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El Conquistador, Fall 1970. Volume 2, Number 3

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Title:
El Conquistador, Fall 1970. Volume 2, Number 3
Series Title:
El Conquistador
Creator:
Aztec Action Association
Place of Publication:
Lakewood, CO
Publisher:
Aztec Action Association
Publication Date:
Language:
English

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Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

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General Note:
Volume 1, Number 1 ; Fall 1970

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Auraria Library
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
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Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
AZTEC CALENDAR
JESUS PEOPLE
BEUJERIA
THE BATTLE OF ROUND MOUNTAIN


In a few short years an entirely new concept of restaurant operation has developed into one of the most Successful restaurant franchise businesses in the United S.tates. Quality control in food, personnel and management has contributed in no small part to the rapidly growing number of Mr. Steak * restaurants in operation. This growth wa;s Receded by considerable research and study, learning what.it takes to mike the ideal food service operation. Experts have called the Mr. Steak growth in food service "phenomenal".
Mr. Steak restaurants have the widest ap* peal to the' largest dine-outi market— the American family. Its moderately priced steaks, for example, appeal to the middle ground of consumers, prices high enough to insure quality of product, low enough to provide good family dining within modest budgets in clean, modern surroundings. For this reason Mr. Steak has become known as "The Family Place".
It was not by accident that this new con-' cept came about. Many months of-research and analysis were invested before the first pilot operation was opened in Colorado Springs,. Colorado, in late 1962. Far from a desirable location for a restaurant,, this site had served four other businesses from a garage to a supermarket andi was known as "failure corner". The decor of this first'Mr. Steak restaurant involved nothing more auspicious than a good paint job for the interior which had a seating capacity of only 66. The. pilot project featured such entrees as a $1.19 sirloin steak of a.commercial or utility grade beef, baked potato* tossed^ green salad and ranch house toast. The steaks, needless to say, had to be tenderized. This steak house "lab" helped prove the concept and even sparked a rash of $1.19 steak houses in the* Denver area, a concept that has since spread, nationally...
The'Second Mr. Steak was established at Albuquerque,' New Mexico, in 1963.4The^Mr. Steak image soon outgrew both of these early experiments, leading to the first free-standing, Mr. Steak building, erected in 1963 in Littleton, Colorado, a suburb of, Denver. This specially designed^ building, constructed bf pre-stressed concrete shells proved to be inefficient in terms of construction costs and. accoustics. During 'the several years of its operation many equipment and construction experiments "were to be conducted here. First, a new building format, the forerunner of today's free-standing. Mr. .Steak- building was designed to establish an image.in the' minds of the-public; this design, proved not • only to be more economical but more-appealing and more functional as well, and construction time yvas reduced considerably. At the samejime, the management decided to forego the-uncertainty and inconsistency of servingcheftiically tenderized steaks.,The challenge became to find the means to provide uniform quality beef to all the Mr. Steak restaurants tovbe built across the nation. Mr. Steak has since met this challenge by-shipping only naturally aged USDA Choice steaks from their headquarters in Denver fo each operating Mr. Steak restaurant. These cuts are portion-controlled and individually wrapped, thus insu/ing flavor and. tenderqess.
Another major operational ’change came about as a result*- of this experimentation when Mr. Steak abandoned its original, cafeteria line cbncept and instituted Waitress service. A three-month test at the' Littleton Mr. Steak restaurant had convinced manage-' mentsthat, with theif grovyirtg national affluence, the dine-out public actually prefers, waitress service. Another innovation about", this same time was the* addition of‘sandwiches to the Mr. Steak menu. This was particularly welcomed by Junc_heon custqm- ! ers, many of whom do not care for a complete dinner at lunch tinjev / / *
Sdveral service'companies: werk erpployed, .to- assist Mr. Steak in the' development of their franchise package. One of these, ISIa-.tional Marketing and Leasing, Inc., a -restaurant supply warehouse and distribution 1 facility, was able to effect consistent quality ** control and considerable savings Tor Mr Steak restaurants through their negotiation ofs national contracts. The management of Mr: Steak had noted that certain other franchise operations had provided incomplete, equipment packages that lack , many of the items necessary for a successful operation. National Marketing and Leasing, thrpugh large Volume purchases, was able to offei! Mr. Steak all the' essential food service Items for a complete equipment package at considerable savings and th^se savings could then be reflected in the franchise package. - | ’
Another of the?e service companies, M/$ Development, Inc., was'placed under.Contract to inspect and expedite the construction of the «Mf. Steak buildings. Their expertise . contributed a great deal to the growth of Mr. Steak as w4ell as many subsequent improvements in the Mr. Steak restaurant design.
Franchise Accountants, Iric,; another irtde-’ pendent company) was permitted to offer the Mr. Steak franchisees computerized restau- . rant, accounting, weekly profit and lo$s statements, and tax assistance op a contract basis. Establishing a sojid accounting line of cbn\-municatiorts af this early.stage proved to be ;an extremely wise decision by the Mrl. Steak; management. -• Ii|§& *
, , The’publifc has-come to Identify the Mr. Steak'reStaurants with high standards of qual-
* ity for food arid service .at moderate pfices.. In- ofder *>to maintain ’these high standards,. Mr. Steak acquired by merger the three! aforementioned companies, installing them . as divisions within thfr Mr. Steak corporation as the Product Sates and Service Division, the Real Estate ahd , Projects .Division afid the franchise' AccountantsDivision. .’Now Mr.v Steak's ability to provide- a, complete seiVite to its franchise Associates had befcorrte ’a reality. Through its Real Estate and Projects t
* Division,' Mr. Steak ^evaluates sites and provides periodic'on-site inspections ,of‘con-* stmction. ^fter, completion of the restaurant, the Product Sale? and Service. Division provides basic food and non-food item's^on-a portion and-qUality-controlled basis at lower i prices through' their vollime purchasings powder.; When*- the franchise ,AssQCiaters ‘Mr Steak .restaurant opens'to the public,,s the Operations Division, -which has ‘already , trained the ’ restaurant ‘manager, assists in .opening .the restaurant and monitors the
operation on a continuing basis, reporting their observations and suggestions to the franchise Associate as a result of their review of l\is weekly financial statement provided by the Franchise Accountants Division.
' Recdgriizing the importance of profes.-sional training,-Mr,Steak has spared no effort imbuilding its draining program at Mr. Stfeak College in Denver, its sphoohfor -restaurant training. Here ^aeh new Mr. Steak manager receives practical as well as theoretical res-'•'tajurant and business training in ^11* of the areas necessary to'the'business. This training represents Several'weeks fof,vefy -hard work '-for.-the trainee, and he "takes his’graduation from {dr. Steak,College steribusly.
, ‘Today there are two bqSrc Mr. Steak restau-^/TVant-models^ the MOD 150 with approxi-< rrl^tely; 128, seajs 'and the MOD 100 with ^approximately 100 seats (within certain limitations,seating is flexible). The greater avail-Ability of sifes in smaller cordmunities led to _ the development of the smaller model (MOD IQQ^Mr. Steak restaurant, opening up a whole new market potential.
Despite the .fact’that the concept ha.s been
• . proven, Mr. Steak is neither indulging itself in
* relaxed satisfaction; nor being lulled into an acceptance* of the status quo. Mr. Steak operates an the basic principle-, of cooperation and interchange oHdeas^ with the franchise Associate. Working ip concert, Mr. Steak and the franchise Associate offer the public a uqiform quality concept, enhancing the
^ opportunity for ai mutually successful and ~ profitable, business.' Review, .research and - testing are constant activities of the Mr. Steak management to be certain that this-franchise operation not only maintains its reputation for quality W also, that it can remain flexible in order to.meet the continually changing needs and desires of the public.' In addition, Mr. Steak's franchise Associates are constantly kept informed of improvements and new developments in food service in order to . helpThem to maintain a profitable operation.
•MR. STEAK*
. GARY E.CRUMBAKER y Trainhig/Supervisor
Mr. SteaJ< Timing Center 44th. & Sheridan Oenver, Colorado 80221,-‘Phone 424-6131
>


