla Voce . Progr am documentation. CollaVoceApp.com . Vers. 1.0. First Formant, 21 Sept. 2015. Web. 26 May 2016. . Finale 2014 . Computer software. FinaleMusic.com . Vers. 2014.5. MakeMusic, Inc., 2016. Web. 10 June 2016. < http://www.finalemusic.com/products/finale/>.

PAGE 522

! ! (-% ! Finale NotePad . Computer software. FinaleMusic.com . Vers. 2012. MakeMusic, Inc., 2016. Web. 10 June 2016. . Finale PrintMusic . Computer software. FinaleMu sic.com . Vers. 2014. MakeMusic, Inc., 2016. Web. 10 June 2016. . Finale SongWriter . Computer software. FinaleMusic.com . Vers. 2012. MakeMusic, Inc., 2016. Web. 10 June 2016. . Fishman, Greg. Hot Licks for Alto Saxophone Volume 1 . Program documentation . ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 1 Jan. 2014. Web. 3 July 2016. < https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/hip licks for alto saxophone/id804076436?mt=8>. Fishman, Greg. Hot Licks for Alto Saxophone Volume 2 . Program documentation . ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 5 May 2014. Web. 3 July 2016. . Fishman, Greg. Hot Licks for Tenor Saxophone Volume 1 . Program documentation . ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 28 Jan. 2014. Web. 3 July 2016. < https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/hip licks for tenor saxophone/id804081976?mt=8 >. Fishman, Greg. Hot Licks for Tenor Saxophone Volume 2 . Program documentation . ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 5 May 2014. Web. 3 July 2016. . Fishman, Greg. Jazz Phrasing for Alto Sax Volume 1 . Program documentation. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 26 Oct. 2012. Web. 3 July 2016. . Fishman, Greg. Jazz Phrasing for Alto Sax Volume 2 . Program documentation. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 3 May 2016. Web. 3 July 2016. . Fishman, Greg. Jazz Phrasing for Tenor Sax Volume 1 . Program documentation. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 26 Oct. 2012. Web. 3 July 2016. . Fishman, Greg. Jazz Phrasing for Tenor Sax Volume 2 . Program documentation. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 3 May 2016. Web. 3 July 2016. .

PAGE 523

! ! (-& ! Fishman, Greg. Jazz Saxophone Etudes for Alto Sax Volume 1 . Progr am documentation. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 4 Apr. 2015. Web. 3 July 2016. . Fishman, Greg. Jazz Saxophone Etudes for Alto Sax Volume 2 . Program documentation . ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 6 Jan. 2016. Web. 3 July 2016. . Fishman, Greg. Jazz Saxophone Etudes for Alto Sax Volume 3 . Program documentation. ITunes.Apple. com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 9 Sept. 2015. Web. 3 July 2016. . Fishman, Greg. Jazz Saxophone Etudes for Tenor Sax Volume 1 . Program documentation. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 4 Apr. 2015. Web. 3 July 2016. < https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/jazz saxophone etudes volume/id975010492?mt=8 >. Fishman, Greg. Jazz Saxophone Etudes for Tenor Sax Volume 2 . Program documentation. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishm an, 16 Jan. 2016. Web. 3 July 2016. < https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/jazz saxophone etudes volume/id1052593178?mt=8 >. Fishman, Greg. Jazz Saxophone Etudes for Tenor Sax Volume 3 . Program documentation. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 9 Sept. 2 014. Web. 3 July 2016. . Flat . Computer software. Flat.io/en . Tutteo Ltd., 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. . FL Studio 12 . Computer software. Imagine Line.com . Vers. 12. Image Line Software, 2016. Web. 5 June 2016. . FL Studio Mobile . Computer software. Imagine Line.com . Vers. 2.4 . Image Line Software, 2016. Web. 5 June 2016. . Forte Basic . Computer software. ForteNotation.com . Vers. 7. Forte Notation, 2016. Web. 12 June 2016. . Forte Free . Computer software. ForteNotation.com . Vers. 7. Forte Notation, 2016. Web. 12 June 2016. . Forte Home . Computer software. ForteNotation.com . Vers. 7. Forte Notation, 2016. Web. 12 June 2016. .

PAGE 524

! ! (-' ! Forte Notation. Forte Basic . Program documentation. ForteNotation.com . Vers. 7. Forte Notation, 2016. Web. 12 June 2016. . Forte Notation. Forte Free . Program documentation. Fo rteNotation.com . Vers. 7. Forte Notation, 2016. Web. 12 June 2016. . Forte Notation. Forte Home . Program documentation. ForteNotation.com . Vers. 7. Forte Notation, 2016. Web. 12 June 20 16. . Forte Notation. Forte Premium . Program documentation. . ForteNotation.com . Vers. 7. Forte Notation, 2016. Web. 12 June 2016. . Forte Premium . Computer software. ForteNotation.com . Vers. 7. Forte Notation, 2016. Web. 12 June 2016. . Functional Ear Trainer . Computer software. Miles.be . Vers. 2.1.13. Alain Benbassat, 2016. Web. 8 July 2016. . GarageBand . Computer software. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 10.1.2. Apple, Inc., 16 May 2016. Web. 8 June 2016. . Gilmour, Peter. Got Rhythm . Program documentation. ITunes.com . Vers. 1.0. Gilmour Games, 31 July 2015. Web. 22 May 2016. . Got Rhythm . Computer software. ITunes.com . Vers. 1.0. Gilmour Games, 31 July 2015. Web. 22 May 2016. . Gracenotes, LLC. Sight Reading Factory . Program documentation. SightReadingFactory.com . Vers. 1.2. Gracenotes, LLC, 29 Jan. 2016. Web. 4 June 2016. . Guitar Chord Dictionary . Computer software. PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 May 2016. .

PAGE 525

! ! (-( ! Guitar Sight Rea ding Trainer . Computer software. Sites.Google.com . Vers. 5.1. Rolf Steenge, 30 Sept . 2015. Web. 8 May 2016. . GuitarStar: Brent Mason Country . Computer software. PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. . GuitarStar Volume 1: Rockin' Riffs . Computer software. PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. . GuitarStar Volume 2: Rockin' Riffs for the Beginner . Co mputer software. PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. . Harmony Network Group Limited. Sing Sharp . Program documentation. SingSharpApp.com . Vers. 3.1.0. Harmony Network Group Limited, 30 Jan. 2016. Web. 26 May 2016. . Hex . Computer software. DynamicTonality.com . Vers. 2.1.1. Dynamic Tonality, 28 Dec. 2014. Web. 10 June 2016. . Highway 1 Design. Woodshedr Jazz PlayAlong . Progra m documentation. Woodshedr.com . Vers. 2.2. Highway 1 Design, 3 May 2016. Web. 6 July 2016. . Hot Licks for Alto Saxophone Volume 1 . Computer software. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 1 Jan. 2014. Web. 3 July 2016. < https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/hip licks for alto saxophone/id804076436?mt=8>. Hot Licks for Alto Saxophone Volume 2 . Computer software. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 5 May 2014. Web. 3 July 2016. < https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/hip licks f or alto saxophone/id871326314?mt=8>. Hot Licks for Tenor Saxophone Volume 1 . Computer software. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 28 Jan. 2014. Web. 3 July 2016. . Hot Licks for Tenor Saxophone Volume 2 . Computer software. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 5 May 2014. Web. 3 July 2016. . Hotpaw Productions. Sing in Tuna . Program documentation. Hotpaw.com . Vers. 2.5.3. Hotpaw Productions, 10 Oct. 2015. Web. 25 May 2016. .

