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El Conquistador, Volume 1, Number 1

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Title:
El Conquistador, Volume 1, Number 1
Series Title:
El Conquistador
Creator:
Aztec Action Association
Place of Publication:
Lakewood, CO
Publisher:
Aztec Action Association
Publication Date:
Language:
English

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serial ( sobekcm )

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Volume 1, Number 1 ; Fall 1970

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Auraria Library
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Auraria Library
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Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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UMAS
ARE YOU JV BORE?
THE AMERICAN CRISIS
ESCAPE TO NEW MEXICO
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THE YEAR OF THE HAPPENING -1970


TRAINING THE UNSKILLED MINORITIES ISN’T JUST FOR GIANTS
This workbook of ideas shows what smaller companies can do, too...
Kendall Manufacturing Co. learned that it is easier for a small company to teach the unskilled than a large manufacturer. In a small plant, says President Lowell Kendall, the unskilled trainee has the opportunity to work alongside an experienced worker. In a large plant, classroom instruction is mandatory.
The Crouse-Hinds Co. offers “off-the-job” training to employees so that they can qualify for better positions as openings occur.
Oxford Chemicals feels a smaller firm like itself is in a better position to attract and train hard-core unemployables because they feel it is hard to
compete within a large corporation. Oxford finances its own training program, sending employees to school at night. Each trainee is assigned to a trainer of the same ethnic group.
These and 70 other case histories Illustrating.how business big and small is helping to solve the crisis in our cities are in the new booklet "Solving the Crisis in Our Cities...Report to Business No. 2.” Use the coupon to get your copy.
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EL CONQUISTADOR...
1970
1435 LAMAR LAKEWOOD. COLORADO
THE YEAR OF THE HAPPENING..........
HISPANOS IN HISTORY ...............
SIESTA IS FADING OUT AS LATIN TRADITION I'M CONCERNED .....................
IS GUIDANCE COUNSELING FAILING
OUR CHILDREN.....................
THE AMERICAN CRISIS ...............
ESCAPE TO NEW MEXICO...............
CONVICT EDITOR WRITES SAGE
WORDS OF ADVICE .................
HELPING YOUR CHILDREN .............
UMAS UNITED MEXICAN AMERICAN
STUDENT ORGANIZATION.............
NOSOTROS PRESS CAMPAIGN FOR
BETTER IMAGE OF LATINS...........
ARE YOU A BORE ....................
JUAN (A VOICE IN AZTLAN) ..........
SMILES REVEAL YOUR FEELINGS........
ANYONE CAN ........................
TIME OF CONCERN ...................
AL'S THOUGHTS .....................
CHICANO AT HARVARD ................
CHANGES IN HAIR STYLES CLIP BARBERS WHO IGNORE TRENDS...................
TILTING AT A CASH REGISTER.........
THE YEAR OF THE HAPPENING
GIL LOPEZ, Editor
Now its the Chicano, the Hispano, the Mexican American who is appearing on the scene of protest with a self evolution that breaks radically from the old degrading stereotype of a fatalistic loafer asleep under a sombrero. The black man’s break with the status quo began an important chain reaction that was certain to cause an explosion of change among the Hispanic people.
No longer content with being the nice people we have become more aggressive and forceful in asserting our rights IN THE YEAR OF THE HAPPENING 1970.
Mexicans everywhere are feeling their 1 oats, not only in traditional labor move-
20 ments but now also as college students by
the 10,000nd’s writers, artists, teachers,
6 thinkers. As the walls of prejudice grad-
.. ually crumble interesting things began to
1 ' happen on Capitol Hill, twelve Chicanos
in top policy influencing and administra-13 tive spots in the government. The success
of the Grape boycott marks a monumental 17 victory for our people. People in high
2 places are beginning to realize that Hispano impatience cannot be ignored indefinitely, because when political solutions
2o to grievances are made impossible, violent,
solutions are inevitable. It is a sad fact 9 that social change occurs only when mean-
ingful pressure is applied. We are a dynamic and important community and it *â–  is up to society to aid not stop the
remedies we are trying to bring about.
22 Any mystic which has men ready to die for it is never without political force.
12 There are many who would question whether these changes are justifiable or
5 whether these grievances are real or im-
13 aginary. Slip for a moment into the soul of a Mexican migrant worker who is
23 crammed into the back of a farm truck like a steer; watch elderly women and
° children creeping on their knees down
13 endless rows of crops choking on DDT.
Become for a moment the father of seven 11 children living in a converted chicken
coop with no lights, washing facilities or toilet. For a moment be treated as an 4 object of exploitation and watch tearfully
while machinery is treated more humanly
7 than yourself. If humiliating disenfranchisements and existing oppressions are to be lifted, they must be lifted now. As a member of the second largest minority group, we seek an equal sharing of the nations progress and a greater awareness of the contributions of our heritage and culture. Hispano history, art, music and other aspects of Chicano culture should make our people aware of their contributions to the American heritage and to world civilization. We must give our children a sense of pride in being brown. The glory of the past, and the dignity of the present must lead the way to the power of future. Only then can we genuinely share in the fruits of changes IN THE YEAR OF THE HAPPENING.
GIL LOPEZ EDITOR
CHUCK SANCHEZ ASSOCIATE EDITOR BARBARA LOPEZ ADVERTISING LAYOUT DESIGN THERESA SANCHEZ BUSINESS MANAGER, ADVERTISING MARVIN JOHNSON ARTIST
CONTRIBUTING WRITERS
JOHN CONKLIN GARY ARCHULETA BECKY MARRUJO
GERALDINE LOPEZ RAY PONCE PAUL PEREZ
Official Publication of AZTEC ACTION ASSOCIATION
VOLUME I, NO. I FALL 1970
PUBLISHED QUARTERLY
Dedicated to retaining the beauty and value of the Hispano Culture by encouraging the appreciation and advancement of the heritage of the Chicano people of the Southwest.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
FALL 1970
Page 1


UMAS
Since its inception at the University of Colorado, Boulder, in July of 1968, The United Mexican American Student Organization has been committed to initiating change within the educational system. It was realized that change was necessary in order to break with elitist concepts about higher education, which effectively and systematically has kept many of our Mexican American students educationally suppressed. It was also realized that in terms of the population, Mexican American students were very poorly represented in institutions of higher learning. It was also realized that the rationale used to justify the existence of a low enrollment rate of Mexican American students at the college level was they (Mexican Americans) didn’t apply for admission. Therefore UMAS had to concern itself with the recruitment of Mexican American students in order to demonstrate that they do aspire to a college education. An agressive recruiting drive began immediately and UMAS members returned to their communities to encourage, inform and motivate Mexican American youth to apply to the University of Colorado in Boulder.
A student, referrendum, initiated and supported by UMAS was passed by the general student population at the University of Colorado, in Boulder during March, 1968. This referrendum was in the initial planning stages by UMAS during April, 1968. It proposed that an increase of five dollars in fees be imposed on students at the Boulder campus of the University of Colorado. This increase would be attached to registration fees and apply toward the establishment of a minority group scholarship fund. The monies made available through the referrendum allowed UMAS to actualize its committment to increase the Mexican-American student population at Boulder, and create new positions which were needed to implement special programs, recruitment, and distribution of financial aid. The monies made available through the minority group referrendum enables the university to enlarge its monies available through matching funds.
UMAS has always been a firm believer in initiating various conferences aimed at motivating the Mexican American student to continue their education. One of the first conferences of this type was The Mexican American Youth Adelante (MAYA) which was sponsored by UMAS on May, 1969. Its primary goal was to motivate Mexican-American high school students to further their education. Another goal was to expose and inform high school students to social, psychological, economic, housing, educational and employment problems of the Mexican American communities. Approximately five hundred students and counselors attended, representing over ninety percent of the
high schools throughout the state of Colorado. The conference enabled UMAS to recruit students for admission into the University of Colorado in Boulder. The proposal of this conference was submitted by UMAS during late November, 1968.
UMAS has intelligently designed programs which will assure and insure its members a source of cultural identity, positive scale models and proficiency in performing and competing on the university academic level. Proof of this is the UMAS Summer Program which is composed of an eight-week accredited program where 300 students of a bilingual and bi-cultural background are currently enrolled. Admission to the summer program is open to students who don’t qualify for admission to the University of Colorado under existing admission standards. Thus, the eight-week program is a compensatory educational endeavor which aims to providing the student with the necessary skills to compete at a university level. It is a preparatory towards fall semester work. Upon successful completion of this eight-week program, the student is guaranteed admission into the fall semester and financial aid which is committed on the basis of need is given.
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MUSIC BY Los Populas de Texas
PROPRIETOR Juaquin Murrietta
2218 Larimer Denver, Colorado
Today UMAS stands tall as a proud structured, analytical organization which takes great pride in making available the opportunity of a higher education for deserving Mexican American students throughout the state of Colorado. There are currently 600 Mexican American students attending the University of Colorado at Boulder. The word of the hour is that any Mexican American high school student who has the desire, based on educational qualifications, can obtain admission to the University of Colorado through the help of the dynamic United Mexican American Student Organization at Boulder.
Becky Marrujo Associate Director UMAS
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Page 2
EL CONQUISTADOR


ESCAPE TO NEW MEXICO
Exploring New Mexico is a unique adventure that is rich and enduring in architectural, cultural, and historical interest. Beautiful scenery and natural wonders are everywhere. As one drives through these cobblestone streets, you will be pleased that the older structures still stand in a naturalistic sort of environment which enables them to maintain their quaint atmosphere.
On the streets and in the homes you can expect to be treated with great hospitality by friendly humble people, whose churches “Casas De Dios” are reflective of a state that is rich in early Catholic religious culture. A tour through San Miguel Mission in Sante Fe, one of the oldest churches in the United States, and the Carmelite Monastery situated on a hill overlooking beautiful valleys gives one a religious experience that is unforgettable. Traveling on through these picturesque valleys the pleasant aroma of apples, peaches, and fruit trees fills you with ecstasy. Stopping by Ortaga’s rug weaving company where beautiful custom-made blankets and rugs are turned out quickly and at a reasonable price, one is immediately awed by their beauty, wondering whether this beautiful art may one day go into oblivion for want of instruction to the younger children.
Exploring some of the Pueblo Indian ghost towns along New Mexico 117 tells us that these people lived here for quite some time and attained a high degree of civilization. This is a land that is rich in legends of Spanish Conquistadores who hid their treasures in the soft earth.
Thousands of happy skiers take to New Mexico areas annually which is fastly becoming one of the nation’s busiest ski areas. Cloudy days and fog are virtually unknown. It’s sunny or else it snows. Traveling back through sophisticated suburbs sprinkled with modern shopping centers one notices that the material used for these structures is made of sun dried adobe brick which is designed to make homes cool in the summer and hot in the winter with a durability that is phenomenal.
Continuing your trip through New Mexico you will probably conclude that tourism and agriculture are New Mexico’s biggest business. All in all, a vacation in New Mexico leaves you with a refreshed feeling that is good for the soul and satisfying to your aethetic senses.
by Chuck Sanchez
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534-7241 _____________3360 Downing St.
FALL 1970
Page 3


CHANGES IN HAIR STYLES CLIP BARBERS WHO IGNORE TRENDS
ATLANTA The American male’s new fascination with his hair and its length, shape and color has shaved the income of barbers in cities across the nation who have ignored the revolution in grooming styles.
A survey conducted by the New York Times showed that barbers who refused to cater to this explosion of male vanity have lost significant numbers of their customers to the hairstyling salons that, do.
In the past year, barbers in 18 major cities who continued to use traditional haircutting methods reported a drop in income ranging from 25 to 50 per cent, according to the survey. In addition, there were wide-spread reports of shop failures and of barbers forced to find work in other fields.
EFFEMINATE
Much of the recession in the trade was attributed to longer hairstyles that allowed men longer periods between visits to the barber, and in some areas virtually eliminated the weekly trim. But a major factor appeared to be the willingness of a growing number of men to adopt grooming habits that had once been widely scorned as effeminate.
From Portland, Maine, to Seattle, Wash., more and more men — especially the better educated and more successful
ones — were succumbing to the call of the hair stylist and his panoply of grooming aids, the survey showed.
It remains to be seen whether the American male can ever again be happy with a crewcut that looks like a freshly dug Long Island potato field after having once known the embrace of a hair net, the whisper of a hair dryer and the provocative aroma of hair spray.
“It was rough getting started,” said Sam Vallett, a hair stylist in Detroit for several years. “All my competitors threw verbal bricks at me in the beginning, but now they are all joining the trend and setting up styling booths.”
The survey also showed that as economic competition has stiffened in the annual $1.1 billion barbering industry, more of the economically disadvantaged are entering the trade — blacks, Mexican-Americans and women. In Massachusetts where two of the state’s six barber colleges closed during the past year, the number of male barbers also declined by 10 per cent. In one of the surviving barber colleges, in Boston, one-fourth of the graduates this spring were women.
PRICES VARY
Hair styling can take different forms and the costs vary radically, from $6 in South Paris, Maine, to $50 for the services of Jerry Spallini of Bergdorf Goodman’s men’s hair salon in New York. Generally, stylists shape a head of hair and use hair-
dryers, jets and sprays to preserve it.
Changing styles also revolutionized the barber shop. “When people pay $8.50 to $12.50 for a hair styling, they expect a pleasant atmosphere, not just a neighborhood shop with lots of hair all over the floor,” said Leo Snage, an official of the Barbers Employes Union in Detroit. “We encourage all our shops to put in wood paneling and carpeting and good lighting systems.”
The salient feature of most styling parlors is the private cubicle sheltering a patron from the gaze of others. “A guy with a hair net on or getting his hair dyed doesn’t want anybody watching him,” asserted Joseph James of the Oak Door, a District of Columbia styling parlor.
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EL CONQUISTADOR


JUAN (A VOICE IN AZTLAN)
By Gary Juan Archuleta
The tragic truth of the events of today as they relate to “The Mexican American Movement” is that few, very few, people comprehend the concepts and values of “La Raza”.
How many people know that “La Raza” means a cultural value system based on individualism, spiritualism and humanism? A thousand years of cultural evolution by the people living in the last frontier of the Mediterranean established the Spanish system. These people were the “beautiful black” of Africa, the White of Europe, and almost forgotten were the Yellows of Asia who had settled in Spain after their conquest of the Mediterranean empires.
This multi-racial society ruled the European World and in their discovery and conquest of the American World they intermarried with the red race and gave birth to a new race of “Mestizos” the Chicano people. As a result of the interblending of the four races (white, black, yellow, red) “The Brown Power People” are the fifth racial members of the human race.
Because “La Raza” is a people who believe and practice the values of individualism, spiritualism, and humanism, and because of the multi-racial heritage of “La Raza”, we see racism as senseless, stupid and sinful.
These truths have almost no effect on the many people who have accepted the life of white race supremacy to the extreme point of preferring their lighter colored children over their darker colored children.
Let the reader be reminded that the term “Chicano” (as defined by Hispanic educators at their 1968 World Conference in Denver, Aztlan) was explained as an elusive term that revolved around humanism, spiritualism and individualism.
There are those who refer to Chicanos
as a defeated people, but we ask how can we be defeated when we haven’t even begun to fight “in” this country. And when we did fight “for” this country, we won more medals of honor than any other cultural group.
Some say that La Raza has an inferiority complex and others say “pride” is the most noticeable quality and to further inflame the debates, we say that many people have lost God.
Some will call us “poor people”, but we see only our richness of spirit, generosity, brotherhood, culture, and compassion. The love of life and people is our greatest gift and we give our gift generously.
Can you remember the last time you were generous enough to share with a stranger? Think about it. . . and also the next time you near “Chicano Tower” smile because it means “People Power”.
Today we see a tomorrow designed to meet all our needs. A tomorrow of dignity, enjoyment, equality, and brotherhood. No more indignities ... no more hate ... no more violence....
Our goal is to build in “Aztlan” a “Self-supporting” condominium complex for our elderly, who because of automation in the fields, are now or will soon be unemployed. Our thinking is that our “old folks” are set in their ways; they cannot contribute to the urban life where they are now forced to move. The reasons are many, among them cultural differences (language, value systems, life styles, etc.) Besides if age be the only factor, from observing the plight of the elderly in the urban setting age is factor enough.
This complex will encompass enough land to provide for all the necessary food supplies, livestock included. A medical facility will train our young people to provide for all the medical needs, and from this experience hopefully many young minds will enter the universities dedicated to making a contribution in the field of medicine. Only God knows for sure how
great the world’s need is for doctors, well we will fill this need. To further ensure that our efforts will become self-supporting we will build economic development projects along the lines of a brewery, a leather industry, a food processing plant, a plastic plant, a printing plant . . . etc. And a “Chicano Cultural and Recreation Spa” where the world famous Chicano talents can perform in an atmosphere similar to Las Vegas. We wish to share our culture and beauty and it is an established fact that “tourism” is a major industry, therefore by sharing our culture with everyone, we will not only educate the ignorant, but more important, will provide ourselves the means for “honorable self-support”.
The projected number of farmworkers to become unemployed due to automation and progress is in the tens of thousands, and it is an undisputed fact that the cities cannot provide for their present homeless and jobless people. Under these circumstances, the only humane action left the “U. S.” is to meet this challenge. How??? Do you have an imagination???
Quetzalcoatl, the prophet of the red race, who foretold the landing of the Spainards and who also designed the sacred Indian calendar which has been computed to be only 2/10 thousandths of a second off the current calendar system of today, said that the fifth and final era of man called the “Age of Earthquakes” would begin now and last until 1980 at which time God will come. Maybe a thousand years of peace ... are you ready???
P.S.
Aztlan is everywhere Chicano sweat is soaking the soil
Aztlan is everywhere Chicano guts glitter the gutters
Aztlan is freedom from fear and hate and violence
Aztlan is now and forever
Aztlan is ... .
FALL 1970
Page 5


