Citation
A Woman of firsts : a biography of Agnes Wright Spring, author, historian, and advocate

Material Information

Title:
A Woman of firsts : a biography of Agnes Wright Spring, author, historian, and advocate
Creator:
Mercuri, Kaylyn
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of arts)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
Department of History, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
History
Committee Chair:
Hunt, Rebecca
Committee Members:
Kopp, Peter
Wagner, William

Notes

Abstract:
Agnes Wright Spring's work in the fields of applied history and History of the American West through literature, advocacy, and education carved out an impressive legacy. However, her work has not been studied or recognized. Throughout her career, Agnes held the positions of author, journalist, editor, State Librarian of Wyoming, State Historian of Wyoming, and State Historian of Colorado. She is the only person to ever hold the title of State Historian in more than one state and was the first female State Historian to serve in Colorado and Wyoming. Additionally, she authored over 500 articles and twenty-two books on topics regarding the American West. When she was not researching or writing, Agnes was advocating for women to be included in the study of history. Agnes’ efforts represent the dedication of a well-educated and socially in-tune woman who wanted to change the trajectory of history as a discipline. As a woman practicing and writing about history from the 1920s to the 1960s, Spring challenged the boundaries of traditional, “Man’s World” practices, forged a path for other women in the field, and shaped the public's perception of western history for years to come through education and collections management. Agnes’ efforts deserve recognition.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Kaylyn Mercuri. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
A WOMAN OF FIRSTS:
A BIOGRAPHY OF AGNES WRIGHT SPRING, AUTHOR, HISTORIAN, AND ADVOCATE
by
KAYLYN 0. MERCURI B.A., Furman University, 2017
A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts History Program
2019


© 2019
KAYLYN 0 MERCURI
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by
Kaylyn 0. Mercuri has been approved for the History Program by
Rebecca Hunt, Chair Peter Kopp William Wagner
in
Date: December 14, 2019


Mercuri, Kaylyn (M.A., History)
A Woman of Firsts: A Biography of Agnes Wright Spring, Author, Historian, and Advocate Thesis directed by Associate Professor C/T Rebecca Hunt
ABSTRACT
Agnes Wright Spring's work in the fields of applied history and History of the American West through literature, advocacy, and education carved out an impressive legacy. However, her work has not been studied or recognized. Throughout her career, Agnes held the positions of author, journalist, editor, State Librarian of Wyoming, State Historian of Wyoming, and State Historian of Colorado. She is the only person to ever hold the title of State Historian in more than one state and was the first female State Historian to serve in Colorado and Wyoming. Additionally, she authored over 500 articles and twenty-two books on topics regarding the American West. When she was not researching or writing, Agnes was advocating for women to be included in the study of history. Agnes' efforts represent the dedication of a well-educated and socially in-tune woman who wanted to change the trajectory of history as a discipline. As a woman practicing and writing about history from the 1920s to the 1960s, Spring challenged the boundaries of traditional, "Man's World" practices, forged a path for other women in the field, and shaped the public's perception of western history for years to come through education and collections management. Agnes' efforts deserve recognition.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Rebecca Hunt
IV


For Will
and my parents
v


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First of all, I wish to thank Will, my fiance, and my family for their love and support. Thank you for listening to all of my history/Agnes gibberish and accepting that it would one day be a complete thought.
At the University of Colorado Denver, I wish to thank Rebecca Hunt, Peter Kopp, and Bill Wagner for their guidance through this process. Special thanks to Rebecca, without whom I would not have been aware of this topic.
The History Colorado Center provided much needed research support and enthusiasm for this project. Special thanks to Steve Grinstead, David Wetzel, and Shaun Boyd.
Thanks to the Center for Colorado Women's History for choosing my project for the Fall 2019 Fellowship. The opportunity to expand this topic beyond a paper was very special to me.
At the American Heritage Center - University of Wyoming, I wish to thank the friendly and helpful archivists who let me stay from open to close for several days combing through Agnes' collection.
The State Archives of Wyoming provided much guidance and research help. I am specifically thankful for their efforts in digitizing Agnes' interviews and oral histories.
At the Redd Center, I wish to thank the grant committee for financially supporting my research.
Thanks to the Denver Public Library for their help and resource knowledge.
VI


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION....................................................1
II. AN AUTHOR, BORN AND RAISED......................................5
III. DISTANCE MAKES THE GIRL WORK HARDER: SUFFRAGE AS MOTIVATION NOT
THE ENDGOAL...................................................17
IV. THE WOMAN FOR THE JOBS.........................................25
V. A WOMAN OF FIRSTS BUT STILL A WOMAN OF HER TIME................45
VI. LET IT BE KNOWN "HISTORY IS HER BUSINESS"......................54
LIST OF REFERENCES.....................................................62
APPENDIX
I. ENDNOTES.......................................................68
vii


LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURES
1. Agnes Wright and her sister, Lucille. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center.8
2. The Wright Family in a wagon. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center.......8
3. Agnes' favorite fishing spot. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center.......8
4. The Filmore Post Office. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center............8
5. Original log house on the Wright Property, circa 1904. Courtesy of the American
Heritage Center...................................................................8
6. The Wright's two-story log home, circa 1909. Courtesy of the American Heritage
Center..........................................................................8
7. Gordon and Myra Wright, 1925. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center.......9
8. Agnes as a young woman. Courtesy of the Wyoming State Archives..............16
9. Pamphlet Produced by Agnes as Director of the Library War Service in 1917.
Courtesy of the Wyoming State Archives.........................................23
10. Call to action from Library War Service Pamphlet in 1918. Courtesy of the
Wyoming State Archives.........................................................23
11. How books help win the war. Courtesy of the Wyoming State Archives............23
12. Published in 1941, this guide to Wyoming was filled with driving tour routes of
the pioneer trails and photographs of the must-see sights. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center..........................................................31
13. This guide to Wyoming focused less on tourism and more on the local histories of
different parts of the state. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center............31
14. This book showcases histories from special groups, including Civil War soldiers,
homesteaders, former slaves, and Native Americans who lived through the Battle of Little Big Horn. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center................31
15. The Gold Nugget, Junior Historians of Colorado publication, 1959. Courtesy of the
American Heritage Center.......................................................38
viii


16.. Gold Nugget article, 1959. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center...............38
17. LeRoy Hafen and Agnes Wright Spring stand in front of exhibit design boards at
the Colorado Historical Society Annual Meeting, 1956. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center.................................................................42
18. Agnes Wright Spring (middle) and staff enjoy a Colorado State Museum holiday
party, circa 1959. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center............................42
19. "LeRoy R. Hafen, Agnes Wright Spring, Maxine Benson, and Harry Kelsey pose
for a photo at the Western History Association's Omaha meeting in 1969."
Courtesy of the History Colorado Center.........................................51
20. "Editor Spring red penciling journal copy." Courtesy of the History Colorado
Center..........................................................................51
21. Agnes Wright Spring, 1973. Courtesy of the Wyoming State Archives..........60
IX


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
I came across Agnes Wright Spring in a very peculiar way, and by peculiar, I mean that her story landed in my lap like a flashing neon sign weighed down with bricks. My academic advisor mentioned her name to me some time ago, but I did not think much about it. I began writing a paper for a different class on the Federal Writers Project and Agnes' name popped up again. Then her name appeared again as I was researching topics for a fellowship application. After these happy accidents, I was hooked on finding out more about her. A quick internet search revealed an incomplete Wikipedia page and a few photos listed on the Cowgirl Hall of Fame website. From colleagues at the History Colorado Center, I learned that Agnes was listed among the early Colorado State Historians and Editors of Colorado Magazine. However, there was a bit of a mystery about why she was listed as a State Historian and Editor of Colorado Magazine but did not receive much credit for this work in her own public, digital records.
Now fully invested, I submitted my intent to study Agnes for my thesis research. This research has taken me far and wide - physically all over Wyoming and Colorado and digitally to New York, Alaska, Tennessee, and California. Her career was so diverse, it is no wonder that she has never been comprehensively studied. This research attempted to compile Agnes' life, career, and legacy into one succinct paper.
Writing a biography from a source base that is mostly primary sources posed a new set of challenges. Agnes' collections were easily accessible and allowed me to create a relatively thorough timeline of her life and accomplishments. However, little has been written about
1


Agnes by other historians, authors, and public institutions. Until my research, Agnes was not
the focus of any comprehensive studies. The author bios in her books were the most-complete accounts of her life that were published. Agnes did write a book, Near the Greats, that detailed all of the famous or politically important connections that she made throughout her career. However, this was more of a highlight reel than a realistic picture of her life. For these reasons, I struggled to apply relevant secondary source materia.to my research. Agnes was mentioned many times in newspapers throughout her career. Yet, these normally pertained to her appointments as State Historian or her published works. These articles barely scraped the surface of any personal details.
Agnes left behind thousands of documents and hundreds of photographs. She donated these to the University of Wyoming and the History Colorado Center. Her collections at the American Heritage Center in Laramie, Wyoming, the Wyoming State Archives in Cheyenne, Wyoming, and the History Colorado Center in Denver, Colorado fill approximately 136 archival boxes. These materials were invaluable to my research. However, they rarely included items that were personal in nature. Agnes saved her correspondence from hundreds of her colleagues and research contacts, but she did not donate personal letters or diaries. There is a great absence of Agnes' point of view in her own collection. These materials tell the story of her life and accomplishments, if only from a top down, hindsight view.
Moreover, the primary sources in which Agnes spoke about the nitty gritty details of her life were typically from when Agnes was in an advanced age. Agnes wrote and spoke more reflectively and emotionally in her later years.1 As she approached retirement her speeches and public statements were more personal and anchored to what she was proud of - her family,
2


career, and publications.2 Sentiment showed through more often than it had in any other communications. These peeks into her emotions, opinions, values, and beliefs were helpful in creating a more well-rounded view of Agnes. They also must be analyzed carefully because of her older age when she spoke or wrote them. Many of the insights into Agnes' early life and career motivations came from oral histories that Agnes recorded with Carl McWilliams in 1986, just two years before she passed away.31 have attempted to verify everything that she said in those interviews, because of how much time had passed between the interviews and the subjects on which she talked.
The details of Agnes' personal life were difficult to ascertain and verify. I utilized county, school, and state records to piece together her education records and home locations over the years. Agnes moved frequently, following open positions and research. Because of this, her author bios featured a new town or state every few years. This made it difficult to track the social and academic circles in which Agnes ran. When county and state records failed to reveal new information, I verified details using Agnes' mail, public interviews, speeches, and oral histories. Matching the locations and dates made it possible for me to create a working timeline of Agnes' life and begin to fill in the missing pieces of her career and impact.
Biographical works, especially those of respectable people, often struggle with humanizing their subject and portraying a balanced view of their subject's reality. This paper seeks to represent Agnes' life, career, and legacy as best it can be understood from the available sources. While Agnes deserves to be honored for her contributions to history in the American West, this study would be incomplete without situating her in the context of her time period. This work aims to place Agnes within the realities of her time and analyze her decisions
3


along the way. Chapter V specifically tackles these issues. Though Agnes was an advocate for
women in history and history education, her actions and language patterns reveal undercurrents of racism that was commonplace during the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s.
However, Agnes is worthy of acknowledgment for her accomplishments as an author, historian, and activist in the history field. As chapters II, III, and IV show, Agnes collected many accolades and titles through her hard work, including first female to study engineering at the University of Wyoming, first female State Historian of Wyoming, first female State Historian of Colorado, awards for influential writing in the American West, and an induction into the Cowgirl Hall of Fame. She was willing to go the distance to finish her research or get the job done. Additionally, she felt that all women should have the same opportunities that she had. This led her to create space for women to join academic history conversations, study history in school, and be included as topics of history research. Agnes' get-after-it mentality served her well as she blended her careers as author and historian to become someone who supported women in both fields and led by example.
4


CHAPTER II
AN AUTHOR, BORN AND RAISED
Agnes Wright Spring was born in Delta, Colorado on January 5, 1894. She was delivered by a neighbor, because she was "in too much of a hurry to wait for the doctor."4 Agnes was the second of four daughters born to Gordon L. Wright and Myra May Dorset Wright.5 Gordon and Myra were married in Delta in 1890 and raised four daughters, Lucille, Agnes, Rachel, and Alice. Agnes' grandparents were all born in the United States. According to Oral Histories, her maternal great-grandfather, Folsom Dorset, was a farmer from Maine who was appointed by President Abraham Lincoln to serve as Secretary of Agriculture.6 However, he barely served three months before President Lincoln was assassinated.7
Agnes' father was a man of all trades. Gordon Wright worked as a stage line operator in Delta. As early as 1892, he and Myra drove wholesale fruit delivery wagons between sellers on the western slope and Aspen.8 Agnes' first memory was of sitting in her father's delivery wagon surrounded by apples.9 In the Fall of 1895, Gordon and Myra moved with their daughters, Lucille and Agnes, to Denver, Colorado.10 The West was still feeling the effects of the 1893 Silver Crash, and Gordon had not been able collect pay from any of his employers in months.11 Gordon took a job at Morey Mercantile in downtown Denver.12 However, this position lasted little more than a year. Gordon received a higher paying proposition as a railroad tie shipper in 1896.13 In order to perform this labor, the Wright family moved to Minturn, Colorado.14
In November of 1903, Gordon Wright purchased 640 acres of land on the Little Laramie River and the family moved to Wyoming.15 The property was in Albany County, northwest of
5


Laramie, Wyoming, which was expanding in population and commerce thanks to the Union Pacific Railroad. The Wright's property bordered the Little Laramie River in several places as it twisted and turned. Agnes had several favorite fishing spots along the pebbly banks of the Little Laramie.16 She continued to love fishing throughout her life, later entering in many local competitions and writing about it in a few articles.17 The Wright family used the river for fishing, washing, and drinking water.
From December 1903 on, the family operated a stagecoach stop from a three-room log building. The Wright's stagecoach line connected Laramie with the Keystone and Rambler Mines, which were established in the 1870s to mine copper and gold in the Medicine Bow Mountain Range.18 Myra and her daughters helped run the stage stop by greeting travelers and arranging household affairs. The Wright girls handled the day-to-day running of the stage stop, including cooking and laundering. Agnes specifically was in charge of slicing and selling ten cent portions of tobacco.19 The Wrights, initially, did not have rooms to rent to travelers. Gordon expanded their log cabin into a two-story, ten-room building in 1909 to solve this problem.20 After this, there were six rooms to rent.
The beauty and space of growing up in a rural area posed a problem when it came to goods and services. The Wrights' property was bordered by a few neighbors but was otherwise a stand-alone stagecoach stop and ranch. The flow of news and goods that came with the waves of travelers was unreliable depending on the season. Therefore, the Wrights and their neighbors decided to petition for a post office.21 Gordon wrote to the postmaster general in Washington and asked for authorization to set up a United States Post Office on their property.22 When the application and location was approved, Gordon named the post office
6


Filmore and built a two foot by three foot wooden shack for the mail and packages to be stored in on his property.23 Though Gordon was the official listed on the application, he delegated the responsibilities to his wife, Myra. She essentially served as postmistress for the next twenty-five years.24 Though the tiny post office was barely large enough to hold packages, it received quite a lot of business from surrounding ranches. Agnes referred to it as a "doll's house" in her 1974 publication, "Stage Stop on the Little Laramie."25
The Wrights led a simple life but a busy one. After a few years, Gordon expanded his business to include dude ranching. He was not the first to run a dude ranch in the area and bought used equipment from a nearby ranch. With the stagecoach stop, post office, and ranch, the Wrights had plenty of company stopping by their home. Mine owners, mine workers, prospectors, stage drivers, tie hacks, cowboys, cattlemen, and homesteaders all made frequent appearances at the Wright's stagecoach stop.26 It was through this constant company that Agnes developed her love for stories and writing.27 Agnes remembered sitting up late into the night with her family and visiting with travelers. They always had stories to share - of the wagon trail, business ventures, and Native American encounters. Agnes wrote these adventurous tales down in her journals. These stories inspired her to write and instilled within her an appreciation for the characters of the West.28
7


Figure 1 Agnes Wright and her sister, Lucille. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center.29
Figure 3 Agnes' favorite fishing spot. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center.21
Figure 2 The Wright Family in a wagon. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center.20

Figure 2 The Filmore Post Office. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center.22
Figure 5 Original log house on the Wright Property, circa Figure 6 The Wright's two-story log home, circa 1909. Courtesy 1904. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center.33 of the American Heritage Center.34
8


Figure 7 Gordon and Myra Wright, 1925. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center.35
Agnes could read from a young age and enjoyed learning in school. She and her older sister, Lucille, went to grade school in Laramie.36 Later, when her two younger sisters were school age there was a local schoolhouse on her parent's property.37 Agnes excelled academically in Laramie. She started school at a third-grade level and moved up to preparatory school the same year as her sister, who was two years her elder. Agnes and her sister boarded with families in Laramie during the academic year, but she did not leave behind specific names.38 Their last year of preparatory school, Agnes' Aunt had moved to Laramie. Myra,
Agnes' mother, came to live with her sister in Laramie for a few months and take care of arranging the girls' school things. Agnes remembered this as one of the happiest winters of her young life.39 After only three years of taking high school level classes at the Laramie Preparatory School, Agnes submitted an application to the University of Wyoming.40 The University of Wyoming accepted Agnes, only fifteen at the time, and she started college courses. Though it
9


was not uncommon for students to take university courses at younger ages at that time, Agnes'
ambitious study habits propelled her forward into a four-year degree.
At this point in her life, Agnes was determined to become a topographical draftsman and enrolled in engineering courses. She was introduced to map making by a traveler at her dad's stagecoach stop and was interested in the process of charting land. She hoped to contribute to what she saw as a tradition of civilizing the West through map making. However, Agnes quickly learned that being a woman and doing field work did not mix. Agnes was the first woman to sign up for engineering classes and attend engineering field studies at the University of Wyoming.41 The tools of the trade did not compliment Agnes' attire, as she soon realized that her steel corset caused the compass to give incorrect readings.42 Though she persisted in her courses, fellow classmates dubbed her "Old Ironsides."43 She adjusted her wardrobe during field study trips and was able to complete her coursework.
Agnes was able to pursue engineering because diverse educational paths were more readily accessible to women in the West. Agnes enrolled in engineering college courses with ease, even though it was a male-dominated field at the time. All it required was proof of her prerequisites from high school, or, in her case, preparatory school. Agnes found ways to get around the socially accepted dress code for women while doing field studies. She was not forced to withdrawal from the course based on her sex and the current gender stereotypes. Opposingly, women in eastern states did not enjoy access to courses and occupational training in fields that were deemed masculine. Women in the East were barred from most engineering, law, mathematics, and science courses because of their gender and the understanding that their place was in the home and not a professional field.44 Though Agnes was the first female to
10


study engineering at the University of Wyoming, she faced no resistance when signing up for
classes. This would not have been the case in eastern states.
Agnes grew up in Colorado and Wyoming, the first two states that allowed women to vote in the United States. Wyoming granted women the right to vote and hold public office in 1869, before it gained statehood.45 Other territories, such as Utah, Colorado, Washington, and Montana followed close behind by letting women vote in different capacities. When Wyoming was added to the union in 1890, it became the first state to allow women to vote. Colorado, coming in second, held a referendum and passed a women's suffrage law in 1893. Western states allowed women the right to vote in larger numbers than their eastern counterparts.
Though romantic ponderings of the West rarely conjure progressive images, Colorado and Wyoming were radical in their decisions to allow women voters before 1900. Suffragists across the country, including Susan B. Anthony, noted that "men in the West were more chivalrous than men in the East."46 Agnes grew up in a society that largely viewed men and women as legal equals, which was not the case in the majority of other states. This is not to say that women had achieved equality in Colorado or Wyoming - far from it. However, for the late 1890s and early 1900s when Agnes was growing up, Colorado and Wyoming were relatively progressive states.
Agnes' understanding of women's equality from where she grew up affected her perception of the world. Agnes, along with many women in the West after the 1890s, believed that she had the legal right to do anything a man could do. While this had societal limitations, it did not hold Agnes back from entering male-dominated courses or professions. Agnes was passionate about map-making and writing. Both were positions that were typically filled by
11


men. Agnes did not really perceive herself as breaking barriers, because she had the legal right
to work alongside a man. However, as Agnes would later find out, this was not the case across the nation. Agnes' position of equality allowed her to pursue her interests as she believed all women should be able to do.
While in school, Agnes continued her love of story-sharing by writing for the Wyoming Student and by joining clubs.47 The Wyoming Student was a university publication that featured student authors and campus news. After publishing a few articles, Agnes was introduced to the editing process by a fellow student author. She became heavily involved in editing the publication until she finally took over the position in the Fall of 1910.48 She was the first female to be the editor of the Wyoming Student49 During her university days, Agnes was also a member of Pi Beta Phi, a national women's fraternity on campus.50 This women's group held social events around campus for its members. These allowed students to spend time together outside of classes. Pi Beta Phi also raised money to donate to several local and national charities, including the Women's Christian Temperance Union.51 Agnes made strong friendships through this group that proved invaluable after her college years.
As a Freshman, Agnes was hired as an assistant librarian at the University of Wyoming by Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard. This four-year position, and the mentoring that came with it, changed the course of Agnes' future. Dr. Hebard was the library's founder and head librarian at the time.52 She was also a professor at the University of Wyoming, Native American historian, and suffragist. Throughout her career, Hebard had faced harsh criticism for her beliefs in equality and women's rights, but she stood firm.53 Hebard helped host the third convention of the National Council for Woman Voters in Wyoming in 1916.54 Agnes, through her position
12


under Grace, was able to witness the preparations for this event. Agnes was inspired by the convention and wrote about it in a 1916 article that was published by the Wyoming State Tribune.55 This connection was invaluable for her, because Hebard was a respected woman who experienced adversity and her fair share of firsts in the West. Dr. Hebard was the first woman to serve on the University of Wyoming's Board of Trustees.56 Agnes worked under Grace Hebard from 1909 to 1913.57 As assistant librarian, Agnes gained practical experience and formed a personal relationship with Hebard. Grace encouraged her to pursue story-sharing, writing, and history. This encouragement played a major role in Agnes' career path.
Agnes' experiences at the University of Wyoming essentially prepared her for two very different careers. She passed the Civil Service Examination in 1913, which certified her mapmaking abilities.58 However, her degree and passion were beginning to split ways. Agnes found herself torn between the world of story-sharing and the world of charting. Interestingly, both options could be considered as ways of remembering. Map-making collected tales of exploration and growth through distances and destinations. Nonfictional writing also collected stories but presented them in more descriptive ways. She was forced to choose whether researching and writing were simple hobbies or a viable career path. If she decided to pursue topographical work, she would be among the first women in the West to do so. Agnes decided to follow her research instincts, and Dr. Hebard's advice. This choice changed the trajectory of her life's work but did not lessen the likelihood of her being among the first woman to do things in her field.
Travel changed dramatically between Agnes' grade school days and post-university years, making it possible for her to apply for jobs in the city while also staying tight with her
13


close-knit family. When Agnes and Lucille first attended school in Laramie, they journeyed by
stagecoach for over six hours. They traveled in this fashion each way for every academic semester. Slow transportation made it necessary for the Wright girls to board with other families while they were in school, even though they were a mere twenty-three miles from home. During Agnes' second year at the University of Wyoming, the Union Pacific Railroad company expanded their tracks to incorporate more of rural Wyoming on their way to the mines. Agnes traveled home by train that Christmas and covered the distance in an hour and a half.59 Soon the car made this trip even quicker. With faster travel at her fingertips, Agnes felt confident in her ability to start a life in the city and keep her family ties close.
After graduation in May of 1913, Agnes went to work as Assistant Librarian in the Wyoming State Supreme Court Library in Cheyenne, Wyoming where she made some lifechanging connections.60 The position at the State Supreme Court Library allowed her to meet many prominent Wyoming figures.61 One such politician was Governor Joseph M. Carey, who Agnes referred to as "Josie."62 Governor Carey was a Wyoming Governor before and after statehood. Originally from Ohio, Carey got his start in Wyoming as a rancher and received support from the ranching community when he transitioned into politics.63 This ranching background also helps to explain the easy liking he took to Agnes, as she also came from a family ranch background.
Agnes impressed Carey with her hard work and wit.64 She was a keen researcher. She served the Supreme Court Library well, making connections between case files and texts that aided investigations and general public questions alike.65 Agnes quickly mastered tasks she was
14


given by superiors. She credited her background in library work and the training she received
from Hebard for her ability to succeed.66
The Carey Family, especially Julia Carey, Governor Joseph Carey's wife, took Agnes in as one of their own. They often hosted her for dinner and parties. Agnes lived in an apartment in Cheyenne, Wyoming at this time and was within walking distance of the Carey's house.67 Agnes and Julia became unlikely friends. Julia Carey, the daughter of General Henry Blanchard Freeman and Sarah Darling Freeman of Ohio, was a wealthy socialite.68 As a child Julia came with her family to Wyoming where her father participated in campaigns against the Cheyenne and Ute peoples.69 Julia came to the West with her military family but stayed to Marry Joseph Carey. Julia was often restless in Wyoming, wanting to visit California and the East Coast. To ward off boredom, she kept up with all of the latest stories and house-keeping trends. Agnes was one person with whom she always swapped stories and news. Many male suitors approached Agnes and wrote to her often while she lived in Cheyenne, including one who never really got over her. Agnes wrote about this man, whose identity she kept anonymous, saying that he never married and left her $100,000 when he passed away in the 1960s.70 She discussed her suitors' propositions with Julia but always decided to focus on her work instead of dating. Julia was amused by Agnes's stories but also respected her drive.
15