PAGE 526

! ! (-) ! iwasdoingalright.com. Online Ear Trainer 3.0 . Computer software. iwasdoingalright.com . Vers. 3.0. iwasdoingalright.com, 20 16. Web. 8 July 2016. . iImprov Bebop . Computer software. JazzAppsMobile.com . Vers. 1.1. Jazz Apps Mobile, 5 June 2015. Web. 28 June 2016. < http://jazzappsmobile.com/?page_id=40>. iImprov Ð Contemporary Colors . Computer software. JazzAppsMobile.com . Vers. 1.2. Jazz Apps Mobile, 6 June 2015 . Web. 28 June 2016. . iImprov Ð Chord / Scale Compendium . Computer software. JazzAppsMobile.com . Vers. 1.0. Jazz Apps Mobile, 4 Aug. 2011. Web. 28 June 2016. . iImprov Ð Fundamentals . Computer software. JazzAppsMobile.com . Vers. 1.3. Jazz Apps Mobile, 8 Oct . 2014. Web. 28 June 2016. . iImprov Ð Modal . Computer software. JazzAppsMobile.com . Vers. 1.2. Jazz Apps Mobile, 19 Oct. 2014. Web. 28 June 2016. . iImprov Ð The Minor II V . Computer software. JazzAppsMobile.com . Vers. 1.3. Jazz Apps Mobile, 10 Oct. 2014. Web. 28 June 2016. . i KeepTime . Computer software. Prmac.com . Vers. 1.2. ONYX Apps, 2016. Web. May 2016. . Image Line Software. FL Studio 12 . Program documentation. Imagine Line.com . Vers. 12. Image Line Software, 2016. Web. 5 June 2016. . Image Line Software. FL Studio Mobile . Program documentation. Imagine Line.com . Vers. 2.4. Image Line Software, 2016. Web. 5 June 2016. . Impro Visor . Computer software. Cs.hmc,edu . Vers. 8.11. Robert M Keller, 30 May 2016. Web. 5 July 2016. . Improv Explorer . Computer softwa re. Bushkens.ca . Vers. 2.0. Buskens & Associates Inc., 2 May 2016. Web. 5 July 2016. . Interval Recognition Ð Ear Training for Android . Computer software. MarchantPeter.co.uk . Vers. 3.91. Peter Marchant, 19 Jan. 2016. Web. 8 July 2 016. .

PAGE 527

! ! (-* ! Introduction to Jazz Blues Guitar . Computer software. LeafcutterStudios.com . Vers. 1.0.0. Leafcutter Studios Ltd ., 5 Oct. 2014 . Web. 13 June 2016. < http://www.leafcutterstudios.com/project/introduction to jazz blues guitar>. iReal Pro . Computer software. iRealPro.com . Vers. 7.0.1. Technimo, 15 Mar. 2016. Web. 27 June 2016. . ISCREAM . Jazz Scale . Program documentation . Jazz sca le.appstor.io . Vers. 1.1. ISCREAM, 27 Sept. 2011. Web. 2 July 2016. . Itonia . Computer software. Itonia.com . Vers. 1.3.5. Gerald J. Agin, 2016. Web. 25 May 2016. . Jazz Apps Mobile. iImprov Bebop . Program documentation . JazzAppsMobile.com . Vers. 1.1. Jazz Apps Mobile, 5 June 2015. Web. 28 June 2016. . Jazz Apps Mobile. iImprov Ð Chord / Scale Compendium . Program documentation . JazzAppsMobile.com . Vers. 1.0. Jazz Apps Mobile, 4 Aug. 2011. Web. 28 June 2016. . Jazz Apps Mobile. iImprov Ð Chord / Scale Compendium . Program documentation . JazzAppsMobile.com . Vers. 1.0. Jazz Apps Mobile, 4 Aug . 2011. Web. 28 June 2016. . Jazz Apps Mobile. iImprov Ð Fundamentals . Program documentation . JazzAppsMobile.com . Vers. 1.3. Jazz Apps Mobile, 8 Oct . 2014. Web. 28 June 2016. . Jazz Apps Mobile. iImprov Ð Modal . Program documentation . JazzAppsMobile.com . Vers. 1.2. Jazz Apps Mobile, 19 Oct. 2014. Web. 28 June 2016. . Jazz Apps Mobile. iImprov Ð The Minor II V . Program documentation . JazzAppsMobile.com . Vers. 1.3. Jazz Apps Mobile, 10 Oct. 2014. Web. 28 June 2016. . Jazz Apps Mobile. Jazz Theory Quiz . Program documentation . JazzAppsMobile.com . Vers. 1.0. Jazz Apps Mobile, 22 Sept. 2013. Web. 28 June 2016. .

PAGE 528

! ! (-+ ! Jazz Box . Computer software. DeNovoDigital.biz . Vers. 1.0. De Novo Digital, LLC, 20 July 2012. Web. 28 June 2016. . Jazz Duets 1 for Alto Sax . Computer softwa re . Facebook.com . Vers. 2.0. Artist Ahead GmbH, 25 Feb. 2015. Web. 24 June 2016. . Jazz Duets 2 for Alto Sax . Computer software . Facebook.com . Vers. 2.0. Artist Ahead GmbH, 26 Feb. 2015. Web. 24 June 2016. < https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/jazz duets 2 for alto sax/id881413978?mt=8>. Jazz Improv . Computer software. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Tapan Srivastava, 13 Oct. 2015. Web. 3 July 2016. . Jazz Phrasing for Alto Sax Volume 1 . Computer software. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 26 Oct. 2012. Web. 3 July 2016. . Jazz Phrasing for Alto Sax Volume 2 . Computer software. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 3 May 2016. Web. 3 July 2016. . Jazz Phrasing for Tenor Sax Volume 1 . Computer software. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 26 Oct. 2012. Web. 3 July 2016. < https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/phrasing1t/id571148413?mt=8 >. Jazz Phrasing for Tenor Sax Volume 2 . Computer software. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 3 May 2016. Web. 3 July 2016. < https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/jazz phrasing volume 2 for/id1102069660?mt=8>. Jazz Saxophone Etudes for Alto Sax Volume 1 . Computer software. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 4 Apr. 2015. Web. 3 July 2016. . Jazz Saxophone Etudes for Alto Sax Volume 2 . Computer software. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 6 Jan. 2016 . Web. 3 July 2016. < https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/jazz saxophone etudes volume/id1006929910 ?mt=8 >.