Siesta Is Fading Out As Latin Tradition
BUENOS AIRES -(UPI)- It I causes two extra traffic jams a day, brings schools, commerce) and industry to a halt, and has been labeled a major cause of heart illness.
Millions of Latin Americans swear they wouldn’t live without it, yet it is receding before the growth of large cities.
It is the siesta, a way of rest and dining that is one of Latin America’s strongest holdouts against the hurried pace of tlje industrial age.
There is much more to a siesta than a Mexican sleeping against a cactus with a large sombrero slumped over his forehead.
EXTRA PATROLS At noon in Caracas extra police patrols take to the streets to handle the traffic jams of cars heading for home.
In Santo Domingo, shop owners put a lock on the door and impatiently hurry the last customers- out.
Doctors in Lima hospitals pack their stethoscopes and head for home through the rush of honking drivers.
In Mendoza, Argentina, kiosks shut their shutters, banks close, and, once the rush is over, the streets are deserted for most of the afternoon.
pie, that the period from noon to 3 p.m. is known as the “donkey’s hour.”
‘This Barnard fellow may be good at transplanting hearts, but he misses the goodness of a deep nap at high noon,” remarked a U.S. oil executive who caught the siesta habit in Caracas.
INDUSTRIAL ADVANCE
However, in the two largest Spanish-American cities, Mexico City and Buenos Aires, both with populations of around 7 million persons, the siesta is a thing of the past in downtown areas.
It isn’t common in Brazil, and in Puerto Rico and the industrialized cities of northern Mexico it. has faded away apparently because of American influence.
The main problem in big cities is that a siesta causes two extra traffic jams a day as office workers rush to and from their homes.
“By the time I drive home through the traffic at lunch, and drive back through it after the siesta, I’m more tired than if I had stayed at the office,’1 j remarked one exasperated Peruvian office worker.
As popular as it remains the three-course noon-time meal at home, capped by wine and a good snooze, is under attack from modern forces ranging from traffic planners to young executives who learned at the Harvard business school how life should be lived and how things should be done. BARNARD’S ASSAULT
Even Dr. Christiaan Barnard has joined the assault on one of the last bastions of resistance to the hurry-up way of life.
“A nap helps in killing the human body,” Barnard warned in Caracas on a recent visit there.
The heart transplant pioneer said that sleeping after a big meal overburdens the digestive system, reduces oxygen in the blood, clots the intestines and was the biggest cause of heart disease in Venezuela.
If Barnard worried the Venezuelans, his words had little effect, so many people hit the sack in the afternoon in Caracas, a city of 2 million peo-
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Page 6
EL CONQUISTADOR


Behind The Lines
By Alan Cunningham
TILTING AT A CASH REGISTER
It’s not unfair, or inaccurate, to say Ray Ponce has an impossible dream.
But one who says this must take into account that other men have had impossible dreams, and some of them have come true;
Ray’s dream is to parlay a medium size grocery store in East Denver — that and a penchant for honesty which has sometimes riled certain members of the retail trade — into a city wide, maybe national, chain of minority-owned franchise grocery outlets and shopping centers.
His chief accomplishment to date, Ponce concedes, has been keeping his head above water in a less-than-thriving little shopping center located in the 2200 block of Oneida Street,
This is, perhaps, more impressive than it sounds. The previous owner abandoned a prosperous half-black and half-white trade when he learned militants were planning to burn him out.
Ray risked losing jd in fact, did lose — many of the whites and most of the affluent blacks, people who had long since escaped the ghetto and lived in big houses on Monaco Parkway when he began to stock chitterlings and quit selling grapes.
But he saw more and more of the minority people who live in two-bedroom houses and sometimes work and sometimes don’t — especially when it dawned on them that this guy who looked Anglo, didn’t talk with an accent, had a blonde wife and a name that people took to be French; this guy was actually Chicano, and proud of it.
When threats flew across the cash register, Ponce got the ear of an influential militant, telling him: “If you’re going to burn me out, get it over with. But I have a dream and I deserve a chance.”
The threats stopped.
Latin Cafe
LATIN CAFE
MEXICAN FOOD
PERUVIAN FOOD
Angela Zegarra 2644 W. 32nd Ave.
Across a bowl of green chili
Ray Ponce loves nothing better than to plop you in the back seat of his Thunder-bird, motor across 1-70 to his favorite Mexican restaurant — and then talk your ear off across a bowl of green chili. But he’ll gladly pick up the thread, weeks later, after he’s locked up the store on a Friday night and is sitting on a checkout counter, puffing a cigarette.
He’ll tell you about his boyhood in El Paso, after Pancho Villa drove his dad, a college professor, out of Ciudad Chihuahua; how his old man got three business ventures going, all at once; and how Ray himself learned to hustle by selling candy to the GIs who got off troop trains there.
He describes his frustrating 13 years in the Air Force, when prejudice within the officer ranks — and maybe a bit of his own stubbornness — fouled several promotions; and about how he tried to become an air traffic controller, but learned he didn’t have what it took for that demanding job.
Later, Ray brashly bluffed his way into an executive job after being told no openings existed with a now-defunct discount firm. His secret: He offered to work cheap.
Ray went on to other retail jobs. Once, he lasted six weeks with a major food chain, then got fired after he refused to accept $10 worth of coupons from a woman who was “buying” $2 worth of merchandise.
Later, as field director for the Rocky Mountain Food Dealers Association, he helped end the practice of redeeming coupons by the wheelbarrowful.
Now, he has his store, called Mi-T-Mart. The “Mi” stands for “Minority.” That’s why one of Mr. Mi-T-Mart’s shoes is white, the other black. And Ray has a dream.
He takes out a marking pencil and draws diagrams on the checkout counter, explaining his Plan One, Plan Two, Plan Three: There’ll be minority-owned small stores, he explains, that’s Plan One. And
455-9757
medium-sized ones, with each section — dairy products, meat, deliP leased to a different enterpreneur. That’s the second plan.
Bazaars, like he saw in Morocco
Plan Three will be a series of shopping centers. No, not shopping centers. Bazaars, like Ray saw in Morocco. Or at least minibazaars. The big supermarket will sell its food at cost, but Mi-T-Mart International will make its money from renting out small satellite shops around the big store.
At the top of the diagram, there’s Mi-T-Mart Central, providing administrative services and training the people who’ll manage these stores. Central, says Ray,
also would have its own credit cards, not to squeeze that extra 18 per cent out of poor consumers but to give them credit when they have no choice — and to keep that interest money within the community for stock in Mi-T-Mart Central would belong to the little people.
Likewise, they’d have their own money order business, hanging on to the hundreds of thousands of dollars which now flow out of minority neighborhoods each month as people who can’t maintain bank accounts buy money orders for their house payments, car payments, furniture payments and so on.
Ray’s dream is to keep the community’s meager resources at home. And that includes the young men and women who deserve to have a role in the giant food business, but see themselves as shut out from it.
As are many wives, Karen Ponce is the realist in the family. Like Sancho Panza in modern dress, she gently chides Ray for tilting at the windmills of prejudice, lost opportunity and ironclad dominance by a few huge grocery chains - but she works hard all the while to keep the tangible assets of Mi-T-Mart intact.
One can only hope this dreamer will not be led to abandon his dream. He may be a little like Don Quixote, but he has a measure of integrity which demands respect.
And the windmills, without any question, are really there.
Reprinted from the Rocky Mountain News
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FALL 1970
Page 7


TIME OF CONCERN
I am a teacher at Fairview Elementary School which is located on Denver’s west side. The children attending this school feed into Lake and Baker Junior high schools and then on to Denver West High School. This article is being written for both parents and teachers in the sincere hope that members of the west area communities may join with the west area teachers in a united effort for bettering the educations of our children.
It is a well-known fact that the children from this area are receiving a substandard education when compared to the more affluent neighborhoods of the metro Denver area. When these children arrive at Denver West, many of them are unable to read the required material for their particular level. Many are unable to cope with the Academic problems which are presented to them as a result of these academic handicaps, these children become extremely frustrated, find themselves getting into some kind of trouble to compensate for their handicap and finally find themselves, labled as either “drop out” or “push out”. As an elementary school teacher, I have seen this frustration in children by the time they reach the third or fourth grade and in many instances much earlier.
I believe that it is essential for the members of each west area community to become totally involved and totally familiar with their child’s school, teacher and the education the child is receiving at school. In the past, due to various reasons, it has been very difficult to get the parents to the schools and it has been equally as difficult to get the teachers, all the teachers, to go to the community. It should be the responsibility to each teacher to know as many of his children’s parents as is possible.
The parent in turn should be made to feel as uninhibited and unafraid to speak
his mind, ask questions and to otter constructive criticism whenever that parent feels so compelled. In turn the parent should be willing to accept the same kind of constructive criticism from the teacher.
The parent and the teacher should make a sincere effort to work as a team
for the benefit of that particular child. In many homes it is nearly impossible for a child to study. If at all possible, provide a place for the child to study. There are various study halls in many of the schools and parents should find out about these places to study if it is impossible to study at home. Parents and teachers alike should make every effort to pay attention to their children and praise them whenever possible.
Parents, if you have never met your child’s teacher, please make a sincere effort to do so and hopefully teachers will make the same effort to meet this child’s parents. I sincerely believe that if we begin this approach, open the communication lines, and begin thinking about the lives of these children, we can make great advances for children of the west area.
by John Conklin
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It seems that everywhere relationships have broken down. Starting with our broken relationship with God. And ending in our growing disregard for the other fellow. It’s true that maybe you, personally, can’t change the whole world. But it’s remarkable what one person can do, when he makes up his mind. Why not start today, in your church or synagogue? A visit in the place where the rule of the house is “Love thy neighbor as thyself" is always a great place to start great endeavors. How can you help? Write for free booklet, The Turning Point, Religion In American Life, 184 Fifth jf?|)
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Page 8
EL CONQUISTADOR


Vangie Sena
Helping Your Children
Reprinted From Alma Mia by
Many comments have been made about our Hispano children and their short-comings when they enter school. They are often described as shy, quiet, inhibited, slow and sometimes uncooperative. They are often said to lag behind when placed in a classroom with other children.
This may sometimes appear to be the case; however, a better description should include the fact that these children are often insecure and unsure of themselves in the new and strange environment of the classroom. The current Headstart programs are making great strides in this area. Many of the activities included in Headstart Programs give these children varied experiences and a better chance to compete with other children. Along with the experiences provided by Headstart there are many things that we can do as mothers to help prepare our children for school.
Most of the activities can be carried out with simple materials found in the home with the most precious commodity involved being time.
The school environment with all of its activities, instruction, new rules, different types of equipment, and unfamiliar faces is enough to make many children who are naturally shy, seem completely introverted. If the child is able to feel comfortable with some of the equipment and materials, his ability to adjust and to succeed is greatly improved.
The child who has never played with clay is liable to spend all of his time feeling, squeezing, rolling, kneading, and experimenting with the texture only to find that the entire time for art class has lapsed. Many of the other children may have a figure to show for their efforts while he shyly hides his lump of clay. The end results should not be important but this child begins to feel the pangs of failure since he didn't have a finished product. Scissors can also be very hard to handle for the child who has not had previous experience with them. The teacher may ask the class to cut out a design, and by the time he gets the feel of the scissors and figures out how to handle them his classmates have finished and moved on to something else.
When this same type of performance can be applied to many activities in school, it soon appears that this child is slow since his classmates move on and he never quite seems to catch up. The child begins to feel bad about himself and it takes only a few remarks from his classmates or teacher to turn this shy, willing child into an uncooperative one who refuses to try because he senses that he always falls short.
Many activities which parents can use to enrich children's experiences do not require the use of any materials. A walk around the block presents opportunities for a child to notice many things. A parent accompanying a child on such a walk can help the child to discover the meaning of words used for description and comparison. He can learn the differences in sizes and shapes. The child can observe changes that take place in the world around him such as the budding of leaves in the spring, the blooming of flowers in summer and the leaves changing color in the fall. Children should be encouraged to notice many things and to use words to describe what they see.
In urban areas it is usually not too far to a public library where Mother can get a library card free and expose her children to many children's books which help to develop an interest and awareness for books and reading.
Every pre-school child has many opportunities to count and to use numbers. They like to count the number of people in their family, and they can be encouraged to help count the number of plates, spoons, forks, and knives needed to set the table.
Other activities require some materials, but these can be
very simple. A pair of small round-ended scissors can be bought at a dime store for a small amount. This will save Mother's good sewing scissors and furnish a child many hours of practice. Any old catalog or magazine can provide hours of cut-up fun.
A most enjoyable activity is the making of play dough from ordinary flour. When stored in plastic containers it keeps for several days and allows the child many hours of squeezing, rolling, kneading and shaping until he develops confidence in his ability to form shapes and figures.
There is also a play clay made from corn starch which can be painted with water colors and covered withclear nail polish to give it a ceramic-like finish. This is great for making flowers, animals, and jewelry such as ear-rings.
A child may experiment with mosaic designs using colored macaroni, rice, beans or small pebbles. These can be glued to heavy cardboard. These are only a few examples of activities which mothers can use to provide their children with more experiences.
If our children are to feel confident when they enter school, we must provide them with many opportunities to handle scissors, pencils, crayons, clay, paste, and (when possible) paints such as water colors. The enrichment of our children's background becomes most important in preparing and providing them with the readiness they all need in order to succeed in school. Taking time to make a child aware of the things around him and providing some of the simple materials for him to experiment may seem like an added task for the already busy mother, but the benefits to be derived will overcompensate for the effort spent when our children can be confident in their abilities to succeed in school.
PLAY DOUGH
1/8 - cup salt
2-1/2 cups flour 1 cup water 4 teaspoons of salad oil
Food coloring
Combine all ingredients except food coloring. Divide dough into several balls and mix different colors of food coloring into each one. As the children knead the dough the color will mix.
CORN STARCH PLAY CLAY
1 cup corn starch
2 cups baking soda
Mix the two ingredients above in a saucepan until thoroughly blended. Mix in 1-1/4 cups cold water and add a few drops of food coloring for tinted clay. Cook over medium heat for about 4 minutes, stirring constantly until mixture thickens to look like moist mashed potatoes. Cover with damp cloth to cool. Knead as you would dough. Shape figures and allow to dry overnight. Then paint with water colors or tempera and coat with shellac or clear nail polish.
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FALL 1970
Page 9


SHE'S MISS INDIAN AMERICA FOR 1970
Talented, Pretty
Cherokee Named Miss Indian
America
Virginia Stroud, 19 of Bacone, Oklahoma, a Cherokee, was selected from more than 100 girls during All-American Indian Days at Sheridan, Wyoming.
SHERIDAN, Wyo. - (AP) - A Western Cherokee maiden, active in campus politics, was named Miss Indian America Sunday night as part of Sheridan’s 17th annual All-American Indian Days celebration.
Virginia Alice Stroud, 19, of Bacone, Okla., her eyes beaming, was crowned by her predecessor, Maijorie Haury of Albany, N.Y.
For Miss Stroud, beauty, talent and heritage pageants aren’t new.
She is Miss Cherokee 1970 and was third runnerup in a pageant sponsored by the Ameri-
can Congress of Indians.
At Bacone Junior College in her home town, she is student body president and a sorority vice president. She is also an organist and a choir solist.
Her Alternate is Deborah Ann Jackson, a Wasco Yakima, also 19
First runnerup was Lucinda Yellowman, a Navajo of Waterflow, N.M. Carrol Sanchez, a Shoshone from Reno, Nev., was named second runnerup, followed by Wilma Joyce Bear Shield, a Rosebud Sioux from Saint Charles, S.C.
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Page 10
EL CONQUISTADOR