EL CONQUISTADOR...
1971
1435 LAMAR LAKEWOOD, COLORADO Official Publication of
AZTEC ACTION ASSOCIATION
VOLUME 2 — NO. 3 SUBSCRIPTION $2.00
PUBLISHED QUARTERLY
Dedicated to , retaining the beauty and value of the Hispano Culture by encouraging the appreciation and advancement of the heritage of the
Chicano people of the Southwest.
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page
MAKING IT HAPPEN . ................... I
DENVER SCHOOLS AND THE HISPANOS ..... 2
THE $ATTLE 6| ROUND MOUNTAIN . . . . . . 16
OUR LADY OP GUADALUPE.....................26
BRUJERIA . .. ... ....................I0
■DENVER 33‘ PERSEVERE ON tlLGRIMAGE .... 28
SHUTTOS . 'Wm - 22
BULL FIGHTS ............................... 8
EXPLORING NEW MEXICO .... . . . 5. I h
AZTEC CALENDAR . ... .'ll . ' • "•M' •'% 35
EL INDIO CHISTOSO.........................12
ALGO DISTINTO PARA SU MESA................27
RECOMMENDED READING.......................32
JESUS PEOPLE .............................14
IT’S COOK OUT TIME........................15
TRACES OF LIFE IN ANCIENT TIMES
COME TO LIGHT . ................... 20
13 LUCKY NUMBER FOR TWO
MEXICAN AMERICAN CONTRACTORS .... 24
LA PASTORELA MEJICANA.....................31
GIL LOPEZ, Editor FRANK ZERTUCHE, Associate Editor k RUDY SALAS, Public Relations TONY CANDALARIA, Staff Writer DORIS SIEGERT, Staff Photographer
CONTRIBUTING WRITERS
JOHN CONKLIN RICH MAES DR. DANIEL VALDEZ
LEE SCHROEDER RUEBEN E. AGUIRE EIRNIE LOPEZ
From the Editor
Tell it Like it Is
MAKING IT HAPPEN!
For too long Mexican American has been deprived access to the business world. This is changing rapidly and the change is attributable both to the role which Chicanos have assumed and to the growing awareness on the part of others that Mejicanos must share in the America process.
When Historians look back on the Year of the happening the beginning of a new decade for the Chicano, they will mark it as a turning point in Mexican economic development. For it was a year in which many new Chicano owned enterprises came into being, more Chicano students were enrolled in colleges than ever before, and there were more widespread interest and concern among us than ever before about the nitty gritty economic problem of the communities in whih wo live.
In short it was a period in which we turned from protest to production. I have no doubt that Mejicano enterprises can and will change the life in the ghetto. More jobs can be created by Chicano businesses. Community residents can be trained and employed by these business firms for rewarding Careers,
As a consequence, more money will be circulating in the community for the good of the community. Better housing and education will also derive from the increased economic power of ghetto residents^ fl
As the Chicano improves his economic condition he wiH likewise improve conditions around him.
Those Mexican American who are making it happen in business or making it happen in general in Mexican Communities across the nation are getting the job done because they have placed a premium price on specialized training, advanced education and long hard hours at the grindstone as their only passport to the future.
—Gil Lopez, Editor
Page l
EL CONQUISTADOR