PAGE 529

! ! (-, ! Jazz Saxophone Etudes for Alto Sax Volume 3 . Computer software. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 9 Sept . 2015. Web. 3 July 2016. . Jazz Saxophone Etudes for Tenor Sax Volume 1 . Computer software. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 4 Apr. 2015. Web. 3 July 2016. . Jazz Saxophone Etudes for Tenor Sax Volume 2 . Computer softw are. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 16 Jan. 2016. Web. 3 July 2016. . Jazz Saxophone Etudes for Tenor Sax Volume 3 . Computer software. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Greg Fishman, 9 Sept. 2014. Web. 3 July 2016. . Jazz Scale . Computer software. Jazz scale.appstor.io . Vers. 1.1. ISCREAM, 27 Sept. 2011. Web. 2 July 2016. < http://jazz scale.appstor.io>. Jazz Theory Quiz . Computer software. JazzAppsMobile.com . Vers. 1.0. Jazz Apps Mobile, 22 Sept. 2013. Web. 28 June 2016. . JazzU . Computer software. PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. W eb. 26 June 2016. . Jesse Clark, LLC. Practice Sight Reading . Program documentation. PracticeSightReading.com . Jesse Clark, LLC, 2016. Web. 25 May 2016. . JSplash Studios Pvt. Ltd. Music Tutor . Computer software. JSplash.com . Vers. 2.9.2. JSplash Studios Pvt. Ltd, 1 June 2016. Web. 25 June 2016. . Keller, Robert M. Improv Visor . Program documentation. Cs.hms,edu . Vers. 8.11. Robert M Keller, 30 May 2016. Web. 5 July 2016. < https://www.cs.hmc.edu/~keller/jazz/improvisor/>. kuzu / openmidiproject. Sekaiju . Program documentation. Openmidiproject.osdn.jp . Vers. 4.8. kuzu / openmidiproject , 8 May 2016. Web. 10 June 2016. .

PAGE 530

! ! (-! Leafcutter Studios Ltd. Introduction to Jazz Blues Guitar . Program documentation. LeafcutterStudios.com . Vers. 1.0.0. Leafcutter Studios Ltd., 5 Oct. 2014. Web. 13 June 2016. . Learn That Song (REMIX Edition) . Computer software. Rosano.ca . Vers. 2.6.5. Rosano Coutinho, 18 May 2016. Web. 28 June 2016. . Learn to Master Ltd. Voice Training Pro Learn to Sing . Program documentation. LearnToMaster.co.uk . Vers. 9.7. Learn to Master Ltd., 10 June 2016. Web. 24 June 2016. . Learn to Sing . Computer software. ITunes.com . Vers. 1.6. Edivaldo Almeida, 1 June 2016. Web. 5 June 2016. < https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/learn to sing super/id1068667624?mt=8>. Liquid Music . Computer software. WaveDNA.com . Vers. 1.6. Wave DNA Ltd, 2016. Web. 22 June 2016. . Listening Singing Teacher . Computer software . Http://algorithmsanddatastructures.com . Vers. 1.82. AlgorhythmsAndDataStructures.com, n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2015. . Livesey, Peter. Combo Jazz Music Generator . Program documentation. ITunes.com . Vers. 1.0.0. Peter Livesey, 11 Jan. 2015. Web. 28 May 2016. . Logic Pro X . Computer software. Apple.com . Vers. 10.2.4. Apple, Inc., 30 June 2016. Web. 1 July 2016. . Ludwig . Computer software. Write Music.com . Vers. 3.0. ChessB ase Gmb H, 2016. Web. 18 June 2016. . Maestro Music Software. Magic Score Guitar . Program documentation. MusicalEditor.com . N.p., Maestro Music Software, 2016. Web. 22 June 2016. . Maestro Music Software. MagicScore School . Program documentation. MusicalEditor.com . Vers. 7. Maestro Music Software, 2016. Web. 22 June 2016. < http://www.musicaleditor.com/msc7 music notation software.html>.

PAGE 531

! ! ).. ! Maestro Music Software. MagicScore Maestro . Program documentation. MusicalEditor.com . Vers. 8. Maestro Music Software, 2016. Web. 22 June 2016. . Maestro Music Software. OneTouch Composer . Program documentation. MusicalEditor.com . Vers. 2. Maestro Music Software, 2016. Web. 24 June 2016. . Magic Score Guitar . Computer software. M aestro Music Software . N.p., 2015 . Web. 22 June 2016. . MagicScore Maestro . Computer software. MusicalEditor.com . Vers. 8. Maestro Music Software, 2016. Web. 22 June 2016. . MagicScore School . Computer software. MusicalEditor.com . Vers. 7. Maestro Music Software, 2016. Web. 22 June 2016. . MAGIX Software GmbH. Samplitude Pro X2 . Program documentation. Magix Audio.com . MAGIX Software GmbH, 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. . MAGIX Software GmbH. Samplitude Pro X2 Suite . Program documentation. Magix Audio.com . MAGIX Software GmbH, 2016. Web. 2 Ju ly 2016. . MakeMusic, Inc. Finale 2014 . Program documentation. FinaleMusic.com . Vers. 2014.5. MakeMusic, Inc., 2016. Web. 10 June 2016. . MakeMusic, Inc. Finale Not ePad . Program documentation. FinaleMusic.com . Vers. 2012. MakeMusic, Inc., 2016. Web. 10 June 2016. . MakeMusic, Inc. Finale PrintMusic . Program documentation. FinaleMusic.com . Vers. 2014. MakeMusic, Inc., 2016. Web. 10 June 2016. . MakeMusic, Inc. Finale SongWriter . Computer software. FinaleMusic.com . Vers. 2012. MakeMusic, Inc., 2016. Web. 10 June 2016. < http://www.finalemusic.com/products/finale songwriter/>.