CHICANO AT HARVARD
The most “reputable” and oldest institution of higher learning in the U.S. has begun a summer program geared towards increasing the pool of minority applicants into the health profession, especially in the medical and dental fields. The program is called the Health Careers Summer Program (HCSP), and it was initiated under the auspices of the Harvard Medical and Dental Schools. The HCSP began in 1969 and had a group of 50 students, mostly from the Eastern U.S. This year the program has increased that enrollment to 100 students - about 80 Blacks, 12 Chicanos, 4 Puerto Ricans, 2 Indians, 1 Eskimo, and 1 White applicant.
As a Chicano in the HCSP, when I first arrived in Cambridge, Massachusetts and attended the first general meeting, my immediate thoughts were “Why are there so many Blacks in the program?” When the coordinator introduced himself, I thought I knew the answer. He was a Negro and as coordinator I assumed that he had originatedand written the proposal for the HCSP. It seemed appropriate that there should be a greater percentage of Negroes, since that was his main concern. I also felt that as a Chicano, I and the other Chicanos were there merely as tokens in a minority program.
One of the conditions for coming to Harvard was that all students would receive a stipend for the summer earnings he would have ordinarily made. The amount was nowhere near what a student could have made had he been employed during the summer, but at least it was something. During the middle of the program HCSP students were informed that there was only a certain amount of money left and that they could decide how to distribute it among themselves. Either they could all get “X” number of dollars
(which was still less than what students assumed they would receive when they filled out applications) or some of us would get less money and some of us would get more, based on our needs.
Fact number one: we all need the money due to the large cost for an education at any university and due to the rising cost of living.
Fact number two: Harvard doesn’t want to give HCSP students the money that was originally stated when the students filled out applications.
Fact number three: The HCSP program is run by Harvard Medical and Dental Schools in cooperation with other
hospitals in the Boston area, but all the money for the program was given from foundations in the form of grants. Harvard has merely supplied the university; it hasn’t put a penny into the program.
Fact number four: Harvard is reaping all the benefits. The money is spent within the Harvard structure — the dorms we stay in, the food we eat, the professors and courses, the books we buy from a Coop store which are written by the professors teaching the courses (they get the royalties on their own books), and the tutors that are paid $1500 for less than 15 hours per week of work. Most of all of these tutors are graduate students doing reserach at Harvard. Any of the research or papers done by the students may be used for the tutors benefit. Harvard is getting the money back, and at the same time it is able to say that it is doing the Blacks and the Browns a big favor by letting them attend their university. It would seem that minority students are being used by Harvard University.
Fact number five: The stipend that would be given to the HCSP students would be the only part of the money that is not circulating back into the Harvard
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structure. Students would use that money outside the university, probably back in their own schools.
At about the same time that students in HCSP were informed about this deficit in the budget they organized and set out to investigate the matter. Since members of the adhoc committee that set up HCSP were conveniently not around when approached by the students, it was decided that a list of demands would be presented at a formal luncheon held by the overseers of the university. Needless to say, on that day the administrators at the luncheon were a bit frightened when a group of angry students walked in and disturbed them. As can be expected with any bureaucratic structure, these men tried to pass the buck and I was amused by their “Oh, we didn’t know.” Yes, they didn’t even know that Harvard was running a program for minority students. The fact remains that about three days later HCSP students were told that they would be getting all their money.
Whoever is running the HCSP is unknown and beyond reach. Somewhere within the power structure someone is using minority students for Harvard’s own prestige, but another fact also remains, the minority students are also using Harvard. They are using it’s so called prestige and “good” name and the eye opening awe that can be seen in people’s faces “What, you went to Harvard!” But more than this, Harvard had better beware as to what might happen if they start letting minority students into their elite institution. These minority people might get a foothold. They just might educate themselves or get into positions where they will be able to let more minority students into the university. When this happens, brother watch out, because then I will ask, Harvard, where is your eliteness and exclusiveness now? Where is your systematic oppression of poor peoples?
As a student at Harvard, I have found it to be just another elitist and racist institution — a bit bigger and richer, nonetheless, it is unresponsive to the needs of Brown and Black students throughout the United States.
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FALL 1970
Page 11


Knowing when to stop talking is often more important
than having something worthwhile to judgement when to say it.
*R£VOU
Almost everyone is boring part of the time, yet few people really know when they are boring, what causes boredom among friends or how we can minimize our tendency to be dull.
Here’s a quiz to help you rate yourself, plus tips on how to improve.
1. Are YOU bored? Bored people are often boring. If you’re bored, why not tiy to= get to the bottom of the problem and do something about it? Perhaps you’re bored because you haven’t tried your hand at anything new for too long. Nobody enjoys having a drudge around.
Think back to the last time you tackled a new hobby, read a good book or went on a journey* A short trip—even an overnight jaunt—can help open your eyes to the interesting things around you, give you something new to talk about when you return home.
2 Do you fi nd yourself tatalking at** people more often than conversing with diem? Few of us are such great orators that we can hold an audience spellbound for long. True, everyone likes to talk about himself, but if your conversation is mainly about “Me, Myself and I”, don’t be too surprised if you start to detect tell-tale signs of boredom in your listener.
How can you avoid these conversational calamities? Remember that the liste er’s time is just as important as your own, whether he has a lot of it, or only a little. Getting your listener involved is an excellent way to hold his attention. For example, you might start off a conversation by asking his opinion of something—
Reprinted from the Ohio Engineer
say and the good
& BORt1
Perhaps the most important secret in avoiding becoming a bore is to cultivate interests and seek out new experiences which others will want to hear about.
a movie he may have seen recently, or a book he’s read. But avoid using this trick as a platform from which to launch into your own diatribe on “what the whole thing is all about”. By showing a genuine interest in what your friend has to say— even when he talks about himself—you can involve him in the conversation.
3. Do you seem to have a knack for turning conversations into arguments? If you’re the agressive self-asserting type, you may have to hold back a bit. Respect the other fellow’s opinions, even if you don’t happen to agree with them. After he’s stated his case, you can politely offer your own views.
4. Do you jump at the chance to 4,move in on** people? While your friends or relatives may seem eager to have you sleep in their house, do your laundry and feed you when you visit them on vacation —the odds are you’ll be more welcome if you stay in a nearby hotel or motel cutting down your ‘‘exposure time” on long visits will spare them and your frazzled nerves.
5. Do you tend to overstay your welcome? Your hosts may appreciate the fact that you’re enjoying yourself. But when heads start to nod, it’s high time to say, ‘‘So long and thanks!”
6. Do you have a line a mile long? Some people have a tendency to stretch their “story” a little in an attempt to to make themselves seem and feel more important. Others lay the flattery on thick, thinking it will make people like them better. But if your friends finally catch on, you may end up as the guy or gal who isn’t invited a second time. Be yourself; your friends should accept you for what you are—that is, of course, unless you score high as a bore!
7. Are you able to keep the friends you make? It’s natural that close friends should enjoy seeing each other often, but it’s also a good policy to strive for a happy medium. Don’t neglect friends, but keep in mind the old saying, ’‘familiarity breeds contempt.”
By following these simple tips, you can help minimize your tendency to be dull—and raise your popularity quotient at the same time.
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IS GUIDANCE COUNSELING FAILING OUR CHILDREN
Mr. Rogers, the school counselor, really knows what’s best for me. It is a sad fact that this assumption that a counselor knowsbest each year sends thousands of eager enthusiastic students down the wrong road of destiny. Unlike doctors, counselors cannot bury their mistakes, the mistakes live on sometimes in really miserable lives. Guidance counseling in its present volume is relatively new. In the past twenty years, climbing college enrollments and new vocations created by advancing technology have sparked a big demand for professional educators, well versed in college admissions and career possibilities and since its only human to look for help at the time of important decisions, great confidence has been invested in these counselors by parents, students and colleges.
The “flawes” in counseling are leading more and more people to wonder whether their children are getting good advice. Says Dr. Fredrick Gannon, former counselor and consultant with Educational Testing Service, which administers the College Board Exams, “I have to say that
as many as 75% of counselors don’t do any real harm or too much good either; of the rest about half do great harm by sending students into the wrong college or career.”
He estimates one in every ten high school students is a victim of poor counseling. There’s too large a number who place unnecessary handicaps on thousands of students by giving them wrong advice. An example which is still vivid in my mind is one which I experienced personally. My high school counselor was so interested on sending two of his prize students into the Air Force Academy at the expense of the rest of us. However, all the blame cannot be placed on the quality of the counselor. There are several reasons for this deficiency, one being that high school counselors are simply overwhelmed by the students they must advise. Even at a ratio of one to every two hundred students to one counselor the harassed advisor can spend only a few hours a year with each student.
High school principals don’t recognize them as busy professionals and call on them for all sorts of other work. A strong recommendation is first of all to press school boards for improvements in this vital area. The old adage “know yourself’ can also be of extreme importance. Knowing your capabilities, aptitudes and your projected potential can be of great help. A young man or woman will, have many chances to make his own mistakes. He doesn’t need anyone to make them for him.
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FALL 1970
Page 13


The symbol at right represents, in part, the chicano's ancestory. The second ring from the outside of the symbol represents the Aztec calendar. In the center, you find three faces. The profile faces are that of a Spaniard and an Indian. When the Spaniards came over to what is now known as Mexico, intermarriage resulted, thus creating the face looking at you - the face of a chicano.
I AM CONCERNED!
I am concerned about myself.
I am concerned about my family.
I am concerned about our people.
I am concerned about the youth rebellion of today.
I am concerned about the racial prejudice that exists today.
I am concerned about poverty.
I am concerned about our society as a whole.
We are all concerned about these things. How many times have you heard people say they are concerned. I think it is time to cool our rhetoric and start some action. Our future lies before us, but perhaps we will have no future if we don’t do something now, together as a united people.
Chuck Sanchez
LITTLE BROWN CHILDREN
Children of a Light Brown Color,
Dart in and out of the weather worn, House they call home,
Constructed of wood and stone,
On the sagging front porch,
The paint is cracked and peeling, Children of a Light Brown Color, Laughing?
Around this house,
Bent old trees hold firmly to the ground. Green and fat,
They reach desperately,
To claim the last rays of sun their own, Children of a Light Brown Color,
Sad.
And off to the east and south,
Dark violent clouds gather,
Trying without success,
To keep from shedding tears around, Children of a Light Brown Color,
Sleep!
BLACK LACE
See the clouds suspended in space, Elderly widow dressed in blacklace, Years of sorrow carved upon her face, She truly understands the meaning of tragedy.
As for you and I, my friend,
We do not yet fully understand,
And if love should lift it’s face,
We might some day take her place.
Thus in this forbidden time,
Everyone,
Will have to dress in blacklace, Sometime!
CHILDREN
Come
Through the maybe of moments That whiten the warmth Leave forever The sorrow
The wailing weeping woe Remember
Children chasing children See. Be.
Forever.
Si!
The problem . . .
Que?
It’s your fault . . . Who?
I mean . . .
Que?
Brown Power!
Testing, testing, testing Uno, Dos.Tres , , , ... Juan J. Martinez
MIND, HEART & SOUL
The story goes
The Mind is where it’s at,
The Soul knows How the story goes.
Feel the heartbeat In your own feet,
The Soul knows A fire glows
Mind & Heart together Man & Life forever Moon & Sun One in One
SON
Some snach snapped A short stop starting.
Swish the swing is sinking The submerged sounds of sorrow. Sighting sighs are smiling Smoothly smothered saying Softness sailing soul.
So sparked the smoke And started the sun shattering The shouting senuous sky My Son shine.
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EL CONQUISTADOR


FALL 1970
Page 15


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EL CONQUISTADOR


THE AMERICAN CRISIS
by John Conklin
The United States ot America today faces a critical problem, the solving of which is absolutely essential if this country is to thrive and sustain itself. All across the country thousands upon thousands of Mexican, Black, Indian, and White Americans are faced with poverty, racial discrimination and unequal opportunity for education and jobs.
This country has been caught up in a mania for materialistic wealth. This idea can be witnessed in every segment of life in America. People have to have and are strongly competing for new cars, new color T.V. sets, the finest homes, the best clothes, the best of everything, and it doesn’t matter what one’s ethnic background is, these materialistic goals are essentially the same for everyone. The means by which these goals are attained, however, are unequally distributed. Because of discrimination, lack of education, and lack of money, certain segments of the population are forced to attain these materialistic goals through illegal means. The result is an unusually high percentage of are forced to attain these materialistic goals through illegal means. The end result is an unusually high percentage of minority peoples in this nation’s prisons and correctional institutions.
The White majority can see this end, but does not understand the reasons for it. The situation tends only to reinforce attitudes toward the minorities which results in a continuing cycle of discrimination, racism, and poverty.
The solutions to the problems therefore lie within the White majority. Attitude change, equal opportunity for education, housing and jobs and a change in materialistic goals of this country are necessary to attain an end to our problems. It is necessary for all people to understand the problems, why they exist and to work for their solution.
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FALL 1970
Page 17


WORD FROM EXPERT
Smiles Reveal Your Feelings
LONDON (UPI)-The way a person smiles reveals much about his emotions, a British psychiatric researcher says.
Dr. Ewan Grant of Birmingham University’s department of psychiatry has for the past seven years been studying how humans communicate without words.
He has listed more than 100 “face to face” signals like a twitch of the eyebrows, a frown or the lowering of the eyelids. But it is the smile, he believes that probably tells most.
“While it is easy enough to lie with words, it is extremely difficult to disguise true emotions coming through in nonverbal signals such as smiles,” he said.
“The way we use these signals can give extremely valuable information about the way we are thinking. The mouth is frequently used to express emotions and it is very difficult to disguise them.”
Grant’s research is expected to help doctors see how psychiatric patients react to certain questions about their lives—not only in what they say, which could be disguised, but through their non-verbal signals.
“It will also be useful to husbands and boy friends,” he said. “To find out if she really means it when she says ‘yes, darling, that would be lovely,’ don’t listen to her—watch her lips. That is where the truth will lie.”
Grant has listed five basic types of smiles.
The upper smile, or “how do you do” smile, which is seen briefly in formal meetings and
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when family members greet one another. Only the upper teeth are uncovered and the mouth is generally just slightly open.
The simple smile, what Grant calls “a nonsocial smile, which occurs when a person is happy by himself.” The lips curve back and up but remain together so there is no display of teeth.
The lip-in smile, a coy version of the upper smile, has the lower lip drawn in between the teeth. “It implies that the smiler feels in some way subordinate to the person he or she is meeting,” Grant said.
The broad smile “is the one you really want to see,” Grant said. “This occurs in situations of pleasurable excitement.” The mouth is open, the lips curled back and both upper and lower teeth can be seen.
The oblong smile is one to beware of, Grant says. “It occurs when the smiler pretends he or she is enjoying something when they’re really not. Like when a girl gets too much attention from an amorous drunk or is being chased around the office by her boss.”
Negroes at CU To Begin Paper
BOULDER—The first issue of Black Unity, a biweekly newspaper to be published by Negro students at the University of Colorado, will be printed Friday.
Ishmael Fails, the newspaper’s business manager, said the publication is the first of its kind in the United States.
Fails explained the newspaper will be aimed primarily at CU Negro students, but that the publication will be distributed throughout Colorado.
Edward Johnson is the editor.
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Page 18
EL CONQUISTADOR


WHAT IF?
What if you happened, - just suppose you happened, - to meet God one day, I mean, on your way to work or maybe through a park in the early morning when the dew evaporates into mist, and clouds everything but your thoughts. Well, if He’s really real, - I mean, if there is a God, - and if He spoke, what might He ask? Maybe, “why are you here?” or “what have you people been doing?” or “why should you continue?” What could you tell Him? Tell Him “we spend millions on bombs and let little children starve” or “that we despise people for the color He made them” or “that we care so little of all He has given that we allow a few to map its destruction” or maybe “that we destroy and carelessly pollute his lands” or “that we delight in seeing our fellow man suffer” or maybe, - just perhaps, this God fellow would answer a question for us, “Where, 0 God, and what, 0 God, do we do with dead soldiers, - and how do we tell their
mothers?”
REPRINTED FROM KEY MAGAZINE
FALL 1970
Page 19


ana
JUAREZ
LOUNGE
DONDE SE JUANTAN LOS AMIGOS SERVIMOS COM I DAS M EX I CANA Y AMERICANOS
ADEMAS
VINOS, CERVEZAS, LICORES WILLIE GARCIA, PROPRIETOR
2100 LARIMER
HISPANOS IN HISTORY
It is my hope through this column to highlight the culture and contributions of Mexican Americans to the growth and development of the Southwest and the nation as a whole. Secondly, to acquaint our readers of the beauty and value of our rich Hispanic culture by encouraging the appreciation and advancement of the history of the Hispano people of the Southwest.
I remember as a young student wondering what the Hispano was doing when this nation was being developed. I must admit that I was at a loss, at first, to fit the Hispano into the nation’s total historical setting. Today, however, I realize the reason for this lack of information is that Hispano History as is taught in our present educational system is superficial and lacks the substance that we as Hispanos can adequately identify with.
Hopefully, through this column we can pinpoint some of the outstanding accomplishments of the Hispanic people. At this time, I would like to focus your attention on Jose Clemente Orazco (1883-1949) a Mexican artist who was instrumental in reviving Mexican Artistic renaissance and Fresco painting.
His work such as Zapatertar and Mexican Pueblo are stark and simple and often deal with social themes. Orazco was born in Zapatalan and attended the National University of Fine Arts. An architectural draftsman at first, he exhibited as a painter in 1910. His Murals decorate the Palace of Fine Arts, National Preparatory School and other public buildings in Mexico, Dartmouth College in New Hampshire and Pamara College in California.
Theresa Sanchez
CONVICT EDITOR WRITES SAGE WORDS OF ADVICE
MENARD, ILL. (UPI) - “Dear Future Establishment,” the editorial in the Menard Time began.
“You with the sideburns, long hair and tight pants; you with the miniskirt, love beads and boots. . . . Have you forgotten that the presidency, the Congress, the Senate, the judiciary and the United States of tomorrow is yours?
“Else, why must you clamor today for the changes you may peacefully, and by choice, bring about in the future?”
The editorial was contained in this month’s edition of the Time, award-winning newspaper published by the inmates of Menard State Penitentiary.
IT WAS WRITTEN by the inmate editor, Harold S. Sampson.
“What have you accomplished by your riots, your protests, your violence and governmental defiance?” the editorial asked.
“Think! Has the Establishment toppled; or has it merely been tolerant in its more personal memories of Marxism, goldfish-eating and panty raids? And, finally has it occurred to you that your children may be even more discontent with your proposed way of life than you are with the mores of the establishment pro tern?”
Sampson wrote that the “future establishment” may wonder by what authority he offers advice.
HE WRITES TO YOU more out of shame, not the authority. He addresses you because he is not a member of the so-called Establishment. He is a convict who has spent 40 years in defiance of the very establishment you protest.
He is a convict who has spent 29 years of his life behind bars because of that defiance.
He broke just one window. He looted one home — two white shirts, a set of dentures and a portable typewriter.
But, he did violence to no one. He did not incite others to riot. He committed no arson of property. He did go to jail.
. . . And the hope he held for relief in the future from the new establishment has dimmed. He did not anticipate that youth standing a figurative stone’s throw beyond the steel door which bars his cell.
He does recognize, though perhaps the youth doesn’t, that youth remains where he is only by the grace and the charity of the establishment opposed.”
SAMPSON WONDERED “editorially” whether somewhere along the line, he and his fellow prisioners might be accused of setting a bad example and blamed for “your conduct.”
“The thought is especially disturbing because some of you are brothers, sisters, sons, daughters, relatives and friends,” he said.
“Whether you succeed in destroying the establishment, or wind up in the next cell to this writer by the virtue of your deeds, he feels you should be interested in a conversation overheard the other day: “Two mothers, sweet old ladies attending Menard’s semi-annual art exhibit, were discussing their sons. The sons apparently had been involved in the recent university riots.
“One mother said to the other: ‘I wish my boy was more like these convicts.’ “Now, YOU think about that!”
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Page 20
EL CONQUISTADOR