Figure 8 Agnes as a young woman. Courtesy of the Wyoming State Archives.71
Julia also liked Agnes' grit and the amusing stories it often produced. Agnes was forthcoming about the fact that she carried a pistol with her when she walked alone in what she called "the wild town of Cheyenne."72 She sought to protect herself. However, as she spilled to Julia, she stopped carrying the gun after an unfortunate and embarrassing incident. One day during the Spring of 1915, Agnes saw John J. "Blackjack" Pershing, a handsome Army Officer who she wanted to interview for a story she was writing. Hailing from Missouri, Pershing served in many campaigns against the Apaches and Sioux in the West.73 He received his nickname, Blackjack, for overseeing segregated black troops.74 In 1905, Pershing married Helen Frances Warren, daughter of Senator Francis E. Warren of Wyoming.75 They made their home in Cheyenne, where his new father-in-law was often a topic of public discussion. In 1906 Pershing received a controversial promotion to General. His promotion was a direct wish of President Theodore Roosevelt but rubbed many the wrong way as he skipped over other senior officers.76 By the time he was settled in Wyoming, he was already well-known for his military service and his influential father-in-law.77 Agnes walked by the Warren's home every day on her way to and from work. On the spring evening when she finally spotted Pershing, Agnes was so excited that
16


she reportedly started fidgeting with the pistol in her pocket and accidentally shot a hole straight through her skirt.78 Thoroughly embarrassed, Agnes did not get her chance to speak with Pershing and jogged straight home. Julia Carey found this story wildly funny and asked Agnes to tell it at a dinner party the following week.
After building this friendship for more than two years, Agnes felt that she could speak frankly with Julia and they often spoke of finances and her future. This ranged from discussing the price of replacing torn stockings to supporting oneself on a librarian's income.79 Agnes, who was twenty-one at the time, wished to attend journalism school but could not afford it for several more years at her pay rate. Julia found out about her dream and set to work in the Fall of 1915 to solve this issue. Julia collected donations from many employees of the governor's office and anonymously presented Agnes with a $500 check.80 Agnes was stunned and grateful.
However, she needed at least $1,000 to secure her tuition and living costs for a two-year graduate program. Agnes applied for a continuing education scholarship from her college fraternity, Pi Beta Phi. Pi Beta Phi, a national organization, kept funds for scholarships of this kind. Agnes had been an active member during her years at the University of Wyoming and stayed in touch with many of the alumni who now served on the alumni council. Agnes' application for the scholarship was accepted with the expectation that she would later write about her graduate school experiences for the fraternity's publication, The Arrow.81 She received $500 from Pi Beta Phi and was overjoyed. With her finances secured, Agnes applied to and accepted a spot in the 1916 class of the Pulitzer School of Journalism at Columbia University. With fond farewells to friends and emotional goodbyes to family, Agnes moved to New York City.82
17


CHAPTER III
DISTANCE MAKES THE GIRL WORK HARDER:
SUFFRAGE AS MOTIVATION NOT THE ENDGOAL
Upon moving to New York City in 1916, Agnes learned firsthand what it was like to live in a less equal society. After finding a roommate and an apartment, Agnes thought that she would settle into her studies in peace. However, the New York women's suffrage campaign was in full swing and national Pi Beta Phi council members urged her join. Agnes was recruited for the women's suffrage movement and happily joined. New York did not allow women to vote until 1917. Additionally, being close to Washington D.C., the suffragists in New York were working closely with the national women's suffrage movement.
On the days when she did not have classes, Agnes and a randomly assigned partner would canvas several blocks of the city. They knocked on doors, distributed pamphlets, and collected petition signatures.83 Over time Agnes learned that the public regard for Columbia University worked in her favor. She would name drop the school when she introduced herself in order to keep some women interested.84 Nonetheless, Agnes received many different reactions from New York women as a suffragist. She had doors slammed in her face by men and women and, opposingly, had several women hug her.85 One day Agnes was knocking on doors with a suffragist who was from Wyoming. They had a woman spit "I hope you never get the vote" at them.86 To which Agnes replied, "We have the vote. We are from Wyoming and Colorado."87 These contrasting reactions left an impression on Agnes and made her more aware of the society in which she was now living.
18


Agnes experienced gender inequality in New York in several ways. During her first year
of journalism school, Agnes was curious about expanding her knowledge so that she could write about a plethora of topics. Having worked in the Wyoming State Supreme Court Library she was interested in legal writing and journalism regarding legislation.88 Agnes went to the Dean of the Law School's office at Columbia University.89 She had not made an appointment, so she waited patiently in the lobby area. She watched male student after male student be called back for more than three hours. Then the secretary came out from behind the desk and said it was closing time and locked the office while Agnes sat there.90 Agnes came back the next day and, after waiting patiently for another two hours, demanded to be seen. When she finally got to speak with the Dean of the Law School, she informed him that she was very interested in joining a constitutional law class. He curtly replied, "My dear young woman, we have not yet reached the enlightened stage of admitting women to our law school."91 Needless to say, Agnes left very disappointed in the state of affairs at Columbia.
After the incident with the law school, Agnes was on her guard and even more fervently supported the suffrage movement in New York. Though the two were not directly connected, she felt it was a good way for women to have more control over their lives and potential. Agnes used the time she would have spent in the constitutional law class to volunteer with the suffrage movement. She stuffed letters and licked envelopes. She used her suffragist work as a means of coping with her frustrations about being hemmed in by her gender in New York society.
Career opportunities were also fraught with gender discrimination. During her time at Columbia University Agnes made many friends, some of who were men. The New Bedford
19


Standard, of Massachusetts, offered one of Agnes' male colleagues a job writing articles.92 He
could not accept the position; however, he recommended Agnes for the job and sent her to have an interview. Agnes' un-named friend gave her all of the details about the job, including his offered pay, prior to her interview.93 The hiring manager, a man by the name of Hough, promised twenty-five dollars a week to Agnes' friend. When Agnes, who was more than capable, interviewed, the hiring manager offered her the job. However, Hough offered Agnes ten dollars less per week than her male counterpart.94 She was outraged. Agnes refused the position and told the hiring manager that she was going "back to West where they treated women the same as men."95 Agnes stormed out of the office and did indeed return to the West.
Agnes unfortunately never completed journalism school, but her experiences there changed her outlook for good. Agnes regretted leaving her graduate degree unfinished.96 She felt guilty for accepting the donations and scholarship, from Pi Beta Phi, without seeing the intended purpose through.97 Agnes later applied to a graduate program at the University of Wyoming but never started the coursework due to financial restrictions during the Great Depression.98 Though Agnes was bothered by the fact that she never earned her graduate degree, the gender inequality that she faced in New York shaped her perception of her future career. Agnes, who was inspired by Dr. Hebard, had experienced some of the adversity that Hebard experienced. Before moving to New York, Agnes did not consider her gender as an important factor in her work.99 After attending Columbia, the fact that she was a female was ever-present in the way she navigated her career.
20


Agnes found peace with her decision to leave graduate school by repaying the kindness
of her donors and Pi Beta Phi through writing. In the application essay she wrote for the graduate school at the University of Wyoming, Agnes focused on Joseph Carey and his career.100 Her editorial of his life's work included many personal stories. Agnes honored her commitment to write about her experiences in New York for Pi Beta Phi's publication The Arrow.101 Her article entitled, "But You're A Girl!" featured the stories of her shock at how she was treated by the Dean of the Law School at Columbia University and by the hiring manager at her job interview.102 In chatty, informal language, Agnes bared her raw emotions and ensured her readers of the reasons why equality and national suffrage were imperative.
In addition to her feature article, Agnes completed an entire history and guidebook for Pi Beta Phi by traveling all over the country and Canada to interview alumni and current members of the organization.103 Her favorite stop along the way was Gatlinburg, Tennessee where she visited a settlement school that her fraternity was sponsoring.104 She spent several weeks in Gatlinburg, playing with the children, enjoying the scenery, and writing.105 Agnes took the opportunity of these trips to reflect on the West - how equality between men and women changed the outcomes of lives and careers.106
Agnes returned to Wyoming with her newfound emphasis on equality and received a position as State Librarian in 1917.107 Agnes settled back into Cheyenne at this time and was happy to be back near her family.108 She served as the State Librarian for four years, actively adding to and inventorying the state's collections.109 As State Librarian, she quickly rejoined the social and academic circles in Wyoming.110 She was even more direct and ambitious in her work due to her feelings of being shut out in New York. Women in Wyoming enjoyed more equality
21


but still fought gender stereotypes. To make sure she was at the top of her game, Agnes enrolled in night classes at the Cheyenne Business College.111 She attended night courses and studied shorthand.112 Agnes was forthcoming in her intentions to incorporate female authors and historians into the Wyoming State Library circuit as well as make sure that she was not underestimated due to her gender.113
Agnes used her weekends in Cheyenne to do research and hone her writing talents.114 Agnes joined the Wyoming State Historical Committee and was selected as a chairperson in 1917. She used the group as a sounding board for her ideas. Also in 1917, she began writing many articles on ranching data and livestock.115 Between 1917 and 1918 Agnes wrote two weekly columns for the Wyoming Stockman Farmer, the house-keeping column and ranching column.116 Agnes had a little more difficulty with her story-length articles. Western publications, such as The American Magazine and Cromwell Publishing Company, rejected her early articles for not appealing to the public audience not being "distinctive enough for us to keep."117 Agnes used this criticism to develop her writing style - stories of people in the West. She found that if her articles included people and their daily life or struggles, they were more likely to sell.118 Supporting herself as an author alone would not have been possible just yet, so Agnes was thankful for her position as State Librarian.
Agnes' reliable work was recognized by those within her network and this contributed to her gaining more responsibilities than the average State Librarian. After the United States entered World War I in 1917, Agnes was selected as the Director of the Library War Service.119 The Library War Service, under the American Library Association, sought to provide reading materials to American and allied soldiers fighting in World War I.120 The Governor of Wyoming,
22


Frank L. Houx, wanted this library program to succeed, but he also hopped to compile a list of
all men from Wyoming who were serving overseas.121 In order to make this happen, Houx created the office of Wyoming State Historian in 1918.122 Through this position, the governor aimed to emphasize the importance of record keeping. He appointed Agnes to this position, making her the first female Wyoming State Historian.123 Though Wyoming was known as the gender equality state, this was still a big step for Agnes and continued her trend of firsts. Agnes served in these capacities through the end of 1919, while also working as State Librarian.124 These feats would not have been possible without her dedication to her work and those she was serving.
Covering all these positions at once included a lot of administrative and political work, but it also streamlined the process. As a voting member of the Wyoming State Historical Committee and State Historian, Agnes was able to institute her ideas and programs.125 The reading programs and historic research topics that Agnes undertook were supported by other members of the historical committee.126 As State Historian of Wyoming, she was known as a woman of "tireless efforts" who "devotes herself to literary detective work."127 This investigative research produced several short Wyoming histories as well as contributed to her own writing. Many of these were included in shipments sent to troops stationed overseas as they fought in World War I. Agnes leaned on her resources as State Librarian and State Historian in order to make her efforts as Director of the Library War Service successful.128 She set up book donation centers across the Wyoming and the West. Agnes circulated pamphlets educating citizens on the need for reading materials in the war effort and urging them to consider donating their books.129
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WAR SERVICE ^ OF THE AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION
WAR LI BRARIES
"HEY. FELLOWS!"
('mini War (Viol C
War £ilirant Uiiillrtin
Camp IJbarin Help Win the War


War Service Work To Out.

Figure 9 Pamphlet Produced by Agnes as Director of the Library War Service in 1917. Courtesy of the Wyoming State Archives.130
Figure 10 Call to action from Library War Service Pamphlet in 1918. Courtesy of the Wyoming State Archives.131
Figure 11 How books help win the war. Courtesy of the Wyoming State Archives.132
Functioning as State Historian was Agnes' first political experience; however, she did not have to go it alone. She excelled in securing funding for libraries, reading programs, and history events throughout the state of Wyoming. In order to do this, Agnes appeared before committees and state legislators or wrote proposals. This was intimidating work, but Agnes cited her friends and fellow academics at the University of Wyoming, such as Dr. Gene Gressley and Dr. Grace Hebard, when justifying her proposals and requests for funding. The support of well-known history experts was helpful in clearing Agnes of any precursory underestimations.
In 1920, Agnes left her position as State Historian to marry Archer "Archie" T. Spring.133 Archie was a geologist who came from Massachusetts to study at the Colorado School of the Mines.134 Before meeting Agnes, Archie worked at oil refineries all over the country and Latin America. He was exhausted with traveling and the dangers his job brought. He wanted to settle down and find peace in everyday routine.135 Originally from Boston, Archie had been raised in
24


the city and only known an urban lifestyle.136 He desired something different. Archie missed the
wide-open spaces and seasonal changes of the American West. He returned to Colorado and met Agnes. The two were married in the Spring of 1921 and moved to Fort Collins, Colorado where Archie took a desk job at an oil company.137 Agnes joked that Archie was "the East to my West."138 At twenty-seven years old, Agnes was older than most brides at the time, but she decided not to follow the housewife lifestyle. Their untraditional lifestyle provided room for blossoming careers and civic engagements.
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CHAPTER IV
THE WOMAN FOR THE JOBS
During my years in public life I always worked harder than my staff and tried to justify the confidence placed in me by the nine governors whom I served, regardless of politics. I thoroughly enjoyed my work for more than half a century in a Man's World - or since I worked in Wyoming and Colorado perhaps I should say - in a Women's World, too!139
Over the next thirty years, Agnes refused to let her career get sidelined. Though she was now a married woman, both Agnes and Archie continued their careers. They never had any children. During the 1920s Agnes published nearly seventy-five magazine articles and short stories in publications such as the Wyoming Stockman Farmer, The Denver Post, and Sunset Magazine.14° She was focusing more on stories about people and pioneers in western history. Agnes also published her first book, Caspar Collins: The Life and Exploits of an Indian Fighter of the Sixties.141 After some difficulty with the publisher, Caspar Collins hit the shelves and was reviewed by several Colorado newspapers. This success jump-started Agnes' writing career and led to her starting several new projects.
After six years in Fort Collins, Archie still craved a slower lifestyle and wished to move into a more rural area. Agnes, who spent her days either on the road chasing research or at home writing, was fine with the idea of being a little more out in the country. It would not inhibit her ability to work and, after all, she grew up in the country. They purchased a cherry orchard and settled into their new home and land.142 The name recorded for their new home was Cherryhurst. It was located near Fort Collins, Colorado. Agnes grew up feeding turkeys and
26


working in a garden, but neither Agnes nor Archie had much prior knowledge of raising trees or
operating an orchard.143 Their efforts were nearly laughable, as Agnes remarked later in life.
As their ventures with the orchard teetered on breaking even, Agnes continued to write western histories and fiction stories. She joined the Denver Women's Press Club, which focused on supporting and encouraging women authors.144 The Denver Women's Press Club also specialized in networking. Agnes traveled to Denver for meetings where she connected with publishers from Denver, Colorado at large, and national publications. Agnes published articles in Frontier Times Magazine, The Wyoming Stockman Farmer, The Rocky Mountain News, The Denver Post, and the Fort Collins Coloradan.145 She had mastered her writing style and was only slowed by the effects of the Great Depression.
During the Great Depression, authors and publication houses suffered alike, to Agnes' dismay. She sought additional employment. She put aside the research that she was conducting for future manuscripts and applied for research positions at a few state institutions. Through an assortment of desk jobs, Agnes received ad hoc work for a few years. In 1934, Agnes and Archie were forced to sell their cherry orchard and move to Denver. In the urban center, Agnes had a better chance of getting reliable work because she was in closer proximity to Denver public libraries, publishers, and museums.
The Works Progress Administration (WPA), created to aid struggling workers during the Great Depression, initiated the Federal Writer's Project to help underemployed authors and historians in 1935.146 Each state set up a Federal Writer's Project headquarters within the WPA state office, selected a director, and started hiring researchers, ethnographers, and writers from across the state. Individual states had different projects and branches of this outreach.
27


Many states also had programs that hired artists, playwrights, musicians, etc. However, they
almost all followed a similar schema.
The purpose of the federal writer's project was to put professional writers to work by paying them to write histories and guidebooks for their state.147 These books aimed at rejuvenating tourism to help the country bounce back from the depression.148 The histories and guidebooks were supposed to be based off of long-standing history and newly acquired research. Many states initiated oral history programs in order to capture the stories of their state's current and past populations and some focused on including ethnic minorities that had been excluded from previous state histories.149
Dr. LeRoy Hafen, a well-respected Colorado historian, was named Director of the Federal Writer's Project in Colorado and wanted Agnes on his team.150 He had been following Agnes' work over the last few years and the two ran in similar circles. Hafen wanted to hire researchers and writers who were willing to go the distance to capture stories from every part of the state. He knew Agnes was thorough and hard-working. In the Fall of 1935, Hafen called Agnes out of the blue and offered her a research position with the Colorado Federal Writer's Project.151 Agnes was thrilled to be offered such steady employment and immediately accepted - without even conferring with Archie.152 However, Agnes' bubble burst when she was notified by the state that she was ineligible for the job. According to the state of Colorado, Agnes was not poor-enough to receive the aid from the WPA-funded position.153 Hafen was frustrated by this setback, but his hands were tied.
Agnes was disappointed but not out of hope or options. She utilized her whole network to sell her written work and brainstormed more ambitious pieces that would be desirous to
28


state-wide institutions. Agnes compiled a proposal for a comprehensive narrative of Wyoming's
history, one with topics no one had ever studied before.154 She wanted to study the women of Wyoming who,
accepting equality as a matter of course, have taken their place side by side with the men in building up a great western empire. Theirs is a story of courage, of isolation, of struggles and privations, of political intrigue, of initiative and leadership, of national recognition - filled with romance and color.155
Agnes drew up a brochure on this idea and dropped it off at every academic institution she
could think of, including the State Library of Wyoming. She happened to be visiting the library
to do some research for a different article. A new librarian, who did not work under Agnes
when she was State Librarian, saw potential in the pitch. This unnamed librarian passed the
brochure on to the Wyoming Department of Education, where it was reviewed by the
education committee and the Wyoming State Librarian.156 Both parties agreed that Agnes'
project was important and well-developed enough to be part of the Wyoming Federal Writer's
Project mission.
Three weeks later, after the Works Progress Administration had reviewed the Wyoming State Librarian and Department of Education's plea to hire Agnes for the Wyoming Federal Writer's Project, Agnes received an appointment notice from Wyoming.157 Not only was her book proposal accepted, but she was also being offered the position of Director of the Federal Writers Program in Wyoming.158 Agnes was elated and a bit surprised. She readily accepted. Agnes did not downplay her excitement or pride that she was offered an equal position to that of her colleague, Dr. Hafen. She had earned a position equal to that of a respected male colleague in Colorado, a career shift that she did not take for granted. Agnes and Archie moved
29


to Cheyenne, Wyoming in the Spring of 1936, where Archie took a job as an inspector for a fuel
company.159
In this position Agnes pursued her research goals as well as fulfilled other requests from the state with a team of eager researchers, writers, historians, and artists. Agnes and her team at the Wyoming Federal Writer's Project compiled a list of counties, towns, cities, historic sites, and points of interest in Wyoming according to the instructions from the national Works Progress Administration office in Washington, D.C.160 She arranged for researchers to scour the archives and libraries in Cheyenne and Laramie for existing information about pioneers, statehood, women's suffrage, ranching, and historic battles.161 Agnes and her team created a plan for how to collect more narratives about topics and communities that were understudied. The WPA office in Washington D.C. provided a rough list of information they required for the books, but the details were up to each individual state. Agnes divided the map of Wyoming and corresponding list of historic sites and important people groups systematically amongst the researchers, writers, artists, and historians on her team.162 As director, she was bogged down with administrative duties and did not get to perform as many interviews as she would have liked. However, her team was capable and documented their findings in written reports that Agnes read and approved.163
The Wyoming WPA office requested two publications of different natures from the Wyoming Federal Writer's Project. The first was a tourism and travel book. This project produced The WPA Guide to Wyoming: The Cowboy State (1941).164 Researchers, photographers, and writers compiled driving tours of Wyoming and photographs of the tour highlights for this book. 165 The driving tours focused on the old pioneer trails and historic sites
30


in the state.166 The hope was that this book would inspire in-state and out-of-state tourists to
journey to these places and meanwhile spend money in the state. The second book requested from the Wyoming Federal Writer's Project was more history focused. This survey-type text required the Federal Writer's Project writers to conduct more comprehensive research. They needed to collect information about those who forged the path to statehood in Wyoming. Additionally, the Federal Writer's Project sought to make space for everyone who participated in civilizing, as they perceived it at the time, and growing the state after that. After five years of interviewing, writing, and editing they published Wyoming; A Guide to Its History, Highways, and People.167 The Wyoming Federal Writer's Project office considered the finished product as the most comprehensive study of Wyoming to date.168
In order to complete these books, Agnes oversaw the WPA initiatives to interview many of Wyoming's underrepresented populations. Many of these took place in the format of oral histories.169 The Work Progress Administration supplied instructions on how to conduct oral histories and record notes and transcripts from the sessions.170 They informed the research about different experiences around the state, including those of ethnic minorities and women. Researchers conducted interviews with Greek, Hispanic, African American, Italian, and Chinese communities.171 The research revealed that nearly fifty nationalities were represented in Wyoming in the 1930s.172 Moreover, these interviews often reflected the perspectives of the women and elders from these communities. The interviewers traversed the state during the daylight hours of weekdays. Therefore, the able-bodied men of the community were often gone to work. If the woman of the house was also away at work, the researchers would gather
31


stories from the oldest child. This pleased Agnes, as her original book proposal aimed to focus on women of Wyoming.
Their research assembled such a large amount information that two books would not suffice. The Wyoming Federal Writer's Project offered a third book with their findings, Wyoming Folklore: Reminiscences, Folktales, Beliefs, Customs, and Folk Speech.173 This work showcased specific individuals and events, such as Civil War soldiers, homesteaders, former slaves, and Native Americans who fought at the Battle of Little Big Horn.174 These specialized stories went further in depth than previous histories because they included folklore and legend alongside the traditionally accepted history. In a time when Euro-centric understandings of religion and history were the norm, Wyoming Folklore placed Native American stories and other minority stories in a position of equal importance.
Wyoming Folklore
Reminiscences. Folktales. Reliefs, Customs, and Folk Speech
V -y.
ifJJrpT
m



vjvfo'wvimr
Figure 12 Published in 1941, this guide to Wyoming was filled with driving tour routes of the pioneer trails and photographs of the must-see sights. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center.175
Figure 13 This guide to Wyoming focused less on tourism and more on the local histories of different parts of the state. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center.176
Figure 14 This book showcases histories from special groups, including Civil War soldiers, homesteaders, former slaves, and Native Americans who lived through the Battle of Little Big Horn. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center177
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While overseeing the publication of the Wyoming office's research, Agnes set her sights
on publishing more of her own writing and working with educational institutions. In 1941, the WPA rebranded the Federal Writer's Project and then shut it down completely.178 The economy was recovering from the Great Depression and it became more difficult for politicians to secure funding for national aid programs.179 Agnes stayed in Wyoming to see the publication process through but was technically no longer employed through the WPA when the guides to Wyoming hit the shelves.180 Agnes and Archie moved back to Denver, Colorado in 1941 and Agnes accepted a position as Assistant Librarian at the Denver Public Library.181 Her time in the library re-ignited her passion for history and historic collections. Agnes published three books, including William Chapin Deming of Wyoming: Pioneer Publisher, and State and Federal Official: A Biography (1944).182
In 1943, following years of researching, writing, and publishing, Agnes became restless in the Colorado. Behind the scenes, Agnes was feeling challenged by a friend and colleague. A friend of Agnes' told her that it was good she wanted to pursue her writing because no one hires "old bats."183 By this, the unlisted friend meant that Agnes, who was forty-nine at the time, was getting too old to be the public face of any organization or institution. She could hide behind her writing and make money that way.
However, Agnes was offended by this and took it as a personal challenge.184 She applied for a position and was hired as the Reader's Adviser and Public Relations Officer for the Sacramento Public Library.185 Agnes' correspondence was unclear about whether Archie moved with her for this position. She was in California for less than a year, which might suggest that
33


Agnes and Archie were doing long-distance. She returned to Denver in 1944, having verified for
herself that she could still deal with public forces and excel.
Agnes transitioned to the Western History Department of the Denver Public Library when a position became available in 1945 and settled back into her Denver circles.186 She joined the National League of American Pen Women Inc., the Colorado Authors League, the Western History Association, and the Western Writers of America.187 The network of historians and authors that she regularly worked with was steadily growing. They respected her detail-oriented research and public audience-friendly writing style.188 Though Agnes' books and articles were considered easy reading by reviewers, they did not lack responsibly and thoroughly conducted research.189
Agnes' professional connections and hard work paid off, as she was appointed Acting State Historian in 1950. Dr. Hafen, the State Historian of Colorado from 1924 to 1949 and 1951 to 1953, recognized the promise of Agnes' career as early as the 1930s when he wanted her on his Federal Writer's Project team. Hafen and Agnes had been collaborating on research together for the Colorado Magazine as early as 1933.190 This collaboration strengthened Hafen's wishes to employ Agnes at the Colorado State Museum. In 1950, Hafen finally had another opportunity to recruit Agnes. He asked Agnes to stand in for him as State Historian of Colorado while he was away on a year-long fellowship at the Huntington Library in California.191
Agnes did not question her abilities and rose to the task. She accepted and stepped into her role as Acting State Historian of Colorado in January of 1950. In this position Agnes oversaw the functions of the Colorado State Museum, edited and published Colorado Magazine, maintained the historical collections of the museum, and helped run the Colorado State
34


Historical Society.192This opportunity catapulted Agnes into the Colorado public eye, and she
worked diligently to do her best. Coworkers reported that the rectangular metal desk in her office, room 114, was always piled high with papers, research folders, and letters. As State Historian, Agnes had "little spare time because of attending meetings and visiting with inquiring citizens who just dropped in."193 Agnes seemed to always have time for everyone who had a history-related question.
Agnes often interacted with the public and politicians in her role, and she took care to control how the public perceived her as a woman and a professional.194 She advocated for herself when people doubted her abilities and proved them wrong every chance she could. As the first female State Historian in Colorado, Agnes faced an adjustment period that was exacerbated by her timing. Following World War II, women who previously worked or went to work on the home front by and large found themselves in domestic positions, as stay-at-home wives and mothers. World War II cheated many young Americans from settling down and starting families. Therefore, that was the prerogative once the war ended. For this reason, women in positions of authority were more uncommon in the 1950s than previous generations. As a female, this meant that Agnes sometimes became very conscious of the fact that she was outnumbered by men.195
Agnes was required to advocate for the Colorado Historical Society and the Colorado State Museum to legislators and state officials.196 Similar to when she was State Historian of Wyoming, Agnes proposed annual budgets and represented history education for the state of Colorado at finance meetings.197 Agnes crafted her arguments for further funding based on education and entertainment. She utilized quantifiable data, such as Colorado State Museum
35


visitation records and Colorado Magazine sales, to prove the reach of the historical society's
efforts.198 Agnes also presented the numbers of school children who visited the museum or benefited from the external program each year. She refrained from pitting political parties against each other.199 Instead, Agnes remained as neutral as possible in order to win favor for the historical society.
Regardless of her efforts to maintain neutrality, Agnes had to navigate very political topics with politicians who sometimes questioned her ability. Agnes received many letters from the Colorado Capitol and general public addressed "Dear Sir."200 Though it was the assumption at the time that a man would hold the title of authority these addresses made it seem as if it would be preposterous for a woman to truly be on the answering end. Nonetheless, Agnes persevered. She worked hard to respond to all public requests, whether it be to review a book in the Colorado Magazine or find a photo for someone's family-tree research.201 For this reason, Agnes was well received by most Colorado legislators.202
Colleagues and executives at the Colorado State Museum and the Colorado Historical Society, such as the President of the Historical Society James Grafton Rogers, appreciated Agnes' thorough work ethic.203 When Dr. Hafen returned from California in 1951, he stepped back into the role of state historian. As Agnes prepared to find other employment, the Colorado State Historical Society was undergoing some restructuring. During this reorganization of jobs, they created the Executive Department of the State Historical Society. This department oversaw the financial and program planning of the museum. With this new department came a new position, Executive Assistant to the President. Agnes was selected as the first Executive
36