PAGE 532

! ! ).% ! MakeMusic, Inc. SmartMusic . Program documentation. SmartMusic.com . Vers. 2015.4.3. MakeMusic, Inc., 2016. Web. 22 May 2016. . M archant, Peter. Interval Recognition Ð Ear Training for Android . Program documentation . MarchantPeter.co.uk . Vers. 3.91. Peter Marchant, 19 Jan. 2016. Web. 8 July 2016. . Marsden, Richard. Sin g the Right Note . Computer software. SingTheRightNote.com . Richard Marsden, 2011. Web. 2 June 2016. . Master Flatpick Guitar Solos . Computer software. PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 5 July 2016. < http://www.pgmusic.com/masterflatpickguitarsolos.win.htm>. Master Jazz Guitar Solos . Computer software. PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 5 July 2016. . Master Tracks Pro . Computer software. Pas sportMusic.com . Vers. 6.8.4. Passport Music Software, LLC, 2015. Web. 5 June 2016. . Max . Computer software. Cycling74.com . Vers. 7.2. Cycling '74, 2016. Web. 14 July 2016. < https://cycling74.com/products/max/#.V4umM1fkiao>. mDecks Music. 60 Top Hat Guitar Licks Vol. 1 . Program documentation. mDecks.com . Vers. 1.0. mDecks Music, 15 June 2014. Web. 3 July 2016. . Mixcraft 7 . Computer software. Acoustic.com . Vers. 7. Acoustica, Inc., 2016. Web. 22 June 2016. . Mixcraft Pro Studio 7 . Computer software. Acoustic.com . Vers. 7. Acoustica, Inc., 2016. Web. 22 June 2016. . MixPad Home Edition . Computer software. NCH.com.au . Vers. 4.08. NCH Software, 2016. Web. 18 June 2016. . MixPad Master's Edition . Computer software. NCH.com.au . Vers. 4.08. NCH Software, 2016. Web. 18 June 2016. .

PAGE 533

! ! ).& ! MixPad Music Mixer Free . Computer software . NCH.com.au . Vers. 3.98. NCH Software, 28 Jan. 2016. Web. 18 June 2016. . MOTU, Inc. Digital Perform er 9 . Program documentation. Motu.com . Vers. 9.02. MOTU, Inc., 2016. Web. 13 June 2016. . Mozart . Computer software. Mozart.co.uk . Vers. 13. Mozart Music Software, 2016. Web. 25 June 2016. < http://www.mozart.co.uk/index.htm>. Mozart Music Software. Mozart . Program documentation . Mozart.co.uk . Vers. 13. Mozart Music Software, 2016. Web. 25 June 2016. . MuLab . Computer software. MuTools.com . Vers. 7.0.47. M uTools, 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. . MuTools. MuLab . Program documentation. MuTools.com . Vers. 7.0.47. MuTools, 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. . MuseScore . Computer software. MuseScore.org . Vers. 2.0.3. MuseScore BVBA, 2016. Web. 25 June 2016. . MuseScore BVBA. MuseScore . Program documentation. MuseScore.org . Vers. 2.0.3. MuseScore BVBA, 2016. Web. 25 June 2016. . MusiClock . Computer software. MyMusiClock.com . Vers. 2.4.1. PerTunes Oy, 27 Oct. 2015. Web. 5 July 2016. . Music Reading Essentials . Computer software. ApricotPublishing.com . Vers. 3.0. Apricot Digital Publishing, LLC, 20 Apr. 2015. Web. 8 July 2016. . Music Theory Chords in Keys . Computer software. StuartBahn.com . Vers. 3.0. Stuart Bahn, 22 Aug. 2015. Web. 8 July 2016. . Music Theory Tutor . Computer software. EMediaMusic.com . EMedia Music Corpora tion, 2016. Web. 18 May 2016. < http://www.emediamusic.com/music education software/academic music theory tutor.html>. m usictheory.net, LLC. MusicTheory.net . Program documentation. m usi ctheory.net . n usictheory.net, LLC, 2016. Web. 8 July 2016. .

PAGE 534

! ! ).' ! MusicTheory.net . Computer software. m usictheory.net . m usictheory.net, LLC, 2016. Web. 8 July 2016. . MusicTime Deluxe . Computer software . PassportMusic.com . Vers. 4. Passport Music Software, LLC, 2016. Web. 28 June 2016. . Music Tutor . Computer software. JSplash.com . Vers. 2.9.2. JSplash Studios Pvt. Ltd, 1 June 2016. Web. 25 June 2016. . MusicWorks . Computer software. tierram edia.com . Vers. 2.6. tierramedia , 2016. Web. 27 June 2016. . Musink Limited. Musink Lite . Program documentation. Musink.net . V ers. 1.2.0.2. Musink Limited, 2016. Web. 15 June 2016. . Musink Limited. Musink Pro . Program documentation. Musink.net . Vers. 1.2.1.2. Musink Limited, 2016. Web. 15 June 2016. . Musink Lite . Computer software. Musink.net . Vers. 1.2.0.2. Musink Limited, 2016. Web. 15 June 2016. . Musink Pro . Computer software. Musink.net . Vers. 1.2.1.2. Musink Limited, 2016. Web. 15 June 2016. . Musition 5 . Computer software. Rising Software . Vers. 5. N.p., 2016. Web. 8 May 2016. . Musition Advanced Note Reading . Computer software. RisingSoftware.com . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 10 Nov. 2015. Web. 11 May 2016. . Musition Instrument Recognition . Computer software. RisingSoftware.com . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 11 Nov. 2015. Web. 12 May 2016. . Musition Intervals . Computer software. RisingSoftware.com . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 10 Nov . 2015. Web. 12 May 2016. .

PAGE 535

! ! ).( ! Musition Key Signatures . Computer software. RisingSoftware.com . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 10 Nov. 2015. Web. 12 May 2016. . Musition Note Reading . Computer software. RisingSoftware.com . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 11 Oct. 201 5. Web. 10 May 2016. . Musition Rhythmic Subdivision . Computer software. RisingSoftware.com . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 10 Nov. 2015. Web. 12 May 2016. . Musition Rhythm Notation . Computer software. RisingSoftware.com . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 10 Nov. 2015. Web. 11 May 2016. . Musition Rhythm Tapping . Computer software. RisingSoftware.com . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 10 Nov. 2015. Web. 11 May 2016. . Musition Symbols . Computer software. RisingSoftware.com . Vers. 1.3. N.p ., 11 Nov. 2015 . Web. 12 May 2016. . Musitek Corporation. SmartScore X2 MIDI Edition . Program documentation. Musitek.com . Vers. 10.5. Musite Corporation, 2016. Web. 5 May 2016. < http://www.musitek.com/smartscore midi.html>. Musitek Corporation. SmartScore X2 Guitar Edition . Program documentation. Musitek.com . Vers. 10.5. Musite Corporation, 2016. Web. 5 May 2016. . Musitek Corporati on. SmartScore X2 Piano Edition . Program documentation. Musitek.com . Vers. 10.5. Musite Corporation, 2016. Web. 5 May 2016. . Musitek Corporation. SmartScore X2 Songbook Edition . Program documentation. Musitek.com . Vers. 10.5. Musite Corporation, 2016. Web. 5 May 2016. .