FREEDOM NEVER CAN BE TAKEN for granted, lest it be lost.
Neglected, it withers and dies, like a flower denied moisture and nurishment...
Or is smothered by the creeping weeds of tyranny’s lust for domination and for ever-spreading aggrandizement.
Those who came to what is now our United States of America in longing search for freedom were aware of this. They had known tyranny and its ways firsthand in the Old World.
SO, WHEN THEY AND THEIR DE-scendants found it necessary to give their lives, their all, to achieve that freedom by establishing a government of, by and for free men, their first thought was of a Constitution which would safeguard what they so agonizingly had won.
Thus it was that the Constitution for the United States of America came into being Sept. 17, 1787, at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.
And that, further to safeguard the rights of the individual and of the states, the historic Bill of Rights — the first 10 Amendments — became part of the Constitution Dec. 15,1791, upon ratification by the states.
Yet, farseeing though they were, these safeguards for the dignity and freedom of the individual cannot alone preserve this heritage.
Neglected, they wither and die.
Or are erased or subverted by ambitious or foolish men from foreign shores or within our own land.
SO IT IS THAT AMERICANS OF our troubled and perilous times must remain as aware of the origins and meaning of our Constitution and Bill of Rights, and as vigilant in guarding them as were the Founding Fathers who achieved them.
The Freedoms Foundation of Valley Forge, a nonpolitical, nonprofit, nonsectarian organization, is dedicated to maintaining that awareness and vigilance.
It has formulated a “Credo of the American Way of Life,” an expression of the political and economic rights provided us by the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and the laws of the nation stemming from these.
That the first freedom mentioned in this credo is the “right to worship God in one’s own way” seems particularly fitting and significant.
For it comes, of course, from the very first clause of the first Article of the Bill of Rights:
“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; . . .”
Further, the search for freedom of worship and the concept of self-government went hand in hand in the beginnings of the United States of America.
H. G. Wells, in his “The Outline of
History,” describes the Plymouth Colong settlers as “republican-spirited men, hopeless of resistance to the Grand Monarchy of James I and Charles I.”
THE PILGRIM FATHERS, ALONG with desire to worship according to their own lights, carried also the spark which well may have given the first glow to the becon of self-government.
They gave expression to that belief even before stepping ashore at Cape Cod in 1620.
“Before landing,” Clement Wood writes in his “A Complete History of the United States,” “the Pilgrims assembled in the cabin of their little boat, the Mayflower, and pledged themselves to form a government, and obey it. This was the first instance of an agreement to abide by complete self-government in the history of the European settlement of the Americas.”
That freedom of worship was so preeminent in the minds of the founders of free America carries a further significance.
It is a right which always is among the first to be limited or wiped out by those who, like the Communists, put the state above all individual rights and freedoms.
FREEDOM OF WORSHIP IS ONE OF the stones in the arch of liberty which the Constitution raised in protection over Americans.
This is a stout and stalwart arch, if those whom it protects keep it in repair and safe from assault.
And, in an arch, each stone must be forever kept firm and unriven. For, if one is lost, the whole structure tumbles into dust.
It is the same with the freedoms erected by the Constitution for the United States of America.
°f America.
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FALL 1970
Page 21


‘Nosotros’ Press Campaign For Better Image of Latins
HOLLYWOOD - “Nosotros” is the Spanish word for “us.”
It is also an organization of show folk of Latin orgin, primarily Spanish-speaking individuals, who have banded together to get a better shake from the bigwigs of motion pictures and television.
Black actors made tremendous strides in the past decade. Now black technicians, directors and writers are finding jobs.
But Puerto Ricans, Mexican-Americans (a term Americans of Mexican origins don’t particularly esteem). Cubans and other so-called Latins have had a rough time of it.
For years the Mexican has been portrayed, as the sleepy peon, the greasy haired gigolo, the comic blunderer, the mountain bandido.
Under the leadership of Ricardo Montalban — a native of Mexico who has played the cliche roles — Nosotros is pressing hard on all fronts for a clearer picture of Chicanos (another word with mixed impact) and other persons of Latin descent in show business.
By VERNON SCOTT
UPI Hollywood Writer
ONE OF THE GROUP’S best spokesmen is Henry Dar-row, the star of High Chaparral. He was born in Puerto Rico, but plays a Mexican, and changed his name from Delgado to Darrow to find work.
“If a producer or a director sees a Latin name on the cast sheet, he immediately creates an image of the cliche Mexican,” Darrow said.
“They think of him as shiftless or comic. Nosotros wants to change all that. We have a three-part program.
“First, we don’t want roles in TV or films just because we are Latins. We want to compete with everyone else. Second, we are organizing a training program and school in East Los Angeles for Spanishspeaking actors. Thirdly, we must change the image.”
Darrow is an engaging man, vital, filled with humor, able to laugh about producers who wouldn’t interview him when he was named Delgado, but now hire him under his present name.
“I would like to change my name back again. But it is too late. Everyone knows me as
Darrow now.” he said, shaking his head.
“I am the first Puerto Rican to appear in a regular series. When I go back to my homeland, they call me Mano, that means brother. In Mexico they call me Manolito.
“It is a touching thing to see the pride and affection on their faces. I am one of them.”
DARROW SPEAKS faultless English. His appearance allows him to play roles of all national origins. But a simple thing, the name of Delgado, roadblocked his career for years.
It is not enough that he has found success. He seeks it for others.
“Nosotros needs more members,” he said. “Anthony Quinn is helping set up the training school. Desi Arnaz is giving support. The blacks have shown the way, and we must follow their lead.
“I suppose there are 15 million Spanish-speaking people in the United States. I don’t know, but I am happy to include all Latins. They should be recognized for their contributions to our culture; their talents should be given an opportunity to flourish.”
No-Smoldng
Sign
On Kick the-Habit Cruise
KINGSTON, Jamaica — One hundred non-smoking citizens of this island that is a synonym for fine cigars will be at dockside Nov. 28 to greet the world’s first kick-the-habit cruise ship, S.S. Santa Paula.
The Jamaican group, expecting the 250 arriving passengers to be at a peak level in their test of will power after eight days aboard without having smoked, plan to help them make their day here one of relaxed pleasure.
The welcome committee will be composed of exsmokers and members of the Jamaica Cancer Society. They plan to show the visitors the sights and head them in the directions they want to go for golf, swimming, water sports, lunching or poking around the Kingston area.
The stop-smoking cmise aboard the Prudential-Grace lines was organized by the Institute for New Motivations and is designed to turn the desire to stop smoking into a pleasurable experience. The cruise will sail from New York Nov. 20 and will make six Caribbean ports of call before returning via Florida to New York in its 13-day itinerary.
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Page 22
EL CONQUISTADOR


ANYONE CAN?
There is a beautiful notion afloat in the minds and hearts of many people, that anyone, regardless of race, color, religion, or natural origin can secure a college education if he wants to.
“If there is a will, there is a way,” has become a popular catch-all phrase Of our affluent society. However, at educational ground zero Mexican Americans have been all but wiped out in terms of their number in population. Less than \/i of one percent go to college and fewer still finish, mostly because of elitist concepts about higher education which effectively and systematically keep them educationally suppressed and therefore socially and economically disadvantaged.
Clearly the situation has been gradually changing due to the tolerant attitude of the middle class towards underprivileged groups. As the middle class has become concious of its own insecurity, its attitude toward the underprivileged has changed.
More dependent now on complex and interrelated environmental factors, a string majority has come to believe that poverty is the result of environmental patterns rather than shiftlessness in education The needs of the middle class, its belief in the value of education, and the recent pressures for equal opportunities for minorities has led to a general acceptance of public responsibility for a system equal for all, irrespective of ability to pay, based on educational qualifications.
Daily we become more and more aware of the dramatic change that is occuring on
college campuses everywhere. Progress is evidenced by the vast influx of Mexican Americans to college all over the nation: “An increase of 70% over the last 10 years.” As the walls of prejudice gradually crumble, the Hispano is reconstructing his past to meet the challenges of present day America. The doors of progress and equal opportunity, formerly closed because of his Hispano heritage, are now being opened for his entrance by the self same people who previously barred his open participation.
Being governed by social demands, those who are not privileged to be within the area of affluency must strive constantly to reach a full measure of achievement. Realizing that, as a group, what effects one of us effects all of us to some degree. The door of opportunity, once open, must remain open for all. When all people accept the truism that each other person is truly his brother, “Anyone Can.”
by Gil Lopez
R Muza
Sfexatt Brug
FRANK O. MEZA FREE DELIVERY
801 Santa Fe
Phone 266-9887
FALL 1970
Page 23



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EL CONQUISTADOR


EL CONQUISTADOR
IN ORDER FOR EL CONQUISTADOR TO SERVE AS A MEDIUM FOR RETAINING AND PRESERVING THE BEAUTY AND VALUE OF THE RICH MEXICAN AMERICAN CULTURE, AS WELL AS A FORUM FOR CONTEMPORARY MEXICAN AMERICAN THOUGHT, WE NEED THE ACTIVE PARTICIPATION OF ITS READERS.
TOPICS CONCERNED WITH THE HISTORY, THE CULTURE, THE CURRENT HAPPENINGS OF THE HISPANO, CHICANO, MEXICAN AMERICAN MOVEMENT ARE WELCOMED. WE INVITE SHORT STORIES, ARTICLES, POETRY, ART AND PHOTOGRAPHS. TO INSURE RETURN, MANUSCRIPTS AND MATERIAL MUST BE ACCOMPANIED BY A SELF-ADDRESSED, STAMPED ENVELOPE. MAIL ALL CONTRIBUTIONS TO:
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EL CONQUISTADOR IS A NONFUNDED, SELF-SUPPORTING QUARTERLY MAGAZINE DEDICATED TO RETAINING THE BEAUTY AND VALUE OF THE HISPANO CULTURE BY ENCOURAGING THE ADVANCEMENT AND APPRECIATION OF THE HERITAGE OF THE CHICANO PEOPLE OF THE SOUTHWEST.


Our Compliments to
EL CONQUISTADOR
This magazine is programed as a quarterly magazine which will explore the history; culture and heritage of the Chicano, the Hispano and Mexican American natives of the Southwest. In so doing the objectives of this constructive publication become threefold:
a) Campaign for improving the image of the Hispanos by focusing on their contribution to American culture, particularly that of the Southwest.
bj Retain and enhance the beauty in the culture and heritage of the Hispano people.
c) Create an avenue of expression for, and of the talents, of Hispano people so that these talents may flourish.
It is a challenge to the founders of this magazine to make it a successful, self-sustaining publication. This kind of venture, without benefit of institutional loans or grants, should command the highest respect and indeed, the support of the community at large.
We at MI-T-MART would encourage the private sector to subscribe and businessmen to advertise.
We see here an excellent way to reach and hear from LA RAZA.
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Full Text

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THE YEAR OF THE HAPPENING1970

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TRAINING THE UNSKILLED MINORITIES ISN'T JUST FOR GIANTS This workbook of ideas shows what smaller companies can do, too ••• Kendall Manufacturing Co. learned that it is easier for a small company to teach the unskilled than a large manufacturer. In a small plant, says President Lowell Kendall, the unskilled trainee has the opportunity to work alongside an experienced worker . In a large plant, classroom instruction is ma. ndatory. compete within a large c orporation. Oxford finances its own training program , sending employees to s c hool at night. Each trainee is assigned to a trainer of the same ethnic group . These and 70 other case histories illus trating how business big and small is help ing to solve the crisis in our cities are in the new booklet " Solving the Crisis in Our Cities . .. Report to Business No. 2 . " Use the coupon to get your copy . The Crouse-Hinds Co. offers "off-thejob" training to employees so that they can qualify for better positions as openings occur . Oxford Chemicals feels a smaller firm like itself is in a better position to attract and train hard-core unemployables because they feel it is hard to Sponsored by BETH ISRAEL HOSPITAL Denver, Colorado There's no profit in poverty • Ad vertising contribute d f o r the public goo d <'ou,.c. ' v " r ----------------------l 1 American Business Press , Inc. I 20 5 E . 4 2 St., N e w York. N . Y . 10017 I II PLEA S E S END A COPY OF "SOLViNG THE CRISIS IN OUR CITIES REPORT I T O BU SINESS NO.2" TO: I II NA M E _ _ _____________ _ I FIRM I I I I I l CITY \ I STATE IP I

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EL CONQUISTADOR ••• 1970 1435 LAMAR LAKEWOOD, COLORADO Official Publication of AZTEC ACTION ASSOCIATION I VOLUME I, NO. I FALL 1970 I PUBLISHED QUARTERLY D ed icated to retaining the beauty and value of the Hispano Culture by encouraging the appreciation and advancement of the heritage of the Chicano people of the Southwest. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page THE YEAR OF THE HAPPENING ................ . HISPANOS IN HISTORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 SIESTA IS FADING OUT AS LATIN TRADITION . . . . . 6 I'M CONCERNED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 IS GUIDANCE COUNSELING FAILING OUR CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 THE AMERICAN CRISIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 ESCAPE TO NEW MEXICO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 CONVICT EDITOR WRITES SAGE WORDS OF ADVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 HELPING YOUR CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 UMAS UNITED MEXICAN AMERICAN STUDENT ORGANIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NOSOTROS PRESS CAMPAIGN FOR BETTER IMAGE OF LATINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 ARE YOU A BORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 JUAN (A VOICE IN AZTLAN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 SMILES REVEAL YOUR FEELINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 ANYONE CAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 TIME OF CONCERN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 AL'S THOUGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 CHICANO AT HARVARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 CHANGES IN HAIR STYLES CLIP BARBERS WHO IGNORE TRENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 TILTING AT A CASH REGISTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Gl L LOPEZ EDITOR CHUCK SANCHEZ ASSOCIATE EDITOR BARBARA LOPEZ ADVERTISING LAYOUT DESIGN THERESA SANCHEZ BUSINESS MANAGER. ADVERTISING MARVIN JOHNSON ARTIST CONTRIBUTING WRITERS JOHN CONKLIN GARY ARCHULETA BECKY MARRUJO GERALDINE LOPEZ RAY PONCE PAUL PEREZ FALL 1970 THE YEAR OF THE HAPPENING GIL LOPEZ, Editor Now its the Chicano, the Hispano , the Mexican American who is appearing on the scene of protest with a self evolution that breaks radically from the old degrad ing stereotypr of a fatalistic loafer asleep under a sombrero . The black man's break with the status quo began an important chain reaction that was certain to cause an explosion of change among the Hispanic people. No longer content with being the nice people we have become more ag gressive and forceful in asserting our rights IN THE YEAR OF THE HAPPENiNG 1970. Mexicans everywhere are feeling their oats, not only in traditional labor move ments but now also as college students by the lO,OOOnd's writers, artists, teachers, thinkers . As the walls of prejudice grad ually crumble interesting things began to happen on Capitol Hill, twelve Chicanos in top policy influencing and administra tive spots in the government. The success of the Grape boycott marks a monumental victory for our people. People in high places are beginning to realize that His pano impatience cannot be ignored in definitely, because when political solutions to grievances are made impossible, violent, solutions are inevitable. It is a sad fact that social change occurs only when mean ingful pressure is app lied . We are a dy namic and important community and it is up to society to aid not stop the remedies we are trying to bring about. Any mystic which has men ready to die for it is never without political force . There are many who would question whether these changes are justifiable or whether these g rievances are real or im aginary. Slip for a moment into the soul of a Mexican migrant worker who is crammed into the back of a farm truck like a steer; watch elderly women and children creeping on their knees down endless rows of crops choking on DDT. Become for a moment the father of seven children living in a converted chicken coop with no lights , washing facilities or toilet . For a moment be treated as an object of exploitation and watch tearfully while machinery i s treated more humanly than yourself. If humiliating disenfran chisements and existing oppressions are to be lifted , they must be lifted now. As a member of th e second largest minority group, we seek an equal sharing of the nations progress and a greater awareness of the contributions of our heritage and culture. Hispano history, art, music and other aspects of Chicano culture should make our people aware of their contribu tions to the American heritage and to world civilization . We must give our children a sense of pride in being brown. The glory of the past, and the dignit y of the present must lead the way to th e power of future. Onl y then can we genu inely share in the fruits of changes IN THE YEAR OF THE HAPPENING. Page I