DENVER SCHOOLS AND THE lilSPANO
By Dr. Daniel T. Valdes
Editor’s note: Dr. Valdes is chairman fof the division of behavioral sciences and professor of sociology, Denver Metropolitan State College.
The writer is an American of Hispanic background as anyone yraS any knowledge of Spanish surnames can easily tell but he writes not only,as a Hispanic but, also, as a sociologist and educator. Above all, he is concerned about contemporary tissues and problems as a human belong. He does not speak for the His-panos of Denver—no one speaks for the Hispanos. The writer, therefore, does not represent the Hispanos or any other group.
As a Hispano, however, he is concerned lest, in the terribly important black-white (Anglo) confrontation* the welfare and the problems of the poor among his people might be overlooked in spite of re-, cent events that strongly indicate that it is dangerous to ignore them any longer. The Writer is very much aware of the horrendous injustices, the tremendous hardships, and sufferings of Tus brothers, the Afro-Americans, but as a Hispano he is, also, aware of the sufferings and hardships of the poor among his people. Their hardships, their sufferings, and their lack of opportunities are not so accentuated or highly visible as are those of the Afro-Americans, but problems and lack of opportunities they do have.
In the American Southwest, the problems faced by the Hispano poor in the realm of economic opportunities, education, and employment far outweigh those of the Afro-A-' merican. His educational opportunities and achievements are far below those of the other major minority group in this area.
Poorest of Poor
Perhaps not so well known is the fact that the Hispano in Denver has a much lower average economic and educational status than the Afro-American. It is true that the Hispano does not, as a general rule, face the hard, unyielding type of segregation and discrimination, suffered so long by the Afro-Americans. But because of historical circumstances of the Hispano in this area he is the poorest of the poor, and the least educated of all.
Some people have asked, and many have wondered, why the Hispano has not gone the route of European immigrants such as the
Page 2
Italian-Americans or the Irish-Am-ericans who moved rather quickly into jthe main stream of American middle-class society. There are several reasons why the Hispanos cannot be compared with these groups.
First,; most Hispanos in Colorado and New Mexico were not immigrants to the United States (this country did not even exist when their forefather came to this area); The Anglo-American came to this part of our country two centuries after the Spanish colonials had established European civilization in what is now New Mexico and south?’ em Colorado. The Anglo-Americans conquered the Spanish colonial, took away his land, imposed a semi-colonial status upon him, and relegated him to second-class citizenship.
Secondly, when the other Hispanos (the Mexican immigrants of the 1910s and 1920s) came to the American Southwest, our economy no longer needed the millions of unskilled factory (urban) laborers recruited from among the Irish, the Italians, the Germans, etc., who came here during the 19th Century. Thesejobs gave these people a firm foothold on the American dream-boat.
Against Segregation
We would like to discuss briefly the Hispano poor in the City and County of Denver, who he is and where he lives, how he lives. But before we do this, we should like to make one point crystal clear. We want to say it loud and strong so that there will never be any misunderstanding as to where this writer stands on the issue of integration or segregation, depending on how you state it.
He is against racial and economic segregation without reservation. He favors integration (economic and racial integration) of our schools without qualification. Segregation in education is morally wrong and unjust. This he knows as a human being. Segregated education is inefficient and pedagogically unsound. This he knows as a sociologist and as an educator.
The Hispano in the City and County of Denver, although apparently less burdened by the terrible scourge of racial-ethnic discrimination and segregation, suffers greatly from a different kind of segregation and discrimination which is just as
crippling. That is economic segregation and discrimination. This he knows as an Hispano and as a student of the Hispano. The writer is, therefore, against economic and racial discrimination, not only in education, but in all aspects of life. Destroying school segregatin in our school system in the City and County of Denverl will accelerate the breakdown of all types of discrimination, in all aspects of life. Class, racial and ethnic integration of our schools will improve education for all Americans.
As a sociologist, our frame of reference is that education is a social process, and that schools are social institutions. We look at educational situations, problems arid education systems in the light of empirical research and evidence.
Great Responsibility
More than mostjj organizations, schools perform functions that are an integral part of the whole social system; They produce more than just items for a specified market. They must produce children who should eventually participate fully in the various economic, political, educational, familial, and other institutions of the society. Next to the family, the school has the greatest responsibility to improve that participation.
Yet the schools seem more detached from the total social system than other constituent parts. In the recruitment and hiring of personnel, for example, the schools are ingrown and isolated. Unlike government and private industry, where people with varied experience and training can rise to executive positions, the schools select administrators almost exclusively from within their own ranks.
In as large a school bureaucracy as we have in this city, pressures often demand that promotion be made only of those trained and experienced in the same system. It is sort of an incestuous breeding. It shields the administrators, the teachers, and the whole system from fresh ideas, and people introduced from the outside. This is one of the urgent reasons for compulsory courses in the sociology of education so that persons going into the school system realize it is only a part of a whole social system.
In the United States, class and race are highly correlaed. In the
EL CONQUISTADOR