Assistant to the President of the Colorado Historical Society.204 Her impact as Acting State Historian made them want to keep her involved.
As Executive Assistant, Agnes organized social functions, finance meetings, board meetings, and the president's correspondence.205 Agnes served under President James Grafton Rogers, who also encouraged her affinity for increasing the society's collections.206 Agnes provided workflow support but also managed some projects on her own, including budget hearings for the society's library and education programs.207 Agnes held this position until 1954, when Hafen retired as State Historian.208 The Colorado State Historical Society appointed Agnes, the capable and already experienced choice, State Historian at the December 1954 Colorado Historical Society meeting that year.209
During the years that Agnes was appointed State Historian of Colorado (1954 to 1963), she advocated for the expansion of history curriculum in Colorado schools.210 Agnes expanded the number of book reviews in the Colorado Magazine, to provide reference for Colorado's history and social studies teachers as well as the interested public. Agnes used her position to collect historic artifacts and photographs that would benefit visitors of the State Museum and school age children.211 Agnes worked to collect artifacts, books, photos, and illustrations in order to create new exhibits. One specific exhibit was on the Pony Express. She provided information guides, in the form of a six-page pamphlet, for teachers to accompany this exhibition.212 Agnes also worked with the department of transportation and planning to add a bus lane next to the State Museum in order to allow school children to safely unload.213 She used this as one of the selling points when marketing educational tours to schools.214
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As State Historian, Agnes called attention to the needs of the Colorado State Historical
Society's library. The library was desperately understaffed and underfunded for the amount of intake expected by society members at the Colorado State Museum.215 Agnes petitioned the society's board to move the responsibility for budgeting and funding the library to the job description of State Historian.216 As previous Executive Assistant to the President of the Colorado Historical Society, Agnes had experience with finances and fundraising meetings. After a board vote, responsibility for the society's library was transferred to the State Historian.217 Agnes utilized this opportunity to restructure the library's budget and hire a new librarian to help with the workload.218
One of Agnes' State Historian duties was to manage the content and publication of Colorado Magazine. Today this publication is known as Colorado Heritage Magazine. Agnes collaborated on this publication with Dr. Hafen, the previous State Historian, as early as 1949. She learned the ropes briefly in 1950 when she was Acting State Historian. However, Agnes used her longer appointment as Colorado State Historian to revise the publication's purpose and content. Agnes emphasized the necessity of academic and non-academic book reviews. She wanted the publication to appeal to teachers, higher education professionals, and the general public all at once. To achieve this balance, Agnes accepted public recommendations for what texts she and her team should review in upcoming issues. The society could not afford to give out free copies of the magazine to teachers, so Agnes worked diligently to expand their mailing list and magazine revenue. Agnes also used Colorado Magazine as a way to spread the word regarding new museum exhibits, events, and programs.
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Agnes also oversaw a program called Junior Historians of Colorado, which encouraged
students to study history and practice their writing skills.219 Students of all grade-levels were eligible to submit short written pieces about something they studied in Colorado History, whether it was a subject in school or an artifact at the museum. Agnes helped these students conduct responsible research and edited their writing. As incentive and reward Agnes published a few student authors' work in a publication she branded the Gold Nugget.220 Using a mailing list, Agnes alerted teachers to the possibility that their students studying Colorado history could be published authors through this program. Many history and social studies teachers adapted homework assignments that included an essay on a Colorado topic.221 A few teachers assigned a project where students each picked a county in Colorado to study. If the school's library did not have enough information for them to complete their research, the students could write to the State Historian. Agnes responded to Anna Hawthorne of the Cheyenne Mountain School, for information on Bent County with fifteen pages of information and nearly a dozen copies of photographs.222
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Figure 15 The Gold Nugget, Junior Historians of Colorado Figure 16 Gold Nugget article, 1959. Courtesy of the
publication, 1959. Courtesy of the American Heritage American Heritage Center.224
Center.222
Additionally, Agnes wanted to expand the State Museum's education programming by utilizing available technology. During the 1950s and 1960s, technological advancements like the television and recorded video were just becoming available to the consumer market.225 They were a luxury of sorts and only available in black and white at first. Yet, Agnes saw a way to wield those mediums for the good of history education.226 She did the same with radio programming and photography. Instead of budgeting for ways to include these resources within existing museum exhibits, Agnes brainstormed ways to use them for education outreach - that is, to reach those who were not within a short drive of the physical museum.227
Museums during this time period often did not see the value in outreach and education programs that took place beyond museum walls. Museum tours in the 1950s and 1960s were typically guided and featured more artifacts than historical interpretation.228 Moreover, whether for adults or children, the tours involved very little hands-on engagement with the artifacts.229 The Colorado State Museum was no different. They offered daily tours and
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marketed them to school groups and adult groups alike. There was very little to do on these
tours other than to read exhibit signage and listen to the guide. Museum trends in the 1950s and 1960s followed similar schemas and hesitated to incorporate television and radio into exhibits. Including technology in museum exhibits and programs could be expensive and required a new set of skills. Museums were reluctant to consider outreach programs because they complicated the flow of traditional museum education.230 However, Agnes made it one of her missions to prove that incorporating technology would increase interest in and accessibility to history education without cheapening the content. Agnes was successful in making Colorado History accessible to more students and people through her television programs, films, and radio talks.
As State Historian, she helped fund a project that created film strips that captured Colorado artifacts from the Colorado State Museum's collections.231 "The Trappers" was the film strip in highest demand from teachers in Colorado.232 Agnes and her research team compiled a script to accompany the forty slides so that teachers could further engage their students while also teaching a lesson on Colorado's fur trade pioneers.233 Agnes made these film strips available for schools across the state to rent via mail order.234 They were paired with a lesson plan for each grade, so that teachers could easily incorporate them in to their lessons. By making this more in-depth history accessible to students who could not come to the museum, Agnes hoped to ignite interest in Colorado History in classrooms well beyond Denver's city center. This program was a precursor to a similar program that History Colorado, previously the Colorado Historical Society, still runs today.235
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The film strip program was successful, but Agnes had to fight for her right to oversee
it.236 As State Historian, Agnes was in a position of authority but preferred to encourage an environment of mutual consideration with her colleagues. However, if the situation required, Agnes advocated for herself and her right to equal respect. Agnes pitched the idea for the film strips in a Colorado Historical Society annual meeting.237 She suggested a mail order process as a way to geographically diversify their education efforts. Board members generally liked the idea, but then Agnes did not hear anything more about it for several weeks.238 Agnes reported in a letter to Maxine Benson, a friend and Colorado Historical Society colleague, that she found out the film strip program was being delegated to a male colleague.239 Agnes did not harbor any ill will against this unnamed male colleague. However, she wanted the opportunity to manage her own ideas and intellectual property. Agnes did not want to be petty, but also wanted to stand up for herself. She penned a pointed letter to the President of the Colorado Historical Society, James Rogers, and made copies for legislators who supported the program's funding initiatives.240 After some discussion, Agnes received management responsibilities of the film strip program in 1962.241
Agnes' goal was to reach as many children as possible and to encourage them to write about history.242 Agnes accomplished this through the film strips but also through television and radio programs. Agnes participated in several educational television programs that took viewers on a special tour of museum exhibits in the Colorado State Museum.243 In 1950, as Acting State Historian, Agnes oversaw the production of The Story of Fur.244 This twenty-minute television program walked viewers through the booms and busts of the Colorado fur trade.245 Also in 1950, Agnes revised the content for the 1946 film, The Story of Colorado.246 Agnes along
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with Film Director, Ken Meyer, and research assistants released Colorado Calendar, later known
as Colorado: High Country History, in I960.247 One of Agnes' last responsibilities before she retired in 1963 was to allocate funding for a revision of the Story of Fur.248 She added new information and perspectives as they were brought to her attention. Agnes was also featured in dozens of radio interviews on local Denver stations, such as KFG, about new exhibits, museum events, and Colorado Magazine articles.249 She informed teachers about these broadcasts in hopes that they would assign listening to the radio or watching the television program for homework. This was another way that she worked to include more Colorado history in the average school's curriculum.
During the 1950s and early 1960s, most museums were still operating on tour-based education programs; Agnes set out to help shake things up at the Colorado State Museum.
Agnes' overarching goal as State Historian of Colorado was to expand historical learning for all students, but she sometimes found it necessary to emphasize that this included female students. One prime example of this happened live on the air during her time as Colorado State Historian. In a 1958 radio interview on KFG Radio, Agnes was asked by the host, known as Sergeant Y, if she had any advice for the boys hoping to write their own stories.250 Transcripts of interviews alone cannot bear witness to the host's tone or intent. However, Agnes' response made everything clear. Ages stated that she encouraged all students to keep their interests alive by writing often and reading western history.251 Without being too harsh, Agnes corrected the statement to include female students among the hopeful future writers.252 It would have been easy for her to let something like this go, but she did not.
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Agnes was not only an advocate for girls becoming historians and writers, she was an
example of it. From the 1940s to the 1970s, Agnes published sixteen books while also contributing articles to the Denver Women's Press Club, The National League of American Pen Women Inc., The Colorado Authors League, The Western Historical Association, and The Western Writers of America.253 Somehow she fit research trips and writing time into her Colorado State Historian schedule. After she retired from her role as State Historian of Colorado in 1963, Agnes continued to write and publish books. She also remained on advisory boards for the Colorado Historical Society. Agnes was inducted into the Cowgirl Hall of Fame in 1973 for her work on the History of the American West.254
Figure 17 LeRoy Hafen and Agnes Wright Spring stand in front of exhibit design boards at the Colorado Historical Society Annual Meeting, 1956. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center.255
Figure 18 Agnes Wright Spring (middle) enjoys talking with fellow staff at a Colorado State Museum holiday party, circa 1959. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center.256
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CHAPTER V
A WOMAN OF FIRSTS BUT STILL A WOMAN OF HER TIME
This chapter seeks to place Agnes' advocacy for women's equality in the context of her time; the goal is not to detract from her accomplishments but to rebuke the temptation of focusing solely on her accolades and positive contributions. Agnes cannot be held to the expectations of today. Instead, she must be analyzed for what she did within her own context and lived experiences. Between the 1920s and the 1950s, when Agnes' career was in full swing, women's equality arguments transformed through many stages. Agnes started her literary career in 1921, directly following the year that women won national suffrage. By participating in the suffrage movement, Agnes' outlook changed, and she began to understand that women were still fighting battles for equality on many fronts.
However, this movement also defined her outlook in a few limiting ways. Women citizens gained the right to vote in 1920, but states found ways to disenfranchise women of color. Many southern states barred African American women, and men, from voting. Additionally, the women's vote legislation, the 19th Amendment, did not include Native American women or Asian women because the United States did not consider them as citizens.257 For Agnes, who grew up in a segregated time, this was seemingly acceptable progress. Agnes wanted women to have more equality, but, in accordance with the norm of her time, did not go out of her way to push for the inclusion of women of color. Throughout her career, there was a stunning silence regarding the race of women for whom she was
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advocating. This chapter wrestles with this issue and examines the ways in which Agnes' advocacy for women in history and history education lacked diversity.
This biographical work aims to share as accurate a history on Agnes Wright Spring as possible from primary and secondary sources. However, the source base is overwhelmingly primary evidence. Additionally, most of the collections that focus on Agnes were arranged personally by her near the end of her life. This poses a problem with constructing a well-rounded understanding of her life, career, and impact. The Agnes Wright Spring collections as curated by her contain inherent bias. Naturally, humans all want to be remembered favorably. Though unconfirmed, it is very possible that Agnes omitted items from the collection. For this reason, this thesis rests heavily upon the Agnes Wright Spring collections that have been compiled since her passing. This includes the collection at the History Colorado Center that I inventoried and the collections at the Wyoming State Archives. Biography as a writing style walks a very fine line when it comes to analysis. Such in-depth focus on one person can distort the reality in which they lived and in which the researcher perceives them. Biography also has very few universally accepted guidelines.258 However, those who study the art of biography, such as biographer and teacher Nigel Hamilton, place emphasis on the intentions with which a researcher approaches the project and lets the sources guide their conclusions.259 This biographical work is conscious of these important factors.
Agnes lived through societal changes, The National Women's Suffrage Movement, World War I, the Great Depression, World War II, and the Civil Rights Movement; the scope of her advocacy was affected by her experiences at each stage of her life. Agnes was born into a society of relative gender equality. She entered a traditionally male field at the University of
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Wyoming without facing ridicule from classmates or adversity from the university based on her
gender. Agnes was shaped by her first experiences with gender discrimination in New York. Her involvement and passion for women's equality grew from there. However, her understanding of women's equality was narrow at first, never specifying that she also meant women of color until the late 1950s.260
Women of color were instrumental in starting suffrage movements but were ultimately left behind as the movement progressed.261 Agnes grew up in a society that often rendered people of color as second-class citizens, depending on the region and their circumstances. Former slaves and free blacks were partially responsible for sparking discussion about women's rights to vote.262 They were abolitionists who believed that they could make greater changes if they gained the right to vote.263 However, as the issue got closer to being voted on black women were excluded because the white women believed it would give them a better chance of gaining suffrage.264
Agnes' agenda was to debunk the "Man's World" practices of the institutions in which she worked.265 Agnes stood up for her right and ability to manage projects in her various positions. She also pushed for female students to be included in the conversation when it came to a future as an author or historian. Agnes had a vision for women to have equal opportunities and social expectations with men. She also represented women in authoritative positions and tangentially in state politics. Notably, she retired from these careers unscathed by scandal.
However, Agnes was not an un-faulted advocate for women. Women in her time believed that she was pushing the boundary, and she was. Yet, her blanket statements regarding the inclusion of women in history and historical study were wanting. It is unclear
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which women she included in these goals. Agnes did not leave behind many statements that
specifically mentioned race. In times when race defined a person's societal inclusion, these statements needed to include more detail for her to be considered racially inclusive.
Agnes' early research provided context for her understandings of race. In 1918 Agnes was conducting research for her first book, Caspar Collins, in Wyoming. While there she had the opportunity to interview a Native American woman who she identified as the wife of Chief Black Kettle.266 This interview was not related to her research on Collins and was completed through an interpreter in Douglas, Wyoming.267 Chief Black Kettle was a Cheyenne peacemaker who survived the Sand Creak Massacre.268 Interviewing his wife, Agnes hoped, would shed light on never-before-written stories. However, Agnes or the interpreter may have been mistaken about the identity of the woman. Black Kettle and his wives were reportedly killed in 1868 by the United States military at the Battle of Washita.269 It is possible he had a third wife or that she was a different family-member. Regardless of the woman's identity, Agnes believed she was an important portal into new research but never even recorded her first name.270 She referred to the woman as Black Kettle's wife throughout her written notes.271
Agnes views were not abnormal for her time. She staunchly defended the territorial law that justified Black Kettle and his wives' deaths.272 She asked the woman if she regretted trespassing on the land, because Agnes presumed she was with Black Kettle when he was killed.273 The notes from this encounter revealed that Agnes agreed with the Indian policies of the day and did not perceive any wrongdoing on behalf of white Americans.274 This was far from an uncommon point of view for a white woman of the time. Her perception of these events must be understood using the context of the society in which she was raised.
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Moreover, Agnes notes from this interview lacked the reporting skills of an educated
researcher such as herself. She was mentored by Grace Hebard to take quick but detailed notes. Few people during this time were studying Native American women as a subject in their own right. Agnes may have considered this interviewee as a sideline source and therefore it was not dire to record all her information. However, Agnes' mentor, Grace Hebard, studied indigenous women in history.275 Agnes would have been familiar with the subject and the need for clear data. This made it even more interesting that Agnes left out so many details regarding the woman's identity.
During the 1930s, Agnes became more outspoken about including women of ethnic minorities. Before receiving the position as Director of the Wyoming Federal Writer's Project, she pitched her idea for a book on all Wyoming women. She hoped to research women from all of Wyoming's ethnic communities and tie their stories together into a narrative of growth for the state of Wyoming. This book idea was transformed into a section of the Wyoming WPA guidebook. Agnes originally wanted more than a mere section. Her time in New York as a women's suffrage volunteer inspired her to study and write about women. As she researched her book on Wyoming women, Agnes quickly realized that women of ethnic minorities, and women in general, were gravely under-studied. She promoted her idea with excitement and a real sense of conviction, enough to catch the attention of the Wyoming Board of Education. This shows that her attitudes towards studying and including women of color and ethnic minorities were the opposite of hostile. This was a clear shift in Agnes' research focus and potentially her view of inclusivity.
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As Director of the Federal Writer's project in Wyoming, Agnes managed research
projects that aimed to gather information on understudied communities.276 These communities were often ethnic minorities. The Federal Writer's Project office in Washington D.C. sent guidelines for each state to follow, concerning what types of stories they wanted. This list was a bare bones sketch of what would become each state's publication. It was up to Agnes and her team to decide how each section and community should be pursued. Agnes took this task on with fervor.277 The Federal Writer's Project research had redeeming qualities as far as including women and ethnic minorities in their own right. Wyoming's minorities were able to contribute to the state's shared history without being put in relation to white narratives. They were no longer periphery subjects but their own important topics in Wyoming History. She specifically placed emphasis on women who were other than white in Wyoming. These projects still used the terms of that time period, such as "Red Devil" and "Nigger," that were accepted at the time but considered very derogatory now.278 However, the overall steps Agnes took to broaden her research showed improvement in her outlook and understanding of what it meant to advocate for all women.
Agnes' publications supplied additional basis for interpreting her opinions about gender and race. She focused on early pioneers of the West. Like most historians of her time, these pioneers tended to be men. Her subject matter stayed consistent, whether the book was published in 1921 or 1948. Agnes mentioned women where she could, as their appearance in pioneer stories were few and far between. White women rarely ventured to the West among the early pioneers and when they did they were hardly mentioned. Native women were sometimes crucial to telling a story, but Agnes wrote about indigenous populations from the
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perspectives of the white pioneers. Her bestselling book, The Cheyenne and Blacks Hills Stage
and Express Routes (1948), exemplified this type of writing as it favored male subjects, such as Buffalo Bill and George Armstrong Custer.279
These unfavorable and unnuanced depictions of native peoples could be the result of a simple lack of sources or her subject matter in general. As shown through her time as the Wyoming Federal Writer's Project Director, Agnes knew where and how to collect data on these communities. Therefore, it is unlikely that she could not locate sources. She could have done more extensive research to include indigenous peoples and women of those communities had she wanted to. Native populations were very misunderstood during the time that Agnes was researching and writing. Agnes would have been aware of negative and positive stories about indigenous peoples. However, she tended to write from the perspective of her subjects. By the nature of the stories her subjects told, women were typically scarce and indigenous communities were portrayed as aggressors. In this way, Agnes' writing did not reveal her own sentiments but those of her subjects. Her writing style was a reflection of her time but not necessarily her own views.
Later in her career, Agnes' public statements became more racially inclusive, but her research and literary work lagged behind. Some of this may have to do with her switch from publishing to public service. As State Historian of Colorado Agnes worked to create inclusive educational programming at the State Museum and the Colorado Historical Society's Library.280 She brought in texts written by authors from various ethnic minorities and worked with the school systems around Denver to bus in children of color from segregated schools for tours of the State Museum.281 These were steps in the right direction. However, Agnes' research in the
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1940s and 1950s lacked women of color. In 1952, Agnes presented research to the Denver Westerners Club on infamous women who she believed helped civilize the West.282 The Denver Westerners was a male-only history group at this time, so it was surprising that she was able to give this talk at all. During her lecture, Agnes highlighted women who barrel raced in rodeos, drove mail wagons, and ran saloons.283 These women were non-traditional in their contributions to the West, but they were all white.284 Similar to some of her other research, she may not have found sufficient information to discuss women of color who helped build the West or the Westerners may not have been welcoming of research on women in color in the West.
Additionally, Agnes simultaneously led by example through her calls for women's equality and contributed to female stereotypes in the West through her ancillary publications. This contradiction was most evident in the 1940s when she was publishing both academic works and western romances. Agnes used her public careers to push for the inclusion of women in historical works and academic professions. She lived a life that differed from the norm, not having children and not surrendering her career after her marriage. Yet, Agnes as an author sometimes reinforced the stereotypes she was attempting to break down. During World War II, Agnes wrote for Ranch Romances in order to earn a little extra money.285 She did not use her fiction writing as an opportunity to create women characters who took active parts in contributing to the West through hard work or leadership. Her fiction audience was much different than her academic audience. She wrote what was proven to sell - romance stories. Though fiction was not her passion, Agnes' stories fit the typical western romance schema of damsels in distress and wildly independent cowboys who saved the day.286 Many western
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fiction magazines and booklets emphasized storylines of cowgirls, giving women more agency.
However, Agnes stuck to a more traditional western romance paradigm in her fiction adventures. These stories countered her other research by downplaying how instrumental women were in settling the West.287 Though these fiction stories were by no means a political statement from Agnes, they are part of her legacy as well as her academic works.
In her later career, Agnes wrote and spoke reflectively about the importance of all girls and women feeling empowered to pursue literary and history professions.288 She took on the role of mentor with a decisive fervor. Empire Magazine described her post-retirement mentoring activities as playing "fairy godmother to most of the professional historians now working in the Rocky Mountain area."289 Agnes was awakened to the need for more inclusive publication reviews and worked on a committee for the Colorado Magazine, even after she retired as State Historian, that worked to balance the selections of reviewed works to incorporate local authors of color and stories from ethnic minorities' points of view.
It would be unfair to hold Agnes to the standards of inclusivity that we strive for today, but the limits of her advocacy at different stages of her career needed to be acknowledged. Agnes grew up in a specific society and time, one that still had physical and legal barriers between people of different skin tones. The society around her had different expectations for what was right and wrong concerning inclusivity than we do today. The impact of Agnes' work empowering women to join the history profession should not be diminished because of the limits to her research and interpretation. Instead, this chapter explored Agnes' early opinions and how those gradually evolved throughout her career. Agnes was capable of change. After working closely with racially diverse communities in her later career and allowing herself to be
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educated, Agnes' hopes for the future to include all women in history professions expanded tremendously.
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CHAPTER VI
MAKE IT KNOWN, "HISTORY IS HER BUSINESS"
Agnes was known and respected throughout the West by authors, academics, historians, librarians, politicians, and everyday citizens. As author of twenty-two books, Agnes enjoyed a legacy of helping pioneers and descendants of pioneers record and share their stories. She had a way of coercing details and photographs from unwitting history-dabblers. Her talents for following through on research projects and collections projects benefited her own publications as well as many public institutions throughout Colorado and Wyoming. The Wyoming State Archives, Wyoming State Library, Denver Public Library, and Colorado State Museum each credit Agnes with helping them acquire full collections on individuals and topics of interest.290
Agnes' work brought her in close proximity to many bright minds and often allowed her to help budding authors and historians along the way. Just as she was mentored by Dr. Hebard, Agnes took mentoring future historians very seriously. She took them under her wing, no matter what stage they were in their progress. Her relationships with younger historians were professional and down-to-business. Maxine Benson, a female historian who followed in Agnes Wright Spring's footsteps by becoming Colorado State Historian in 1964, remembered Agnes as straightforward and determined.291 Agnes tried to instill these values in those who worked with her. She was not described by fellow colleagues as "warm and fuzzy," but she took it upon herself to write long, personal recommendation letters whenever someone who worked with her was up for a new job or promotion.292 As Colorado State Historian, Agnes made sure to
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balance the new staff that were brought in for Colorado Magazine and Colorado State Historical
Society's Library. Agnes wanted to give capable women a chance to get their foot in the door. Maxine Benson was brought in straight from the University of Colorado on the recommendation of Professor Carl Ubbelohde.293 She had previous experience at the Wisconsin Historical Society but had never been in a position of leadership. Agnes mentored her for three years as she worked on Colorado Magazine content. After Agnes retired as State Historian in 1963, Benson made it known that she was ready to move up. Benson was appointed and started as Colorado State Historian in January of 1964.
Agnes emphasized the importance of responsible research throughout her career and later stint as a resource and mentor. Agnes' published academic works have never been called into question for incorrect or embellished information. They may show their age, based on language and historic interpretation, but they were not written injudiciously. Her dedication to stories from primary sources was her signature of sorts. Her interview and research practices became more standardized as she received training, first from Dr. Hebard and then from the WPA. Once research and citation guidelines were well-accepted across national academic communities, Agnes did not hesitate to follow them.
Not all historians followed such rigorous research and publication guidelines. During her years in Colorado, Agnes worked in similar circles as Caroline Bancroft. They worked alongside each other in 1945 at the Denver Public Library.294 Dr. Frederick J. Bancroft, Caroline's grandfather, co-founded the Colorado State Historical Society.295 Caroline was an author and had a master's degree in history from The University of Denver.296 She wrote on topics in Colorado History. However, Ms. Bancroft was known for bending the truth in her writing. Her
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creative license often made stories, like those of activist Molly Brown, more vibrant.297 Her family connections and wealth created a certain following for her work that was not always admired by others, especially since her writing was not always factual.298
In many ways, Caroline was Agnes' competition. Agnes described their relationship as "warm but held to a standard."299 Ms. Bancroft's strong ties to the Colorado State Historical Society required that Agnes keep their relationship friendly rather than competitive. Agnes could have easily also used creative license like Caroline Bancroft, but she refrained. There is nothing to suggest that Agnes embellished her written work. She wrote fiction in spurts but did not compromise her academic works with falsities. Caroline, on the other hand, was called out by the Denver Post and other authors for publication mishaps. Agnes kept Caroline at arm's length by critiquing her work. She fact-checked Caroline's book, Denver's Lively Past, and sent her revisions to Caroline's desk even after it was published.300 Agnes caught Caroline's research errors and embellishments but went to Caroline with them rather than the newspapers.301
Throughout political differences and professional competitions, Agnes maintained friendly and supportive relationships with her colleagues. Agnes was not mentioned in any scandalous or controversial news regarding any of the state or private institutions at which she worked. Regardless of her personal feelings for someone she seemed to always keep the good of history education at the center of her intentions. Agnes, by all accounts, was straightforward and simple to talk to. This made gaining collections and materials for the institutions at which she worked that much easier. Even in situations where Agnes was uneasy about who she was collecting from, she managed to secure the items for donation. For example, Agnes navigated the hairy family relations of the Mrs. Margaret Tobin Brown's family in order to acquire items
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that belonged to her from her son, Lawrence P. Brown.302 Mrs. Brown, also known as Molly Brown, was a Denver activist and suffragist.303 As a prominent Denver figure, her personal effects were invaluable links to her legacy but a divorce split her possessions and created a muck of the collections management process.304 Agnes persevered in tough and sometimes awkward situations like this one, bringing thousands of artifacts, photographs, and books to her respective institutions throughout her career.
Editor Spring red penciling journal copy
Figure 19 "LeRoy R. Hafen, Agnes Wright Spring, Maxine Figure 20 "Editor Spring red penciling journal copy." Courtesy
Benson, and Harry Kelsey pose for a photo at the Western of the History Colorado Center.106
History Association's Omaha meeting in 1969." Courtesy of the History Colorado Center.305
The story of a woman of such accomplishments is surely worth studying; however, the scattered nature of Agnes' work and some confusion over the dates of her titles made this study difficult to complete. Working back and forth in Colorado and Wyoming, Agnes' accomplishments were split in half at the state line. This made it harder for any group or institution to fully appreciate her work as an author, historian, and advocate. Additionally, the
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confusion over when Agnes was State Historian of Wyoming, State Historian of Colorado, and
editor of Colorado Magazine led to her accomplishments being listed but unsupported. The evidence to correct the record existed but was spread out in several repositories. The truth of the matter is that no one had bothered to dig into her history - until now.
History Colorado, previously known as the Colorado State Historical Society, was unsure about when Agnes served as Editor of Colorado Magazine, now known as Colorado Heritage Magazine.307 She was listed in some sources as coeditor or editorial assistant as early as 1949, but she was not yet on the Colorado State Historical Society's payroll.308 Agnes also technically assumed the role of Colorado Magazine editor while working as Acting Colorado State Historian in 1950. However, official records mentioned Agnes as editor of Colorado Magazine only while she was Colorado State Historian via appointment, 1954 through 1963. Thus, over fifty years later, current staff were understandably confused.
There was also a disconnect between online records and Agnes' contributions as Wyoming State Historian and Colorado State Historian. Agnes' few online mentions reported that she was the only person in the country to ever be state historian of more than one state. However, these listings did not include dates or details regarding these appointments.309 When the position of Wyoming State Historian was created for World War I research it was directly connected with Agnes' position as Wyoming State Librarian. Agnes later helped successive Wyoming State Historians to separate those positions in order for both positions to have distinct budgets and fair eligibility for funding.310 The fact that she held multiple titles in Wyoming between 1918 and 1920 convoluted her appointment as Wyoming State Historian and the impact she had in that capacity. Moreover, Agnes was Colorado State Historian twice:
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once when Hafen asked her to stand in for him in 1950 and again in 1954 when she was appointed to the position, which she held until 1963. Some records, including Dr. Hafen's papers, did not include Agnes as Acting State Historian in 1950. These opposing records presented some justifiable questions regarding Agnes' dates as Colorado State Historian. However, official documents and letters proved that she held the position during the year of 1950 through part of 1951.
Mistakes and confusion aside, Agnes deserves recognition for her career. She is a powerful figure in Colorado and Wyoming history that connects local history to larger movements. She was an advocate for history, women, and education. She led by example, consistently challenging gender norms and being the first woman to accomplish things in her field.
Initiatives that she spearheaded as Wyoming State Historian are still in place and helping state historians fund important programs and events. The educational programs she initiated as Colorado State Historian still advocate for history education through school outreach. Programs that she started as State Historian still exist today at the History Colorado Center, such as the mail-order kits for teachers. Collections that she curated in Colorado and Wyoming still enlighten curious minds.
Additionally, Agnes successfully connected history across state lines and professional fields. Agnes blended her career as an author with her career as a historian of the American West. She was able to sustain a lifestyle of full-time employment and constant research and writing. In other words, Agnes shaped her career to include her passion of history and writing. As author of twenty-two books and well over 500 articles, it is safe to say that Agnes was able to keep doing what she loved while also greatly contributing to History of the American West. More
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importantly, Agnes' historical practices and personal preferences evolved overtime as she gained education and experience. Being open to new and more inclusive histories helped Agnes be an effective historian. She was able to admit that her perspectives were dated in previous research, a task that is easier said than done.
Agnes passed away in 1988, but her life's work is reflected in the records she left behind as well as the impact she had on many budding historian's careers. One young writer reported to the Cheyenne Eagle that at 5"2' Agnes was "one of the human landmarks of the Rocky Mountain Region."311 For many years since her passing, this once well-known and revered historian was like so many great landmarks, underappreciated and under-interpreted. After careful study of her life, career, and advocacy, Agnes' place in Colorado History has been emphasized and justified. Agnes' legacy lives on through the histories she shared and the work she completed.
Figure 21 Agnes Wright Spring, 1973. Courtesy of the Wyoming State Archives.312
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"Agnes Wright Spring." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agnes_Wright_Spring. Accessed August 2019.
"Agnes Wright Spring." Robert Spurrier Ellison Collection Folder H69-28 - Spring, Agnes Wright. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
"Agnes Wright Spring: She Made History Herself." Spring - Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
Allot, Gordon, US Senate, to Agnes Wright Spring. June 6, 1960. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 1 Folder Correspondence 1950 A. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
Artifact Kits and Primary Sources." https://www.historycolorado.org/artifact-kits-and-primary-sources. Accessed October 11, 2019.
Bartlett, Ichabod Sargent ed. The History of Wyoming vol. III. New York: Rare Books Club, 2012.
Benson, Maxine. Colorado Magazine L4 (1973).
Benson, Maxine. "Remote Interview with Maxine Benson, Agnes Wright Spring's Colleague and Successor as State Historian." Interview by Kaylyn Mercuri on August 15, 2019.
"Biography of Black Kettle" https://www.nps.gov/sand/learn/historyculture/black-kettle-biography.htm. Last updated January 4, 2017. Accessed October 14, 2019.
"But You're A Girl." The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
"Chairman of CO's 75th Anniversary." In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092. Box 19 Folder R. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019.
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"Colorado Heritage Back Issues," https://www.historycolorado.org/colorado-heritage-magazine-issues. Accessed October 20, 2019.
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"Compiling War History of Wyoming," The Wheatland Times no. 33 (May 14, 1919).
"Congratulations." In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 1. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1,
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Conn, Steven. Museums and American Intellectual Life, 1876-1926. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.
"Correspondence F, 1927-1970." In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 2. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
Curtis, Olga. "The Beloved Historian." Empire Magazine (October 1979).
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Series: The First Section of A Circular Offering Suggestions on Compilation of Data, and on Writing and Editing Material for A State Factbook." Writers Program Circular no. 4 (August 26, 1940). Box 8 Pioneers, Folder 30, U.S. Work Projects Administration/Writers Project. Denver Public Library Western History/Genealogy Collections. Denver,
Colorado. Accessed February 28, 2019.
"Films and Filmstrips," The Colorado Magazine vol. L no. 4 (1973).
"Four Spots on Local Radio (November 21, 1950)." In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092. Box 19. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019.
"Fraternity and Sorority."
https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Fraternity_and_sorority. Accessed October 6, 2019.
Hamilton, Nigel. How To Do Biography: A Primer. New York: Harvard University Press, 2012.
Harper, Kimberly and Stephanie L. Kukuljan. "John J. Pershing."
https://historicmissourians.shsmo.Org/historicmissourians/name/p/pershing/. Accessed October 12, 2019.
Hein, Rebecca. "Wyoming Ratifies the 19th Amendment."
https://www.wyohistory.org/encyclopedia/wyoming-ratifies-19th-amendment. Published September 30, 2019. Accessed October 12, 2019.
Hirsch, Jerrold. Portrait of America: A Cultural History of the Federal Writers' Project. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.
63