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UMAS Since its inception at the University of Colorado, Boulder, in July of 1968, The United Mexican American Student Organi zation has been committed to initiating change within the educational system. It was realized that change was necessary in order to break with elitist concepts about higher education, which effectively and systematically has kept many of our Mexican American students educationally suppressed. It was also realized that in terms of the population, Mexican Ameri can students were very poorly represented in institutions of higher learning. It was also realized that the rationale used to justify the existence of a low enrollment rate of Mexican American students at the college level was they (Mexican Ameri cans) didn't apply for admission. There fore UMAS had to concern itself with the recruitment of Mexican American students in order to demonstrate that they do aspire to a college education. An agressive recruiting drive began immediately and UMAS members returned to their com munities to encourage, inform and moti vate Mexican American youth to apply to the University of Colorado in Boulder. A student referrendum, initiated and supported by UMAS was passed by the general student population at the Universi ty of Colorado, in Boulder during March, 1968. This referrendum was in the initial planning stages by UMAS during April, 1968. It proposed that an increase of five dollars in fees be imposed on students at the Boulder campus of the University of Colorado. This increase would be attached to registration fees and apply toward the establishment of a minority group scholar ship fund. The monies made available through the referrendum allowed UMAS to actualize its committment to increase the Mexican-American student population at Boulder, and create new positions which were needed to implement special programs, recruitment, and distribution of financial aid. The monies made available through the minority group referrendum enables the university to enlarge its monies available through matching funds. UMAS has always been a firm believer in initiating various conferences aimed at motivating the Mexican American student to continue their education. One of the first conferences of this type was The Mexican American Youth Adelante (MAY A) which was sponsored by UMAS on May, 1969. Its primary goal was to motivate Mexican-American high school students to further their education. An other goal was to expose and inform high school students to social, psychological, economic, housing, educational and em ployment problems of the Mexican Ameri can communities. Approximately five hun dred students and counselors attended, representing over ninety percent of the Page 2 high schools throughout the state of Colo rado. The conference enabled UMAS to recruit students for admission into the University of Colorado in Boulder. The proposal of this conference was submitted by UMAS during late November, 1968. UMAS has intelligently designed pro grams which will assure and insure its members a source of cultural identity, positive scale models and proficiency in performing and competing on the uni versity academic level. Proof of this is the UMAS Summer Program which is com posed of an eight-week accredited program where 300 students of a bilingual and bi cultural background are currently en rolled. Admission to the summer program is open to students who don't qualify for admission to the University of Colorado under existing admission standards. Thus, the eight-week program is a compensatory educational endeavor which aims to pro viding the student with the necessary skills to compete at a university level. It is a preparatory towards fall semester work. Upon successful completion of this eight week program, the student is guaranteed admission into the fall semester and finan cial aid which is committed on the basis of need is given. Today UMAS stands tall as a proud structured, analytical organization which takes great pride in making available the opportunity of a higher education for deserving Mexican American students throughout the state of Colorado. There are currently 600 Mexican American stu dents attending the University of Colo rado at Boulder. The word of the hour is that any Mexican American high school student who has the desire, based on educational qualifications, can obtain ad mission to the University of Colorado through the help of the dynamic United Mexican American Student Organization at Boulder. Becky Marrujo Director UMAS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 6th Ave. & Santa Fe Conoco COMPLETE . AUTO REPAIR SERVICE CALLS OFFICIAL STATE INSPECTION 6th AVE. & SANTA FE PHONE 255 4076 New Mexico Inn BEER WINE MIXED DRINKS DANCING Friday, Saturday and Sunday MUSIC BY Los Populas de Texas PROPRIETOR Juaquin Murrietta 2218 Larimer I ( ------------CHUBBY BURGER SPECIALIZING IN FINE MEXICAN FOOD TAKE OUT ORDERS New Owner STELLA CORDOVA 1231 W 38th Avenue 477-9821 BOB AND CAROL'S 44th Avenue Drive Thru Liquors AN INVITIATION TO SPEEDY, CONVENIENT SHOPPINGNOW PERMANENTLY LOCATED IN YOUR NEIGHBORHOOD! 2300 West 44th Ave. DENVER, COLORADO 433-0534 ------------EL CONQUISTADOR

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ESCAPE TO NEW MEXICO Exploring New Mexico is a unique ad venture that is rich and enduring in archi tectural, cultural, and historical interest. Beautiful scenery and natural wonders are everywhere. As one drives through these cobblestone streets, you will be pleased that the older structures still stand in a naturalistic sort of environment which enables them to maintain their quaint atmosphere. On the streets and in the homes you can expect to be treated with great hospi tality by friendly humble people, whose churches "Casas De Dios" are reflective of a state that is rich in early Catholic religious culture . A tour through San Miguel Mission in Sante Fe, one of the oldest churches in the United States, and the Carmelite Monastery situated on a hill overlooking beautiful valleys gives one a religious experience that is unforget table. Traveling on through these pictur esque valleys the pleasant aroma of ap ples, peaches, and fruit trees fills you with ecstasy . Stopping by Ortaga's rug weaving company where beautiful custom-made blankets and rugs are turned out quickly and at a reasonable price, one is immediately awed by their beauty, wondering whether this beautiful art may one day go into oblivion for want of in struction to the younger children. Exploring some of the Pueblo Indian ghost towns along New Mexico 117 tells us that these people lived here for quite some time and attained a high degree of civilization . This is a land that is rich in legends of Spanish Conquistadores who hid their treasures in the soft earth . Thousands of happy skiers take to New Mexico areas annually which is fastly becoming one of the nation's busiest ski areas . Cloudy days and fog are vir tually unknown. It's sunny or else it snows. Traveling back through sophisti cated suburbs sprinkled with modern shopping centers one notices that the material used for these structures is made of sun dried adobe brick which is designed to make homes cool in the summer and hot in the winter with a durability that is phenomenal . Continuing your trip through New Mexico you will probably conclude that tourism and agriculture are New Mexico' s biggest business. All in all, a vacation in New Mexico leaves you with a refreshed feeling that is good for the soul and satisfying to your aethetic senses . by Chuck Sanchez FALL 1970 SO. COLORADO BLVD. WADSWORTH BLVD. 534-7241 3360 Downing St Page 3

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CHANGES IN HAIR STYLES CLIP BARBERS WHO IGNORE TRENDS ATLANTA The American male's new fascination with his hair and its length, shape and color has shaved the in come of barbers in cities across the nation who have ignored the revolution in groom ing styles. A survey conducted by the New York Times showed that barbers who refused to cater to this explosion of male vanity have lost significant numbers of their cus tomers to the hairstyling salons that do . . _In the past year, barbers in 18 major c1t1es who continued to use traditional haircutting methods reported a drop in ranging from 25 to 50 per cent, to the survey. In addition, there were w1de-spread reports of shop failures and of barbers forced to find work in other fields. EFFEMINATE Much of the recession in the trade was attributed to longer hairstyles that al lowed men longer periods between visits to_ barber, and in some areas virtually ehmmated the weekly trim. But a major factor appeared to be the willingness of a growing number of men to adopt groom ing habits that had once been widely scorned as effeminate. From Portland, Maine, to Seattle, Wash., more and more men especially the better educated and more successful ones-were succumbing to the call of the hair stylist and his panoply of grooming aids, the survey showed. It remains to be seen whether the American male can ever again be happy with a crewcut that looks like a freshly dug Long Island potato field after having once known the embrace of a hair net the whisper of a hair dryer and the pro: vocative aroma of hair spray. "It was rough getting started," said Sam Vallett , a hair stylist in Detroit for several years. "All my competitors threw verbal bricks at me in the beginning, but now they are all joining the trend and set ting up styling booths." The survey also showed that as eco nomic competition has stiffened in the annual $1.1 billion bar bering industry, more of the economically disadvantaged are entering the trade blacks, Mexican Amer i cans and women. In Massachusetts where two of the state's six barber colleges closed during the past year, the number of male barbers also declined by 10 per cent. In one of the surviving barber colleges, in Boston, one-fourth of the graduates this spring were women . PRICES VARY Hair styling can take different forms and the costs vary radically, from $6 in South Paris , Maine, to $50 for the services of Jerry Spallini of Bergdorf Goodman's men's hair salon in New York . Generally, stylists shape a head of hair and use hair dryers, jels and sprays to preserve it. Changing styles also revolutionized the barber shop. "When people pay $8.50 to $12.50 for a hair styling, th.ey expect a pleasant atmosphere, not just a neighbor hood shop with lots of hair all over the floor," said Leo Snage, an official of the Barbers Employes Union in Detroit. "We encourage all our shops to put in wood paneling and carpeting and good lighting systems .' ' The salient feature of most styling parlors is the private cubicle sheltering a patron from the gaze of others. "A guy with a hair net on or getting his hair dyed doesn't want anybody watching him," asserted Joseph James of the Oak Door a District of Columbia styling parlor : : : THE KEG 5 • • • DANNY RONNIE • • GARCIA GONZALES • • • • • • 3.2 BEER TO GO • • • • • • OPEN 7 DAYS A WEEK • • • • 2:00-12:00 Mon . Fri . • • • 1 :00-12:00 Sat. & Sun. • • • • 38th & Shoshone 455 _ 9987 : ! •••••••••••••••••••• GEORGIE BOY'S EVERYDAY IS A ''SALE DAY'' MEAT MARKET • Canned Goods • Fruits • Meats • Vegetables CROSS COUNTER CONVENIENT SERVICE CONVENIENT PARKING COLD 3.2 BEER TO GO 1042 W. 8TH. AVE 825-3857 Page 4 BECAUSE. .. ,WE DARE TO COMPARE" OPEN 9to 9 DAILY 9to6 SATURDAY OPEN 12to 6 SUNDAYS Call for SHOP AT HOME 428-7414 You'R Find Us In The SI:RVICE 6160 NORTH FEDERAL l9 Gt:i\Ri\NTU: D EL CONQUISTADOR

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JUAN (A VOICE IN AZTLAN) By Gary Juan Archuleta The tragic truth of the events of today as they relate to "The Mexican American Movement" is that few, very few, people comprehend the concepts and values of "La Raza". How many people know that"LaR.aza" means a cultural value system based on individualism, spiritualism and humanism? A thousand years of cultural evolution by the people living in the last frontier of the Mediterranean established the Spanish system. These people were the "beautiful black" of Africa, the White of Europe, and almost forgotten were the Yellows of Asia who had settled in Spain after their con quest of the Mediterranean empires. This multi-racial society ruled the European World and in their discovery and conquest of the American World they intermarried with the red race and gave birth to a new race of "Mestizos" the Chicano people. As a result of the inter blending of the four races (white, black, yellow, red} "The Brown Power People" are the fifth racial members of the hu man race. Because "La Raza" is a people who believe and practice the values of individ ualism, spiritualism, and humanism, and because of the multi-racial heritage of"La Raza", we see racism as senseless, stupid and sinful. These truths have almost no effect on the many people who have accepted the life of white race supremacy to the ex treme point of preferring their lighter colored children over their darker colored children. Let the reader be reminded that the term "Chicano" (as defined by Hispanic educators at their 1968 World Conference in Denver, Aztlan) was explained as an elusive term that revolved around human ism, spiritualism and individualism. There are those who refer to Chicanos FALL 1970 as a defeated people, but we ask how can we be defeated when we haven't even begun to fight "in" this country. And when we did fight "for" this country, we won more medals of honor than any other cultural group. Some say that La Raza has an infeJ:iQr ity complex and others say "pride" is the most noticeable quality and to further inflame the debates, we say that many people have lost God. Some will call us "poor people", but we see only our richness of spirit, gener osity, brotherhood, culture, and com passion. The love of life and people is our greatest gift and we give our gift gener ously. Can you remember the last time you were generous enough to share with a stranger? Think about it ... and also the next time you hear "Chicano l>ower" . smile because it means "People Power". Today we see a tomorrow designed to meet all our needs. A tomorrow of dignity, enjoyment, equality, and brotherhood. No more indignities ... no more hate ... no more violence ... . Our goal is to build in "Aztlan" a "Self-supporting" condominium complex for our elderly, who because of automa tion in the fields, are now or will soon be unemployed. Our thinking is that our "old folks" are set in their ways; they can not contribute to the urban life where they are now forced to move. The reasons are many, among them cultural differences (language, value systems, life styles, etc.) Besides if age be the only factor, from observing the plight of the elderly in the urban setting age is factor enough. This complex will encompass enough land to provide for all the necessary supplies, livestock included. A medical facility will train our young people to pro vide for all the medical needs, and from this experience hopefully many young minds will enter the universities dedicated to making a contribution in the field of medicine. Only God knows for sure how great the world's need is for doctors, well we will fill this need. To further ensure that our efforts will become self-support ing we will build economic development projects along the lines of a brewery, a leather industry, a food processing plant, a plastic plant, a printing plant ... etc. And a "Chicano Cultural and Recreation Spa" where the world famous Chicano talents can perform in an atmosphere similar to Las Vegas. We wish to share our cui ture and beauty and it is an established fact that "tourism" is a major industry, therefore by sharing our culture with everyone, we will not only educate the ignorant, but more important , will provide ourselves the means for "honorable self-support". The projected number of farmworkers to become unemployed due to automation and progress is in the tens of thousands, and it is an undisputed fact that the cities cannot provide for their present homeless and jobless people. Under these circum stances, the only humane action left the "U. S." is to meet this challenge . How??? Do you hav:e an imagination??? Quetzalcoatl, the prophet of the red race; who foretold the landing of the Spainards and who also designed the sacred Indian calendar which has been computed to be only 2/10 thousandths of a second off the current calendar system of today, said that the fifth and final era of man called the "Age of Earth quakes" would begin now and last until 1980 at which time God will come. Maybe a thousand years of peace . . . are you ready??? P.S. Aztlan is everywhere Chicano sweat is soaking the soil Aztlan is everywhere Chicano guts glitter the gutters Aztlan is freedom from fear and hate and violence Aztlan is now and forever Aztlan is ... Page 5

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Siesta Is Fading Out As Latin Tradition BUENOS AIRES -(UPI)It pie, that the period from noon causes two extra traffic jams a to 3 p.m. is known as the "don day, brings schools, commerce key's hour." and industr y to a halt, and has "This Barnard fellow may be been l abeled a major cause of good at transplanting hearts , heart Illness. but he misses the goodness of a Millions of Latin Americans deep nap at hig h noon," re swear they wouldn't live with-marked a U.S. oil executive who out it, yet it is receding before caught the siesta habit in Cathe growth of large cities. racas . It is the siesta , a way of rest INDUSTRIAL ADVANCE and dining that is one of Latin However, m the two largest America ' s strongest holdouts Spamsh-American cities , Mexico against the hurried pace of tge C1ty and Buenos Aires, both industrial age. With. populations of around 7 There is much more to a simillion persons, the siesta is a esta than a Mexican sleeping thmg of the past m downtown against a cactus with a large , . . sombrero slumped over his fore-It !sn t m Braz1I,. head. and m Puerto R1co and the mEXTRA pATROLS dustrialized cities of northern . Mexico It. has faded away ap-At noon m Caracas extra po-parently because of American lice patrols take to the streets influence. to handle. the traffic jams of . The . main problem in big cars headmg for home. Cities IS that a siesta causes two In Santo Domingo, shop own-extra traffic jams a day as of ers put a lock on the door and fice workers rush to and from impatiently hurry the last cus-their homes. tomers out. "By the time I drive home Doctors in Lima hospital s through the traffic at lunch, pack their stethoscopes and and dnve through 1t after head for home through the rush the s1esta, I m more tired than of honking drivers. If I had stayed at the office," I M d A t . remarked one exasperated Pen en oza, rgen ma, . ff. k . k h t th . h t b k ruv1an o 1ce worker. ws s s u e1r s u ters, an s close, and, once the rush is over , the streets are deserted for most of the afternoon. As popular as it remains the three-course noon-time meal at home, capped by wine and a good snooze, i s under attack from modern forces ranging from traffic planners to young executives who learned at the Harvard business school how life should be lived and how things should he done. BARNARD'S ASSAULT The KEG 3.2 Beer to Go 38th and SHOSHONE DENVER, COLORADO Even Dr. Christiaan Barnard 1-----------has joined the assault on one of the last bastions of resistance to the hurry-up way of life. "A nap helps in killing the human body, " Barnard warned in Ca! acas on a recent visit there. The heart transp l ant pioneer said that s l eeping after a big meal overburdens the digestive syst e m , reduces oxygen in the blood, clots the intestines and was the biggest cause of heart disease in Venezuela. If Barnard worried the Vene zue lans, his words had little ef fect, so many people hit the sack in the afternoon in Ca racas, a city of 2 mi!Eon peo-Page 6 Smokers• Gums 10 Years Older. Study Shows Many smokers "have gums whose general condition is lL years r lder than they should be," according to . Harold A. Solomon, DDS, recently retired chief of dental services at the Roswell Park Institute, Buffalo, N.Y. ' AUTOMOTIVE EXHAUST EMISSIONS TESTING COMPLETE AUTOMOTIVE TESTING FACILITIES • BECKMAN INFRA-RED ANALYZERS • WET CHEMISTRY LA BORA TORY AMERICAN AUTOMOTIVE TESTING LABORATORY 19900 E. COLFAX AVENUE AURORA, COLORADO 80010 SALUDOS AMIGOS CHAPEL OF ROSES 420 E . A lameda MEMORIAL CHAPEL 300 So. Logan DENVER, COLORADO 80209 RAMON J. TREVINO 744-6113 744 -6114 EL CONQUISTADOR