PAGE 536

! ! ).) ! Musitek Corporation. SmartScore X2 Pro Edition . Program documentation. Musitek.com . Vers. 10.5. Musite Corporation, 2016. Web. 5 May 201 6. . MyTronome . Computer software. ITunes.com . Vers. 1.1. Adam Bellard, 13 May 2012. Web. May 2016. < https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/mytronome/id330504750?mt=8> . N Track Software. N Track Studio EX . Program documentation. En.nTrack.com . Vers. 8.0. N Track Software, 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. . N Track Software. N Track Studio Multitrack Recorder . Program documentation. En.nTrack.com . Vers. 3.7.10. N Track Software, 201 6. Web. 2 July 2016. . N Track Studio EX . Computer software. En.nTrack.com . Vers. 8.0. N Track Software, 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. . N Track Studio Multitrack Recorder . Computer software. En.n Track.com . Vers. 3.7.10. N Track Software, 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. . NCH Software. Cresendo Music Notation Software . Program documentation. NCH.com.au . Vers. 1.1. NCH Software, 2016. Web. 5 June 2016. . NCH Software. MixPad Home Edition . Program documentation. NCH.com.au . Vers. 4.08. NCH Software, 2016. Web. 18 June 2016. . NCH Software. MixPad Master's Edition . Program documentation. NCH.com.au . Vers. 4.08. NCH Software, 2016. Web. 18 June 2016. . NCH Software. MixPad Music Mixer Free . Program documentation. NCH.com.au . Vers. 3.98. NCH Software, 28 Jan. 2016. Web. 18 June 2016. . NCH Software. PlayPerfect . Program documentation. NCHSoftware.com . NCH Software, 2016. Web. 27 May 2016. . NCH Software. WavePad Audio Editing Software . Program documentation. NCH.com.au . Vers. 6.51. NCH Software, 2016. Web. 3 July 2016. .

PAGE 537

! ! ).* ! NCH Software. WavePad Audio Editing Software Master's Edition . Program documentation. NCH.com.au . Vers. 6.51. NCH Software, 2016. Web. 3 July 2016. . NCH Software. WavePad Audio Editor Free . Program documentation. NCH.com.au . Vers. 6.42. NCH Software, 2016. Web. 3 July 2016. . Notation Composer . Computer software. Notation.com . Vers. 3. Notation Software Germany, 2016. Web. 27 June 2016. . Notation Musician . Computer software. Notation.com . Vers. 3. Notation Software Germany, 2016. Web. 27 June 2016. < http://www.notation.com/NotationMusician.php>. Notation Pad . Computer software. NotationPad.com . Vers. 1.1.8. Zhang Song, 20 June 2016. Web. 25 June 2016. . Notation Software Germany. Notation Composer . Program documentation. Notation.com . Vers. 3. Notation Software Germany, 2016. Web. 27 June 2016. . Notation Software Germany. Notation Musician . Program documentation. Notation.com . Vers. 3. Notation Software Germany, 2016. Web. 27 June 2016. . Note Trainer . Computer software. Dev4phone.com . Vers. 1.5. thoor software AB, 11 Aug. 2015. Web. 5 July 2016. . Noteflight . Computer software. NoteFlight.com . Noteflight LLC, 2016. Web. 27 June 2016. . Noteflight LLC. Noteflight . Program documentation. NoteFlight.com . Noteflight LLC, 2016. Web. 27 June 2016. . Noteworthy Composer . Computer software. NoteworthyComposer.com . Vers. 2.75. Noteworthy Software, Inc., 2016. Web. 28 June 2016. . Noteworthy Software, Inc. Noteworthy Composer . Program documentation. NoteworthyComposer.com . Vers. 2.7 5. Noteworthy Software, Inc., 2016. Web. 28 June 2016. .

PAGE 538

! ! ).+ ! OneTouch Composer . Computer software. MusicalEditor.com . Vers. 2. Maestro Music Software, 2016. Web. 24 June 2016. . Online Ear Trainer 3.0 . Computer software. iwasdoingalright.com . Vers. 3.0. iwasdoingalright.com, 2016. Web. 8 July 2016. . ONYX Apps. IKeepTime . Computer software. ONYX Apps . Vers. 1.2. N.p., n.d. Web. May 2016. . Orange Qube. Right Note Ear Trainer . Computer software. OrangeQube.com . Vers. 1.5. Orange Qube, 12 July 2012. Web. 8 July 2016. . Overture 5 . Co mputer software. SonicScores.com . Vers. 5.0.5. Sonic Scores, 2016. Web. 25 June 2016. . Passport Music Software, LLC. Encore . Program documentation. PassportMusic.com . Vers. 5. Passport Music Software, LLC, 2016. Web. 6 June 2016. . Passport Music Software, LLC. Master Tracks Pro . Program documentation. PassportMusic.com . Vers. 6.8.4. Passport Music Software, LLC, 2016. Web. 5 June 2016. . Passport Music Software, LLC. MusicTime Deluxe . Program documentation. PassportMusic.com . Vers. 4. Passport Music Software, LLC, 2016. Web. 28 June 2016. . perTunes Oy. Mu siClock . Program documentation. MyMusiClock.com . Vers. 2.4.1. PerTunes Oy, 27 Oct. 2015. Web. 5 July 2016. . PG Music Inc. Band in a Box . Program documentation. PGMusic.com . Vers. 2016. PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 22 May 2016. < http://www.pgmusic.com>. PG Music Inc. ChordFind . Program documentation. PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 May 2016. . PG Music Inc. CopyScat . Program documentation. PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 26 June 2016. .

PAGE 539

! ! )., ! PG Music Inc. Essential Blues Guitar Volume 1 . Program documentation . PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. . PG Music Inc. Essential Blues Guitar Volume 2 . Program documentation . PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. . PG Music Inc. Essential Jazz Guitar Volume 1 . Program documentation . PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. . PG Music Inc. Essential Jazz Guitar Volume 2 . Program documentation . PGMusic.com . PG Mus ic Inc., 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. . PG Music Inc. Essential Jazz Guitar Volume 3 . Program documentation . PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. . PG Music Inc. Essential Rock Guitar Volume 1 . Program documentation . PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. . PG Music Inc. Essential Rock Guitar Volume 2 . Program documentation . PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. . PG Music Inc . Guitar Chord Dictionary . Program do cumentation. PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 May 2016. . PG Music Inc. GuitarStar : Brent Mason Country . Program documentation. PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. < http://www. pgmusic.com/gsbmc.htm >. PG Music Inc. GuitarStar Volume 1: Rockin' Riffs . Program documentation . PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. . PG Music Inc. GuitarStar Volume 2: Rockin' Riffs for the Beginner . Program documentation . PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. .