Continued
U.S. Southwest, class and ethnic grouping are highly correlated. His-panos tend to occupy the lower level of the stratification system in school and society. The Hispanos’ increasing participation in the political and economic system, his ecological mobility from farm to city and from the core city or the barrio to the suburbs and the outer city, and the Hispanos’ organization for social action must center more on the school, and must depend more upon the school.
However, in general, the more money a student’s parents make, the more money will be spent on his education despite so much effort at public compensatory expenditures for the disadvantaged. Inequalities are found not only in higher education but, also, in elementary and secondary schools, and they are found both between school districts and within them. There are many areas in which these inequalities manifest themselves. Just a few are discussed here.
Children from the barrios and the ghettos start their schooling in the lowest financed elementary schools, and if they are lucky enough, they end up going to the lowest funded
colleges (Metro State College receives considerably less money per student from the state than any other public college or university in the state).
Because of high teacher turnover in the barrio schools, there is always a larger proportion of new and inexperienced teachers in these schools, located in the older, and deteriorating parts of the city, the barrio has less adequate, and older school plants.
Greater Dispersal
In spite of the lower economic level of the Hispano in the City and County of Denver, he does not have to go to ethnically segregated schools to the extent that the Negro must go to racially segregated schools. This has been because of the Hispano’s greater dispersal throughout the city, and, of course the dispersal is based primarily on the Hispanos’ greater acceptability by Anglos in predominantly residential areas of the city.
At present only about 20 per cent of some 70,000 Hispanos in the City and County of Denver live in the center of the city. Approximately 40 percent have left the hard core. But they have gone to lower middle income areas and not to the suburbs
or to middle class areas. They live in various pockets (grey areas of the city) in west Denver, not the immediate west Denver, but in the area around Federal and Colfax, and north around the old Italian section. The other 40 per cent of the Hispanos are now dispersed throughout the City and County of Denver, and beyond, in various new suburbs, for example.
The major problem, therefore, for the Hispano is not that he is in segregated schools (segregated upon the basis of his ethnic background) but that so many of them (approximately 60 per cent) live in low-income or lower middle income areas. In pupil distribution charts prepared by the writer and reproduced here this is vividly and graphically pointed out. The fact that the Hispanos’ main problem is not ethnic segregation, but economic segregation jumps out from the charts. Bottleneck Shown
As the Hispano increases his skills, as his income rises, and his educational level increases, he will move in greater numbers to areas throughout the metropolitan area. In so doing he will increase his educational opportunities. But the bottleneck to getting the increased
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EL CONQUISTADOR
Page 3