Jeremias, Leigh. "Rediscovering Morey Mercantile."
https://www.historycolorado.org/story/stuff-history/2014/03/ll/rediscovering-morey-mercantile. Accessed October 1, 2019.
"Letter to KLZ Production Manager, Mr. Clayton Brace (May 17,1951)." In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092. Box 19. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019.
"Letters on Acting State Historian of Colorado Letterhead." In the Agnes Wright Spring
Collection #2092 Box 19 Folder B. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019.
"Letters to Mabel." In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 1. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1,
2019.
Mackey, Mike. "Grace Raymond Hebard: Shaping Wyoming's Past." Wyoming State Historical Society (November 9, 2014).
"Magazine Articles, 1923-1973." In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 15.
The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
"Mrs. Black Kettle," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 51. Research Files Folder. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
Myres, Sandra L., William Cronon, Howard R. Lamar, Martin Ridge, and David J. Weber.
Westering Women and the Frontier Experience, 1800-1915. Santa Fe, New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press, 1982. page 232
Office of the Colorado State Secretary to Agnes Wright Spring. 1950. In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 19 Folder S. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019.
"Pages from the Past - Speech (1963)." In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
Patterson, Michael Robert. "Henry Blanchard Freeman."
http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/hfreeman.htm. Last Updated October 3, 2007. Accessed October 12, 2019.
64


"Petition." In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 9 Folder 1955 H. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed October 15, 2019.
"Pi Beta Phi Resettlement School." Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007-101. The. Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
"Pony Express Centennial." The Colorado Magazine vol. 37 no. 3 (July 1960).
"P.O. Reports of Site Locations, 1837 - 1950." Roll 675: Wyoming, Albany County. National Archives of the United States. Washington, D.C. Accessed October 6, 2019.
"Professional Files: State Historical Society of CO - History Report -1958-1965 - Given Annually by State Historian." In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 15. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
"Secretary of State - Folder S 1950." In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092. Box 19. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019.
"Speeches and Radio Interviews." In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
Spring, Agnes Wright. Cow Country Legacies. Kansas City, Kansas: The Lowell Press, 1976.
Spring, Agnes Wright. "My Background." Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007-101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
Spring, Agnes Wright. Near the Greats. Frederick, CO: Platte 'N Press, 1981.
Spring, Agnes Wright. "OH 1267 A Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews." Interview by Carl
McWilliams. The Wyoming State Archives. April 29,1986. Accessed September 25, 2019.
Spring, Agnes Wright. "OH 1267 B Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews." Interview by Carl McWilliams. The Wyoming State Archives. April 30, 1986. Accessed October 4, 2019.
Spring, Agnes Wright. "Stage Stop on the Little Laramie." Persimmon Hill (1974).
Spring, Agnes Wright. The Cheyenne and Black Hills Stage and Express Routes. New York: A. H. Clark Co. 1949.
Spring, Agnes Wright to James Grafton Rogers. October 16, 1950. In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 19 Folder R. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019.
65


Spring, Agnes Wright to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring - Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
Spring, Agnes Wright to Mr. Carl Litzenberger. September 27, 1950. In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 19 Folder L. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019.
Spring, Agnes Wright to State of Colorado Executive Chambers. October 13, 1950. In the Agnes Wright Springs Collection #2092 Box 19 Folder J. History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed September 15, 2019.
Spring, Agnes Wright. William Chapin Deming of Wyoming: Pioneer Publisher, and State and
Federal Official: A Biography (Glendale, California: Arthur H. Clark and Company, 1944).
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"Stage Stop on the Little Laramie (1974)." In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115.
Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
"State Historical Society." In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 7. The
American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
"Supplementary Instructions" in the Works Progress Administration Collection. Box 8. The Denver Public Library Western History/Genealogy Collections. Denver, Colorado. Accessed February 28, 2019.
"TV Script." In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092. Box 19 Folder D -1951. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019.
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"Women Have Been Voting in Wyoming for 150 Years, and Here Is How the State Is
Celebrating." https://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/women-voting-wyoming-150-years-here-how-state-celebrating-180971263/. Accessed September 25, 2019.
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66


Workers of the Federal Writer's Program of the Works Progress Administration in the State of Wyoming. Wyoming Folklore: Reminiscences, Folktales, Beliefs, Customs, and Folk Speech. New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1941.
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Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
"Wyoming Library Association - Wyoming Library Round-up." In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
Zimmer, Amy. "The Crash of 1893." https://www.coloradovirtuallibrary.org/resource-sharing/state-pubs-blog/the-crash-of-1893/. Accessed October 1, 2019.
"1950 A." In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092. Box 19. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019.
"1950 H." In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092. Box 19. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 27, 2019.
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APPENDIX I
ENDNOTES
1 Agnes Wright Spring, "OH 1267 A Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams. The Wyoming State Archives. April 29,1986. Accessed September 25, 2019.
2 "Pages from the Past - Speech (1963)." In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
3 Agnes Wright Spring, "OH 1267 A Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams. The Wyoming State Archives. April 29,1986. Accessed September 25, 2019.
4 Agnes Wright Spring, "OH 1267 A Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams. The Wyoming State Archives. April 29,1986. Accessed September 25, 2019.
5 Agnes Wright Spring, "My Background" Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007-101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
6 Spring, "OH 1267 A Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams. The Wyoming State Archives. April 29,1986.
7 Spring, "OH 1267 A Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams.
8 Spring, "OH 1267 A Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams.
9 Spring, "OH 1267 A Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams.
10 Spring, "My Background" Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007-101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming.
11 Amy Zimmer, "The Crash of 1893" Colorado Virtual Library (October 20, 2014); 1.
12 Leigh Jeremias, "Rediscovering the Morey Mercantile" History Colorado (March 11, 2014); 1.
13 Spring, "OH 1267 A Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams.
14 Spring, "OH 1267 A Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams.
15 "Stage Stop on the Little Laramie (1974)" in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
16 Stage Stop on the Little Laramie (1974)" in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
17 Stage Stop on the Little Laramie (1974)" in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
18 Agnes Wright Spring, "OH 1267 C Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams. The Wyoming State Archives. (1986) Accessed September 25, 2019.
19 Spring, "My Background" Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007-101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming.
20 "Stage Stop on the Little Laramie (1974)" in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
21 "Stage Stop on the Little Laramie (1974)" in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
22 "Stage Stop on the Little Laramie (1974)" in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
23 "Stage Stop on the Little Laramie (1974)" in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
24 "P.O. Reports of Site Locations, 1837 - 1950," Roll 675: Wyoming, Albany County. National Archives of the United States. Washington, D.C. Accessed October 6, 2019.
25 Agnes Wright Spring, "Stage Stop on the Little Laramie" Persimmon Hill (1974); 16.
26 Spring, "My Background" Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007-101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming.
27 "Stage Stop on the Little Laramie (1974)" in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
68


28 "Stage Stop on the Little Laramie (1974)" in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
29 Photograph from "Stage Stop on the Little Laramie (1974)" in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
30 Photograph from "Stage Stop on the Little Laramie (1974)" in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
31 Photograph from "Stage Stop on the Little Laramie (1974)" in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
32 Photograph from "Stage Stop on the Little Laramie (1974)" in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
33 Photograph from "Stage Stop on the Little Laramie (1974)" in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
34 Photograph from "Stage Stop on the Little Laramie (1974)" in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
35 Photograph from "Stage Stop on the Little Laramie (1974)" in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
36 Spring, "My Background" Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007-101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming.
37 Spring, "OH 1267 B Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams.
38 Spring, "My Background" Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007-101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming.
39 Agnes Wright Spring, "OH 1267 A Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams. The Wyoming State Archives. April 29,1986. Accessed September 25, 2019.
40 Spring, "My Background" Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007-101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming.
41 "Agnes Wright Spring: She Made History Herself," Spring - Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
42 "Agnes Wright Spring: She Made History Herself," Spring - Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming.
43 "Agnes Wright Spring: She Made History Herself," Spring - Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming.
44 "But You're A Girl" The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
45 Honorable mention to Utah. Although Wyoming Territory was first in the nation to grant voting rights to women in December 1869, Utah Territory did so several weeks later, on February 12,1870. Since Utah
held municipal elections and a territorial election before Wyoming did, Utah women earned the distinction of casting ballots first. "Women Have Been Voting in Wyoming for 150 Years, and Here Is How the State Is Celebrating" https://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/women-voting-wyoming-150-years-here-how-state-celebrating-180971263/. Accessed September 25, 2019.
46 Sandra L. Myres, William Cronon, Howard R. Lamar, Martin Ridge, and David J. Weber. Westering Women and the Frontier Experience, 1800-1915 (Santa Fe, New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press, 1982); 232.
47 "Agnes Wright Spring," Robert Spurrier Ellison Collection Folder H69-28 - Spring, Agnes Wright. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
48 "Agnes Wright Spring," Robert Spurrier Ellison Collection Folder H69-28 - Spring, Agnes Wright. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming.
49 "Agnes Wright Spring," Robert Spurrier Ellison Collection Folder H69-28 - Spring, Agnes Wright. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming.
50 'The term fraternity generally refers to all-male or mixed-sex student organizations at a college or university; the female-only equivalent is usually called a sorority, a word first used in 1874 at Gamma Phi Beta at Syracuse University. Before this, societies for either gender were called 'fraternities.' To this day, some women's organizations prefer to be called 'women's fraternities.'" Pi Beta Phi was founded in 1867 and, therefore, is referred to as a fraternity here. "Fraternity and Sorority,"
https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Fraternity_and_sorority. Accessed October 6, 2019.
69


51 Women's Christian Temperance Union, "Early History" https://www.wctu.org/history.html. Accessed October 16, 2019.
52 Spring, "My Background" Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007-101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming.
53 Rebecca Hein, "Wyoming Ratifies the 19th Amendment," https://www.wyohistory.org/encyclopedia/wyoming-ratifies-19th-amendment. Published September 30, 2019. Accessed October 12, 2019.
54 Hein, "Wyoming Ratifies the 19th Amendment."
55 Hein, "Wyoming Ratifies the 19th Amendment."
56 Mike Mackey, "Grace Raymond Hebard: Shaping Wyoming's Past," Wyoming State Historical Society (November 9, 2014); 1.
57 Spring, "My Background" Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007-101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming.
58 "Agnes Wright Spring: She Made History Herself," Spring - Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
59 Agnes Wright Spring, "OH 1267 A Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams. The Wyoming State Archives. April 29,1986. Accessed September 25, 2019.
60 Agnes Wright Spring, Near the Greats (Frederick, CO: Platte N' Press); 26.
61 Spring, Near the Greats, 21.
62 Spring, Near the Greats, 26.
63 Ichabod Sargent Bartlett, ed. The History of Wyoming vol. Ill (New York: Rare Books Club, 2012); 260.
64 Spring, Near the Greats, 26.
65 Agnes Wright Spring, "OH 1267 A Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams. The Wyoming State Archives. April 29,1986. Accessed September 25, 2019.
66 Agnes Wright Spring, "OH 1267 A Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams. The Wyoming State Archives. April 29,1986. Accessed September 25, 2019.
67 Agnes Wright Spring, "OH 1267 A Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams. The Wyoming State Archives. April 29,1986. Accessed September 25, 2019.
68 Michael Robert Patterson, "Henry Blanchard Freeman" http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/hfreeman.htm. Last Updated October 3, 2007. Accessed October 12, 2019.
69 Bartlett, The History of Wyoming, 260.
70 Spring, Near the Greats (Frederick, CO: Platte N' Press); 26.
71 Spring, "My Background" Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007-101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming.
72 Olga Curtis, 'The Beloved Historian" Empire Magazine (October 1979).
73 Kimberly Harper and Stephanie L. Kukuljan, "John J. Pershing"
https://historicmissourians.shsmo.Org/historicmissourians/name/p/pershing/. Accessed October 12, 2019.
74 Harper and Kukuljan, "John J. Pershing."
75 Harper and Kukuljan, "John J. Pershing."
76 Harper and Kukuljan, "John J. Pershing."
77 Curtis, "The Beloved Historian" Empire Magazine (October 1979).
78 Curtis, "The Beloved Historian" Empire Magazine (October 1979).
79 Spring, Near the Greats, 1.
80 Spring, Near the Greats, 8.
81 Spring, Near the Greats, 28.
82 Spring, Near the Greats, 28.
83 "But You're A Girl" The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
84 "But You're A Girl" The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.
85 "But You're A Girl" The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.
86 "But You're A Girl" The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.
70


87 "But You're A Girl" The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.
88 "But You're A Girl" The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.
89 "But You're A Girl" The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.
90 "But You're A Girl" The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.
91 "But You're A Girl" The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.
92 "But You're A Girl" The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.
93 "But You're A Girl" The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.
94 "But You're A Girl" The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.
95 "But You're A Girl" The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.
96 Spring, Near the Greats, 28.
97 Spring, Near the Greats, 28.
98 Spring, Near the Greats, 28.
99 Spring, "OH 1267 B Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams.
100 Spring, Near the Greats, 28.
101 But You're A Girl" The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.
102 But You're A Girl" The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.
103 "Pi Beta Phi Resettlement School," Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007-101. The. Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
104 "Pi Beta Phi Resettlement School," Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007-101. The. Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
105 "Pi Beta Phi Resettlement School," Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007-101. The. Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
106 "Pi Beta Phi Resettlement School," Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007-101. The. Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
107 Spring, "My Background" Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007-101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming.
108 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring -Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
109 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring -Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
110 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring -Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
111 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring -Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
112 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring -Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
113 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring -Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
114 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring -Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
115 "Correspondence," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 2. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
71


116 "Correspondence," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 2. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
117 Agnes Wright Spring, "OH 1267 B Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams. The Wyoming State Archives. April 30,1986. Accessed October 4, 2019.
118 Curtis, 'The Beloved Historian."
119 Spring, "OH 1267 B Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams.
120 "Camp Libraries Help Win the War." Historical Collection H171-9 Box 295. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming.
121 "Compiling War History of Wyoming," The Wheatland Times no. 33 (May 14,1919); 2.
122 "Compiling War History of Wyoming," The Wheatland Times no. 33 (May 14,1919); 2.
123 "Compiling War History of Wyoming," The Wheatland Times no. 33 (May 14,1919); 2.
124 Spring, "OH 1267 A Side 2, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams.
125 Spring, "OH 1267 A Side 2, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams.
126 Spring, "OH 1267 A Side 2, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams.
127 Heyward Siddons, "Colorado History Is Her Business" The Coloradan (March 29,1988); 1.
128 Agnes Wright Spring, "OH 1267 D Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams. The Wyoming State Archives. April 30,1986. Accessed October 4, 2019.
129 "Camp Libraries Help Win the War." Historical Collection H171-9 Box 295. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming.
130 Photo from "Camp Libraries Help Win the War." Historical Collection H171-9 Box 295. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming.
131 Photo from "Camp Libraries Help Win the War." Historical Collection H171-9 Box 295. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming.
132 Photo from "Camp Libraries Help Win the War." Historical Collection H171-9 Box 295. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming.
133 Spring, "My Background" Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007-101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming.
134 Spring, Near the Greats, 22.
135 Curtis, 'The Beloved Historian."
136 Spring, "OH 1267 A Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams.
137 Spring, "OH 1267 A Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams.
138 Curtis, 'The Beloved Historian."
139 But You're A Girl" The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, (1974 reprint with additional intro) In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.
140 Spring, "OH 1267 B Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams.
141 Spring, "OH 1267 B Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams.
142 "Untitled Page," In Spring - Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
143 Spring, "OH 1267 A Side 1, Agnes Wright Spring Interviews" Interview by Carl McWilliams.
144 Spring, "My Background" Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007-101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming.
145 Spring, "My Background" Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007-101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming.
146 Jerrold Hirsch, Portrait of America: A Cultural History of the Federal Writers' Project (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2003); 61.
147 Hirsch, Portrait of America, 55.
148 Hirsch, Portrait of America, 55.
149 Hirsch, Portrait of America, 55.
150 "Works Progress Administration (WPA) - Writer's Project, 1932-1943," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
151 "Works Progress Administration (WPA) - Writer's Project, 1932-1943," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.
72