PAGE 540

! ! ).! PG Music Inc. JazzU . Program documentation. PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 26 June 2016. . PG Music Inc. Master Flatpick Guitar Solos . Program documentation . PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 5 July 2016. . PG Music Inc. Master Jazz Guitar Solos . Program documentation . P GMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 5 July 2016. . PG Music Inc. Piano Chord Dictionary . Program documentation. PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 May 2016. < http://www.pgmusic.com/pianochorddictionary.htm>. PG Music Inc. PowerTracks Pro Audio . Program documentation. PGMusic.com . Vers. 2016. PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 25 June 2016. . Phrase Trainer 2 . Computer software . DesktopMetronome.com . Vers. 2. DesktopMetronome, 2016. Web. 6 July 2016. . Piano Chord Dictionary . Computer software. PGMusic.com . PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 20 May 20 16. . Pinpoint Solutions, Inc. Staff Sketch Pad . Program documentation. PinpointSolutionsInc.com . Vers. 1.0. Pinpoint Solutions, Inc., 17 June 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. . Pitch Graph . Computer software. MartinBritz.blogspot.com . Vers. 10.1. Martin Britz, 11 Sept. 2013. Web. 4 June 2016. . Pitch Perfect Visual Tuner . Computer software. ITunes.com . Vers. 2.0.1. Jeanne Brunson, 26 Nov. 2012. Web. 2 June 2016. . PlayPerfect . Computer software. NCHSoftware.com . NCH Software, 2016. Web. 27 May 2016. . Play the Blues Saxophone Volume 1 . Computer software. Facebook.com . Vers. 2.0. Artist Ahead GmbH, 11 Feb. 2016. Web. 24 June 2016. .

PAGE 541

! ! )%. ! Play the Blues Saxophone Volume 2 . Computer software. Facebook.com . Vers. 2.0. Artist Ahead GmbH, 12 Feb. 2016. Web. 24 June 2016. . PowerTracks Pro Audio . Computer software. PGMusic.com . Vers . 2016. PG Music Inc., 2016. Web. 25 June 2016. . Practica Musica . Computer software. ArsNova.com . Vers. 6. Arts Nova Software, LLC, 2016. Web. 5 May 2016. . Practice Sight Reading. Computer software. PracticeSightReading.com. Jesse Clark, LLC, 2016. Web. 25 May 2016. . PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc. PreSonus Notion 5 . Program documentation. PreSonus.com . Vers. 5. PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc., 2016. Web. 25 June 2016. . PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc. PreSonus Notion for i OS . Program documentation. PreSonus.com . PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc., 2016. Web. 25 June 2016. . PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc. PreSonus Progression 3 . Program documentation. PreSonus.com . PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc., 2016. Web. 25 June 2016. . PreSonus Au dio Electronics, Inc. PreSonus Progression for IPad . Program documentation. PreSonus.com . PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc., 2016. Web. 25 June 2016. . PreSonus Notion 5 . Computer software. PreSonus.co m . Vers. 5. PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc., 2016. Web. 25 June 2016. . PreSonus Notion for i OS . Computer software. PreSonus.com . PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc., 2016. Web. 25 June 2016. . PreSonus Progression 3 . Computer software. PreSonus.com . PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc., 2016. Web. 25 June 2016. .

PAGE 542

! ! )%% ! PreSonus Progression for IPad . Computer software. PreSonus.com . PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc., 2016. Web. 25 June 2016. . PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc. Studio One Artist . Program documentation. PreSonus.com . Vers. 3. PreSonus Audio Electronics , Inc., 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. . PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc. Studio One Prime . Program documentation. PreSonus.com . Vers. 3. PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc., 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. . PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc. Studio One Professional . Program documentation. PreSonus.com . Vers. 3. PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc., 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. . Propellerhead So ftware. Reason 9 . Program documentation. Propellerheads.se . Vers. 9. Propellerhead Software, 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. . ProTools . Computer software. Avid.com . Vers. 12. Avid Technology, Inc., 2016. Web. 2 June 2016. . ProTools First . Computer software. Avid.com . Vers. 12. Avid Technology, Inc., 2016. Web. 2 June 2016. < http://www.avid.com/pro tools first >. Puckette, Miller. Pure Data . Program documentation. PureData.info . Vers. 0.47 1. Miller Puckette, 12 July 2016. Web. 14 July 2016. . Pure Data . Computer software. PureData.info . Vers. 0.47 1. Miller Puckette, 12 July 2016. Web. 14 July 2016. . QuickScore Elite . Computer software. SionSoft.com . Vers. Level II 2015. Sion Software, 2016. Web. 14 June 2016. . Reaper . Computer software. Reaper.fm . Vers. 5.211. Cockos Inc., 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. . Reason 9 . Computer software. Propellerheads.se . Vers. 9. Propellerhead Software, 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. .

PAGE 543

! ! )%& ! Rhythm Sight Reading Trainer . Computer software. ITunes.com . Vers. 8.5.3. Rolf Steenge, 21 May 2016. Web. 4 June 2016. < https://sites.google.com/site/sightreadrhythm/home >. Rhythm Teacher . Computer software. Play.Google.com . Vers. 1.3. Gamma Games, 25 Mar. 2015. Web. 2 June 2016. < https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=net.gamya.rhythm&hl=en>. Right Note Ear Tr ainer . Computer software. OrangeQube.com . Vers. 1.5. Orange Qube, 12 July 2012. Web. 8 July 2016. . Rising Software. Auralia 5 . Program documentation. Rising Software . Vers. 5. N.p., 2016. Web. 8 May 2016. . Rising Software. Auralia Chord Recognition . Program documentation. Rising Software . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 11 Nov. 2015. Web. 10 May 2016. . Rising Software. Auralia Interval Recognition . Program documentation. Rising Software . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 10 Nov. 2015. Web. 10 May 2016. . Rising Software. Auralia Interval Singing . Program documentation. Rising Software . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 11 Nov . 2015. Web. 10 May 2016. . Rising Software. Auralia Jazz Chords . Program documentation. Rising Software . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 10 Nov. 2015. Web. 10 May 2016. . Rising Software. Auralia Jazz Scales . Program documentation. Rising Software . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 10 Nov. 2015. Web. 10 May 2016. < https://www.risingsoftware.com/articles/application/auralia jazz scales/> . Rising Software. Auralia Pitch Comparison . Program documentation. Rising Software . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 11 Nov. 2015. Web. 10 May 2016. . Rising Software. Auralia Scales . Program documentation. Rising Software . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 10 Nov. 2015. Web. 10 May 2016. .