Continued
skills and the increased educational level to move at a greater and more rapid race into areas offering better economic and educational opportunities lies in the fact that the His-pano poor are tremendously handicapped as a result of having to go to economically segregated schools in the low income and lower middle income districts. Partly because of the Hispanos’ strong Catholic orientation, but also because of his discontent with public schools, more than 15 per cent of all Hispano children in the City and County of Denver are going to Catholic parochial schools.
In molding children in a stratified society, the school engages in continuous sorting and selecting of students, rating, ranking, and separating them into various quality groupS, Children from higher social strata usually enter the higher quality” groups and those from lower strata, the lower ones. School decisions about a child’s ability will greatly influence the amount,; quality and kind of education Be receives as well as his future life, including whether he goes to college, •the jobs he will get, and his feelings about himself.
Differential treatment, not required or necessary for pedagogical reasons, sometimes will follow the barrio child into the integrated school. Desegregation of schools on either the economic or ethnic basis is not enough. Policies, practices, and programs must be established to avoid perpetuation of inequalities through the process of sorting, ranking and selecting.
Re-appraise Tests
The use of IQ tests and other types of tests for ranking and selecting must be re-appraised and re-evaluated. Some school counselors must be made to realize that children from the barrio are not eligible only for army service or incapable of going to college to prepare for the professions. Students from poor families sometimes end up in special education programs designed and administratively set up for the physically and mentally handicapped.
Regarding cultural deprivation, many educators are actually trapped by this concept, and some use it as an excuse for their own failures or the failure of the system. They believe that the rejected, disadvantaged or deprived child is handicapped, not by school or society
but by his own culture or behavior. They feel he is so different and crippled that he cannot be expected to achieve as others do.
Too many educators are blaming the culture of the child and of the family, and offering the idea of
cultural deprivation as the total explanation of school failure or, more accurately, child failure. This, of course, is not true. But if we accept it for the sake of argument or because the belief makes it true in the eyes of some teachers or educators, then the school must assume the responsibility for changing the culture of poverty by extending the school into the community or bringing the family and community into the school.
We are referring not to ethnic or racial cultural differences which have never been a handicap, but an asset, to every child who is not trapped in the culture of poverty, but to economic cultural differences. Anglos, Indians, white Hispanos, mestizo Hispanos, black Hispanos, Afro-Americans who are poor in this country, in this century, are culturally deprived. This is because the poor here and now live in a culture in which economic well-being and
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EL CONQUISTADOR


Continued
success is paramount.
Although the disadvantaged His-pano child may try to pretend he doesn’t care, he recognizes Only too well that failure in education is terribly final and for him spells the end of the American dream, and of progress through education. We can not just stand by and see economic and racial segregation in our school system robbing the Hispano poor and the black children of their main weapon in improving their life chances. Social urban renewal is impossible without the active participation of educators, of business and industrial leaders, and some drastic changes in present-day educational programs and policies. We will not pretend to define the total role of the school in social urban renewal, but we would like to emphasize the special critical function of the school in|fow income and low middle income areas.
Must Be Convinced
Probably, one of the most important tasks of the school in the barrio and the ghetto is to convince children and youth in these areas that they are part of America, and can be stressful by making them a part of America, and making them successful.
We are emphasizing the role and responsibility of the school to the barrio and ghetto child, but we must never forget that schools do not operate, and education is not carried on, in a vacuum. Other social institutions (the family, the church, social agencies, etc.) play a role, and have a responsibility, in this area. Within its maximum capacities, however limited, the family must contribute to the climate, resources, and motivation for education.
Some of the things that need to be done are fairly simple, some of the things some of us have been suggesting are being done, some in one place or two places, some in many, but nowhere adequately. The Denver Public Schools have what are called enrichment activities which go beyond the formal courses to create interest or enhance the student’s interest in learning. The Denver Public Schools are beginning to provide textbooks, periodicals, and other literature depicting the role of various racial and ethnic groups in the creation of the United States* and in both the historical and contemporary contexts. This is especially true for the Afro-Americans because the schools in Denver
have not moved rapidly enough to develop materials on the Hispanos.
There is an unbelievable scarcity of good material on the Hispanos. Most of the material readily available is biased, outdated or sterile in the face of today’s problems and sociological concepts. Some attempts have been made in our schools here to reduce class size and teacher loads, but teacher loads in the barrio and ghetto schools should be reduced to three classes, and the number children in each class should be reduced to 15. Nowhere are these things being done on the scale adequate to get ahead of the forces pushing back, much less to compensate for the cumulative depression of human capacities, resulting from years of inadequacies that have gone before.
This writer commends the Denver School Board and the school ad-ministratin for what they have done so far. They have taken some initial steps toward final and complete desegregation of our schools. But they need then to move more boldly, and more rapidly toward achieving this total desegregation, as soon as possible. And then, when they have finished this magnificent task, they will discover that they have just
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Page 5