152 "Works Progress Administration (WPA) - Writer's Project, 1932-1943," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.
153 "Works Progress Administration (WPA) - Writer's Project, 1932-1943," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.
154 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring -Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
155 Historical Collection Box 702 The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
156 "Works Progress Administration (WPA) - Writer's Project, 1932-1943," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
157 "Works Progress Administration (WPA) - Writer's Project, 1932-1943," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
158 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring -Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
159 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring -Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
160 "Supplementary Instructions" in the Works Progress Administration Collection. Box 8. The Denver Public Library Western History/Genealogy Collections. Denver, Colorado. Accessed February 28, 2019.
161 "Works Progress Administration (WPA) - Writer's Project, 1932-1943," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
162 "Works Progress Administration (WPA) - Writer's Project, 1932-1943," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
163 "Works Progress Administration (WPA) - Writer's Project, 1932-1943," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
164 Workers of the Federal Writer's Program of the Works Progress Administration in the State of Wyoming. The WPA Guide to Wyoming: The Cowboy State (New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1941); x.
165 Workers of the Federal Writer's Program of the Works Progress Administration in the State of Wyoming. The WPA Guide to Wyoming: The Cowboy State (New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1941); x.
166 Workers of the Federal Writer's Program of the Works Progress Administration in the State of Wyoming. The WPA Guide to Wyoming: The Cowboy State (New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1941); 11.
167 Workers of the Federal Writer's Program of the Works Progress Administration in the State of Wyoming. Wyoming; A Guide to Its History, Highways, and People (New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1941).
168 Workers of the Federal Writer's Program of the Works Progress Administration in the State of Wyoming. Wyoming; A Guide to Its History, Highways, and People (New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1941).
169 "Works Progress Administration (WPA) - Writer's Project, 1932-1943," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
170 Federal Works Agency, Federal Work Projects Administration, 'The Encyclopedia Fact Book Series: The First Section of A Circular Offering Suggestions on Compilation of Data, and on Writing and Editing Material for A State Factbook." Writers Program Circular no. 4 (August 26,1940). Box 8 Pioneers, Folder 30, U.S. Work Projects Administration/Writers Project. Denver Public Library Western History/Genealogy Collections. Denver, Colorado. Accessed February 28, 2019.
171 Workers of the Federal Writer's Program of the Works Progress Administration in the State of Wyoming. The WPA Guide to Wyoming: The Cowboy State (New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1941); 251.
172 Workers of the Federal Writer's Program of the Works Progress Administration in the State of Wyoming. The WPA Guide to Wyoming: The Cowboy State (New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1941); 251.
173 Workers of the Federal Writer's Program of the Works Progress Administration in the State of Wyoming. Wyoming Folklore: Reminiscences, Folktales, Beliefs, Customs, and Folk Speech (New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1941).
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174 Workers of the Federal Writer's Program of the Works Progress Administration in the State of Wyoming. Wyoming Folklore: Reminiscences, Folktales, Beliefs, Customs, and Folk Speech (New York: Flastings Flouse Publishers, 1941).
175 "Works Progress Administration (WPA) - Writer's Project, 1932-1943," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Fleritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
176 "Works Progress Administration (WPA) - Writer's Project, 1932-1943," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
177 "Works Progress Administration (WPA) - Writer's Project, 1932-1943," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
178 "Works Progress Administration (WPA) - Writer's Project, 1932-1943," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
179 Hirsch, Portrait of America, 112.
180 "Works Progress Administration (WPA) - Writer's Project, 1932-1943," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
181 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring -Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
182 Agnes Wright Spring, William Chapin Deming of Wyoming: Pioneer Publisher, and State and Federal Official: A Biography (Glendale, California: Arthur H. Clark Company, 1944).
183 Historical Collection Box 702 The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
184 Historical Collection Box 702 The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
185 Historical Collection Box 702 The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
186 Agnes Wright Spring to State of Colorado Executive Chambers. October 13,1950. In the Agnes Wright Springs
Collection #2092 Box 19 Folder J. History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed September 15, 2019.
187 Spring - Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
188 "Magazine Articles Folder 1, 1923-1973" in in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 15. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
189 "Magazine Articles Folder 1, 1923-1973" in in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 15. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
190 Spring - Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. Mentions the publication of an article on the founding of Fort Collin, CO. I assume it is Agnes Wright Spring, "The Founding of Fort Collins, United States Military Post" Colorado Magazine vol. 10 no. 2 (March 1933); 71.
191 "Letters on Acting State Historian of Colorado Letterhead," in the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 19 Folder B. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019.
192 The Colorado State Museum was located at 200 E. 14th Avenue Denver, CO 80203 at this time. The Colorado Historical Society later moved to the History Colorado Center at 1200 N. Broadway Denver, CO 80203.
193 Siddons, "Colorado History Is Her Business" The Coloradan (March 29,1988); 1.
194 "Pages from the Past - Speech (1963)." In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
195 "Pages from the Past - Speech (1963)." In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
196 "Correspondence F, 1927-1970," In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 2. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
197 Gordon Allot, US Senate, to Agnes Wright Spring. June 6,1960. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 1 Folder Correspondence 1950 A. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
198 Agnes Wright Spring to James Grafton Rogers. October 16,1950. In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 19 Folder R. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019.
199 Spring, Near the Greats, preface.
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200 Office of the Colorado State Secretary to Agnes Wright Spring. 1950. In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 19 Folder S. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019.
201 Evidenced by the hundreds of letters from 1950 and 1951 that Agnes Wright Spring donated to the American Heritage Center in Laramie, WY and to the History Colorado Center in Denver, CO.
202 Gordon Allot, US Senate, to Agnes Wright Spring. June 6,1960. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 1 Folder Correspondence 1950 A. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
203 "State Historical Society," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 7. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
204 "State Historical Society," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 7. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
205 "State Historical Society," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 7. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
206 Agnes Wright Spring to Mr. Carl Litzenberger. September 27, 1950. In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 19 Folder L. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019.
207 "State Historical Society," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 7. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
208 "State Historical Society," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 7. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
209 Agnes Wright Spring to J. Cecil Alter. July 4,1951. In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 19 Folder 1950 A. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019.
210 "Pages from the Past - Speech (1963)," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
211 "Odd and Interesting Facts from the Collections," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 15. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
212 "Pony Express Centennial," The Colorado Magazine vol 37 no 3 (July 1960); 223.
213 "1950 H," in the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 19. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019.
214 "1950 H," in the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 19. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019.
215 "Petition," in the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 9 Folder 1955 H. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed October 15, 2019.
216 "Petition," in the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 9 Folder 1955 H. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed October 15, 2019.
217 "Petition," in the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 9 Folder 1955 H. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed October 15, 2019.
218 "Petition," in the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 9 Folder 1955 H. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed October 15, 2019.
219 "Professional Files: State Historical Society of CO - History Report -1958-1965 - Given Annually by State Historian," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 15. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
220 "Professional Files: State Historical Society of CO - History Report -1958-1965 - Given Annually by State Historian," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 15. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
221 "1955 H," in the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 9. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed October 8, 2019.
222 Agnes Wright Spring to Anna Hawthorne (Cheyenne Mountain School, Colorado Springs). November 5,1955. In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 9 Folder 1955 H. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed October 8, 2019.
223 "Professional Files: State Historical Society of CO - History Report -1958-1965 - Given Annually by State Historian," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 15. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
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224 "Professional Files: State Historical Society of CO - History Report -1958-1965 - Given Annually by State Historian," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 15. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
225 Lydia Boyd, "A Brief History of the Television Industry,"
https://library.duke.edu/specialcollections/scriptorium/adaccess/tv-history.html. Accessed October 20, 2019.
226 "Professional Files: State Historical Society of CO - History Report -1958-1965 - Given Annually by State Historian," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 15. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
227 "Professional Files: State Historical Society of CO - History Report -1958-1965 - Given Annually by State Historian," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 15. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
228 Steven Conn, Museums and American Intellectual Life, 1876-1926 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998); 9.
229 Steven Conn, Museums and American Intellectual Life, 1876-1926 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998);
9.
230 Steven Conn, Museums and American Intellectual Life, 1876-1926 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998);
10.
231 "Professional Files: State Historical Society of CO - History Report -1958-1965 - Given Annually by State Historian," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 15. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
232 "Films and Filmstrips," The Colorado Magazine vol. L no. 4 (1973); 356.
233 "Films and Filmstrips," The Colorado Magazine vol. L no. 4 (1973); 356.
234 "Films and Filmstrips," The Colorado Magazine vol. L no. 4 (1973); 356.
235 "Artifact Kits and Primary Sources," https://www.historycolorado.org/artifact-kits-and-primary-sources. Accessed October 11, 2019.
236 "State Historical Society," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 7. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
237 "State Historical Society," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 7. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
238 "State Historical Society," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 7. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
239 "State Historical Society," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 7. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
240 "State Historical Society," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 7. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
241 "State Historical Society," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 7. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
242 "Pages from the Past - Speech (1963)." In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
243 "Letter to KLZ Production Manager, Mr. Clayton Brace (May 17,1951)," in the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092. Box 19. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019.
244 "Films and Filmstrips," The Colorado Magazine vol. L no. 4 (1973); 356.
245 "Films and Filmstrips," The Colorado Magazine vol. L no. 4 (1973); 356.
246 "Films and Filmstrips," The Colorado Magazine vol. L no. 4 (1973); 356.
247 "Films and Filmstrips," The Colorado Magazine vol. L no. 4 (1973); 356.
248 "Films and Filmstrips," The Colorado Magazine vol. L no. 4 (1973); 357.
249 "Four Spots on Local Radio (November 21,1950") in the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092. Box 19. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019.
250 "Speeches and Radio Interviews" in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
251 "Speeches and Radio Interviews" in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
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252 "Speeches and Radio Interviews" in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
253 "Magazine Articles, 1923-1973" in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 15. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
254 Agnes Wright Spring, Cow Country Legacies (Kansas City, Kansas: The Lowell Press, 1976); 2.
255 Photo from "Professional Files: State Historical Society of CO - History Report -1958-1965 - Given Annually by State Historian," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 15. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
256 Photo from "Professional Files: State Historical Society of CO - History Report -1958-1965 - Given Annually by State Historian," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 15. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
257 "An Overview of the 19th Amendment," https://www.nps.gov/articles/2020-crash-course.htm. Last updated October 8, 2019. Accessed October 20, 2019.
258 Nigel Hamilton, How To Do Biography: A Primer (New York: Harvard University Press, 2012).
259 Nigel Hamilton, How To Do Biography: A Primer (New York: Harvard University Press, 2012).
260 "Speeches and Radio Interviews" in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
261 "Votes for Women: A Portrait of Resistance," https://npg.si.edu/exhibition/votes-for-women. Accessed October 15, 2019.
262 "Votes for Women: A Portrait of Resistance," https://npg.si.edu/exhibition/votes-for-women. Accessed October 15, 2019.
263 "Votes for Women: A Portrait of Resistance," https://npg.si.edu/exhibition/votes-for-women. Accessed October 15, 2019.
264 "Votes for Women: A Portrait of Resistance," https://npg.si.edu/exhibition/votes-for-women. Accessed October 15, 2019.
265 "But You're A Girl" The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.
266 "Mrs. Black Kettle," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 51. Research Files Folder. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
267 "Biography of Black Kettle" https://www.nps.gov/sand/learn/historyculture/black-kettle-biography.htm. Last updated January 4, 2017. Accessed October 14, 2019.
268 "Biography of Black Kettle" https://www.nps.gov/sand/learn/historyculture/black-kettle-biography.htm. Last updated January 4, 2017. Accessed October 14, 2019.
269 "Biography of Black Kettle" https://www.nps.gov/sand/learn/historyculture/black-kettle-biography.htm. Last updated January 4, 2017. Accessed October 14, 2019.
270 "Mrs. Black Kettle," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 51. Research Files Folder. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
271 "Mrs. Black Kettle," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 51. Research Files Folder. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
272 "Mrs. Black Kettle," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 51. Research Files Folder. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
273 "Mrs. Black Kettle," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 51. Research Files Folder. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
274 "Mrs. Black Kettle," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 51. Research Files Folder. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
275 Mike Mackey, "Grace Raymond Hebard: Shaping Wyoming's Past," Wyoming State Historical Society (November 9, 2014); 1.
276 "Works Progress Administration (WPA) - Writer's Project, 1932-1943," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
277 "Works Progress Administration (WPA) - Writer's Project, 1932-1943," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
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278 "Works Progress Administration (WPA) - Writer's Project, 1932-1943," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
279 Agnes Wright Spring, The Cheyenne and Black Hills Stage and Express Routes (New York: A. H. Clark Co. 1949).
280 "Professional Files: State Historical Society of CO - History Report -1958-1965 - Given Annually by State Historian," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 15. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
281 "Professional Files: State Historical Society of CO - History Report -1958-1965 - Given Annually by State Historian," in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 15. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.
282 "The Better Half of the West," The Westerners Brand Book \/ol. Ill no. 1. (March 1951).
283 "The Better Half of the West," The Westerners Brand Book \/ol. Ill no. 1. (March 1951).
284 "The Better Half of the West," The Westerners Brand Book vol. Ill no. 1. (March 1951).
285 Curtis, 'The Beloved Historian."
286 Curtis, 'The Beloved Historian."
287 Curtis, 'The Beloved Historian."
288 "Pages from the Past - Speech (1963)." In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.
289 Curtis, 'The Beloved Historian."
290 Denver Public Library owes its collection on Caspar Collins to Agnes. History Colorado owes its collection on Molly Brown to Agnes. The Wyoming State Library owes its collection of World War I materials to Agnes.
291 Maxine Benson, "Remote Interview with Maxine Benson, Agnes Wright Spring's Colleague and Successor as State Historian." Interview by Kaylyn Mercuri on August 15, 2019.
292 Near the Greats, Foreword.
293 Maxine Benson, Colorado Magazine L4 (1973).
294 Near the Greats, Foreword.
295 "Caroline Bancroft, 1900-1985" https://history.denverlibrary.org/colorado-biographies/caroline-bancroft-1900-1985. Accessed October 25, 2019.
296 "Caroline Bancroft, 1900-1985" https://history.denverlibrary.org/colorado-biographies/caroline-bancroft-1900-1985. Accessed October 25, 2019.
297 "Caroline Bancroft, 1900-1985" https://history.denverlibrary.org/colorado-biographies/caroline-bancroft-1900-1985. Accessed October 25, 2019.
298 "Caroline Bancroft, 1900-1985" https://history.denverlibrary.org/colorado-biographies/caroline-bancroft-1900-1985. Accessed October 25, 2019.
299 Near the Greats, Foreword.
300 Near the Greats, Foreword.
301 Near the Greats, Foreword.
302 Near the Greats, 22-23.
303 "Meet Molly Brown," https://mollybrown.org/about-molly-brown/. Accessed October 30, 2019.
304 Near the Greats, 22.
305 Maxine Benson, Colorado Magazine L4 (1973).
306 Maxine Benson, Colorado Magazine L4 (1973).
307 This question was initially brought to me by Dr. Rebecca Hunt (CU Denver) and Steve Grinstead (Managing Editor at History Colorado).
308 "Colorado Heritage Back Issues," https://www.historycolorado.org/colorado-heritage-magazine-issues. Accessed October 20, 2019.
309 "Agnes Wright Spring," https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agnes_Wright_Spring. Accessed August 2019.
310 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring -Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
311 "Agnes Wright Spring: She Made History Herself," Spring - Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019.
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Full Text

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A WOMAN OF FIRSTS: A BIOGRAPHY OF AGNES WRIGHT SPRING, AUTHOR, HISTORIAN, AND ADVOCATE by KAYLYN O. MERCURI B.A., Furman University, 2017 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts History Program 2019

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ii © 2019 KAYLYN O MERCURI ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

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iii This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by Kaylyn O. Mercuri has been approved for the History Program by Rebecca Hunt , Chair Peter Kopp William Wagner Date: December 1 4 , 201 9

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iv Mercuri, Kaylyn (M.A., History) A W oman of F irsts: A B iography of A gnes W right S pring, A uthor, H istorian, and A dvocate Thesis directed by Associate Professor C/T Rebecca Hunt ABSTRACT Agnes Wright Spring's work in the fields of applied history and History of the American West through literature, advocacy, and education carved out an impressive legacy. However, her work has not been studied or recognized. Throughout her career, Agnes hel d the positions of author, journalist, editor, State Librarian of Wyoming, State Historian of Wyoming, and State Historian of Colorado. She is the only person to ever hold the title of State Historian in more than one state and was the first female State H istorian to serve in Colorado and Wyoming . Additionally, she authored over 500 articles and twenty two books on topics regarding the American West. When she was not researching or writing, Agnes was advocating for women to be included in the study of histo ry. Agne s efforts represent the dedication of a well educated and socially in tune woman who wanted to change the trajectory of history as a discipline . As a woman practicing and writing about history from the 1920s to the 1960s , Spring challenged the bou ndaries of traditional practices, forged a path for other women in the field, and shaped the public's perception of western history for years to come through education and collections management . efforts deserve recognition . Th e form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication. Approved : Rebecca Hunt

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v For Will and my parents

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vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all, I wish to thank Will , my fiancé, and my family for their love and support. Thank you for listening to all of my history/Agnes gibberish and accepting that it would one day be a complete thought. At the University of Colorado Denver, I wish to thank Rebecca Hunt, Peter Kopp, and Bill Wagner for their guidance through this process. Special thanks to Rebecca, without whom I would not have been aware of this topic. The History Colorado Center provided much needed research support and enthusiasm for this project . Special thanks to Steve Grinstead , David Wetzel, and Shaun Boyd. for the Fall 2019 Fellowship. The opportunity to expand this topic beyond a paper was very special to me. At the American Heritage Center University of Wyoming, I wish to thank t he friendly and helpful archivists who let me stay from open to close for several days combing through The State Archives of Wyoming provided much guidance and research help . I am specifically thankful for their efforts in d igitizing Ag . At the Redd Center, I wish to thank the grant committee for financially supporting my research. Thanks to the Denver Public Library for their help and resource knowledge.

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vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION II. AN AUTHOR, BORN AND RAISED . .. .................. 5 III. DISTANCE MAKES THE GIRL WORK HARDER: SUFFRAGE AS MOTIVATION NOT THE IV. THE WOMAN FOR THE JOBS . V. A WOMAN OF FIRSTS BUT STILL A WOMAN OF HER TIME 45 VI. . 54 LIST OF REF ERENCES . 6 2 APPENDIX I. .. 68

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viii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURES 1 . 2 . 3 . 8 4 . 5 . Original log house on the Wright Property, circa 1904. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center ...... . 6 . story log home, circa 1909. Courtesy of the American Heritage .. 7 . . 8 . 9. Pamphlet Produced by Agnes as Director of the Library War Service in 1917. Courtesy of the Wyo ming State . 23 10 . Call to action from Library War Service Pamphlet in 1918. Courtesy of the Wyoming State Archives 1 1 . How books help win the war. Courtesy of the Wyoming State Ar 1 2 . Published in 1941, this guide to Wyoming was filled with driving tour routes of the pioneer trails and photographs of the must see sights. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center 1 3 . This guide to Wyoming focused less on tourism and more on the local histories of different parts of the st ate. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center 1 4 . This book showcases histories from special groups, including Civil War soldiers, homesteaders, former slaves, and Native Americans who lived through the Battle of Little Big Horn. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center . 1 5. The Gold Nugget , Junior Historians of Colorado publication, 1959. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center 38

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ix 1 6. . Gold Nugget article, 1959. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center 1 7 . LeRoy Hafen and Agnes Wright Spring stand in front of exhibit design boards at the Colorado Historical Society Annual Meeting, 1956 . Courtesy of the American Heritage Center 1 8 . Agnes Wright Spring (middle) and staff enjoy a Colorado State Museum holiday party, circa 1959 . Courtesy of the American Heritage Center 1 9 . LeRoy R. Hafen, Agnes Wright Spring, Maxine Benson, and Harry Kelsey pose Courtesy of the History Colorado Center .. 20 . Center .. 2 1 . Agnes Wright Spring, 1973 . Courtesy of the Wyoming State Archives.

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1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I came across Agnes Wright Spring in a very peculiar way, and by peculiar, I mean that her story landed in my lap like a flashing neon sign weighed down with bricks. My academic advisor mentioned her name to me some time ago, but I did not think much about it . I began writing a paper for a different class on the Federal Writers again. Then her name appeared again as I was researching topics for a fellowship application. After th ese happy accident s , I was hooked on finding out more about her. A quick internet search revealed an incomplete Wikipedi a page and a few photos listed on the Cowgirl Hall of Fame website. From colleagues at the History Colorado Center , I learned that Agnes was listed among the early Colorado State Historians and Editors of Colorado Magazine . However, there was a bit of a my stery about why she was listed as a State Historian and Editor of Colorado Magazine but did not receive much credit for this work in her own public, digital records . Now fully invested, I submitted my intent to study Agnes for my thesis research . This res earch has taken me far and wide physically all over Wyoming and Colorado and digitally to New York, Alaska, Tennessee, and California. Her career was so diverse , it is no wonder that she has never been comprehensively studied. This research career, and legacy into one succinct paper. Writing a biography from a source base that is m ostly primary sources posed a new set of challeng es . relat ively thorough timeline of her life and accomplishments . However, little has been written about

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2 Agnes by other historians, authors, and public institutions. Until my research, Agnes was not the focus of any comprehensive studies . The author bios in her boo ks were the most complete accounts of her life that were published. Agnes did write a book, Near the Greats , that detailed a ll of the famous or politically important connections that she made throughout her career. However, this was more of a highlight ree l than a realistic picture of her life. For these reasons, I struggled to appl y relevant secondary source materia .to my research . Agnes was mentioned many times in newspapers throughout her career. Yet, t hese normally pertained to her appointments as State Historian or her published works. These articles barely scraped the surface of any personal details. Agnes left behind thousands of documents and hundreds of photographs . She donated these to the University of Wyoming and the History Colorado Center. Her collections at the American Heritage Center in Laramie, Wyoming, the Wyoming State Archives in Cheyenne, Wyoming, and the History Colorado Center in Denver, Colorado fill approximately 136 archival boxes . These materials were invaluable to my research. However, they rarely included items that were personal in nature . Agnes saved her correspondence from hundreds of her colleagues and research contacts, but she did not donate personal letters or diaries . There is a great absence of Agnes point of view in her own collection. These materials tell the story of her life and accomplishments, if only from a top down , hindsight view. Moreover, the primary sources in which Agnes spo ke about the nitty gritty details of her life were typically from when Agnes was in an advanced age. Agnes wrote and spoke more reflectively and emotionally in her later years. 1 As she approached retirement her speeches and public statements were more per sonal and anchored to what she was proud of her family,

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3 career, and publications. 2 Sentiment showed through more often than it had in any other communications. These peeks into her emotions, opinions, values, and beliefs were helpful in creating a more well rounded view of Agnes. They also must be analyzed carefully because of career motivations came from oral histories that Agnes recorded with Carl McWilliams in 1986, just two years before she passed away. 3 I have attempted to verify everything that she said in those interviews, because of how much time had passed between the interviews and the subjects on which she talked. personal life were difficult to ascertain and verify. I utilized county, school, and state records to piece together her education records and home locations over the years. Agnes moved frequently, following open positions and researc h. Because of this , h er author bios featured a new town or state every few years. This made it difficult to track the social and academic circles in which Agnes ran . When county and state records failed to reveal new information , I verified details using A , public interviews, speeches, and oral histories . Matching the locations and dates made it possible for me to create a working timeline and begin to fill in the missing pieces of h er career and impact . Biographical works, especi ally those of respectable people, often struggle with This paper available sources. While Agnes deserves to be honored for her contributions to history in the American West, this study would be incomplete without situating her in the context of her time period. This work aims to place Agnes within the realities of her time and analyze he r decisions

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4 along the way. Chapter V specifically tackles these issues. Though Agnes was an advocate for women in history and history education, her actions and language patterns reveal undercurrents of racism that was commonplace during the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s. However, Agnes is worthy of acknowledgment for her accomplishments as an author, historian, and activist in the history field. As chapters II , III, and I V show, Agnes collected many accolades and titles throug h her hard work , including first female to study engineering at the University of Wyoming, first female State Historian of Wyoming, first female State Historian of Colorado, awards for influential writing in the American West, and an induction into the Cowgirl Hall of Fame. She was willing to go the distance to finish her research or get the job done. Additionally, she felt that all women should have the same opportunities that she had. This led her to create space for women to join academic history conversations, study history in s chool, and be included as topics of history research. get after it mentality served her well as she blended her careers as author and historian to become someone who supported women in both field s and led by example.

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5 CHAPTER II AN AUTHOR, BORN AND RAISED Agnes Wright Sp ring was born in Delta, Colorado on January 5, 1894. She was delivered 4 Agnes was the second of four daughters born to Gordon L. Wright and Myra May Dorset Wright. 5 Gordon and Myra were married in Delta in 1890 and raised four daughters, Lucille, Agnes, Rachel, and Alice. According to Oral Histories, h er maternal great grandfather, Folsom Dorset, was a farmer from Maine who was appointed by President Abraham Lincoln to serve as Secretary of Agriculture. 6 However, he barely served three months before President Lincoln was assassinated. 7 Wright worked as a stage line operator in Delta. As early as 1892, he and Myra drove wholesale fruit delivery wagons between sellers on the western slope and Aspen. 8 surrounded by apples. 9 In the Fall of 1895, Gordon and Myra moved with their daughters, Lucille and Agnes, to Denver, Colorado. 10 The West was still feeling the effects of the 1893 Silver Crash, and Gordon had not been able collect pay from any of his employers in months. 11 Gordon took a job at Morey Mercantile in downtown Denver. 12 However, this position lasted little more than a year. Gordon received a hi gher paying proposition as a railroad tie shipper in 1896. 13 In order to perform this labor, the Wright family moved to Minturn, Colorado. 14 In November of 1903, Gordon Wright purchased 640 acres of land on the Little Laramie River and the family moved to Wyoming. 15 The property was in Albany County, northwest of

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6 Laramie, Wyoming, which was expanding in population and comm erce thanks to the Union twisted and turned. Agnes had several favorite fishing spots along the pebbly banks of the Little Laramie. 16 She continued to love fi shing throughout her life, later entering in many local competitions and writing about it in a few articles. 17 The Wright family used the river for fishing, washing, and drinking water. From December 1903 on, the family operated a stagecoach stop from a t hree room log Mines, which were established in the 1870s to mine copper and gold in the Medicine Bow Mountain Range. 18 Myra and her daughters helped run the stage stop b y greeting travelers and arranging household affairs. The Wright girls handled the day to day running of the stage stop, including cooking and laundering. Agnes specifically was in charge of slicing and selling ten cent portions of tobacco. 19 The Wright s , initially, did not have rooms to rent to travelers. Gordon expanded their log cabin into a two story, ten room building in 1909 to solve this problem. 20 After this, there were six rooms to rent . The beauty and space of growing up in a rural area posed a p roblem when it came to a stand alone stagecoach stop and ranch. The flow of news and goods that came with the waves of travelers was unreliable depending on the sea son. Therefore, the Wrights and their neighbors decided to petition for a post office. 21 Gordon wrote to the postmaster general in Washington and asked for authorization to set up a United States Post Office on their property. 22 When the application and location was approved, Gordon named the post office

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7 Filmore and built a two foot by three f oo t wooden shack for the mail and packages to be stored in on his property. 23 Though Gordon was the official listed on the application, he delegated the responsibilities to his wife, Myra. She essentially served as postmistress for the next twenty five ye ars. 24 Though the tiny post office was barely large enough to hold packages, it received quite 25 The Wrights led a simple life but a busy one. After a few years, Gordon expanded his business to include dude ranching. He was not the first to run a dude ranch in the area and bought used equipment from a nearby ranch. With the stagecoach stop, post office, a nd ranch, the Wrights had plenty of company stopping by their home. Mine owners, mine workers, prospectors, stage drivers, tie hacks, cowboys, cattlemen, and homesteaders all made frequent 26 It was through this constant company that Agnes developed her love for stories and writing. 27 Agnes remembered sitting up late into the night with her family and visiting with travelers. They always had stories to share of the wagon trail, business ventures, and Native Ame rican encounters. Agnes wrote these adventurous tales down in her journals. These stories inspired her to write and instilled within her an appreciation for the characters of the West. 28

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8 Figure 1 Agnes Wright and her sister, Lucille. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center. 29 Figure 2 The Wright Family in a wagon. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center. 30 Figure 3 Agnes' favorite fishing spot. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center. 31 Figure 2 The Filmore Post Office. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center. 32 Figure 5 Original log house on the Wright Property, circa 1904. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center. 33 story log home, circa 1909. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center. 34

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9 Figure 7 Gordon and Myra Wright, 1925. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center. 35 Agnes could read from a young age and enjoyed learning in school. She and her older sister, Lucille, went to grade school in Laramie. 36 Later, when her two younger sisters were school age there was a local schoolhouse 37 Agnes excelled academically in Laramie . She started school at a third grade level and moved up to prep aratory school the same year as her sister, who was two years her elder. Agnes and her sister boarded with families in Laramie during the academic year , but she did not leave behind specific names. 38 oved to Laramie. Myra, arranging the girls school things. Agnes remembered this as one of the happiest winters of her young life. 39 After only three years of taking h igh school level classes at the Laramie Preparatory School, Agnes submitted an application to the University of Wyoming. 40 T he University of Wyoming accepted Agnes , only fifteen at the time, and she started college courses. Though it

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10 was not uncommon for s ambitious study habits propelled her forward in to a four year degree. At this point in her life, Agnes was determined to become a topographical draftsman and enrolled in engineering courses. She was introduced to map making by a traveler at her contribute to what she saw as a tradition of civilizing the West through map making. However, Agnes quickly learned that being a woman and doing field work did not mix. Agnes was the first wom a n to sign up for engineering classes and attend engineering field studies at the University of Wyoming. 41 tire, as she soon realized that her steel corset caused the compass to give incorrect readings. 42 Though she persisted in 43 She adjusted her wardrobe during field study trips and was able to comple te her coursework. Agnes was able to pursue engineering because d iverse educational paths were more readily accessible to women in the West. Agnes enrolled in engineering college courses with ease , even though it was a male dominated field at the time . A ll it required was proof of her prerequisites from high school, or, in her case, preparatory school. Agnes found ways to get around the socially accepted dress code for women while doing field studies. She was not forced to withdrawal from the course based on her sex and the current gender stereotypes . Opposingly, women in eastern states did not enjoy access to courses and occupational training in fields that were deemed masculine. Women in the East were barred from most engineering, law, mathematics, and s cience courses because of their gender and the understanding that their place was in the home and not a professional field. 44 Though Agnes was the first female to