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B _ehind The Lines By Aian Ctmnmgham TILTIN.G AT A CASH REGISTER It's n ot unfair, or inaccurate, to say Ray Ponce has an impossible dream . But one who says this must take into account that other men have had impos sible dreams, and some of them have come true; Ray's dream is to parlay a medium size grocery store in East Denver -that and a penchant for honesty which has sometimes riled certain members of the retail trade into' a citywide, maybe national, chain of minority-owned fran chise grocery outlets and shopping centers. His chief accomplishment to date, Ponce concedes, has been keeping his head above water in a less-than-thriving little shopping center \pcated in the 2200 block of Oneida Street. This is, perhaps . more impressive than it sounds. The previous owner abandoned a prosperous half-black and half-white trade when he learned militants were plan ning to burn him out. Ray risked losing in fact , did losemany of the whites and mo ' st of the af fluent blacks, people who had long since escaped the ghetto and lived in big houses on Monaco Parkway when he b egan to stock chitterlings and quit selling grapes . But he saw more and more of the minority people who live in two-bedroom houses and sometimes work and some times don't especially when it dawned on them that this guy who looked Anglo, didn't talk with an accent, had a blonde wife and a name that people took to be French; this guy was actually Chicano, and proud of it. When threats flew across the cash regis ter, Ponce got the ear of an influential militant, telling him: "If you're going to burn me out, get it over with. But I have a dream and I deserve a chance." The threats stopped. Latin Cafe LATiN CAFE MEXICAN FOOD PERUVIAN FOOD . Angela Zegarra 2644 W . 32nd Ave . FALL 1970 Across a bowl of green chili Ray Ponce loves nothing better than to plop you in the back seat of his Thunder bird, motor across I-70 to his favorite Mexican restaurant and then talk your ear off across a howl of green chili. But he'll gladly pick up the thread, weeks later, after he's locked up the store on a Friday night and is sitting on a checkout counter, puffing a cigarette . He'll tell you about his boyhood in El Paso, after Pancho Villa drove his dad, a college professor, out of Ciudad Chihua hua; how his old man got three business ventures going, all at once ; and how Ray himself learned to hustle by selling candy to the Gis who got off troop trains there. He describes his frustrating 13 years m the Air Force, when prejudice within the officer ranks and maybe a bit of his own stubbornness fouled several pro motions ; and about how he tried to be come an air traffic controller, but learned he didn't have what it took for that de manding job. Later, Ray brashly bluffed his way into an executive job after being told no open ings existed with a now-defunct discount firm. His secret: He offered to work cheap. Ray went on to other retail jobs . Once, he lasted six weeks with a major food chain, then got fired after he refused to accept $10 worth of coupons from a woman who was "buying" $2 worth of merchandise. Later, as field director for the Rocky Mountain Food Dealers Association, he helped end the practice of redeeming cou pons by the wheelbarrowful. Now, he has his store, called Mi-T-Mart. The "Mi" stands for "Minority." That's why one of Mr. Mi-T-Mart's shoes is white, the other black. And Ray has a dream. He takes out a marking pencil and draws diagrams on the checkout counter, explaining his Plan One, Plan Two, Plan Three: There'll be minority-owned small stores, he explains , that's Plan One. And 455-9757 medium-sized ones, with each section dairy products, meat, deli leased to a different enterpreneur. That's the second plan. Bazaars, like he saw in Morocco Plan Three will be a series of shopping centers. No, not shopping centers . Bazaars, like Ray saw in Morocco. Or at least mini bazaars. The big supermarket will sell its food at cost, but Mi-T-Mart International will make its money from renting out small satellite shops around the big store. At the top of the diagram, there's Mi T-Mart Central, providing administrative services and training the people who'll manage these stores. Central, says Ray, also would have its own credit cards not to squeeze that extra 18 per cent of poor consumers but to give them credit they have no choice and to keep that mterest money within the community for stock in Mi-T-Ma;t Central would be long to the little people. Likewise, they'd have their own money order business, hanging on to the hundreds of thousands of dollars which now flow out of minority neighborhoods each month as people who can't maintain bank ac counts buy money orders for their house payments, car payments, furniture pay ments and so on. Ray's dream is to keep the community's meager resources at home. And that in cludes the young men and women who deserve to have a role in the giant food business, but see as shut out from it. As are many wives, Karen Ponce is the realist in the family. Like Sancho Panza in dress, she gently chides Ray for tiltmg at of prejudice, lost opporturuty and uonclad dominance by a few huge grocery chains -but she works hard all the while to keep the tangi ble assets of Mi-T-Mart intact. One can only hope this dreamer will not led abandon his dream . He may be a httle hke Don Quixote, but he has a measure of integrity which demands re spect. . And the windmills, without any ques tion, are really there. Reprinted from the Rocky Mountain News BEST WISHES from MASTER CRAFT 4881 IRONTON 343-8880 Page 7

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TIME OF CONCERN I am a teacher at Fairview Elementary School which is located on Denver's west side. The children attending this school feed into Lake and Baker Junior high schools and then on to Denver West High School. This article is being written for both parents and teachers in the sincere hope that members of the west are a com munities may join with the west area teachers in a united effort for bettering the educations of our children . his mind, ask questions and to otter con structive criticism whenever that parent feels so compelled. In turn the parent should be willing to accept the same kind of constructive criticism from the teacher. The parent and the teacher should make a sincere effort to work as a team for the benefit of that particular child . In many homes it is nearly impossible for a child to study. If at all possible, pro vide a place for the child to study . There are various study halls in many of the schools and parents should fmd out about these places to study if it is impossible to study at home. Parents and teachers alike should make every effort to pay attention to their children and praise them whenever It is a well-known fact that the chil dren from this area are receiving a sub standard education when compared to the more affluent neighborhoods of the metro Denver area. When these children arrive at Denver West, many of them are unable to read the required material for their partic ular level. Many are unable to cope with the Academic problems which are pre sented to them as a result of these aca demic handicaps, these children become extremely frustrated, find themselves get ting into some kind of trouble to com pensate for their handicap and finally find themselves, labled as either "drop out" or "push out". As an elementary school teacher , I have seen this frustration in children by the time they reach the third or fourth grade and in many instances much earlier. possible. Parents , if you have never met your I believe that it is essential for the members of each west area community to become totally involved and totally famil iar with their child ' s school , teacher and the education the child is receiving at school. In the past , due to various reasons, it has been very difficult to get the p a rents to the schools and it has been equally as difficult to get the teachers , all the teach ers, to go to the community. It should be the responsibility to each teacher to know as many of his children's parents as is possible. The parent in turn should be made to feel as uninhibited and unafraid to speak child ' s teacher, please make a sincere ef fort to do so and hopefully teachers will make the same effort to meet this child's p a rents. I sincerely believe that if we begin this approach , open the communica tion lines, and begin thinking about the lives of these children, we can make great adva nces for children of the west area. b y J o hn Co nklin --------------STRIKE & SPARE SHOP King Louie Apparel Hilton Apparel 2057 CHAMPA STREET 255-8111 ----------DEE GEE KWIK-STOP FOOD MARTS Page 8 7930 FEDERAL BLVD. 429-9079 10390 RALSTON RD. 424-9783 6785 WADSWORTH BLVD. 424-9804 333 SOUTH SHERIDAN 922-1977 DENVER, COLORADO PMO T O BY JA Y M A ISEl "lm sorry-but it's , none my business. You've seen it happen. Our anguished cities teeter on collapse, and the suburbs turn their backs. A man falls down in the street, and no one stops to help . It seems that everywhere relationships have broken down . Starting with our broken relationship with God . And ending in our growing disregard for the other fellow. It' s true that maybe you, personally, can't change the woole world. But it's remarkable what one person can do, when he up his mind. Why not start today, in your church or synagogue? A visit in the place where the rule of the house i s "Love thy neighbor as thyself" is always a great place to start great endeavors. How can you help? Write for free booklet, The Turning Point. Religion ••••. • • ZN' fiJ. In American Life, 184 Fifth . , . ... Ave .,NewYork,N. Y.lOOlO. •u•<' . . .... . . • Advertising contributed for the public good by Cummins Power Inc. 5100 East 58th Avenue • Commerce City, Colo . 80022 EL CONQUISTADOR

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Helping Your Children Vangie Sena Many comments have been made about our Hispano children and their short-comings when they enter school. They are often described as shy, quiet, inhibited, slow and sometimes uncooperative. They are often said to Jag behind when placed in a classroom with other children. This may sometimes appear to be the case; however, a better description should include the fact that these children are often insecure and unsure of themselves in the new and strange environment of classroom. The current programs are great strides in this area. Many of the activities included in Headstart Programs give these children varied experiences and a better chance to compete with other children. Along with the experiences provided by Headstart there are many things that we can do as mothers to help prepare our children for school. Most of the activities can be carried out with simple materials found in the home with the most precious commodity involved being time. The school environment with all of its activities, instruction, new rules, different types. of equipment, and unfamiliar faces is enough to make many children who are naturally shy, seem completely introverted. If the child is able to feel comfortable with some of the equipment and materials, his ability to adjust and to succeed is greatly im?roved. The child who has never pia yed with clay is liable to spend all of his time feeling, squeezing, rolling, kneading, and experimenting with the texture only to find that the entire time for art class has lapsed. Many of the other children may have a figure to show for their efforts while h e shyly hides his lump of clay. The end results should not be important but this child begins to feel the pangs of fa i 1 u r e since he didn't have a finished product. Scissors can also be very hard to handle for the child who has not had previous experience with them. The teacher may ask the class to cut out a design, and by the time he gets the feel of the scissors and figures out how to handle them his classmates have finished and moved on to something else. When this same type of performance can be applied to many activities in school, it soon appears that this child is slow since his classmates move on and he never quite seems to catch up. The child begins to feel bad about himself and it takes only a few remarks from his classmates or teacher to turn this shy, willing child into an uncooperative one who refuses to try because he senses that he always falls short. Many acti_vities which parents can use to enrich children's experiences do not require the use of any materials. A walk around the block presents opportunities for a child to notice many things. A parent accompanying a child on such a walk can help the child to discover the meaning of words used for description and comparison. He can learn the differences in sizeS and shapes. The child can observe changes that take place in the world around him such as the budding of leaves in the spring, the blooming of flowers in summer and the leaves changing color in the fall. Children should be encouraged to notice many things and to use words to describe what they see. In urban areas it is usually not too far to a public library where Mother can get a library card free and expose her chilReprinted From Alma Mia by very simple. A pair of small round-ended scissors can be bought at a dime store for a small amount. This will save Mother's good sewing scissors and furnish a child many hours of practice. Any old catalop.; or magazine can provide hours of cut-up fun. A most enjoyable activity is the making of play dough from ordinary flour. When stored in plastic containers it keeps for several days and allows the child many hours of squeezing, rolling, kneading and shaping until he develops confidence in his ability to form shapes and figures. There is also a play clay made from corn starch which can be painted with water colors and covered with clear nail polish to give it a ceramic-like finish. This is great for making flowers, animals, and jewelry such as ear-rings. A child may experiment with mosaic designs using colored macaroni, rice, beans or sm.1ll pebbles. These can be glued to heavy cardboard. These are only a few exam:;>les of activities which mothers can use to provide their children with more experiences. If our children are to feel confident when they enter school, we must provide them with many opportunities to handle scissors, pencils, crayons, clay, paste, and (when possible) paints such as water colors. The enrichment of our children's background becomes most important in preparing and providing them with the readiness they all need in order to succeed in school. Taking time to make a child aware of the things around him and providing some of the simple materials for him to experiment may seem like an added task for the already busy mother, but the benefits to be derived will overcompensate for the effort spent when our children can be confident in their abilities to succeed in school. PLAY DOUGH 1/8 cup salt 2-1 ;2 cups flour 1 cup water 4 teaspoons of salad oil Food coloring Combine all ingredients except food coloring. Divide dough into several balls and mix different colors of food coloring into each one. As the children knead the dough the color will mix. CORN STARCH PLAY CLAY 1 cup corn starch 2 cups baking soda Mix the two ingredients above in a saucepan until thoroughly blended; Mix in 1-1/4 cups cold water and add a few drops of food coloring for tinted clay. Cook over medium heat for about 4 minutes, stirring constantly until mixture thickens to look like moist mashed potatoes. Cover with damp cloth to cool. Knead as you would dough. Shape figures and allow to dry overnight. Then paint with water colors or tempera and coat with shellac or clear nail polish. dren to many cfiildren's books which help to develop an inter------.,....------...... ---------------est and awareness for books and reading. Every pre-school child has many opportunities to count and to use numbers. They like to count the number of people in their family, and they can be encouraged to help count the number of plates, spoons, forks, and knives needed to set the table. Other activities require some materials, but these can be FALL 1970 GREETINGS AMCO ELECTRIC COMPANY e INDUSTRIAL e COMMERCIAL e RESIDENTIAL e RADIQ.CONTROLLED SERVICE TRUCKS 4433 WASHINGTON 266-0585 Page 9

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Talented, Pretty Cherokee Named SHE'S MISS INDIAN AMERICA FOR 1970 Virginia Stroud , 19 of Bacone, Oklahoma, a Cherokee, was selected from more than 100 girls during All-American Indian Days at Sheridan, Wyoming . SHERIDAN, Wyo. (AP) -A Western Cherokee maiden, active in campus politics, was named Miss Indian America Sunday ni ght as part of Sheridan's 17th annua l All-American Indian Days celebration. Virginia Alice Stroud, 19, of Bacone , Okl a . , her eyes beaming, was crowned by her predeces sor, Matjorie Haury of Albany, N.Y. For Miss Stroud, beauty, talent and heritage pageants aren't new. She is Miss Cherokee 1970 and was third runnerup in a pageant sponsored by the AmeriPage 10 can Congress of Indians. At Bacone Junior College in her home town, she is student body president and a sorority vice president. She is also an organist and a choir so list. Her Alternate is Deborah Ann Jackson, a Wasco Yakima , also 19 First runnerup was Lucinda Yellowman, a Navajo of Waterflow, N.M. Carro l Sanchez , a Shoshone from Re no, Nev., was named second runnerup, followed by Wilma Joyce Bear Shield, a Rosebud Sioux from Saint Char l es, S .C. Miss Indian 2311-10th STREET 433-4492 DENVER, COLO. 80211 DISCOUNT SHOE STORE SHOES 2 FOR $5.00 867 FEDERAL BLVD. 534 7911 EL CONQUISTADOR

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CHICANO AT HARVARD The most "reputable" and oldest in stitution of higher learning in the U.S. has begun a summer program geared towards increasing the pool of minority applicants into the health profession, especially in the medical and dental fields . The pro gram is called the Health Careers Summer Program (HCSP), and it was initi a ted under the auspices of the Harvard Medical and Dental Schools. The HCSP began in 1969 and had a group of SO students, mostly from the Eastern U.S. This year the pro gram has increased that enrollment to I 00 students -about 80 Blacks, 12 Chicanos, 4 Puerto Ricans, 2 Indians, I Eskimo , and (which was still less than what students assumed they would receive when they filled out applications) or so me of us would get less money and some of us would get more, based on our needs . Fact number one: we all need the money due to the large cost for an educa tion at any university and due to the rising cost of living. Fact number two: Harvard doesn't want to give HCSP students the money that was originally stated when the stu dents filled out applications. Fact number three: The HCSP pro gram i s run by Harvard Medical and Den tal Schools in cooperation with other I White applicant. hospitals in the Boston area, but all the As a Chicano in the HCSP , when I first money for the program was given from arrived in Cambridge, Massachusetts and foundations in the form of grants. Harvard attended the first general meeting, my has mer e ly supplied the university; it immediate thoughts were "Why are there hasn't put a penny into the program. so many Blacks in the program?" When Fact number four: Harvard is r eaping the coordinator introduced himself, I all the benefits . The money is spent within thought I knew the answer. He was a the H a rvard structure the dorms we Negro and as coordinator I assumed that stay in , the food we eat, the professors he had originatedand written the proposal and courses, the books we buy from a co for the HCSP. It seemed appropriate that op store which are written by the profes there should be a greater percentage of so rs teaching the courses (they get the Negroes, since that was his main concern . royalties on their own books), and the I also felt that as a Chicano , I and the tutorsthatarepaid$!SOOforlessthan IS other Chicanos were there merely as hours per week of work. Most of all of tokens in a minority program. these tutors are g raduate students doing One of the conditions for coming to reserach at Harvard. Any of the research Harvard was that all students would re-or papers done by the students may be ceive a stipend for the summer earnings used for the tutors benefit. Harvard is get he would have ordinarily made. The ting the money back , a nd at the same time amount was nowhere near what a student it is able to say that it is doing the Blacks could have made had he been emp lo yed and the . Browns a big favor by letting them during the summer, but at least it was attend their university. It would seem that something. During the middle of the prominority students are being used by Har gram HCSP students were informed that vard University. there was only a certain amount of money Fact number five: The stipend that left and that they could decide how to would be given to the HCSP students distribute it among themselves . Either would be the only part of the money that they could all get "X" number of dollars is not circulating back into the Harvard CURTIS PARK CREAMERY • CANNED GOODS • FRUITS • VEGETABLES • MEATS COLD 3.2 BEER TO GO Open 7 Days a Week 7 :00A.M. to 9 :00 P .M . 908 30th Street 825-2018 MARTINEZ MEXICAN CAFE Excellent Mexican Food in Pueblo, Colorado 301 WEST 3RD 542 9695 FALL 1970 structure. Students would use that money outside the university , probably back in their own schools. At about the same time that students in HCSP were informed about this deficit in the budget they organized and set out to investigate the matter. Since members of the adhoc committee that set up HCSP were conveniently not around when ap proached by the students, it was decided that a list of demands would be presented at a formal luncheon held by the overseers of the university. Needless to say, on that day the administrators at the luncheon were a bit frightened when a group of angry students walked in and disturbed them. As can be expected with any bu reaucratic structure, these men tried to pass the buck and I was amused by their "Oh, we didn't know." Yes, they didn't even know that Harvard was running a program for minority students. The fact remains that about three days later HCSP students were told that they would be getting all their money. Whoever is running the HCSP is un known and beyond reach . Somewhere within the power structure someone is using minority students for Harvard's own prestige, but another fact also rema ins , the minority students are also using Harvard. They are using it's so called prestige and "good" name and the eye opening awe that can be seen in people ' s faces "What, you went to Harvard!" But more than this, Harvard had better beware as to what might happen if they start letting minority students into their elite institution. These minority people might get a foothold. They just might educate themselves or get into positions where they will be able to let more minority students into the uni versity . When this happens, brother watch out, because then I will ask, Har vard, where is your eliteness and exclusiveness now? Where is your systematic oppression of poor peoples? As a student at Harvard, I have found it to be just another elitist and racist in stitution -a bit bigger and richer, none the-less, it is unresponsive to the needs of Brown and Black students throughout the United States. ' ' t Las Palmas Cafe t t t • THE FINEST IN MEXICAN FOOD. t t f OPEN f 10: 00 A.M. to 5 :00P.M. Mon.-Thurs . 10:00 A.M. to 10 : 00 P.M. Fri & Sat. f 960 Santa Fe f t 534-9412 t ..... Page 11