Continued
laid the foundation for the best possible schooling for every citizen-child in our city.
Perhaps, this is when their real job will begin. We think that they will find that desegragation is not enough. Even bringing the schools in the ghettoes and the barrios up to an average level is not enough. The level must be higher. There must be a conscious policy, backed by the citizens of Denver, backed by brains and money to bring the ghetto and barrio school to a level above that of the best schools in the district in order to enable the children of the poor to catch up. We must, at this point, again re-emphasize that the major dimension of the problem for the Hispano is economic, not ethnic. With the Afro-American it is also economic but it is racial, as well.
Premise Rejected
This writer can never accept the implied premise that if Anglo children are brought into predominate Hispano c>r black schools, that this, per se, is going to increase the educational achievement or status level of the Hispano or Black child. To accept this premise (or to act as if this were true) is to go against overwhelming evidence that shows
that no one racial or ethnic group is innately superior to another. All the evidence and research points, as a matter of fact, to the conclusion that educational achievement levels increase in integrated schools, not because Anglo children have been mixed with other children, but because of the higher income background of the Anglo children.
An example of such evidence and research can be found in a report by the U.S. Dept, of Education. Catalog No. FS5.238:38000, Superintendent of Documents, U.S. â– Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1966.
What we are saying, therefore, is that we need racial, ethnic and economic class mixing. West High School is completely mixed insofar as Anglos and Hispanos are concerned, but it is not integrated on an income basis and the results are well known and quite visible.
This writer would like to see the Denver board set up special educational districts, with schools in these districts equipped with the best, and most comprehensive school plants. Not that one automatically gets good education out of good plants but buildings are never neutral, they are either for you or a-
gainst you. An elite body of young teachers should be assembled, and if not available, trained, ready to serve in these most difficult areas. We would like to see educational grants made to poor families to feed and cloth their children in the manner and style of middle class children, and for participation in the educative process of the school. We need to establish a crash program for ghetto and barrio children in reading and communication skills.
Starting to work on cognitive skills and reading readiness before the first grade or even before kindergarten age is essential. This is because children of the poor have not had much practice in conversation or hearing long sentences, have little acquaintance with books, or they have not been exposed to ideas essential in the middle class world. We are not going to attempt to go into the complex details of methods of teaching although we are e-quipped to do this, if ever called to do it. But the effective teaching of reading must be considered by members of the school board, as an objective of the highest priority.
On a more general level, we would suggest the establishment,
Page 6
EL CONQUISTADOR


DENVER SCHOOLS AND THE HISPANO
or more accurately, the conversion of the school into a community school. This means transforming the barrio school that attempts to educate the young through the usual methods of classes and teachers to a school that also serves as the focal point for community activity, services, and concerns. This means providing not only space for meetings and affairs of the adults in the area but, also, services.
Open Day and Night
The community school is open all day and all night. The services it offers go way beyond the usual adult education courses. These schools should be made the centers for disseminating basic information about the ways of the city, about housing, about law and justice and the police, about welfare, and many other facets of urban living. Facts and discussions about the people’s role as consumers and citizens should be provided adults in the school setting. Denver schools are not doing nearly enough to knit together the school, the parents, and other residents of these areas.
Tutoring is another service greatly needed in these areas. But, perhaps, it is the teachers, administrators, and counselors who hold the key to good education in the ghettos and the barrios. Schools here are hardship posts, they are usually in older buildings, inadequately equipped and supplied, more overcrowded, and in dirty and dangerous neighborhoods. They present heart-breaking educational and disciplinary problems, and require a special breed of teachers. Teachers in these schools should get hardship pay.
The Denver School Board must become more concerned about how our teachers are being trained. Not that they simply be trained. We are not referring only to degrees, and higher and higher degrees. We are talking about the kind of training teachers are getting in the process of receiving these degrees.
There are, of course, many things to be done, some take time, and almost all cost money, many will be politically unpopular, and all require good will, energy and brains. This writer has only tried to share some information with the reader, seme of his thoughts, some of his concerns, some of his fears, and some of his hopes.
It is now up to the concerned citizens of Denver to make their needs and problems of all our
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power structure respond to the people.
On a more general level, we would suggest the establishment, or more accurately, the conversion of the school into a community school. This means transforming the barrio school that attempts to educate the young through the usual methods of classes and teachers to a school that also serves as the focal point for community activity, services, and concerns. This means providing not only space for meetings and affairs of the adults in the area but, also, services.
Open Day and Night
The community school is open all day and all night. The services it offers go way beyond the usual adult education courses. These schools should be made the centers for disseminating basic information about the ways of the city, about housing, about law and justice and the police, about welfare, and many other facets of urban living. Facts and discussions about the people’s role as consumers and citizens should be provided adults in the school setting. Denver schools are not doing nearly enough to knit together the school, the parents, and other residents of these areas.
Tutoring is another service greatly needed in these areas. But, perhaps, it is the teachers, administrators, and counselors who hold the key to good education in the ghettos and the barrios. Schools here are hardship posts, they are usually in older buildings, inadequately equipped and supplied, more overcrowded, and in dirty and dangerous neighborhoods. They present heart-breaking educational and disciplinary problems, and require a special breed of teachers. Teachers in these schools should get hardship pay.
The Denver School Board must become more concerned about how our teachers are being trained. Not that they simply be trained. We are not referring only to degrees, and higher and higher degrees. We are talking about the kind of train! ing teachers are getting in the process of receiving these degrees.
There are, of course, many things to be done, some take time, and almost all cost money, many will be politically unpopular, and all require good will, energy and brains. This writer has only tried to share some information with the reader, some of his thoughts, some of his concerns, some of his fears, and
some of his hopes.
It is now up to the concerned citizens of Denver to make their needs and problems of all our power structure respond to the people.
By Dr. Daniel Valdes
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Page 7