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11 study engineering at the University of Wyoming, she faced no resistance when signing up for c lasses. This would not have been the case in eastern states. Agnes grew up in Colorado and Wyoming, the first two states that allowed women to vote in the United States. Wyoming granted women the right to vote and hold public office in 1869, before it gai ned statehood. 45 Other territories, such as Utah, Colorado, Washington, and Montana followed close behind by letting women vote in different capacities . When Wyoming was added to the union in 1890, it became the first state to allow women to vote. Colorado, states allowed women the right to vote in larger numbers than their eastern counterparts. Though romantic ponderings of the West rarely conjure progressive images, Colorado and Wyoming were radical in their decisions to allow women voters before 1900. Suffragists across the country, including Susan B. Anthony, noted 46 Agnes grew up in a society that largely viewed men and women as legal equals, which was not the case in the majority of other states. This is not to say that women had achieved equality i n Colorado or Wyoming far from it. However, for the late 1890s and early 1900s when Agnes was growing up, Colorado and Wyoming were relatively progressive states. perception of the world. Agnes , along with many women in the W est after the 1890s, believed that she had the legal right to do anything a man could do. While this had societal limitations, it did not hold Agnes back from entering male dominated courses or professions. Agnes was passionate about map making and writing. Both were positions that were typically filled by

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12 men. Agnes did not really perceive herself as breaking barriers, because she had the legal right to work alongside a man. However, as Agnes w ould later find out, this was not the case across women should be able to do. While in school, Agnes continued her love of story sharing by writing for the Wyo ming Student and by joining clubs. 47 The Wyoming Student was a university publication that featured student authors and campus news. After publishing a few articles, Agnes was introduced to the editing process by a fellow student author. She became heavily involved in editing the publication until she finally t ook over the position in the Fall of 1910. 48 She was the first female to be the editor of the Wyoming Student . 49 During her university days, Agnes was also a 50 social e vents around campus for its members. These allowed students to spend time together outside of classes. Pi Beta Phi also raised money to donate to several local and national charities, including 51 Agnes made strong fr iendships through this group that proved invaluable after her college years . As a Freshman, Agnes was hired as an assistant librarian at the University of Wyoming by Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard. T his four year position, and the mentoring that came with it , c Dr. Hebard was the and head librarian at the time . 52 She was also a professor at the University of Wyoming , Native American historian, and suffragist . Throughout her career, Hebard had faced harsh criticism for her beliefs in 53 Hebard helped host the third convention of the National Council for Woman Voters in Wyoming in 1916. 54 Agnes , through her position

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13 under Grace , was able to witness the preparat ions for this event. Agnes was inspired by the convention and wrote about it in a 1916 article that was published by the Wyoming State Tribune. 55 This connection was invaluable for her , because Hebard was a respected woman who experienced adversity and her fair share of firsts in the West. Dr. Hebard was the first woman 56 Agn es worked under Grace Hebard from 1909 to 1913. 57 As assistant librarian, Agnes gained practical experience and formed a p ersonal relationship with Hebard. Grace encouraged her to pursue story sharing, diffe rent career s . She passed the Civil Service Examination in 1913, which certified her map making abilities. 58 However, her degree and passion were beginning to split ways. Agnes found herself torn between the world of story sharing and the world of charting. Interestingly, both options could be considered as ways of remembering. Map making collected tales of exploration and growth through distances and destinations. Nonfictional writing also collected stories but presented them in more descriptive ways. She w as forced to choose whether researching and writing were simple hobbies or a viable career path. If she decided to pursue topographical work, she would be among the first women in the West to do so. Agnes decided to follow her research instincts, and Dr. H to do things in her field. post university years, m aking it possible for her to apply for jobs in the city while also staying tight with her

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14 close knit family. When Agnes and Lucille first attended school in Laramie, they journeyed by stagecoach for over six hours. They traveled in this fashion each way fo r every academic semester. Slow transportation made it necessary for the Wright girls to board with other families while they were in school, even though they were a mere twenty three miles from the Union Pacific Railroad company expanded their t r acks to incorporate more of rural Wyoming on their way to the mines. Agnes traveled home by train that Christmas and covered the distance in an hour and a half. 59 Soon the car made this trip even quicker . With faster travel at her fingertips, Agnes felt confident in her ability to start a life in the city and keep her family ties close. After graduation in May of 1913, Agnes went to work as Assistant Librarian in the Wyoming State Supreme Court Library i n Cheyenne, Wyoming where she made some life changing connections. 60 The position at the State Supreme Court Library allowed her to meet many prominent Wyoming figures. 61 One such politician was Governor Joseph M. Carey, who Agnes referred to as 62 Governor Carey was a Wyoming Governor before and after statehood. Originally from Ohio, Carey got his start in Wyoming as a rancher and received support from the ranching community when he transitioned into politics. 63 This ranching background a lso helps to explain the easy liking he took to Agnes, as she also came from a family ranch background. Agnes impressed Carey with her hard work and wit. 64 She was a keen researcher . She served the Supreme Court Library well, making connections between case files and texts that aided investigations and general public questions alike. 65 Agnes quickly mastered tasks she was

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15 given by superiors. She credited her background in library work and the training she received from Hebard for her ability to succeed. 66 The Carey Family, especially Julia Carey, took Agnes in as one of their own . They often host ed her for dinner and parties. Agnes lived in an apartment in 67 Agnes and Julia became unlikely friends. Julia Carey , the daughter of General Henry Blanchard Freeman and Sar ah Darling Freeman of Ohio , was a wealthy socialite . 68 As a child Julia came with her family to Wyoming where her father participated in campaigns against the Cheyenne and Ute peoples. 69 Julia came to the West with her military family but stayed to Marry J oseph Carey. Julia was often restless in Wyoming, wanting to visit California and the East Coast. To ward off boredom, she kept up with all of the latest stories and house keeping trends. Agnes was one person with whom she always swapped stories and news. Many male suitors approached Agnes and wrote to her often while she lived in Cheyenne, including one who never really got over her. Agnes wrote about this man, whose identity she kept anonymous, saying that he never married and left her $100,000 when he pa ssed away in the 1960s. 70 She discussed propositions with Julia but always decided to focus on her work instead of dating . Julia was amused by Agnes but also respected her drive.

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16 Figure 8 Agnes as a young woman. Courtesy of the Wyoming State Archives. 71 forthcoming about the fact that she carried a pistol with her when she walked alone in what 72 She sought to protect herself. However, as she spilled to Julia, she stopped carrying the gun after an unfortunate and embarrassing incident. One day B who she w anted to interview for a story she was writing. Hailing from Missouri, Pershing served in many campaigns against the Apaches and Sioux in the West. 73 He received his nickname, B lackjack, for overseeing segregated black troop s . 74 In 190 5 , Pershing married Helen Frances Warren, daughter of Senator Francis E. Warren of Wyoming. 75 They made their home in Cheyenne, where his new father in law was often a topic of public discussion. In 1906 Pershing received a controversial promotion to General. His promotion was a direct wish of President Theodore Roosevelt but rubbed many the wrong way as he skipped over other senior officers. 76 By the time he was settled in Wyoming, he was already well known for his military service and his influential father i n law. 77 to and from work. On the spring evening when she finally spotted Pershing, Agnes was so excited that

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17 she reportedly started fidgeting with the pistol in her pocket and accidentally shot a hol e straight through her skirt. 78 Thoroughly embarrassed, Agnes did not get her chance to speak with Pershing and jogged straight home. Julia Carey found this story wildly funny and asked Agnes to tell it at a dinner party the following week. After building this friendship for more than two years, Agnes felt that she could speak frankly with Julia and they often spoke of finances and her future. This ranged from discussing 79 Agnes, who was twenty one at the time, wished to attend journalism school but could not afford it for several more years at her pay rate. Julia found out about her dream and set to work in the Fall of 1915 to solve this issue. Julia collected donations fr office and anonymously presented Agnes with a $500 check. 80 Agnes was stunned and grateful. However, she needed at least $1,000 to secure her tuition and living costs for a two year graduate program. Agnes applied for a continuing education scholarship from her college fraternity, Pi Beta Phi. Pi Beta Phi, a national organization, kept funds for scholarships of this kind. Agnes had been an active member during her years at the University of Wyoming and application for the scholarship was accepted with the expectation that sh e would later write , The Arrow . 81 She received $500 from Pi Beta Phi and was overjoyed. With her finances secured, Agnes applied to and accepted a spot in the 1916 class of the Pulitzer School of Journalism at Columbia University. With fond farewells to friends and emotional goodbyes to family, Agnes moved to New York City. 82

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18 CHAPTER III DISTANCE MAKES THE GIRL WORK HARDER: SUFFRAGE AS MOTIVATION NOT THE ENDGOAL Upon moving to New York City in 1916, Agnes learned firsthand what it was like to live in a less equal society . After finding a roommate and an apartment, Agnes thought that sh e would settle into her studies in peace. However, the New York w s uffrage campaign was in full swing and national Pi B eta Phi council members urged her join. Agnes was recruited for until 1917 . Additionally, being close to Washington D.C., th e suffragists in New York were On the days when she did not have classes, Agnes and a randomly assigned partner would canvas several blocks of the city. They knocked on doors, distributed pamphl ets, and collected petition signatures. 83 Over time Agnes learned that the public regard for Columbia University worked in her favor. She would name drop the school when she introduced herself in order to keep some women interested. 84 Nonetheless, Agnes re ceived many different reactions from New York women as a suffragist. She had doors slammed in her face by men and women and, opposingly, had several women hug her. 85 One day Agnes was knocking on doors with a suffragist who was from Wyoming. They had a wom them. 86 87 These contrasting reactions left an impression on Agnes and made her more aware of the society in which she was now living.

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19 Agnes experienced gender inequality in New York in several ways. During her first year of journalism school, Agnes was curious about expanding her knowledge so that she could write about a plethora of topics. Having worked in the Wyoming State Supreme Court Library she was interested in legal writing and journalism regarding legislation. 88 Agnes went to the Dean of the 89 She had not made an appointment, so she waited patiently in the lobby area. She wa tched male student after male student be called back for more than three hours. Then the secretary came out from behind the desk and said it was closing time and locked the office while Agnes sat there. 90 Agnes came back the next day and, after waiting pat iently for another two hours, demanded to be seen. When she finally got to speak with the Dean of the Law School, she informed him that she was very interested in joining a constitutional law class. He curtly replied, 91 Needless to say, Agnes left very disappointed in the state of affairs at Columbia. After th e incident with the law school, Agnes was on her guard and even more fervently supported the s uffrage movement in New York. Though the two were not directly connected, she felt it was a good way for women to have more control over their lives and potential. Agnes used the time she would have spent in the constitutional law class to volunteer with t he suffrage movement. She stuffed letters and licked envelopes. She used her suffragist work as a means of coping with her frustrations about being hemmed in by her gender in New York society. Career opportunities were also fraught with gender discrimination. During her time at Columbia University Agnes made many friends, some of who were men. The New Bedford

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20 Standard s a job writing article s. 92 He could not accept the position; however, he recommended Agnes for the job and sent her to named friend gave her all of the details about the job, including his offered pay, prior to her interview. 93 The hiring manager, a man by the name of Hough, promised twenty capable, interviewed , the hiring manager offered her the job. However, Hough offered Agnes ten dollars less per week than her male counterpart. 94 She was outraged. Agnes refused the 95 Agnes stormed out of the office and did indeed return to the West. Agnes unfortunately never completed journalism school, but her experiences there changed her outlook for good. Agnes regretted leaving her graduate degree unfinished. 96 She felt guilty for accepting the donations and scholarship, from Pi Beta Phi, without seeing the intended purpos e through. 97 Agnes later applied to a graduate program at the University of Wyoming but never started the coursework due to financial restrictions during the Great Depression. 98 Though Agnes was bothered by the fact that she never earned her graduate degre e, the gender inequality that she faced in New York shaped her perception of her future career. Agnes, who was inspired by Dr. Hebard, had experienced some of the adversity that Hebard experienced. Before moving to New York, Agnes did not consider her gen der as an important factor in her work. 99 After attending Columbia, the fact that she was a female was ever present in the way she navigated her career.

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21 Agnes found peace with her decision to leave graduate school by repaying the kindness of her donors and Pi Beta Phi through writing. In the application essay she wrote for the graduate school at the University of Wyoming, Agnes focused on Joseph Carey and his career. 100 commit The Arrow. 101 was treated by the Dean of the Law School at Columbia University and by the h iring manager at her job interview. 102 In chatty, informal language, Agnes bared her raw emotions and ensured her readers of the reasons why equality and national suffrage were imperative. In addition to her feature article, Agnes completed an entire histo ry and guidebook for Pi Beta Phi by traveling all over the country and Canada to interview alumni and current members of the organization. 103 Her favorite stop along the way was Gatlinburg, Tennessee where she visited a settlement school that her fraternity was sponsoring . 104 She spent several weeks in Gatlinburg, playing with the children, enjoying the scenery, and writing. 105 Agnes took the opportunity of these trips to reflect on the West how equality between men and women changed the outcomes of lives an d careers. 106 Agnes returned to Wyoming with her newfound emphasis on equality and received a position as State Librarian in 1917. 107 Agnes settled back into Cheyenne at this time and was happy to be back near her family. 108 She served as the State Librarian for four years, actively 109 As State Librarian, she quickly rejoined the social and academic circles in Wyoming. 110 She was even more direct and ambitious in her work due to her feelings of being shut out in New York. Women in Wyoming enjoyed more equality

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22 but still fought gender ste reotypes. To make sure she was at the top of her game, Agnes enrolled in night classes at the Cheyenne Business College. 111 She attended night courses and studied shorthand. 112 Agnes was forthcoming in her intentions to incorporate female authors and histori ans into the Wyoming State Library circuit as well as make sure that she was not underestimated due to her gender. 113 Agnes used her weekends in Cheyenne to do research and hone her writing talents. 114 Agnes joined the Wyoming State Historical Committee and was selected as a chairperson in 1917. She used the group as a sounding board for her ideas. Also in 1917, she began writing many articles on ranching data and livestock. 115 Between 1917 and 1918 Agnes wrote two weekly columns for the Wyoming Stockman Farmer , the house keeping column and ranching column. 116 Agnes had a little more difficulty with her story length articles. Western publications, such as The American Magazine and Cromwell Publishing Company, rejected her early articles for not app ealing to the public audience keep . 117 Agnes used this criticism to develop her writing style stories of people in the West. She found that if her articles included people and their daily life or struggles, they we re more likely to sell. 118 Supporting herself as an author alone would not have been possible just yet, so Agnes was thankful for her position as State Librarian. reliable work w as recognized by those within her network an d this contributed to her gaining more responsibilities than the aver age State Librarian. After the United States entered World War I in 1917, Agnes was selected as the Director of the Library War Service. 119 T he Library War S ervice, under the American Library Ass ociation , sought to provide reading materials to American and allied soldiers fighting in World War I. 120 The Governor of Wyoming,

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23 Frank L. Houx, wanted this library program to succeed, but he also hopped to compile a list of all men from Wyoming who were s erving overseas . 121 In order to make this happen, Houx created the office of Wyoming State Historian in 1918. 122 Through this position, the governor aimed to emphasize the importance of record keeping. He appointed Agnes to this position, making her the firs t female Wyoming State Historian . 123 Though Wyoming was known as the gender equality state, this was still a big step for Agnes and continued her trend of firsts. Agnes served in these capacities through the end of 1919, while also working as State Librari an. 124 These feats would not have been possible without her dedication to her work and those she was serving. Covering all these positions at once included a lot of administrative and political work, but it also streamlined the process. As a voting member of the Wyoming State Historical Committee and State Historian, Agnes was able to institute her ideas and progr ams. 125 The reading programs and historic research topics that Agnes undertook were supported by other members of the historical committee . 126 As State Historian of Wyoming, she was known as a 127 This investigative research produced several short Wyoming histories as well as contributed to her own writing. Many of these were included in shipments sent to troops stationed overseas as they fought in World War I. Agnes leaned on her res ources as State Librarian and State Historian in order to make her efforts as Director of the Library War Service successful. 128 She set up book donation center s across the Wyoming and the West. Agnes circulated pamphlets educating citizens on the need for reading materials in the war effort and urging them to consider donating their books. 129

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24 Figure 9 Pamphlet Produced by Agnes as Director of the Library War Service in 1917. Courtesy of the Wyoming State Archives . 130 Figure 10 Call to action from Library War Service Pamphlet in 1918. Courtesy of the Wyoming State Archives . 131 Figure 1 1 How books help win the war. Courtesy of the Wyoming State Archives . 132 have to go it alone. She excelled in securing funding for libraries, reading programs, and histor y events throughout the state of Wyoming. In order to do this, Agnes appeared before committees and state legislators or wrote proposals. This was intimidating work, but Agnes cited her friends and fellow academics at the University of Wyoming, such as Dr. Gene Gressley and Dr. Grace Hebard, when justifying her proposals and requests for funding. The support of well known history experts was helpful in clearing Agnes of any precursory underestimations. 133 Archie was a geologist who came from Massachusetts to study at the Colorado School of the Mines. 134 Before meeting Agnes, Archie worked at oil refineries all over the country and Latin America. He was exhausted with traveling and the dangers his job broug ht. He wanted to settle down and find peace in everyday routine. 135 Originally from Boston, Archie had been raised in

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25 the city and only known an urban lifestyle. 136 He desired something different. Archie missed the wide open spaces and seasonal changes of th e American West. He returned to Colorado and met Agnes. The two were married in the Spring of 1921 and moved to Fort Collins, Colorado where Archie took a desk job at an oil company. 137 138 At twenty seven ye ars old, Agnes was older than most brides at the time, but she decided not to follow the housewife lifestyle. Their untraditional lifestyle provided room for blossoming careers and civic engagements.

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26 CHAPTER IV THE WOMAN FOR THE JOBS During my years in public life I always worked harder than my staff and tried to justify the confidence placed in me by the nine governors whom I served, regardless of politics. I thoroughly enjoyed my work for more than half a century or since I worked in Wyoming and Colorado perhaps I should say 139 Over the next thirty years, Agnes refused to let her career get sidelined. Though she was now a married woman, both Agnes and A rchie continued their careers. They never had any children. During the 1920s Agnes published nearly seventy five magazine articles and short stories in publications such as the Wyoming Stoc kman Farmer , The Denver Post, and Sunset Magazine . 140 She was focusing more on stories about people and pioneers in western history. Agnes also published her first book, Caspar Collins: The Life and Exploits of an Indian Fighter of the Sixties . 141 After some difficulty with the publisher, Casp a r Collins hit t he shelves and was reviewed by several Colorado n ewspapers. This success jump led to her starting several new projects. After six years in Fort Collins, Archie still craved a slower lifestyle and wished to move into a more rural area. Agnes, who spent her days either on the road chasing research or at home writing , was fine with the idea of being a little more out in the country. It would not inhibit her ability to work and, after all, she grew up in the country. They purch ased a cherry orchard and settled into their new home and land. 142 The name recorded for their new home was Cherryhurst. It was located near Fort Collins, Colorado. Agnes grew up feeding turkeys and

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27 working in a garden , but n either Agnes nor Archie had much prior knowledge of raising trees or operating an orchard . 143 Their efforts were nearly laughable, as Agnes remarked later in life. As their ventures with the orchard teetered on breaking even, Agnes continued to write C lub, which focused on supporting and encouraging women authors. 144 The Denver ub also specialized in networking. Agnes traveled to Denver for meetings where she connected with publishers from Denver, Colorado at large, and national publications. Agnes published articles in Frontier Times Magazine, The Wyoming Stockman Farmer, The Ro cky Mountain News, The Denver Post, and the Fort Collins Coloradan. 145 She had mastered her writing style and was only slowed by the effects of the Great Depression. During the Great Depression, authors and publication houses suffered alike, t o dismay . She sought additional employment. She put aside the research that she was conducting for future manuscripts and applied for research positions at a few state institutions. Through an assortment of desk jobs, Agnes received ad hoc work for a few years. In 1934, Agnes and Archie were forced to sell their cherry orchard and move to Denver. In the urban center, Agnes had a better chance of getting reliable work because she was in closer proximity to Denver public libraries, publishers, and museums. The Works Progress Administration (WPA) , created to aid struggling workers du ring the and historians in 1935. 146 state office, selected a director, and started hiring researc hers, ethnographers, and writers from across the state. Individual states had different projects and branches of this outreach.

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28 Many states also had programs that hired artists, play wrights, musicians, etc. However, they almost all followed a similar schem a. paying them to write histories and guidebooks for their state. 147 These books aimed at rejuvenating tourism to help the country bounce back from the depression. 148 The histories and guidebooks were supposed to be based off of long standing history and newly acquired research. Many states initiated oral history programs in order to capture the stories of their uding ethnic minorities that had been excluded from previous state histories. 149 Dr. LeRoy Hafen, a well respected Colorado h istorian, was named Director of the 150 He had been following researchers and writers who were willing to go the distance to capture stories from every part of the state. He knew Agnes was thorough and hard working. In the Fall of 1935, Hafen called Project. 151 Agnes was thrilled to be offered such steady employment and immediately accepted without even conferring with Arch ie. 152 by the state that she was ineligible for the job. According to the state of Colorado, Agnes was not poor enough to receive the aid from the WPA funded position. 153 Hafen was frustrated by this setback , but his hands were tied. Agnes was disappointed but not out of hope or options. She utilized her whole network to sell her written work and brainstormed more ambitious pieces that would be desirous to

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29 state wide institutions. Agnes compiled a proposal history, one with topics no one had ever studied before. 154 She wanted to study the women of Wyoming who, accepting equality as a matter of course, have taken their place side by side with the men in building up a great western empire. Theirs is a story of courage, of isolation, of struggles and privations, of political intrigue, of initiative and leadership, of national recognition filled with romance and color. 155 Agnes drew up a brochure on this idea and dropped it off at every academic institution she could think of, including the State Library of Wyoming. She happened to be visiting the library to do some research for a different article. A new librarian, who did not work under Agnes when she was State Librarian, saw potential in the pitch. This unnamed librarian passed the brochure on to the Wyoming Department of Education, where it was reviewed by the education committee and the Wyoming State Librarian. 156 project was important and well Project mission. Three weeks later, after the Works Progress Administration had reviewed the Wyoming State Librarian and Department 157 Not only was her book proposal accepted, but she was also being offered the position of Director of the Federal Writers Progra m in Wyoming. 158 Agnes was elated and a bit surprised. She readily accepted. Agnes did not downplay her excitement or pride that she was offered an equal position to that of her colleague , Dr. Hafen. She had earned a position equal to that of a respected ma le colleague in Colorado, a career shift that she did not take for granted. Agnes and Archie moved

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30 to Cheyenne, Wyoming in the Spring of 1936, where Archie took a job as an inspector for a fuel company. 159 In this position Agnes pursued her research goals as well as fulfilled ot her requests from the state with a team of eager researchers, writers, historians, and artists. Agnes and her team and points of inte rest in Wyoming according to the instructions from the national Works Progress Administration office in Washington, D.C. 160 She arranged for researchers to scour the archives and libraries in Cheyenne and Laramie for existing information about pioneers, sta 161 Agnes and her team created a plan for how to collect more narratives about topics and communities that were understudied. The WPA office in Washington D.C. provided a rough list of information the y required for the books , but the details were up to each individual state. Agnes divided the map of Wyoming and corresponding list of historic sites and important people groups systematically amongst the researchers, writers, artists, and historians on he r team. 162 As director, she was bogged down with administrative duties and did not get to perform as many interviews as she would have liked. However, her team was capable and documented their findings in written reports that Agnes read and approved. 163 The Wyoming WPA office requested two publications of different nature s from the tourism and travel book. This project produced T he WPA Guide to Wyoming: The Cowboy State (1941). 164 Researchers, photographers, and writers compiled driving tours of Wyoming and photographs of the tour highlights for this book. 165 The driving tours focused on the old pioneer trails and historic sites

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31 in the state. 166 The hope was that this book would insp ire in state and out of state tourists to journey to these places and meanwhile spend money in the state. The second book requested type text P roj ect writers to conduct more comprehensive research. They needed to collect information about those who forged the path to statehood in Wyoming . everyone who participated in civilizing , as they perceived it at the time, and growing the state after that. After five years of interviewing, writing, and editing they published Wyoming; A Guide to Its History, Highways, and People. 167 The finished product as the most comprehensive study of Wyoming to date. 168 In order to complete these books, Agnes oversaw the WPA initiatives to interview many Many of these took place in the format of oral histories. 169 The Work Progress Administration supplied instructions on how to conduct oral histories and record notes and transcripts from the sessions. 170 They informed the research about different experiences around the state, including thos e of ethnic minorities and women. Researchers conducted interviews with Greek, Hispanic, African American, Italian, and Chinese communities . 171 The research revealed that nearly fifty nationalities were represented in Wyomin g in the 1930s. 172 Moreover, these interviews often reflected the perspectives of the women and elders from these communities. The interview ers traversed the state during the daylight hours of weekdays. Therefore, the able bodied men of the community were often gone to work. If the woman of the house was also away at work, the researchers would gather

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32 stories from the oldest child. This pleas e d Agnes, as her original book proposal aimed to focus on women of Wyoming. The ir research assembled such a large amount information that two books would not Wyoming F olklore: Reminiscence s , Folktales, Beliefs, Customs, and Folk Speech . 173 This work showcased specific individuals and events, such as Civil War soldiers, homesteaders, former slaves, and Native Americans who fought at the Battle of Little Big Horn. 174 These specialized stories went further in depth than previous histories because they included folklore and legend alongside the traditionally accepted history. In a time when Euro centric understandings of religion and history were the norm, Wyoming Folklo re placed Native American stories and other minority stories in a position of equal importance. Figure 1 2 Published in 1941, this guide to Wyoming was filled with driving tour routes of the pioneer trails and photographs of the must see sights. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center. 175 Figure 1 3 This guide to Wyoming focused less on tourism and more on the local histories of different parts of the state. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center. 176 Figure 1 4 This book showcases histories from special groups, including Civil War soldiers, homesteade rs, former slaves, and Native Americans who lived through the Battle of Little Big Horn. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center . 177

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33 While overseeing the publication of the research , Agnes set her sights on publishing more of her own writing and working with educational institutions. In 1941, the 178 The economy was recovering from the Great Depression and it be came more difficult for politicians to secure funding for national aid programs. 179 Agnes stayed in Wyoming to see the publication process through but was technically no longer employed through the WPA when the guides to Wyoming hit the shelves. 180 Agnes and Archie moved back to Denver, Colorado in 1941 and Agnes accepted a position as Assistant Librarian at the Denver Public Library. 181 Her time in the library re ignited her passion for history and historic collections. Agnes published three books, including William Chapin Deming of Wyoming: Pioneer Publisher, and State and Federal Official: A Biography (1944). 182 In 1943, following years of research ing, writing, and publishing, Agnes became restless in the Colorado. Behind the scenes, Agnes was feeling challe nged by a friend and colleague. A 183 By this, the unlisted friend meant that Agnes, who was forty nine at the time, was getting too old to be the public face of any organization or institution. She could hide behind her writing and make money that way. However, Agnes was offended by this an d took it as a personal challenge. 184 She applied for a position a nd was hired as the for the Sacramento Public Library. 185 unclear about whether Archie moved with her for this position . S he was in California for less than a year , which might suggest that