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Knowing when to stop talking is often more important than having something worthwhile to say and the good judgement when to say it. 'IOU A BORE 1 Almost everyone is boring part of the time, yet few people really know when they are boring, what causes boredom among friends or how we can minimize our tendency to be dull. Here's a quiz to help you rate yourself, plus tips sm how to improve. 1. Are You bored? Bored people. are often boring. If you're bored, why not try to. get to the bottom of the problem and do something about it? Perhaps you're bored because you haven't tried your hand at anything new for too long. Nobody enjoys having a drudge around. Think back to the last time you tackled a new hobby, read a goo. d book or went on a journey. A short trip-eve' n an over night jaunt-can help open your eyes to the il\teresting things around you, give you something new to talk about when you return home. 2 Do you find yourself "talking at" people more often. than with them? Few of us ar e such great orators that we can hold an audience spellbound for long. True, everyone likes to talk about himself, but if your conversation is mainly about "Me, Myself and 1,., don't be too surprised if you start to detect tell-tale signs of boredom in your listener. How can you avoid these conversation• al calamities? Remember that the lisle er's time is just as important as your own, whether he has a lot of it, or only a little. Getting your listener involv_ed is an ex cellent way to hold his attention. For example, you might start off a conversa tion by asking his opinion of something-Reprinted from the Ohio Engineer Page 12 Perhaps the mos t important secret in avoiding becoming a bore is to cultivate interests and seek out new experiences which others wi 11 want to hear about. ? • a movie he may have seen recently, or a book he's read. But avoid using this trick as a platform from which to launc h into your own diatribe on "what the whole thing is all about". By showing a genuine interest in what your friend has t o sayeven when he talks about himself-you can involve him in the conversation. 3. Do you seem to have a knack for turning conversations into arguments? If you're the agressive self-asserting type, you may have to hold back a bit. Respec t the other fellow's opinions, even if you don't happen to agree with them. After he's stated his case, you can politely offer your own views. 4. Do you jump at the chance to "move in on" people? While your friends or relatives may seem eager to have you sleep in their house, do your laundry and feed you when you visit them on vacation -the odds are you'll be more welcome if you stay in a nearby hotel or motel cutting down your "exposure time" on long visits will spare them and your frazzled nerves. 5. Do you tend to overstay your wei come? Your hosts may appreciate the fact that you're enjoying yourself. But when heads start to nod, it's high time to say, "So long and thanks!" 6. Do you have a line a mile long? Some people have a tendency to stretch their "story" a little in an attempt to to make themselves seem and feel more important. Others lay the flattery on thick, thinking it will make people like them better. But if your friends finally catch on, you may end up as the guy or gal who isn't invited a second time . Be yourself; your friends should accept you for what you are--that is, of course, unless you score high as a bore! 7. Are you able to keep the friends you make? It's natural that close friends should enjoy seeing each other often, but it's also a good policy to strive for a happy medium. Don't neglect friends, but keep in mind the old saying, "familiarity breeds . contempt." By following these simple tips, you can help minimize your tendency to be dull-and raise your popularity quotient at the same time. Lll NEW PDBLANA CAFE 4054 TEJON ST. MEXICAN FOOD OUR SPECIALTY ORDERS TO GO CALL 477-9919 The Liquors ;:J:.' diiVE ,, ' & GRAPE Restaurant and Lucano Lounce Located in the Holiday Inn Motor Hotel Adjacent to Stapleton Airport, 3535 Quebec Street, Denver Excellent Cuisine t 'r\ Served in an Atmosphere of Luxur:x and Old World Hospitality Entertainment and Dancing Monday Thru Saturday Nights :1 Luncheon Buffet Served Monday Through Friday Meeting and Banquet Facil:ties Available for up to 300 People 399

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IS GUIDANCE FAILING OUR COUNSELING CHILDREN Mr. Rogers , the school counselor, really knows what's best for me. It is a sad fact that this assumption that a counselor knows best each year sends thousands of ea ger enthusiastic students down the wrong road of destiny. Unlike doctors, counselors cannot bury their mistakes, the mistakes live on sometimes in really miserable lives. Guidance counseling in its present volume is relatively new. In the past twenty years, climbing college enrollments and new vo cations created by advancing technology have sparked a big demand for profes sional educators, well versed in college a dmissions and career possibilit ies and since its only human to look for help at the time of important decisions, great con fidence h as been invested in these coun selors by parents, students and colleges. The "flawes" in counseling are leading more and more people to wonder whether their children are getting good advice. Says Dr. Fredrick Gannon, former coun selor and consultant with Educational Testing Service, which administers the College Board Exams, "I have to say that as many as 75 % of counselors don ' t do any real harm or too much good either; of the rest about half do great harm by sending students into the wrong college or career." He estimates one in every ten high school students is a victim of poor coun seling. There 's too large a number who plac e unnecessary handicaps on thousands of students by giving them wrong advice. An example Which is still vivid in my mind is one which I experienced per sonally. My high school counselor was so interested on sending two of his prize students into the Air Force Academy at the expense of the rest of us. H owever, all the blame cannot be placed o n the quality of the counselor. There are severa l reasons for this deficiency, one being that high school counselors are simply overwhelmed by the students they must advise. Even at a ratio of one to every two hundred students to one counselor the harassed advisor can spend only a few hours a year with each student. High school principals don ' t recognize them as busy professionals an d call on them for all sorts of other work. A strong recommendation is first of all to press school boards for improvements in this vital area . The old adage "know yourself' can also be of extreme importance. Know ing your capabilities, aptitudes and your projected potential can be of great help. A young man or woman will. have many chances to make his own mistakes. He doesn't need anyone to make them for him . by Geraldine Lop ez ' / ',I/ E I -,/(';....___.....,, RESTAURANT ... Real AUTHENTIC MEXICAN FOOD TAKE OUT ORDERS OPEN DAILY EXCEPT CHRISTMAS OPEN DAILY AT 11 :00 A.M. TUES.-THURS. TILL MIDNITE FRI. & SAT. TILL 2 A.M. • SUN. & MON . TILL 10:30 P.M. PLENTY OF PARKING 542-4144 1435 E. EVANS AVE. ALSO EL NOPAL, COLORADO SPRINGS FALL 1970 OPEN 24 HRS. • BREAKFAST • LUNCH • SPECIAL DINNERS STEAKS CHICKEN TAKE OUT ORDERS 7785 W. COLFAX AVE. 237-8824 2601 W. ALAMEDA AVE. 935-4962 WILSON AUTOCRAFTE PAINT & BODY SHOP FOREIGN AND AMERICAN CARS Bus. 934-3631 Res. 674-3514 MERLE WILSON , OWNER 3005 WEST DAKOTA DENVER, COLORADO 80219 MANZANAREZ'S CASITA Authentic Mexican Food SOlO SOUTH FEDERAL 794-9716 ENGLEWOOD, COLO . Page 13

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The symbol at right represents, in part, the chicano's ancestory. The second ring from the out side of the symbol represents the Aztec calendar.ln the center, you find three faces. The profile faces are that of a Spaniard and an Indian. When the Spaniards came over to what is now known as Mex ico, intermarriage resulted, thus creating the face looking at you -the face of a chicano. I AM CONCERNED! I am concerned about myself. I am concerned about my family. I am concerned about our people. I am concerned about the youth rebellion of today. I am concerned about the racial prejudice that exists today. I am concerned about poverty . I am concerned about our society as a whole. We are all concerned about these things. How many times have you heard people say they are concerned. I think it is time to cool our rhetoric and start some action. Our future lies before us, but perhaps we will have no future if we don't do some thing now, together as a united people. Chuck Sanchez LITTLE BROWN CHILDREN Children of a Light Brown Color, Dart in and out of the weather worn , House they call home, Constructed of wood and stone, On the sagging front porch, The paint is cracked and peeling, Children of a Light Brown Color, Laughing? Around this house, Bent old trees hold firmly to the ground. Green and fat, They reach desperately, To claim the last rays of sun their own, Children of a Light Brown Color, Sad. And off to the east and south, Dark violent clouds gather, Trying without success, To keep from shedding tears around, Children of a Light Brown Color, Sleep! Page 14 BLACK LACE See the clouds suspended in space, Elderly widow dressed in blacklace, Years of sorrow carved upon her face, She truly understands the meaning of tragedy " As for you and I, my friend, We do not yet fully understand, And if love should lift it's face, We might some day take her place. Thus in this forbidden time, Everyone, Will have to dress in blacklace, Sometime! CHILDREN Come Through the maybe of moments That whiten the warmth Leave forever The sorrow The wailing weeping woe Remember Children chasing children See . Be. Forever. Si! The problem . Que? It's your fault .. Who? I mean ... Que? Brown Power! Testing, testing , testing Uno, Dos, Ires ... Juan J . Martinez MIND, HEART & SOUL The story goes The Mind is where it's at, The Soul knows How the story goes. Feel the heartbeat In your own feet, The Soul knows A fire glows Mind & Heart together Man & Life forever Moon & Sun One in One SON Some snach snapped A short stop starting. Swish the swing is sinking The submerged sounds of sorrow. Sighting sighs are smiling Smoothly smothered saying Softness sailing soul. So sparked the smoke And started the sun shattering The shouting senuous sky My Son shine. -----------GOMEZ TV Color Television Stereo -Phonograph AM-FM Stereo New and Used Furniture 4059 Tejon Street 10:00 a.m. to 8:00 p .m. TOM GOMEZ . 433 EL CONQUISTADOR

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, Al's Thought Reprinted From Alma Mia Why? FALL 1970 Page 15

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THE AMERICAN CRISIS by John Conklin The United States ot America today faces a critical problem, the solving of which is absolutely essential if this country is to thrive and sustain itself. All across the country thousands upon thousands of Mexican, Black, Indian, and White Americans are faced with poverty, racial discrimination and unequal opportunity for education and jobs. This country has been caught up in a mania for materialistic wealth. This idea can be witnessed in every segment of life in America. People have to have and are strongly competing for new cars , new color T.V. sets, the finest homes, the best clothes, the best of everything , and it doesn't matter what one's ethnic back ground is, these materialistic goals are essentially the same for everyone. The means by which these goals are attained, however, are unequally distributed. Be cause of discrimination, lack of education, and lack of money , certain segments of the population are forced to attain these rna terialistic goals through illegal means . The result is an unusually high percentage of are forced to attain these materialistic goals through illegal means. The end re sult is an unusually high percentage of minority peoples in this nation's prisons and correctional institutions. The White majority can see this end, but does not understand the reasons for it. The situation tends only to reinforce at titudes toward the minorities which re sults in a continuing cycle of discrimina tion, racism, and poverty. The solutions to the problems there fore lie within the White majority . At titude change, equal opportunity for edu cation, housing and jobs and a change in materialistic goals of this country are necessary to attain an end to our prob lems. It is necessary for all people to understand the problems, why they exist and to work for their solution. bethune &moore CONTEMPC)RARY FURNISHINGS ************** INTERIOR DESIGNERS •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 66 SOUTH LOGAN • 80209 DENVER, COLO.• 777-3051 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• OLD RAILROAD STATION ASPEN COLORADO • BOX 176 DRIVE CAREFULLY HAVANA HAVEN Mrs. Frances Rahning , R.N. TODDLERS Pre-School 8 :30A. M. to 10:30 A . M . Kindergarten 2:30 P.M. to 3:30 P.M. FULL 9 MONTHS 4 PLAY GROUNDS NURSE IN ATTENDANCE DOCTOR ON CALL SUPERVISED PLAY AT ALL TIMES 946 HAVANA STREET Call 366-1174 MILE HIGH KENNEL CLUB 6200 DAHLIA STREET-COMMERCE CITY, COLORADO 80022 TELEPHONE 288-1591 FALL 1970 Page 17

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WORD FROM EXPERT Smiles Reveal Your Feelings LONDON (UPI)-The way a I when family members greet person smiles reveals much one another. Only the upper about his emotions, a British t th d d th . . ee are uncovere an e psychiatnc researcher says. Dr E G t f B . mouth is generally just slightly . wan ran o Irmingham University ' s departopen. ment of psychiatry has for the The simple smile, what Grant past seven years been studying calls "a nonsocial smile, which how humans communicate withoccurs when a person is happy out words. by himself." The lips curve He has listed more than 100 back and up but remam "face to face" signals like a together so there is no display twitch of the eyebrows, a frown of teeth . or the lowering of the eyelids. The lip-in smile, a coy ver But it is the smile, he believes sion of the upper smile, has the that probably tells most. lower lip drawn in between the ''While it is easy enough to teeth. "It implie s that the lie with words, it is extremely smiler feels in some way subor difficult to disguise true emodinate to the person he or she tions coming through in nonver-is meeting," Grant said. hal s ignals such as smiles," he The broad s mile "is the one said. you really want to se c," Grant 'T h e way we use these signals said. " This occurs in situations can give extremely valuable in-of pleasurable excitement." The formation about the way we are mouth is open, the lips curled thinking . The mouth is freback and both upper and lower quently used to express emoteeth can be seen. tions and it is very difficult to The oblong smile is one to be disguise, them." . ware of, Grant says . "It occurs Grant s research IS expecte? when the smiler pretends he or to ?elp d?ctors see how she is enjoying something when atnc . patients certam they're really not. Like when a questi_ons about their girl gets too much attention only m what _they say, whicn from an amorous drunk or is cou _ld be but through being chased around the office theJr 110!1-verbal signals. by her boss." "It will also be us eful to hus bands and boy friends," he said. "To find out if she r:ally NeCJrOes at cu means It when she says yes, darling, that would be lovely ,' T B • p don ' t listen to her-watch her ' 0 eCJift aper lips . That is where the truth BOULDER-The first issue of will lie." Black Unity , a biweekly news Grant has listed five basic paper to be published by Negro types of smiles. students at the University of The upper _ smile, ?r "_how do Colorado, will be printed Fri do': smile, which . IS seen day . bnefly m formal meetmgs andl Ishmael Fails, the newspa BUY U.S. SAVINGS BONDS per's business manager, said the publication is the first of itS kind in the United States. Fails explained the newspaper -------------1 will be aimed primarily at CU Negro students, but that the publication will be distributed throughout Colorado. DENVER WOOD PRODUCTS CO. Page 18 Edward Johnson is the editor. INDUSTRIES AUTO GLASS-WINDOW REPLACEMENTS RESIDENTIAL 8c COMMERCIAL DENVER: ARVADA: AURORA: LITTLETON: COL. SPRINGS: PUEBLO: 590 Quivas St. 534-6241 2085 s. Albion 757-7829 9602 Ra I ston 424-0944 1430 Lansing 364-9509 181 W. Littleton 794-7517 3120 N. EL Paso 632-8829 21 0 N. Greenwood 545-5277 ESTELLA'S KITCHEN SPECIALIZING IN AMERICAN AND MEXICAN FOOD SERVING BREAKFAST LUNCH & DINNER ASK FOR ESTELLA 7:00 A.M. to 7:00 P.M. Monday thru Thursday 7:00 A.M. to 3:00 A.M. Friday-Saturday 2105 S. Jason 934-9718 EL CONQUISTADOR

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,, What if you happened, -just suppose'you happened,to meet God one day, lmean, on . your way to work or maybe thro4gb a. in the early morning when the dew evap---orates into mist, and clouds everything but your thoughts. Well, if He's really real, l mean, if there is a God, and if He spoke, what might He ask? Maybe, "why are you here?" or "what have you people been . doing?" or "why should you continue?" What could you tell Him? Tell Him ''we spend millions on bombs and let little children starve" or "that we despise people for the color He made them" or "that we care so ljttle of all He has given that we allow a few to map its destruction" or maybe "that we destroy and carelessly pollute his lands" "or "that we delight in seeing our fellow man suffer" or maybe, -just perhaps, this Go9 fellow would answer a _ question for us, ''Where, 0 God, and what, 0 God, do we do with dead soldiers, and how do we tell theJr . mothers?'' REPRINTED FROM KEY MAGAZINE FALL 1970 Page 19