BULLFIGHTS
The CORRIDA DE TOROS or bullfight is one of the traditional spectacles that Mexico inherited from Spain. There is no other sport to equal it in popular enthusiasm.
The cuadrilla or team, entering the ring.
A picador, or horseman, facing the stands.
Page 8
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Page 9


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Cuando se oye platicar de aquel-los tiempos en que los Pobladores temian encountrar Indios, uno cree que los Indios estaban siempre lis-tos para dar muerta a todo pobre Mejicano!
Pero no es cierto. Escuche! Cuando ya llego el tiempo en que ubo paz, habia Indios que todavia an-daban enpatarados, es decir casi andaban desnudos, como dicemos “empleotos.” Un trapito apenas les cubria el frente desde la cintura, que ni llegaba a las rodillos. Y por lo consiguiente se cubria el posterior! tanto que las piernas quadaban desnudas casi hasta la cintura.
Pues un invierno con el dia muy frio, llego un Indio vestido de esta manera al rancho de Don Rumaldo Martinez. Don Rumaldo lo vido y le dio escalofrio! Y en el modo que hablaban los Indios el Espanol, le pregun to, ?“Pa’ que tu hacina?, hay ropa poniendo! ”
El Indio nomas dijo, ! “ No frio! ” Don Rumaldo, sintiendo escalofrio, le respondio, “Pero como tu no frio? ”
Ellndio se quedo viendo a Don Rumaldo, mirando bien su cara ex-puesta al frio, le dijo, “Que tu no frio cara?”
Don Rumaldo prontamente le respondio, “No, cara mucho tiempo no ropa.”
Entonces el Indio le dijo, “Tu cara, lo mismo mi nalga! ”
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Nuestros antepasados hacian buen uso de la tierra, y de alii sacaban todo lo necesario para el vivir. Para su recrea y gusto, tam-bien trabajaban la tierra.
Sin duda tenian su vino que sacaban de las huertas de uba. Esto cuando habia bastantes huertas de uba. Tambien se tomaba lo que unos le nomhraban Tisquin, otros le decian Tesquin, Tesquino, o Tis-quino — y esta tomada se prepara-ba del maiz.
Escarbaban un ollito, ponian trapos, a guagoches, y arriba de esto ponian el maiz, y lo tapaban con mas trapos, o guangoches. Le hech-aban agua seguido, hasta que se enraizaba el maiz con muchas raizes.
Sacaban el maiz enraizado, lo machucaban, hechandole bastante agua, y despues lo hiervian. Colaban esto, le quitaban los asientos, o cunques, y el agua que quedaba era Tisguin. Para diferentes sabores, alguna gente le agregaba pedazos de naranja (cuando habia), y poca miel.
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The only Mexican-American bank in the United States has opened in Houston with first-day deposits of approximately $500,000.
Pan American National Bank, located at 218 Main Street, has total assets of $1 million, including $400,-000 in capital, $400,000 in surplus and $200,000 in undivided profits. Eighty percent of the more than 200 stockholders are Mexican-American.
The Bank will concentrate its efforts on providng hitherto unavail-abl services to the local Mexican-American community. To aid the more than 150,000 Spanish-speaking people in Harris County, the bank’s staff will be bilingual.
Pan American’s president is Arnoldo Garcia, who has been in banking for 22 years and was previously with banks in San Antonio, McAllen, and Edinburg, Tex. Frank Pinedo, a Houston attorney and one of the founders, is chairman of the board.
Page 12
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Page 13