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34 Agnes and Archie were doing long distance. She returned to Denver in 1944, having verified for herself that she could still deal with public forces and excel. Agnes transitioned to the Western History Department of the Denver Public Library when a position became available in 1945 and settled back into her Denver circles. 186 She joined the National League of American Pen W omen Inc., the Colorado Authors League, the Western History Associ ation, and the Western Writers of America. 187 The network of historians and authors that she regularly worked with was steadily growing. They respected her detail oriented research and public audience friendly writing style. 188 articles were considered easy reading by reviewers , they did not lack responsibly and thoroughly conducted research. 189 State Historian in 1950. Dr. Hafen, the State Historian of Colorado from 1924 to 1949 and 1951 to 1953 together for the Colorado Magazine as early as 1933. 190 This collaboration strengthen ed another opportunity to recruit Agnes. He asked Agnes to stand in for him as State Historian of Colorado while he was away on a year long fellowship at the Huntington Library in California. 191 Agnes did not question her abilities and rose to the task. She accepted and stepped into her role as Acting State Historian of Colorado in January of 1950. In this position Agnes oversaw the functions of the Colorado State Museum, edited and published Colo rado Magazine , maintained the historic al collections of the museum, and helped run the Colorado State

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35 Historical Society. 192 This opportunity catapulted Agnes into the Colorado public eye, and she worked diligently to do her best. Coworkers reported that th e rectangular metal desk in her office, room 114, was always piled high with papers, research folders, and letters. As State 193 Agnes seemed to always have time for everyone who had a history related question. Agnes often interacted with the public and politicians in her role, and she took care to control how the public perceived her as a woman and a professional. 194 She advocated for herself when people doubted her abilities and proved them wrong every chance she could. As the first female State Historian in Colorado, Agnes faced an adjustment period that was exacerbated by her timing. Following World War II, women who previously w orked or went to work on the home front by and large found themselves in domestic positions , as stay at home wives and mothers . World War II cheated many young Americans from settling down and starting families. Therefore, that was the prerogative once the war ended. For this reason, women in positions of authority were more uncommon in the 1950s than previous generations. As a female, this meant that Agnes sometimes became very conscious of the fact that she was outnumbered by men . 195 Agnes was required to advocate for the Colorado Historical Society and the Colorado State Museum to legislators and state officials. 196 Similar to when she was State Historian of Wyoming, Agnes proposed annual budgets and represented history education for the state of Colorado at finance meetings. 197 Agnes crafted her arguments for further funding based on education and entertainment. She utilized quantifiable data, such as Colorado State Museum

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36 visitation records and Colorado Magazine sales, to prove the reach of the historical efforts. 198 Agnes also presented the numbers of school children who visited the museum or benefited from the external program each year. She refrained from pitting political parties against each other. 199 Instead, Agnes remained as neutral as possi ble in order to win favor for the historical society. Regardless of her efforts to maintain neutrality, Agnes had to navigate very political topics with politicians who sometimes questioned her ability. Agnes received many letters from 200 Though it was the assumption at the time that a man would hold the title of authority these addresses made it seem as if it would be preposterous for a woman to truly be on the a nswering end. Nonetheless, Agnes persevered. She worked hard to respond to all public requests, whether it be to review a book in the Colorado Magazine tree research. 201 For this reason, Agnes was well received by most C olorado legislators. 202 Colleagues and executives at the Colorado State Museum and the Colorado Historical Society, such as the President of the Historical Society James Grafton Rogers, appreciated 203 When D r. Hafen returned from California in 1951, he stepped back into the role of state historian. As Agnes prepared to find other employment, the Colorado State Historical Society was undergoing some restructuring. During this reorganization of job s , they create d the Executive Department of the State Historical Society. This department oversaw the financial and program planning of the museum. With this new department came a new position, Executive Assistant to the President. Agnes was selected as the first Execut ive

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37 Assistant to the President of the Colorado Historical Society . 204 Her impact as Acting State Historian made them w ant to keep her involved. As Executive Assistant, Agnes organized social functions, finance meetings, board meetings, correspondence. 205 Agnes served under President James Grafton Rogers, who also 206 Agnes provided workflow support but also managed some projects on her own, including budget hearings for the s 207 Agnes held this position until 1954, when Hafen retired as State Historian. 208 The Colorado State Historical Society appointed Agnes, the capable and already experienced choice , State Historian at the December 1954 Colorado Historical Society meeting that year. 209 During the years that Agnes was appointed State Historian of Colorado (1954 to 1963), she advocated for the expansion of history curriculum in Colorado schools. 210 Agnes expanded history and social studies teachers as well as the interested public. Agnes used her position to collect historic artifacts and photographs that would benefit visitors of the State Museum and school age children. 211 Agnes worked to collect artifacts, books, photos, and illustrations in order to create new exhibits. One specific exhibit was on the Pony Express. She provided information guides, in the form of a si x page pamphlet, for teachers to accompany this exhibition. 212 Agnes also worked with the department of transportation and planning to add a bus lane next to the State Museum in order to allow school children to safely unload. 213 She used this as one of the selling points when marketing educational tours to school s . 214

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38 As State Historian, Agnes called attention to the needs of the Colorado State Historical intake exp ected by society members at the Colorado State Museum . 215 Agnes petitioned the to move the responsibility for budgeting and funding the library to the job description of State Historian. 216 As previous Executive Assistant to the President of the Colorado Historical Society, Agnes had experience with finances and fundraising meetings. After 217 s budget and hire a new librarian to help with the workload. 218 Colorado Magazine . Today this publication is known as Colorado Heritage Magazine . Agnes collaborated on this publication with Dr. Hafen, the previous State Historian , as early as 1949. She learned the ropes briefly in 1950 when she was Acting State Historian. However, Agnes used her longer appointment as Colorado State Historian to re and content. Agnes emphasized the necessity of academic and non academic book reviews. She wanted the publication to appeal to teachers, higher education professionals, and the general public all at once. To achieve this bala nce, Agnes accepted public recommendation s for what texts she and her team should review in upcoming issues. The society could not afford to give out free copies of the magazine to teachers, so Agnes worked diligently to expand their mailing list and magaz ine revenue. Agnes also used Colorado Magazine as a way to spread the word regarding new museum exhibits, events, and programs.

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39 Agnes also oversaw a program called Junior Historians of Colorado, which encouraged students to study history and practice their writing skills. 219 Students of all grade levels were eligible to submit short written pieces about something they studied in Colorado History, whether it was a subject in school or an artifact at the museum. Agnes helped these students conduct responsible research and edited their writing. As incentive and reward Agnes published a few student authors work in a publication she branded the Gold Nugget . 220 Using a mailing list, Agnes alerted teachers to the possibility that their students studying Colorado h is tory could be published authors through this program. Many history and social studies teachers adapted homework assignments that included an essay on a Colorado topic. 221 A few teachers assigned a project where students each picked a county in Colorado to s not have enough information for them to complete their research, the students could write to the State Historian. Agnes responded to Anna Hawthorne of the Cheyenne Mountain School, for information on Bent County with fifte en pages of information and nearly a dozen copies of photographs. 222

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40 Figure 1 5 The Gold Nugget, Junior Historians of Colorado publication, 1959. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center. 223 Figure 1 6 Gold Nugget article, 1959. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center. 224 Additionally, Agnes wanted to utiliz ing available technology. During the 1950s and 1960s, technological advancements like the television and recorded video were just becoming available to the consumer market. 225 They were a luxury of sorts and only available in black and white at first. Yet, Agnes saw a way to wield those mediums for the good of history education. 226 She did the same with radio programming and photography. Instead of budgeting for ways to include these resources within existing museum exhibits, Agnes brainstormed ways to use them for education outreach that is, to reach those who were not within a short drive of the physical museum. 227 Museums during this time period often did not see the value i n outreach and education programs that took place beyond museum walls. Museum tours in the 1950s and 1960s were typically guided and featured more artifacts than historical interpretation . 228 Moreover, whether for adults or children, the tours involved very little hands on engagement with the artifacts. 229 The Colorado State Museum was no different. They offered daily tours and

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41 marketed them to school groups and adult groups alike . There was very little to do on these tours other than to read exhibit signage and listen to the guide. Museum trends in the 1950s and 1960s followed similar schemas and hesitated to incorporate television and radio into exhibits . Including technology in museum exhibits and programs could be expensive and required a new set of skills . Museums were reluctant to consider outreach programs because they complicated the flow of traditional museum education. 230 However, Agnes made it one of her missions to prove that incorporating technology would increase interest in and accessibility to history education without cheapening the content. Agnes was successful in making Colorado History accessible to more students and people through her television programs, films, and radio talks. As State Historian, she helped fund a project that created film strips that captured Colorado artifacts from the Colorado State Museum . 231 film strip in highest demand from teachers in Colorado. 232 Agnes and her research team compiled a script to accompany the forty slides so that teachers could further engage their 233 Agnes made thes e film strips available for schools across the state to rent via mail order. 234 They were paired with a lesson plan for each grade, so that teachers could easily incorporate them in to their lessons. By making this more in depth history accessible to studen ts who could not come to the museum, Agnes hoped to ignite interest in Colorado History in classrooms well beyond city center. This program was a precursor to a similar program that History Colorado, previously the Colorado Historical Society, sti ll runs today. 235

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42 The film strip program was successful, but Agnes had to fight for her right to oversee it. 236 As State Historian, Agnes was in a position of authority but preferred to encourage an environment of mutual consideration with her colleagues. However, if the situation required, Agnes advocated for herself and her right to equal respect. Agnes pitched the idea for the film strips in a Colorado Historical Society a nnual meeting. 237 She suggested a mail order process as a way to geographically diversify their education efforts. Board members generally liked the idea , but then Agnes did not hear anything more about it for several weeks. 238 Agnes reported in a letter to Maxine Benson, a friend and Colorado Historical Society colleague, that she found out the film strip program was being delegated to a male colleague. 239 Agnes did not harbor any ill will against this unnamed male colleague . However, she wanted the opportuni ty to manage her own ideas and intellectual property. Agnes did not want to be petty, but also wanted to stand up for herself. She penned a pointed letter to the President of the Colorado Historical Society, James Rogers, and made copies for legislators wh initiatives. 240 After some discussion, Agnes received management responsibilities of the film s trip program in 1962. 241 goal was to reach as many children as possible and to encourage them to write about history. 242 A gnes accomplished this through the film strips but also through television and radio programs. Agnes participated in several educational television programs that took viewers on a special tour of museum exhibits in the Colorado State Museum. 243 In 1950, as Acting State Historian, Agnes oversaw the production of The Story of Fur. 244 This twenty minute television program walked viewers through the booms and busts of the Colorado fur trade. 245 Also in 1950, Agnes revised the content for the 1946 film, The Story o f Colorado . 246 Agnes along

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43 with Film Director, Ken Meyer, and research assistants released Colorado Calendar , later known as Colorado: High Country History , in 1960. 247 retired in 1963 was to allocate funding for a revision of the Story of Fur. 248 She added new information and perspectives as they were brought to her attention. Agnes was also featured in dozens of radio inter views on local Denver stations, such as KFG, about new exhibits, museum events, and Colorado Magazine articles. 249 She informed teachers about these broadcasts in hopes that they would assign listening to the radio or watching the television program for hom ework. This was another way that she worked to include more Colorado history in the During the 1950s and early 1960s, most museums were still operating on tour based education programs; Agnes set out to help shake things up at the Colorado State Museum. for all students, but she sometimes found it necessary to emphasize that this included female students. One prime example of this happened live on the air during her time as Colorado State Historian. In a 1958 radio interview on KFG Radio, Agnes was asked by the host, known as Sergeant Y, if she had any advice for the boys hoping to write their own stories. 250 Transcripts of interviews alone made everything clear. Ages stated that she encouraged all students to keep their interests alive by writing often and reading western history. 251 Without being too harsh, Agnes cor rected the statement to include female students among the hopeful future writers. 252 It would have been easy for her to let something like this go, but she did not.

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44 Agnes was not only an advocate for girls becoming historians and writers, she was an example of it. From the 1940s to the 1970s, Agnes published sixteen books while also contributing articles to the , The National League of America n Pen Women Inc., The Colorado Authors League, The Western Historical Association, and The Western Writers of America. 253 Somehow she fit research trips and writing time into her Colorado State Historian schedule. After she retired from her role as State Hi storian of Colorado in 1963, Agnes continued to write and publish books. She also remained on advisory boards for the Colorado Historical Society. Agnes was inducted into the Cowgirl Hall of Fame in 1973 for her work on the History of the American West. 254 Figure 1 7 LeRoy Hafen and Agnes Wright Spring stand in front of exhibit design boards at the Colorado Historical Society Annual Meeting, 1956. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center. 255 Figure 1 8 Agnes Wright Spring (middle) enjoys talking with fellow staff at a Colorado State Museum holiday party, circa 1959. Courtesy of the American Heritage Center. 256

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45 CHAPTER V A WOMAN OF FIRST S BUT STILL A WOMAN OF HER TIME This chapter seeks to place Agnes advocacy in the context of her time ; the goal is not to detract from her accomplishments but to rebuk e the temptation of focus ing solely on her accolades and positive contributions . Agnes cannot be held to the expectations of today. Instead, she must be analyzed for what she did within her own context and lived experiences. rough many stages. Agnes started her literary career in 1921, directly following the year that women won national suffrage. By participating in the suffrage movement , changed, and she began to understand that women were still fighting battle s for equality on many fronts . However, this movement also defined her outlook in a few limiting ways. W omen citizens gained the right to vote in 1920 , but states found ways to disenfranchise women of color . Many southern states barred African American women, and men, from voting. Additionally, legislation , the 19th Amendment, did not include Native American women or Asian women because the United States did not consider them as citizens. 257 For Agnes, who grew up in a segregated time, this was seemingly acceptable progress . Agnes wanted women to have more equality, but, in accordance with the norm of her time, did not go out of her way to push for the incl usion of women of color. Throughout her career, there was a stunning silence regarding the race of women for wh om she was

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46 advocating. advocacy for women in history and history educ ation lacked diversity . This b iographical work aims to share a s accurate a history o n Agnes Wright Spring as possible from primary and secondary sources . However, the source base is overwhelmingly primary evidence. Additionally, most of th e collections that focus on Agnes were arranged personally by her near the end of her life. This poses a problem with constructing a well rounded understanding of her li fe, career, and impact. The Agnes Wright Spring collections as curated by her contain inherent bias. Naturally, humans all want to be remembered favorably. Though unconfirmed, it is very possible that Agnes omitted items from the collection. For this reaso n, this thesis rests heavily upon the Agnes Wright Spring collections that have been compiled since her passing . This includes the collection at the History Colorado Center that I inventoried and the collections at the Wyoming State Archives . Biography as a writing style walks a very fine line when it comes to analysis. Such in depth focus on one person can distort the reality in which they lived and in which the researcher perceives them. Biography also has very f ew universally accepted guidelines. 258 Howev er, those who study the art of biography, such as biographer and teacher Nigel Hamilton, place emphasis on the intentions with which a research er approaches the project and lets the sources guide their conclusions. 259 This biographical work is conscious of these important factors. Agnes lived through societal changes, World War I, the Great Depression, World War II, and th e Civil Rights Movement; the scope of her advocacy was affected by her experiences at each stage of her life. Agnes was born into a society of relative gender equality. She entered a traditionally male field at the University of

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47 Wyoming without facing ridi cule from classmates or adversity from the university based on her gender. Agnes was shaped by her first experiences with gender discrimination in New York. Her of wom until the late 1950s. 260 Women of color were instrumental in starting suffrage movements but were ultimately left behind as the movement progressed. 261 Agnes grew up in a society that often rendered people of color as second class citizens , depending on the region and their circumstances . Former slaves and free blacks rights to vote. 262 They were abolitionists who believed that they could make greater changes if they gained the right to vote. 263 However, as the issue got closer to being voted on black women were excluded because the white women believed it would give them a better chance of gaining suffrage. 264 W orld practices of the institutions in which she worked. 265 Agnes stood up for her right and ability to manage projects in her various positions. She also pushed for female students to be inclu ded in the conversation when it came to a future as an author or historian. Agnes had a vision for women to have equal opportunities and social expectations with men. She also represented women in authoritative positions and tangentially in state politic s . Notably, s he retired from these careers unscathed by scandal. However, Agnes was not a n un faulted advocate for women . Women in her time believed that she was pushing the boundary, and she was. Yet, her blanket statements regarding the inclusi on of women in history and historical study were wanting. It is unclear

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48 which women she included in these goals. Agnes did not leave behind many statements that specifically mentioned race. st atements needed to include more detail for her to be considered racially inclusive. early research provided context for her understandings of race . In 19 18 Agnes was conduct ing research for her first book, Casp a r Collins , in Wyoming. While there she had the opportunity to interview a Native American woman who she identified as the wife of Chief Black Kettle. 266 This interview was not related to her research on Collins and was completed through an interpreter in Douglas, Wyoming . 267 Chief Black Kettle was a Cheyenne peacemaker who survived the Sand Creak Massacre. 268 Interviewing his wife, Agnes hoped, would shed light on never before written stories. However, Agnes or the interpreter may have been mistaken about the identity of the woman. B lack Kettle and his wives were reportedly killed in 1868 by the United States military at the Battle of Washita . 269 It is possible he had a third wife or that she was a different family member. Regardless of the woman was an i mportant portal into new research but never even recorded her first name. 270 She throughout her written notes . 271 Agnes views were not abnormal for her time . She staunchly defended the territorial law that justified 272 She asked the woman if she regretted trespassing on the land , because Agnes presumed she was with Black Kettle when he was killed . 273 The notes from this encounter revealed that Agnes agreed with the Indian policies of the day and did not perceive an y wrongdoing on behalf of white Americans. 274 This was far from an uncommon point of view for a white wom a n of the time . Her perception of t hese events must be understood using the context of the society in which she was raised.

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49 Moreover , Agnes notes from this interview lacked the reporting skills of an educated researcher such as herself. She was mentored by Grace Hebard to take quick but de tailed notes. Few people during this time were studying Native American women as a subject in their own right. Agnes may have considered this interviewee as a sideline source and therefore it or, Grace Hebard , studied indigenous women in history. 275 Agnes would have been familiar with the subject and the need for clear data. This made it even more interesting that Agnes left out so many details regarding During the 1930s, Agnes be came more outspoken about including women of ethnic minorities. she pitched her idea for a book on all Wyoming women. She hoped to research women from all growth for the state of Wyoming. This book idea was transformed into a section of the Wyoming WPA guidebook. Agnes originally wanted more than a mere section. Her time in New York as a . As she researched her book on Wyoming women , Agnes quickly realized that women of ethnic minorities, and women in general, were gravely under studied. She promoted her idea with excitement and a real sense of conviction, enough to catch the attention of the Wyoming Board of Education. This shows that her attitudes towards studying and including women of color and ethnic minorities were the opposite of hostile. and potentially her view of inclusivity.

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50 A s Dir projects that aimed to gather information on understudied communities. 276 These communities were often ethnic minorities. gu idelines for each state to follow, concerning what types of stories they wanted. This list was a team to decide how each section and community should be pursued. Ag nes took this task on with fervor. 277 research had redeeming qualities as far as including being put in relation to white narratives. They were no longer periphery subjects but their own important topic s in Wyoming History. She specifically placed emphasis on women who were other than white in Wyoming. These projects still used the terms of that but considered very derogatory now. 278 However, the overall steps Agnes took to broaden her research show ed improvement in her outlook and understanding of what it meant to advoc ate for all women. and race. She focused on early pioneers of the West. Like most historians of her time, these pioneers tended to be men. Her subject matter stayed c onsistent, whether the book was published in 1921 or 1948. Agnes mentioned women where she could, as their appearance in pioneer stories were few and f ar between. White women rarely ventured to the West among the early pioneers and when they did they were hardly mentioned . Native women were sometimes crucial to telling a story, but Agnes wrote about indigenous populations from the

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51 perspectives of the white pioneers. Her bestselling book, The Cheyenne and Blacks Hills Stage and E xpress Routes ( 1948) , exemplified this type of writing as it favored male subjects, such as Buffalo Bill and George Armstrong Custer. 279 These un favorable and unnuanced depictions of native peoples could be the result of a simple lac k of sources or her subject matter in general . As shown through her time as the these communities. Therefore, it is unlikely that she could not locate sources. She could have done more exte nsive research to include indigenous peoples and women of those communities had she wanted to. Native populations were very misunderstood during the time that Agnes was researching and writing . Agnes would have been aware of negative and positive stories a bout indigenous peoples. However, she tended to write from the perspective of her subjects. By the nature of the stories her subjects told, women were typically scarce and indigenous communities were portrayed as aggressors. In this way, writing did not reveal her own sentiments but those of her subjects. Her writing style was a reflection of her time but not necessarily her own views. became more racially inclusive, but her research and literary work la gged behind. Some of this may have to do with her switch from publishing to public service. As State Historian of Colorado Agnes worked to create inclusive 280 She brought in texts written by authors from various ethnic minorities and worked with the school systems around Denver to bus in children of color from segregated schools for tours of the State Museum. 281 These were steps in the right direction. However, Agne

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52 1940s and 1950s lacked women of color . In 1952 , Agnes presented research to the Denver Westerners Club on infamous women who she believed helped civilize the West. 282 The Denver Westerners was a male only history group at this time, s o it was surprising that she was able to give this talk at all. During her lecture, Agnes highlighted women who barrel raced in rodeos, drove mail wagons, and ran saloons. 283 T hese women were non traditional in their contributions to the West, but they were all white. 284 Similar to some of her other research, she may not have found sufficient information to discuss women of color who helped build the West or the Westerners may not have been welcoming of research on women in color in the West. Additionally, Agnes simultaneously led by example through her calls for equality and contributed to female stereotypes in the West through her ancillary publications. This contradiction was most evident in the 1940s when she was publishing both academic works and western romances. Agnes used her public careers to push for the inclusion of women in historic al works and academic professions. She lived a life that differed from the norm, not having children and not surrendering her c areer after her marriage. Yet, Agnes as an author sometimes reinforced the stereotypes she was attempting to break down. During World War II, Agnes wrote for Ranch Romances in order to earn a little extra money. 285 She did not use her fiction writing as an opportunity to create women characters who took active parts in c ontributing to the W est through hard work or leadership. Her fiction audience was much different than her academic audience. She wrote what was proven to sell romance stories. Though fic damsels in distress and wildly independent cowboys who saved the day. 286 Many western

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53 fiction magazines and booklets emphasized storylines of cowgirls, giving women m ore agency. However, Agnes stuck to a more traditional western romance paradigm in her fiction adventures. These stories countered her other research by downplaying how instrumental women were in settling the West. 287 Though these fiction stories were by n o means a political statement from Agnes, they are part of her legacy as well as her academic works. In her later career , Agnes wrote and spoke reflectively about the importance of all girls and women feeling empowered to pursue literary and history profe ssions. 288 She took on the role of mentor with a decisive fervor. Empire Magazine described her post retirement mentoring activities 289 Agnes was awakened to the need for more inclusive publication reviews and worked on a committee for the Colorado Magazine, even after she retired as State Historian, that worked to balance the selections of reviewed works to incorporate local authors of c It would be unfair to hold Agnes to the standards of inclusivity that we strive for today, but the limits of her advocacy at different stages of her career needed to be acknowledged. Agnes grew up in a specific society and time , one that still had physical and legal barriers between people of different skin tones . The society around her had different expectations for what was right and wrong concerning inclusivity than we do today . The impact of Agn empowering women to join the history profession should not be diminished because of the limits to her research and interpretation and how those gradually evolved throughout her career. Agnes was capable of change. After working closely with racially diverse communities in her later career and allowing herself to be

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54 educated, Agnes to include all women in history professions expanded tremendou sly.