PAGE 544

! ! )%' ! Rising Software. Musition 5 . Program documentation. Rising Software . Vers. 5. N.p., 2016. Web. 8 May 2016. . Rising Software. Musition Advanced Note Reading . Program documentation. Rising Software . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 10 Nov. 2015. Web. 11 May 2016. . Rising Software. Musition Instrument Recognition . Program documentation. Rising Software . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 11 Nov. 2015. Web. 12 May 2016. < https://www.risingsoftware.com/articles/application/musition instrument recognition/> . Rising Software. Musition Intervals . Program documentation. Rising Software . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 10 Nov. 2015. Web. 12 May 2016. . Rising Software. Musition Key Signatures . Program documentation. Rising Software . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 10 Nov. 2015. Web. 12 May 2016. . Rising Sof tware. Musition Note Reading . Program documentation. Rising Software . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 11 Oct. 2015. Web. 10 May 2016. . Rising Software. Musition Rhythmic Subdivision . Program documentation. Rising Software . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 10 Nov. 2015. Web. 12 May 2016. . Rising Software. Musition Rhythm Notation . Program documentation. Rising Softw are . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 10 Nov. 2015. Web. 11 May 2016. . Rising Software. Musition Rhythm Tappin g . Program documentation. Rising Software . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 10 Nov. 2015. Web. 11 May 2016. . Rising Software. Musition Symbols . Program documentation. Rising Software . Vers. 1.3. N.p., 2016. Web. 8 May 2016. < https://www.risingsoftware.com/articles/application/musition symbols/> .

PAGE 545

! ! )%( ! RodrÂ’guez Alvira. Teoria . Computer software. Teoria.com . JosÂŽ RodrÂ’guez Alvira, 2014. Web. 8 July 2016. . Samplitude Pro X2 . Computer software. Magix Audio.com . MAGIX Software GmbH, 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. . Samplitude Pro X2 Suite . Computer software. Magix Audio.com . MAGIX Software GmbH, 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. . ScaleTwister. ScaleTwister . Program documentation . En.ScaleTwister.ch . Vers. 2.0. ScaleTwister, 31 Mar. 2016. Web. 6 July 2016. . ScaleTwister . Computer software. En.ScaleTwister.ch . Vers. 2.0. ScaleTwister, 31 Mar. 2016. Web. 6 July 2016. . ScoreCloud Express . Computer software. ScoreCloud.com . DoReMIR Music Research AB, 2016. Web. 22 June 2016. . ScoreCloud Free . Computer software. ScoreCloud.com . DoReMIR Music Re search AB, 2016. Web. 22 June 2016. . ScoreCloud Plus . Computer software. ScoreCloud.com . DoReMIR Music Research AB, 2016. Web. 22 June 2016. . ScoreCloud Pro . Computer software. ScoreCloud.com . DoReMIR Music Research AB, 2016. Web. 22 June 2016. . ScoreWriter . Computer software. SonicScores.com . Vers. 5.0.5. Sonic Scores, 2016. Web. 22 June 2016. . Sekaiju . Computer software. Openmidiproject.os dn.jp . Vers. 4.8. kuzu / o penmidiproject, 8 May 2016. Web. 10 June 2016. . Sheet Music Scanner . Computer software. SheetMusicScanner.com . Vers. 2.2. Xemsoft Ltd., 2016. Web. 25 June 2016. . Sibelius . Computer software. Avid.com . Vers. 8. Avid Technology , Inc., 2016. Web. 14 June 2016. .

PAGE 546

! ! )%) ! Sibelius First . Computer software. Avid.com . Avid Technology , Inc., 2016. Web. 14 June 2016. . Sight Reading Factory . Computer software. SightReadingFactory.com . Vers. 1.2. Gracenotes, LLC, 29 Jan. 2016. Web. 4 June 2016. < https://www.sightreadingfactory.com>. Sing&See . Computer software. SingAndSee.com . Captivation Ltd., 2016. Web. 20 May 2016. . Singer's Mate . Computer software. SingersMate.com . Vers. 1.1. App Elations LLC, 28 Apr. 2016. Web. 2 June 2016. < http://www.singersmate.com/index.php >. Sing in Tuna . Computer software. Hotpaw.com . V ers. 2.5.3. Hotpaw Productions, 10 Oct. 2015. Web. 25 May 2016. . Singscope . Computer software. Singscope.com/en/ . Vers. 1.0.1. Springwell Music LLC, 15 Mar. 2015. Web. 2 June 2016. . Sing Sharp . Computer software. SingSharpApp.com . Vers. 3.1.0. Harmony Network Group Limited, 30 Jan. 2016. Web. 26 May 2016. . Sing the Right Note . Computer software. SingTheRightNote.com . Richard Marsden, 2011. Web. 2 June 20 16. . SingTrue . Computer software. SingTrue.co . Vers. 1.2. Easy Ear Training Limited, 21 Jan. 2015. Web. 24 Apr. 2016. . Sion Software. QuickScore Elite . Program documentation. SionSoft.com . Vers. Level II 2015. Sion Software, 2016. Web. 14 June 2016. . SmartMusic . Computer software. SmartMusic.com . Vers. 2015.4.3. MakeMusic, Inc., 2015. Web. 22 May 2016. . SmartScore X2 MIDI Editio n . Computer software. Musitek.com . Vers. 10.5. Musitek Corporation, 2016. Web. 5 May 2016. . SmartScore X2 Guitar Edition . Computer software. Musitek.com . Vers. 10.5. Musitek Corporation, 2016. Web. 5 May 2016. .

PAGE 547

! ! )%* ! SmartScore X2 Piano Edition . Computer software. Musitek.com . Vers. 10.5. Musitek Corporation, 2016. Web. 5 May 2016. . SmartScore X2 Songbook Edition . Computer software. Musitek.com . Vers. 10.5. Musitek Corporation, 2016. Web. 5 May 2016. . SmartScore X2 Pro Edition . Computer software. Musitek.com . Vers. 10.5. Musitek Corporation, 2016. Web. 5 May 2016. . Sonar Artist . Computer software. Cakewalk.com . Vers. 2016.6. Cakewalk, Inc., 2016. Web. 1 July 2016. . Sonar Platinum . Computer software. Cakewalk.com . Vers. 2016.6. Cakewalk, Inc., 2016. Web. 1 July 2016. . Sonar Professional . Computer software. Cakewalk.com . Vers. 2016.6. Cakewalk, Inc., 2016. Web. 1 July 2016. . Songworks . Computer s oftware. Ars Nova.com . Vers. 3.114. Ars Nova Software, LLC, 2016. Web. 14 June 2016. . Sonic Scores. Overture 5 . Program documentation. SonicScores.com . Vers. 5.0.5. Sonic Scores, 2016. Web. 25 June 2016. . Sonic Scores. ScoreWriter . Program documentation. SonicScores.com . Vers. 5.0.5. Sonic Scor es, 2016. Web. 22 June 2016. < https://sonicscores.com/score writer/>. Sony Creative Software Inc. Acid Music Studio 10 . Program documentation. SonyCreativeSoftware.com . Vers. 10. Sony Creative Software Inc., 2016. Web. 12 June 2016. . Sony Creative Software Inc. Acid Pro 7 . Program documentation. SonyCreativeSoftware.com . Vers. 7. Sony Creative Software Inc., 2016. Web. 12 June 2016. . Sony Creative Software Inc. Acid Xpress . Program documentation. SonyCreativeSoftware.com . Vers. 7. Sony Creative Software Inc., 2016. Web. 12 J une 2016. .