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'* '* * * * • JUAREZ LOUNGE DONDE SE JUANTAN LOS AMIGOS SERVIMOS COMIDAS MEXICANA Y AMERICANOS A DEMAS VINOS, CERVEZAS, LICORES WILLIE GARCIA, PROPRIETOR 2100 LARIMER 244-9861 HISPANOS IN HISTORY It is my hope through this column to highlight the culture and contributions of Mexican Americans to the growth and development of the Southwest and the nation as a whole. Secondly, to acquaint our readers of the beauty and value of our rich Hispanic culture by encouraging the appreciation and advancement of the his tory of the Hispano people of the South west. I remember as a young student wonder ing what the Hispano was doing when this nation was being developed. I must admit that I was at a loss, at first , to fit the His pano into the nation's total historical set ting. Today, however, I realize the reason for this lack of information is that Hispano History as is taught in our present educa tiona! system is superficial and lacks the substance that we as Hispanos can adequately identify with. Hopefully, through this column we can pinpoint some of the outstanding accom plishments of the Hispanic people. At this time, I would like to focus your attention on Jose Clemente Orazco (1883 1949) a Mexican artist who was instru mental in reviving Mexican Artistic re naissance and Fresco painting. His work such as Zapatertar and Mexi can Pueblo are stark and simple and often deal with social themes. Orazco was born in Zapatalan and attended the National University of Fine Arts. An architectural draftsman at first, he exhibited as a painter in 1910. His Murals decorate the Palace of Fine Arts, National Preparatory School and other public buildings in Mexico, Dartmouth College in New Hampshire and Pamara College in California. Theresa Sanchez Page 20 CONVICT EDITOR WRITES SAGE WORDS OF ADVICE MENARD, ILL. (UPI) "Dear Future Establishment," the editorial in the Men ard Time began. "You with the sideburns, long hair and tight pants; you with the miniskirt, love beads and boots .... Have you forgotten that the presidency, the Congress, the Senate, the judiciary and the United States of tomorrow is yours? "Else, why must you clamor today for the changes you may peacefully, and by choice, bring about in the future?" The editorial was contained in this month's edition of the . Time, award-win ning newspaper published by the inmates of Menard State Penitentiary. IT WAS WRITTEN by the inmate editor, Harold S. Sampson. . "What have you by your nots , your protests, your violence and governmental defiance?" the editorial asked . "Think! Has the Establishment top pled ; or has it merely been tolerant in its more personal memories of Marxism, gold fish-eating and panty raids? And, finally has it occurred to you that your children may be even more discontent with your proposed way of life than you are with the mores of the establishment pro tern?" Sampson wrote that the "future es tablishment" may wonder by what au thority he offers advice. HE WRITES TO YOU more out of shame , not the authority. He addresses you because he is not a member of the so-called Establishment. He is a convict who has spent 40 years in defiance of the very establishment you protest. He is a convict who has spent 29 years of his life behind bars because of that defiance. He broke just one window. He looted one home two white shirts, a set of dentures and a portable typewriter. But , he did violence to no one . He did not incite others to riot. He committed no arson of property. He did go to jail. ... And the hope he held for relief in the future from the new establishment has dimmed. He did not anticipate that youth standing a figurative stone's throw beyond the steel door which bars his cell. He does recognize, though perhaps the youth doesn't, that youth remains where he is only by the grace and the charity of the establishment opposed." SAMPSON WONDERED "editorially" whether somewhere along the line, he and his fellow prisioners might be accused of setting a bad example and blamed for "your conduct." "The thought is especially disturbing because some of you are brothers, sisters, sons, daughters, relatives and friends," he said. "Whether you succeed in destroying the establishment , or wind up in the next cell to this writer by the virtue of your deeds, he feels you should be interested in a conversation overheard the other day : "Two mothers, sweet old ladies attending Menard's semi-annual art exhibit, were discussing their sons. The sons apparently had been involved in the recent university riots. "One mother said to the other: 'I wish my boy was more like these convicts.' "Now, YOU think about that!" -EL RANCHIRITO DE CORDOVA THE FINEST IN MEXICAN FOODS 325 South Federal 936 GUNBY FOR TIRES RECAPPING NEW USED TIRES PROPRIETOR, ED HEIDT 1301 E. 20TH AVE . 825 0768 ........................ Lucero's Grocery GENERAL GROCERIES & MEXICAN FOOD COLD 3.2 BEER Open Daily 8:00A.M. to 6:00P. M. 3657 Fillmore 333 EL CONQUISTADOR

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FREEDOM NEVER CAN BE TAKEN for granted, lest it be lost. Neglected, it withers and dies, like a flower denied moisture and nurishment. .. Or is smothered by the creeping weeds of tyranny's lust for domination and for ever-spreading aggrandizement. Those who came to what is now our United States of America in longing search for freedom were aware of this . They had known tyranny and its ways firsthand in the Old World. SO, WHEN THEY AND THEIR DE scendants found it necessary to give their lives, their all, to achieve that freedom by establishing a government of, by and for free men, their first thought was of a Con stitution which would safeguard what they so agonizingly had won. Thus it was that the Constitution for the United States of America came into being Sept. 17, 1787, at the Constitu tional Convention in Philadelphia . And that, further to safeguard the rights of the individual and of the states the historic Bill of Rights the first Hl Amendments bec ame part of the Con stitution Dec. 15, 1791, upon ratification by the states. Yet , farseeing though they were, these safeguards for the dignity and freedom of the individual cannot a lone . preserve this heritage. Neglected, they wither and die . Or are erased or subverted by ambi tious or foolish men from foreign shores or within our own land. SO IT IS THAT AMERICANS OF our troubled and perilous times must re main as aware of the origins and meaning of our Constitution and Bill of Rights, and as vigilant in guarding them as were the Founding Fathers who achieved them . The Freedoms Foundation of Valley Forge, a nonpolitical, nonprofit, nonsec tarian organization, is dedicated to main taining that awareness and vigilance . It has formulated a "Credo of the American Way of Life," an expression of the political and economic rights provided us by the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and the laws of the nation stemming from these . That the first freedom mentioned in this credo is the "right to worship God in one's own way" seems particularly fitting and significant. For it comes, of course, from the very first clause of the first Article of the Bill of Rights : "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibit ing the free exercise thereof; ... " Further, the search for freedom of worship and the concept of self-govern ment went hand in hand in the beginnings of the United States of America. H . G . Wells, in his "The Outline of FALL 1970 History," describes the Plymouth Colong settlers as "republican-spirited men, hope less of resistance to the Grand Monarchy of James I and Charles I." THE PILGRIM FATHERS ALONG with desire to worship to their own lights, carried also the spark which well may have given the first glow to the becon of self-government. They gave expression to that belief even before stepping ashore at Cape Cod in 1620. "Before landing," Clement Wood writes in his "A Complete History of the United States," "the Pilgrims assembled in the cabin of their little boat, the Mayflower and pledged themselves to form a govern: ment, and obey it. This was the first in stance of an agreement to abide by com plete self-government in the history of the European settlement of the Americas." !hat of worship was so pre emment m the minds of the founders of free America carries a further significance . It is a right which always is among the first to . be limited or wiped out by those who , like the Communists, put the state above all individual rights and freedoms . FREEDOM OF WORSHIP IS ONE OF the stones in the arch of liberty which the Constitution raised in protection over Americans. This is a stout and stalwart arch if those whom it protects keep it in repair and safe from assault . And, in an arch, each stone must be forever kept firm and unriven. For, if one is lost, the whole structure tumbles into dust. It is the same with the freedoms erected by the Constitution for the United States of America . of America. 1111 COLFAX AVENUE "We serve fun and the best Mexican food in town" Fun's in the air the moment you step into Trini's Restaurant! It's gay, colorful, romantic. The food's exciting, authentic We serve beer. Trini's is fun -for families, for late-night snack crowds, too! Page 21

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Press Campaign For Better lntage of Latins HOLLYWOOD "Nosotros" is the Spanish word for "us. " It is also an organization of show folk of Latin orgin, primarily Spanish-speaking iil dividuals, who have banded together to get a better shake from the bigwigs of motion pictures and television. Black actors made tremen dous strides in the past dec ade. Now black technicians, directors and writers are find ing jobs. But Puerto Mexi can-Americans (a term Ameri cans of Mexican origins don't particularly esteem). Cubans and other so-called Latins have had a rough time of it. For years the Mexican has been portrayed : as the sleepy peon, the greasy haired gigolo, the comic blun . derer, the mountain bandido. Under the leadership of Ricardo Montalban -a native of Mexico who has played the cliche roles Nosotros is pressing hard on all fronts for a clearer picture of Chicanos (another word with mixed impact) and other persons of Latin descent in show business. By VERNON SCOIT UPl Hollywood Writer ONE OF THE GROUP'S best spokesmen is Henry Dar row, the star of High Chapar ral. He was born in Puerto Rico, but plays a Mexican, and changed his name from Delgado to Darrow to find work. "If a producer or a director sees a Latin name on the cast sheet, he immediately creates an image of the cliche Mexi can," Darrow said. "They think of him as shiftless or comic. Nosotros wants to change all that. We have a three-part program. "First, we don't want roles in TV or films just because we are Latins. We want to com pete with everyone else. Second, we are organizing a train ing program and school in East Los Angeles for Spanish speaking actors. Thirdly, we must change the image." Darrow is an engaging man, vital, filled with humor, able to laugh about producers who wouldn't interview him when he was named Delgado, but now hire him under his pres ent name. "I would like to change my name back again. But it is too late. Everyone knows me as Darrow now." he said, shak ing his head. "I am the first Puerto Rican to appear in a regular series. When I go back to my home land, they call me Mano, that means brother. In Mexico they call me Manolito. "It is a touching thing to see the pride and affection on their faces. I am one of them." DARROW SPEAKS fault less English. His appearance allows him to play roles of all national origins. But a simple thing, the name of Delgado, roadblocked his career for years. It is not enough that he has found success. He seeks it for others. "Nosotros needs more members," he said . "Anthony Quirm is helping set up the training school. Desi Arnaz is giving support. The blacks have shown the way, and we must follow their lead. "I suppose there are 15 million Spanish-speaking peo ple in the United States. I don't know, but I am happy to include all Latins. They should be recognized for their contributions to our culture; their talents should be given an opportunity to flourish." SUPPORT YOUR ADVERTISERS DENVER WOOD Pl\ODUCTS CO. "VV'holesa.le & Retail Lumber No-Smol{ing Sign On l(ick the-Habit Cruise KINGSTON, JamaicaOne hundred citizens of this island that 1s a synonym for fine cigars will be at dockside Nov. 28 to greet the world's first kick-the-habit cruise ship, S.S. Santa Paula. The Jamaican group, ex pecting the 250 arriving pass engers to be at a peak level in their test of will power after eight days aboard without having smoked, plan to help them make their day here one of relaxed pleasure. The welcome committee will be composed of ex smokers and members of the Jamaica Cancer Society. They plan to show the visitors the sights and head them in the directions they want to go for golf, swimming, water sports, lunching or poking around the Kingston area. , The stop-smoking cruise aboard the Prudential-Grace Lines was organized by the Institute for New Motivations and is designed to turn the desire to stop smoking into a pleasurable experience. The cruise will sail from New York Nov. 20 and will make six Caribbean ports of call before returning via Florida to New York in its 13-day itinerary. LOUIS ESQUIVEL. PROP. ROBERT F. ESQUIVEL, MGR. THE CONTRACTORS LUMBER YARD Princess Pat FLORAL sHoP Large Stocks B est Prices RIGHT NOW .. 44 4-3161 19415 W . 3RO. A V E . Page 22 YOURS ALWAYS WITH THE FINEST 295 SO. PENNSYLVANIA DENVER, COLORADO 80209 TEL. 744-3191 EL CONQUISTADOR

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ANYONE CAN? There is a beautiful notion afloat in the minds and hearts of many people, that anyone, regardle:;s of race, color, religion, or natural origin can secure a college e ducation if he wants to. "If there is a will, there is a way," has become a popular catch-all phrase Of our affluent society. However, at educational ground zero Mexican Americans have been all but wiped out in terms of their number in population. Less than 1h of one percent go to college and fewer still finish, mostly because of elitist concepts .about higher education which effectively and systematically keep them educationally suppressed and therefore socially and eco nomically disadvantaged. Clearly the situation has been gradually c h;mging due to the tolerant attitude of the middle class towards underprivileged groups. As the middle class has become concious of its own insecurity, its attitude toward the underprivileged has changed. More dependent now on complex and interrelated environmental factors, a :.;tring majority has come to beli e v e that poverty is the result of environmental patterns rather than shiftlessness in education The needs of the middl e class. its belief in the value of education. and th e recent pressures for equal opportunitie s lor minorities has led to a general acceptance of public responsibility for a system equal for all. irrespective of ability to pay, based on educational qualification s. Daily we. become more and more aware of the dramatic change that is occuring on college campuses everywhere. Progress is evidenced by the vast influx of Mexican Americans to college all over the nation: "An increase of 70% over the last 10 years." As the walls of prejudice gradually crumble, the Hispano is reconstructing his past to meet the challenges of present day America. The doors of progress and equal opportunity, formerly closed because of his Hispano heritage, are now being opened for his entrance by the self same people who previously barred his open participation. Being governed by social demands, those who are not privileged to be within the area of affluency must strive constantly to reach a full measure of achievement. Realizing that, as a group, what effects one of us effects all of us to some degree. The door of opportunity, once open, must remain open for all. When all people accept the truism that each other person is truly his brother, "Anyone Can." by Gil Lopez R f1bxall 11Jrug FRANK 0. MEZA FREE DELIVERY 801 Santa Fe Phone 266-9887 NEW • USED • RENTALS FALL 1970 SUPPLIES FOR SCM • XEROX • APECO • DITTO • A. B. DICK GAFAX • SUNBEAM • ELECTROCOPY WHOLESALE DISTRIBUTORS FOR ANKEN Thermofax & Wet Pro,ess Papers SELLING TO THE INDUSUY SINCE 1952 IMMEDIATE DELIVERY ALL NEW EL NOPALITO CAFE FINE MEXICAN FOOD leatu
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WHAT IS THE THINKER THINKING? EL CONQUISTADOR ''' 1435 LAMAR , I. . DENVER, COLORADO 80214 237 -8477 :::: Enclosed please find $2.00 for a one year :::: ......_ subscription to the ::: EL CONQUISTADOR :::: ...... ....... _,..Name ...... ,.,.. ...... fill""" Address ...._ . City & State Z•P--:\.'\ EL CONQUISTADOR ''' 1435 LAMAR , I. . DENVER, COLORADO 80214 237 -8477 ::::: E:nclosed please find $2 .00 for a one year :::: :::: subscription to the ......_ EL CONQUISTADOR ::: -,_ Name ..:: ;: til""'!.. City & State Zip __ Page 24 EL C ONQUISTADOR

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EL CONQUISTADOR IN ORDER FOR EL CONQUISTADOR TO SERVE AS A MEDIUM FOR RE TAINING AND PRESERVING THE BEAUTY AND VALUE OF THE RICH MEX ICAN AMERICAN CULTURE, AS WELL AS A FORUM FOR CONTEMPORARY MEXICAN AMERICAN THOUGHT, WE NEED THE ACTIVE PARTICIPATION OF ITS READERS . TOPICS CONCERNED WITH THE HISTORY , THE CULTURE, THE CURRENT HAPPENINGS OF THE HISPANO, CHICANO, MEXICAN AMERICAN MOVEMENT ARE WELCOMED . WE INVITE SHORT STORIES, ARTICLES, POETRY , ART AND PHOTOGRAPHS . TO INSURE RETURN, MANUSCRIPTS AND MATERIAL MUST BE ACCOMPANIED BY A SELF-ADDRESSED, STAMPED ENVELOPE. MAIL ALL CONTRIBUTIONS TO: EL CONQUISTADOR 1435 LAMAR LAKEWOOD , COLORADO 80214 FEE SCHEDULE : FOR ACCEPTED MATERIAL TO EL CONQUISTADOR MAJOR ARTICLE (2,500 words o r more) ..... . ... .. ...... $25 .00 SHORT STORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.00 SHORT ARTICLE (less than 2,500 words) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. 00 PHOTOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.00 BOOK REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.00 ART. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.00 CARTOON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.00 EL CONQUISTADOR IS A NON FUNDED , SELFSUPPORTING QUARTERLy MAGAZINE DEDICATED TO RETAINING THE BEAUTY AND VALUE OF THE HISPANO CULTURE BY ENCOURAGING THE ADVANCEMENT AND APPRECIATION OF THE HERITAGE OF THE CHICANO PEOPLE OF THE SOUTHWEST .

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Our Compliments to EL CONQUISTADOR This magazine is programed as a quarterly magazine which will explore the history, culture and heritage of the Chicano , the Hispano and Mexican Amer,ican natives of the Southwest. In so doing the objectives of this constructive publication be come threefold: a) Campaign for improving the image of the Hispanos by focusing on their contribution to American culture, particularly that of the Southwest. b) Retain and enhance the beauty in the culture and heritage of the Hispano people. c) Create an avenue of expression for, and of the talents , of Hispano people so that these talents may flourish. It is a challenge to the founders of this magazine to make it a successful, self sustaining publication. This kind of venture , without benefit of i nstitutional loans or grants, should command the highest respect and indeed , the support of the community at large. We at MI-T-MART would encourage the private sector to subscribe and businessmen t o advertise. We see here an excellent way to reach and hear from LA RAZA. Bl EN VE N I DOS Advertising contribute d for the public good . Ph. 333-5929 FINE FOODS . . .. . : : . . . : . Athena Mercantile Co. 2201 Oneida Denver, Colo. 80207