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55 CHAPTER VI Agnes was known and respected throughout the West by authors, academics, historians, librarians, politicians, and everyday citizens. As author of twenty two books, Agnes enjoyed a legacy of helping pioneers and descendants of pioneers record and share their stories. She had a way of coercing details and photographs from unwitting history dabblers. Her talents for following through on research projects and collections projects benefited her own publications as well as many public institutions throughout Colorado and Wyoming. The Wyoming State Archives, Wyo ming State Library, Denver Public Library, and Colorado State Museum each credit Agnes with helping them acquire full collections on individuals and topics of interest. 290 r to help budding authors and historians along the way. Just as she was mentored by Dr. Hebard, Agnes took mentoring future historians very seriously . She took them under her wing , no matter what stage they were in their progress. Her relationships with yo unger historians were professional and down to business. Maxine Benson, a female historian who followed in Agnes in 1964 , remembered Agnes as straightforward and determined. 291 Agnes tried to in still these values in those who worked with her. She was not described by fellow colleagues as w arm and fuzzy, but she took it upon herself to write long, personal recommendation letters whenever someone who worked with her was up for a new job or promotion. 292 As Colorado State Historian, Agnes made sure to

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56 balance the new staff that w ere brought i n for Colorado Magazine and Colorado State Historical Maxine Benson was brought in straight from the University of Colorado on the recommendation of Professor Carl Ubbelohde. 293 She had previous experience at the Wisconsin Historical Society but had never been in a position of leadership. Agnes mentored her for three years as she worked on Colorado Magazine content . After Agnes retired as State Historian in 1963, Benson made it known that she was ready to move up. Benson was appointed and started as Colorado State Historian in January of 1964. Agnes emphasized the importance of responsible research throughout her career and later stint as a into question for incorrect or embellished information. They may show their age, based on language and historic interpretation , but they were not written injudiciously. Her dedication to stories from primary sources was her signature of sorts. Her interview and research practices became more standardized as she received training, first from Dr. Hebard and then from the WPA. Once research and citation guidelines were well accepted across national academic communities , Agnes did not hesitate to follow them. Not all historians followed such rigorous research and publication guidelines. Du ring her years in Colorado, Agnes worked in similar circles as Caroline Bancroft. They worked alongside each other in 1945 at the Denver Public Library. 294 Dr. Frederick J. Bancroft, grand father, co founded the Colorado State Historical Society. 295 Caroline was an author and 296 She wrote on topic s in Colorado History. However, Ms. Bancroft was known for bending the truth in her writing. Her

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57 creative license often made stories, like those of activist Molly Brown, more vibrant. 297 Her family connections and wealth created a certain following for her work that was not always admired by others, especially since her writing was not always factual. 298 competition. Agnes described their relationship as 299 Society required that Agnes keep their relationship friendly rather than competitive. Agnes could have easily al so used creative license like Caroline Bancroft, but she refrained . T here is nothing to suggest that Agnes embellished her written work. She wrote fiction in spurts but did not compromise her academic works with falsities. Caroline, on the other hand, was called out by the Denver Post and other authors for publication mishaps. length by critiquing her work. She fact , and sent published. 300 errors and embellishments but went to Caroline with them rather than the newspapers. 301 Throughout political differences and p rofessional competitions, Agnes maintained friendly and supportive relationships with her colleagues. Agnes was not mentioned in any scandalous or controversial news regarding any of the state or private institutions at which she worked. Regardless of her personal feelings for someone she seemed to always keep the good of history education at the center of her intentions. Agnes, by all accounts, was straightforward and simple to talk to. This made gain ing collections and materials for the institutions at which she worked that much easier. Even in situations where Agnes was uneasy about who she was collecting from, she managed to secure the items for donation. For example, Agnes navigated the hairy family relations of the Mrs. Margaret Tobin

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58 that belonged to her from her son, Lawrence P. Brown. 302 Mrs. Brown, also known as Molly Brown, was a Denver activist and suffragist. 303 As a prominent Denver figure, her personal effects were invaluable links to her legacy but a divorce split her possessions and created a muck of the collections man agement process. 304 Agnes persevered in tough and sometimes awkward situations like this one, bringing thousands of artifacts, photographs, and books to her respective institutions throughout her career. Figure 1 9 LeRoy R. Hafen, Agnes Wright Spring, Maxine Benson, and Harry Kelsey pose for a photo at the Western Courtesy of the History Colorado Center. 305 Figure 20 of the History Colorado Center . 306 The story of a woman of such accomplishments is surely worth studying; however, the the dates of her titles made this study difficult to complete . Working back and forth in Colorado and Wyoming, Agnes accomplishments were split in half at the state line. This made it harder for any group or institution to fully appreciate her work as an author , historian, and advocate. Additionally, the

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59 confusion over when Agnes was State Historian of Wyoming , State H istorian of Colorado , and editor of Colorado Magazine le d to her accomplishments being listed but unsupported. The evidence to correct the record existed but w as spread out in several repositories . The truth of the matter is that no one had bothered to dig into her history until now. History Colorado, previously known as the Colorado State Historical Society, was unsure about when Agnes served as Editor of Colorado Magazine , now known as Colorado Heritage Magazine . 307 She was listed in some sources as coeditor or editorial assistan t as early as 1949, but she was not yet on the Colorado State 308 Agnes also technically assumed the role of Colorado Magazine e ditor while working as Acting Color ado State Historian in 1950. However, official records mentioned Agnes as editor of Colorado Magazine only while she was Colorado State Historian via appointment, 1954 through 1963. Thus, over fifty years later, current staff were understandably confused. the only person in the country to ever be state historian of more than o ne state. However, these listings did not include dates or details regarding these appointments. 309 When the position of Wyoming State Historian was created for World War I research it was directly Agnes later helped successive Wyoming State Historians to separate those positions in order for both positions to have distinct budgets and fair eligibility for funding. 310 The fact that she held multiple titles in Wyoming between 1918 and 1920 convoluted her appointment as Wyoming State Historian and the impact she had in that capacity. Moreover, Agnes was Colorado State Historian twice:

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60 once when Hafen asked her to stand in for him in 1950 and again in 1954 when she was appointed to the position, which sh e held until 1963. Some records, including Dr . papers , did not include Agnes as Acting State Historian in 195 0 . These opposing records However, official docume nts and letters proved that she held the position during th e year of 1950 through part of 1951. Mistakes and confusion aside, Agnes deserve s recognition for her career. S he is a powerful figure in Colorado and Wyoming h istory that connects local history t o larger movements . She was an advocate for history, women, and education . She led by example, consistently challenging gender norms and being the first woman to accomplish things in her field. Initiatives that she spearheaded as Wyoming State Historian are still in place and helping state historians fund important programs and events. T he educational programs she initiated as Colorado State Historian still advocate for history education through school outreach . Pro grams that she started as State Historian still exist today at the History Colorado Center , such as the mail order kits for teachers . Collections that she curated in Colorado and Wyoming still enlighten curious minds. Additionally, Agnes successfully conn ected history across state lines and professional fields . Agnes blended her career as an author with her career as a historian of the American West. She was able to sustain a lifestyle of full time employment and constant research and writing . In other wor ds, Agnes shaped her career to include her passion of history and writing. As author of twenty two books and well over 500 articles, it is safe to say that Agnes was able to keep doing what she loved while also greatly contributing to History of the Americ an West. More

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61 gained education and experience. Being open to new and more inclusive histories helped Agnes be an effective historian. She was able to admit that her p erspectives were dated in previous research, a task that is easier said than done. Agnes passed away in 1988 , but h the C heyenne Eagle 311 For many years since her passing, this once well known and revered historian was like so many great landmarks, underappreciated and under interpreted. After empha sized and justified. legacy lives on through the histories she shared and the work she completed. Figure 2 1 Agnes Wright Spring, 1973. Courtesy of the Wyoming State Archives. 312

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62 LIST OF REFERENCES th crash course.htm. Last updated October 8, 2019. Accessed October 20, 2019. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agnes_Wright_Spring. Accessed August 2019. ier Ellison Collection Folder H69 28 Spring, Agnes Wright. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. Allot, Gordon, US Senate, to Agnes Wright Spring. June 6, 1960. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 1 Folder Correspondence 1950 A. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyomin g. Accessed July 1, 2019. kits and primary sources. Accessed October 11, 2019. Bartlett, Ichabod Sargent ed. The History of Wyoming vol. III. New York: Rare Books Club, 2012. Benson, Maxine. Colorado Magazine L4 (1973). 19. kettle biography.htm. Last updated January 4, 2017. Accessed October 14, 2019. The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collecti on #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. th In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092. Box 19 Folder R. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019. biographies/caroline bancroft 1900 1985. Accessed October 25, 2019. https://www.historycolorado.org/colorado heritage magazine issues. Accessed Oc tober 20, 2019.

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63 The Wheatland Times no. 33 (May 14, 1919). In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 1. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Acc essed July 1, 2019. Conn, Steven. Museums and American Intellectual Life, 1876 1926 . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 2. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. Empire Magazine (October 1979). Series: The First Section of A Circular Offering Suggestions on Compilation of Data, and (August 26, 1940). Box 8 Pioneers, Folder 30, U.S. Work Projects Administration/Writers Project. Denver Public Library Western History/Genealogy Collections. Denver, Colorado. Accessed February 28, 2019. The Colorado Magazine vol. L no. 4 (1973). In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092. Box 19. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019. https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Fraternity_and_sorority. Accessed October 6, 2019. Hamilton, Nigel. How To Do Biography: A Primer . New York: Harvard University Press, 2012. https://historicmissourians.shsmo.org/historicmissourians/name/p/pershing/. Accessed October 12, 2019. ing Ratifies the 19 th https://www.wyohistory.org/encyclopedia/wyoming ratifies 19th amendment. Published September 30, 2019. Accessed October 12, 2019. Hirsch, Jerrold. . C hapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

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64 https://www.historycolorado.org/story/stuff history/2014/03/11/rediscovering morey mercantile. Accessed October 1, 2019. In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092. Box 19. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019. ing Collection #2092 Box 19 Folder B. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019. Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie , Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. Mackey, Mike. Society (November 9, 2014). The American H eritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 51. Research Files Folder. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie , Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. Myres, Sandra L., William Cronon, Howard R. Lamar, Martin Ridge, and David J. Weber. Westering Women and the Frontier Experience, 1800 1915. Santa Fe, New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press, 1982. page 232 Office of the Colorado State Secretary to Agnes Wright Spring. 1950. In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 19 Folder S. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019. 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. Henry Bla http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/hfreeman.htm. Last Updated October 3, 2007. Accessed October 12, 2019.

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65 Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed O ctober 15, 2019. Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007 101. The. Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. The Colorado Magazine vol. 37 no. 3 (July 1960). Archives of the United States. Washington, D.C. Accessed October 6, 2019. History Report 1958 1965 Given Ann ually In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 15. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092. Box 19. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. Spring, Agnes Wright. Cow Country Legacies . Kansas City, Kansas: The Lowell Press, 1976. Folder H2007 101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. Spring, Agnes Wright. Near the Greats Spring, Agnes McWilliams. The Wyoming State Archives. April 29, 1986. Accessed September 25, 2019. McWilliams. The Wyoming State Archives. April 30, 1986. Accessed October 4, 2019. Persimmon Hill (1974). Spring, Agnes Wright. The Cheyenne and Black Hills Stage and Express Routes . New York: A. H. Clark Co. 1949. Spring, Agnes Wright to James Grafton Rogers. October 16, 1950. In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 19 Folder R. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019.

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66 Spring, Agnes Wright to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. Spring, Agnes Wright to Mr. Carl Litzenberger. September 27, 1950. In the Agnes Wright Spring C ollection #2092 Box 19 Folder L. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019. Spring, Agnes Wright to State of Colorado Executive Chambers. October 13, 1950. In the Agnes Wright Springs Collection #2092 Box 19 Folder J. History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed September 15, 2019. Spring, Agnes Wright. William Chapin Deming of Wyoming: Pioneer Publisher, and State and Federal Official: A Biography (Glendale, California: Arthur H. Clark and Company, 1944). Accessed September 25, 2019. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the Un iversity of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. ection. Box 8. The Denver Public Library Western History/Genealogy Collections. Denver, Colorado. Accessed February 28, 2019. In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092. Box 19 Folder D 1951. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019. Accessed October 16, 2019. Women Have Been Voting in Wyoming for 150 Years, and Here Is How the State Is Celebrating. https://www.smithsoni anmag.com/travel/women voting wyoming 150 years here how state celebrating 180971263/. Accessed September 25, 2019. Wyoming. Wyoming; A Guide to Its History, High ways, and People. New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1941.

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67 Wyoming. Wyoming Folklore: Reminiscences, Folktales, Beliefs, Customs, and Folk Speech . New York: Has tings House Publishers, 1941. Wyoming. The WPA Guide to Wyoming: The Cowboy State . New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1941. Works Progress Administration (WPA) Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. n Wyoming Library Round Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. https://www.coloradovirtuallibr ary.org/resource sharing/state pubs blog/the crash of 1893/. Accessed October 1, 2019. In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092. Box 19. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019. In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092. Box 19. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 27 , 2019.

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68 APPENDIX I ENDNOTES 1 Wyoming State Archives. April 29, 1986. Accessed September 25, 2019. 2 ction #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 3 Wyoming State Archives. Apri l 29, 1986. Accessed September 25, 2019. 4 Wyoming State Archives. April 29, 1986. Accessed September 25, 2019. 5 Folder H2007 101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 6 Archives. April 29, 1986. 7 8 9 view by Carl McWilliams. 10 Folder H2007 101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 11 12 13 14 15 American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 16 ght Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 17 America n Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 18 Wyoming State Archives. (1986) Accessed September 25, 2019. 19 Folder H2007 101. The Wyoming Sta te Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 20 American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 21 American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 22 American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 23 nes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 24 e United States. Washington, D.C. Accessed October 6, 2019. 25 Persimmon Hill (1974); 16. 26 Folder H2007 101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne , Wyoming. 27 American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.

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69 28 American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 29 Photograph from ollection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 30 Photograph from Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 31 Photograph from Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 32 Photograph from Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed J uly 2, 2019. 33 Photograph from Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 34 Photograph from Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 35 Photograph from Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 36 Folder H2007 101. The Wyoming Sta te Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 37 B 38 Folder H2007 101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 39 Agnes Wri Wyoming State Archives. April 29, 1986. Accessed September 25, 2019. 40 Folder H2007 101. The Wyoming Stat e Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 41 Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 42 Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 43 Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 44 The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Colle ction #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 45 Honorable mention to Utah. Although Wyoming Territory was first in the nation to grant voting rights to women in December 1869, Utah Territory did so several weeks later, on February 12, 1870. Since Utah held municipal elections and a territorial election before Wyoming did, Utah women earned the distinction of casting Women Have Been Voting in Wyoming for 150 Years, and Here Is How the State Is Celebrating https://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/women voting wyoming 150 years here how state celebrating 180971263/. Accessed September 25, 2019. 46 Sandra L. Myres, William Cronon, Howard R. Lamar, Martin Ridge, and David J. Weber. Westering Women and the Frontier Experience, 1800 1915 (Santa Fe, New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press, 1982); 232. 47 Folder H69 28 Spring, Agnes Wright. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 48 Folder H69 28 Spring, Agnes Wright. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 49 Folder H69 28 Spring, Agnes Wright. The Wyoming St ate Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 50 fraternity generally refers to all male or mixed sex student organizations at a college or university; the female only equivalent is usually called a sorority, a word first used in 1874 at Gamma Phi Beta at Syra cuse referred to as a fraternity here. https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Fraternity_and_sorority. Accessed October 6, 2019.

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70 51 16, 2019. 52 Folder H2007 101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 53 th ratifies 19th amendment. Published September 30, 2019. Accessed October 12, 2019. 54 th 55 th 56 9, 2014); 1. 57 Folder H2007 101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 58 Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 59 Wyoming State Archives. April 29, 1986. Accessed September 25, 2019. 60 Agnes Wright Spring, Near the Greats 61 Spring, Near the Greats, 27. 62 Spring, Near the Greats, 26. 63 Ichabod Sargent Bartlett, ed. The History of Wyoming vol. III (New York: Rare Books Club, 2012); 260. 64 Spring, Near the Greats, 26. 65 Wyoming State Archives. April 29, 1986. Accessed September 25, 2019. 66 Wyoming State Archives. April 29, 1986. Accessed September 25, 2019. 67 Agnes Wright Wyoming State Archives. April 29, 1986. Accessed September 25, 2019. 68 n.htm. Last Updated October 3, 2007. Accessed October 12, 2019. 69 Bartlett, The History of Wyoming , 260. 70 Spring, Near the Greats 71 Folder H2007 101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 72 Empire Magazine (October 1979). 73 https://historicmissourians.shsmo.org/historicmissourians/name/p/pershing/. Accessed October 12, 2019. 74 75 76 Ha 77 Empire Magazine (October 1979). 78 Empire Magazine (October 1979). 79 Spring, Near the Greats, 7. 80 Spring, Near the Greats, 8. 81 Spring, Near the Greats , 28. 82 Spring, Near the Greats , 28. 83 The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 84 The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. 85 The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spri ng Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. 86 The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.

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71 87 The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. 88 The Pi B eta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. 89 The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. B ox 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. 90 The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laram ie, Wyoming. 91 The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. 92 The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Ag nes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. 93 The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. 94 The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. 95 The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. 96 Spring, Near the Greats , 28. 97 Spring, Near the Greats , 28. 98 Spring, Near the Greats , 28. 99 100 Spring, Near the Greats , 28. 101 The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 8 3. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. 102 The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, W yoming. 103 Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007 101. The. Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 104 Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007 101. The. Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyomin g. Accessed September 25, 2019. 105 Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007 101. The. Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 106 Historical Collection Box 702 Folder H2007 101. The. Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 107 Folder H2007 101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 108 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsh er, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 109 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961) . In Spring Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 110 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Ch eyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 111 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 112 Agnes Wri ght Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 113 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 114 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 115 in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 2. The Am erican Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.

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72 116 in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 2. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accesse d July 1, 2019. 117 Agnes Wright The Wyoming State Archives. April 30, 1986. Accessed October 4, 2019. 118 119 120 9 Box 295. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 121 The Wheatland Times no. 33 (May 14, 1919); 2. 122 The Wheatland Times no. 33 (May 14, 1919); 2. 123 The Wheatland Times no. 33 (May 14, 1919); 2. 124 125 126 127 The Coloradan (March 29, 1988); 1. 128 Agnes Wright The Wyoming State A rchives. April 30, 1986. Accessed October 4, 2019. 129 9 Box 295. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 130 Photo from 9 Box 295. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 131 Photo from 9 Box 295. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 132 Photo from 171 9 Box 295. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 133 Folder H2007 101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 134 Spring, Near the Greats , 22. 135 136 Spri 137 138 139 The Pi Beta Phi Arrow, ( 1974 reprint with additional intro) In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. 140 McWilliams. 141 142 Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 143 144 Folder H2007 101. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 145 Folder H2007 101. T he Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 146 Jerrold Hirsch, (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2003); 61. 147 Hirsch, Portrait of America, 55. 148 Hirsch, Portrait o f America, 55. 149 Hirsch, Portrait of America, 55. 150 Works Progress Administration (WPA) 1943 Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 151 Works Progress Administration (WPA) 1943 Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.

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73 152 Works Progress Administration (WPA) 1943 Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. 153 Works Progress Administration (WPA) 1932 1943 Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. 154 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 155 Historical Collection Box 702 The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 156 Works Progress Administration (WPA) , 1932 1943 Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 157 Works Progress Administration (WPA) 1943 Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 158 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring Bi ographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 159 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 160 Western History/Genealogy Collections. Denver, Colorado. Accessed February 28, 2019. 161 Works Progress Administr ation (WPA) 1943 Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 162 Works Progress Administration (WPA) ject, 1932 1943 Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 163 Works Progress Administration (WPA) 1943 gnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 164 T he WPA Guide to Wyoming: The Cowboy State (New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1941); x. 165 The WPA Guide to Wyoming: The Cowboy State (New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1941); x. 166 The WPA Guide to Wyoming: The Cowboy State (New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1941); 11. 167 Workers of the Federal Writer Wyoming; A Guide to Its History, Highways, and People (New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1941). 168 e State of Wyoming. Wyoming; A Guide to Its History, Highways, and People (New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1941). 169 Works Progress Administration (WPA) 1943 Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 170 Section of A Circular Offering Suggestions on Compil ation of Data, and on Writing and Editing Material for A State Administration/Writers Project. Denver Public Library Western History/Genealogy Collec tions. Denver, Colorado. Accessed February 28, 2019. 171 The WPA Guide to Wyoming: The Cowboy State (New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1941); 251. 172 Wor The WPA Guide to Wyoming: The Cowboy State (New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1941); 251. 173 Administration in the State of Wyoming. Wyoming Folklore: Reminiscences, Folktales, Beliefs, Customs, and Folk Speech (New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1941).

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74 174 of Wyoming. Wyoming Folklore: Reminiscences, Folktales, Beliefs, Customs, and Folk Speech (New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1941). 175 Works Progress Administration (WPA) 1943 Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 176 Works Progress Administration (WPA) 1943 Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heri tage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 177 Works Progress Administration (WPA) 1943 Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 178 Works Progress Administration (WPA) 1943 Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Lar amie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 179 Hirsch, Portrait of America, 112. 180 Works Progress Administration (WPA) 1943 Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of W yoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 181 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 182 Agnes W right Spring, William Chapin Deming of Wyoming: Pioneer Publisher, and State and Federal Official: A Biography (Glendale, California: Arthur H. Clark Company, 1944). 183 Historical Collection Box 702 The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 184 Historical Collection Box 702 The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 185 Historical Collection Box 702 The Wyom ing State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 186 Agnes Wright Spring to State of Colorado Executive Chambers. October 13, 1950. In the Agnes Wright Springs Collection #2092 Box 19 Folder J. History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Ac cessed September 15, 2019. 187 Spring Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 188 American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 189 American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyomin g. Accessed July 1, 2019. 190 Spring Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. Founding of Colorado Magazine vol. 10 no. 2 (March 1933); 71. 191 Folder B. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Co lorado. Accessed August 20, 2019. 192 The Colorado State Museum was located at 200 E. 14 th Avenue Denver, CO 80203 at this time. The Colorado Historical Society later moved to the History Colorado Center at 1200 N. Broadway Denver, CO 80203. 193 The Coloradan (March 29, 1988); 1. 194 American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed Jul y 2, 2019. 195 American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 196 In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 2. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 197 Gordon Allot, US Senate, to Agnes Wright Spring. June 6, 1960. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 1 Folder Correspondence 1950 A. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 198 Agnes Wright Spring to James Grafton Rogers. October 16, 1950. In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 1 9 Folder R. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019. 199 Spring, Near the Greats , preface.

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75 200 Office of the Colorado State Secretary to Agnes Wright Spring. 1950. In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 19 Folder S. T he History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019. 201 Evidenced by the hundreds of letters from 1950 and 1951 that Agnes Wright Spring donated to the American Heritage Center in Laramie, WY and to the History Colorado Center in Denver, CO. 202 Gordon Allot, US Senate, to Agnes Wright Spring. June 6, 1960. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 1 Folder Correspondence 1950 A. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 201 9. 203 Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 204 Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 205 ction #115. Box 7. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 206 Agnes Wright Spring to Mr. Carl Litzenberger. September 27, 1950. In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 19 Folder L. The Hist ory Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019. 207 Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 208 Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 209 Agnes Wright Spring to J. Cecil Alter. July 4, 1951. In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 19 Folder 1950 A. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019. 210 pring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 211 The Ame rican Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 212 The Colorado Magazine vol 37 no 3 (July 1960); 223. 213 ado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019. 214 Accessed August 20, 2019. 215 9 Folder 1955 H. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed October 15, 2019. 216 Denver, Colorado. Accessed October 15, 2019. 217 Denver, Colorado. Accessed October 15, 2019. 218 Denver, Colorado. Accessed October 15, 2019. 219 History Report 1958 1965 Given Annually by State Uni versity of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 220 History Report 1958 1965 Given Annually by State itage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 221 Accessed October 8, 2019. 222 Agnes Wright Spring to Anna Hawtho rne (Cheyenne Mountain School, Colorado Springs). November 5, 1955. In the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092 Box 9 Folder 1955 H. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed October 8, 2019. 223 CO History Report 1958 1965 Given Annually by State University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.

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76 224 History Report 1958 1965 Given Annually by State University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Ac cessed July 1, 2019. 225 https://library.duke.edu/specialcollections/scriptorium/adaccess/tv history.html. Accessed October 20, 2019. 226 History Report 1958 1965 Given Annually by State University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 227 ociety of CO History Report 1958 1965 Given Annually by State University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 228 Steven Conn, Mus eums and American Intellectual Life, 1876 192 6 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998); 9. 229 Steven Conn, Museums and American Intellectual Life, 1876 192 6 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998); 9. 230 Steven Conn, Museums and American Intellectual Life, 1876 192 6 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998); 10. 231 History Report 1958 1965 Give n Annually by State University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 232 The Colorado Magazine vol. L no. 4 (1973); 356. 233 The Colorado Magazine vol. L no. 4 (1973); 356. 234 The Colorado Magazine vol. L no. 4 (1973); 356. 235 k its and primary sources. Accessed October 11, 2019. 236 Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 237 Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 238 x 7. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 239 Center at the University of Wyoming. Lara mie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 240 Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 241 n the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 7. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 242 The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 243 #2092. Box 19. The History Colorado Center. De nver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019. 244 The Colorado Magazine vol. L no. 4 (1973); 356. 245 The Colorado Magazine vol. L no. 4 (1973); 356. 246 The Colorado Magazine vol. L no. 4 (1973 ); 356. 247 The Colorado Magazine vol. L no. 4 (1973); 356. 248 The Colorado Magazine vol. L no. 4 (1973); 357. 249 in the Agnes Wright Spring Collection #2092. Box 1 9. The History Colorado Center. Denver, Colorado. Accessed August 20, 2019. 250 in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 251 in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019.

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77 252 in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 253 n Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 254 Agnes Wright Spring, Cow Country Legacies (Kansas City, Kansas: The Lowell Press, 1976); 2. 255 Photo from History Report 1958 1965 Given Annually by University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 256 Photo from State Historical Society of CO History Report 1958 1965 Given Annually by University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 257 th crash course.htm. Last updated October 8, 2019. Accessed October 20, 2019. 258 Nigel Hamilton, How To Do Biography: A Primer (New York: Harvard University Press, 2012). 259 Nigel Hamilton, How To Do Biography: A Primer (New York: Harvard University Press, 2012). 260 in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 261 for women . Accessed October 15, 2019. 262 for women . Accessed October 15, 2019. 263 for women . Accessed October 15, 2019. 264 for women . Accessed October 15, 2019. 265 The P i Beta Phi Arrow, 44. In the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 83. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. 266 in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 51. Research Files F older. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 267 kettle biography.htm. Last updated January 4, 2017. Accessed Octobe r 14, 2019. 268 kettle biography.htm. Last updated January 4, 2017. Accessed October 14, 2019. 269 kettle biography.htm. Last updated January 4, 2017. Accessed October 14, 2019. 270 in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 51. Research Files Folder. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 271 in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 51. Research Files Folder. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 272 in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 51. Research Files Folder. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 273 in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Coll ection #115. Box 51. Research Files Folder. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 274 in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 51. Research Files Folder. The Ame rican Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 275 9, 2014); 1. 276 Works Progress Administration (WPA) Wri 1943 Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 277 Works Progress Administration (WPA) 1943 in the Agnes Wright Spring Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019.

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78 278 Works Progress Administration (WPA) 1943 g Papers/Collection #115. Box 16. The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 1, 2019. 279 Agnes Wright Spring, The Cheyenne and Black Hills Stage and Express Routes (New York: A. H. Clark Co. 1949). 280 onal Files: State Historical Society of CO History Report 1958 1965 Given Annually by State University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed Ju ly 1, 2019. 281 History Report 1958 1965 Given Annually by State University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. A ccessed July 1, 2019. 282 The Westerners Brand Book vol. 111 no. 1. (March 1951). 283 The Westerners Brand Book vol. 111 no. 1. (March 1951). 284 The Westerners Brand Book vol. 111 no. 1. (March 1951). 285 286 287 288 The American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Accessed July 2, 2019. 289 290 Denver Public Library owes its collection on Caspar Collins to Agnes. History Colorado owes its collection on Molly Br own to Agnes. The Wyoming State Library owes its collection of World War I materials to Agnes. 291 Maxine Benson, 15, 2019. 292 Near the Greats , Foreword. 293 Maxine Benson, Colorado Magazine L4 (1973). 294 Near the Greats , Foreword. 295 biographies/caroline bancroft 1900 1985. Accessed October 25, 2019. 296 biographies/caroline bancroft 1900 1985. Accessed October 25, 2019. 297 biographies/caroline bancroft 1900 1985. Accessed October 25, 2019. 298 biographies/caroline bancroft 1900 1985. Accessed October 25, 2019. 299 Near the Greats , Foreword. 300 Near the Greats , Foreword. 301 Near the Greats , Foreword. 302 Near the Greats , 22 23. 303 molly brown/. Access ed October 30, 2019. 304 Near the Greats , 22. 305 Maxine Benson, Colorado Magazine L4 (1973). 306 Maxine Benson, Colorado Magazine L4 (1973). 307 This question was initially brought to me by Dr. Rebecca Hunt (CU Denver) and Steve Grinstead (Managing Editor at History Colorado). 308 https://www.historycolorado.org/colorado heritage magazine issues. Accessed October 20, 2019. 309 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agnes_Wright_Spring. Accessed August 2019. 310 Agnes Wright Spring to Lola Homsher, Director of the Wyoming State Archives (February 1961). In Spring Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives . Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019. 311 Biographical. The Wyoming State Archives. Cheyenne, Wyoming. Accessed September 25, 2019 .