PAGE 548

! ! )%+ ! Springwell Music LLC. Singscope . Program documentation. Singscope.com/en/ . Vers. 1.0.1. Springwell Music LLC, 15 Mar. 2015. Web. 2 June 2016. . Srivastava, Tapan. Jazz Improv . Program documentation. ITunes.Apple.com . Vers. 1.0. Tapan Srivastava, 13 Oct. 2015. Web. 3 July 2016. . Staff Sketch Pad . Computer software. PinpointSolutionsInc.com . Vers. 1.0. Pinpoint Solutions, Inc., 17 June 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. . Steenge, Rolf. Bass Sight Reading Trainer . Program documentation. Sites.Google.com . Vers. 3.6. Rolf Steenge, 2 Oc t. 2015. Web. 8 May 2016. . Steenge, Rolf. Guitar Sight Reading Trainer . Program documentation . Sites.Google.com . Vers. 5.1. Rolf Steenge, 30 Sept. 2015. Web. 8 May 2016. . Steenge, Rolf. Rhythm Sight Reading Trainer . Program documentation. ITunes.com . Vers. 8.5.3. Rolf Steenge, 21 May 2016. Web. 4 June 2016. . Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH. Cubase Artist 8.5 . Program documentation. Steinberg.net . Vers. 8.5. Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH, 2016. Web. 8 June 2016. . Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH. Cubase Elements 8 . Program documentation. Steinberg.net . Vers. 8. Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH, 2016. Web. 8 June 2016. . Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH. Cubase Pro 8.5 . Program documentat ion. Steinberg.net . Vers. 8.5. Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH, 2016. Web. 8 June 2016. . Steps to Reading Music . Computer software. ArsNova.com . Vers. 6. Arts Nova Software, LLC, 2016. Web. 5 May 2016. . Studio One Artist . Computer software. PreSonus.com . Vers. 3. PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc., 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. < http://www.presonus.com/products/Studio One#notation>.

PAGE 549

! ! )%, ! Studio One Prime . Computer software. PreSonus.com . Vers. 3. PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc., 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. . Studio One Professional . Computer software. PreSonus.com . Vers. 3. PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc., 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. . Szwarcsoft . Ear Training Mastery Online . Program documentation . EarTrainingMastery.com . Szwarcsoft, 2013. Web. 8 June 2016. < http://www.eartrainingmastery.com/pl/>. Tartini in Tune . Computer software. ITunes.com . Vers. 1.1.2. Simon Epskamp & Phil McLeod, 13 Aug. 2014. Web. 2 June 2016. < https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/tartini in tune/id410789405?mt=8>. Technimo . iReal Pro . P rogram documentation . iRealPro.com . Vers. 7.0.1. Technimo, 15 Mar. 2016. Web. 27 June 2016. . Teoria . Computer software. Teoria.com . JosÂŽ RodrÂ’guez Alvira, 2014. Web. 8 July 2016. . The Practice Roo m . Computer software. ThePracticeRoom.com . The Practice Room, 2015. Web. 22 May 2016. . The Practice Room. The Practice Room . Program documentation. ThePracticeRoom.com . The Practice Room, 2015. Web. 22 May 2016. . thoor software AB. Ear Trainer . Program documentation . Dev4phone.com . Vers. 4.0.1. thoor software AB, 30 June 2016. Web. 5 July 2016. . thoor software AB. Note Tra iner . Computer software. Dev4phone.com . Vers. 1.5. thoor software AB, 11 Aug. 2015. Web. 5 July 2016. . tierram edia, MusicWorks . Program documentation. tierram edia.com . Vers. 2.6. tierramedia , 2016. Web. 27 June 2016. . TimeStretch . Computer software . EMediaMusic.com . eMedia Music Corporation, 2016. Web. 20 May 2016. .

PAGE 550

! ! )%! Timing Trainer Pro . Computer softw are. AppicDesign.MichaelTSchuggnall.com . Vers. 1.3.3. AppicDesign, 2 Apr. 2014. Web. 8 July 2016. . Tracktion 4 . Computer software. Tracktion.com . Vers. 4. Tracktion Corporation, 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. < https://www.tracktion.com/products/t4 daw >. Tracktion 6 . Computer software. Tracktion.com . Vers. 6. Tracktion Corporation, 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. < https://www.tracktion.com/products/t6 daw >. Tracktion 7 . Computer software. Tracktion.com . Vers. 7. Tracktion Corporation, 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. . Tracktion Corporation. Tracktion 4 . Program Documentation. Tracktion.com . Vers. 4. Tracktion Corporation, 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. . Tracktion Corporation. Tracktion 6 . Program Documentation. Tracktion.com . Vers. 6. Tracktion Corporation, 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. . Tracktion Corporation. Tracktion 7 . Prog ram Documentation. Tracktion.com . Vers. 7. Tracktion Corporation, 2016. Web. 2 July 2016. . Tutteo Ltd., Flat . Program Documentation. Flat.io/en . Tutteo Ltd., 2016. Web. 20 June 2016. . Voi ce Training Pro Learn to Sing . Computer software. LearnToMaster.co.uk . Vers. 9.7. Learn to Master Ltd., 10 June 2016. Web. 24 June 2016. . Wave DNA Ltd. Liquid Music . Program documentation. WaveDNA.com . Vers. 1.6. Wave D NA Ltd., 2016. Web. 22 June 2016. . WavePad Audio Editing Software . Computer software. NCH.com.au . Vers. 6.51. NCH Software, 2016. Web. 3 July 2016. . WavePad Audio Editing Software Master's Edition . Computer software. NCH.com.au . Vers. 6.51. NCH Software, 2016. Web. 3 July 2016. . WavePad Audio Editor Free . Computer software. NCH.com.au . Vers. 6.42. NCH Software, 2016. Web. 3 July 2016. .

PAGE 551

! ! )&. ! Willow Software. Anvil Studio Works . Program documentation. AnvilStudio.com . Vers. 2016.04.01. Willow Software, 2016. Web. 8 June 2016. . Woodshedr Jazz PlayAlong . Computer software. Woodshedr.com . Vers. 2.2. Highway 1 Design, 3 May 2016. Web. 6 July 2016. . Xemsoft Ltd. Sheet Music Scanner . Program documentation. SheetMusicScanner.com . Vers. 2.2. Xemsoft Ltd., 2016. Web. 25 June 2016. . XT Software. e nergyXT . Program documentation. e nergy XT.com . Vers. 3.0. XT Software, 2016. Web. 8 June 2016. . Zhang Song. Notation Pad . Program documentation. NotationPad.com . Vers. 1.1.8. Zhang Song, 20 June 2016. Web. 25 June 2016. .