By George W. Cornell Associated Press Religion Writer
Softspoken, cheerful, Bibles in hand, they extend profuse blessings to anyone they meet and then, as if imparting a choice secret, they say: “Jesus loves you.”
These are the street Christians, the “Jesus People” or “Jesus Freaks,” who in recent months have proliferated exuberantly across the country, to the surprise and sometimes uneasiness or ordinary church folk.
“Have you met the Lord?” they ask. “It’s beautiful to walk with Him.”
Their movement started out in California and for about two years was largely concentrated in that area. But now extensions of it are cropping up from coast to coast, and from Minneapolis to Miami.
“It’s sweeping the country,” says Evangelist Billy Graham.
“It doesn’t bother me that it might be a fad. At least it is a positive fad. I’m for anything that promotes the Gospel of Jesus Christ.”
Although many well-groomed “straight kids” are involved in it, in affluent suburbs and on campuses, much of it is in the youth subculture, spurning traditional including the church.
“The church has sophisticated the gospel and added this and that and complicated it so you can’t come to know Jesus personally,” said Bill Squires, a youth in head-band and paisley tunic, passing out leaflets in Rochester, N.Y.
“Jesus is our bag. He can fill the void in your life.”
The movement is totally loose and unstructured, impossible to measure statistically, breaking out spontaneously in many places, with young people gathering to groove on the Bible, prayer and gospel rock.
“Jesus is where it’s at, man,” they say. “He’s really heavy.” They meet in parks, store fronts, church basements, homes, school yards to sway in a circle, arms around each other’s shoulders.
“Hal-le-lu-ja, hal-le-lu-ja! Praise the Lord!”
The roam the streets, from New York to Honlulu, “rapping” to pas-sersby about Jesus. They point fingers skyward, and exult, “One way! One way!
Various expressions of tie movement have sprung up almost unex-plainably in scores of cities and
Page 14
communal bands. They range from the “Children of God” in Los Angeles^ Cincinnati and Thurber, Tex., to “The Way” groups in Rye, N.Y., and Wichita, Kan.; from the “New Community” in Buffalo, N.Y., to the “Christian Liberation Front” in San Francisco; from a “Jesus Parade” in Seattle to a “Jesus Festival” in Evansville, Ind.
The movement is reflected in record teen-age crowds at evangelism rallies in Greensboro, N.C.; Nor-tonville, Ky.; Niceville, Fla.; Hamilton, Ohio; San Antonio, Tex., and in Nashville, Tenn., where the dignified First Baptist Church reverbrated with the young people’s “Jesus yell:
“Give me a ‘J’; Give me an ‘E,’” and so on through J-E-S-U-S.
Kindred groups have been reported in Detroit, Cleveland, Denver, Worcester, Mass. Milwaukee, Kansas City, Spokane, Wash., and elsewhere.
Participants usually call each other “brother” and “sister.” Many affect hippie appearance—long hair, fringed vests, faded jeans. “The Bible doesn’t tell you to cut your hair or what kind of clothes to wear,” says the Hollywood Free Paper, one of a score of underground papers that have sprung up to boost the movement.
Many involved have been social dropouts, wandering through the drug scene, and they say Jesus set them free.
“My days were in drugs, sex and lies,” write a girl, Karen, in the Buffalo Jesus newspaper, Together. “Then I met a brother who seemed to have his head together... He invited me to a Bible rap ... I asked Jesus to come into my life, and He did and it’s beautiful.”
Rock music, particularly the new religiously oriented rock, is generally part of their style, as exhibited in faith rock festivals this spring in the Hollywood Bowl and at Myrtle Beach, S.C.
Bible study, “Jesus teachins” and frequent mass baptisms, especially off Pacific beaches, are regular parts of the movement. It discounts church social action and stresses the Bible and a personal relationship to Jesus.
“We sing you a new song—total liberation, the redeeming of life to life, spiirtual rebirth, reconciliation to your God,” proclaims the Berkley, Calif., Jesus paper, “Right On.’l
The Rev. Gabriel Fiackre of Andover Newton Theological School,
says the movement’s “vocabulary resembles that of a very conservative kind of Christianity,” but it doesn’t seem directed toward restoring the institutional church.
Its countrculture garb and life style, he writes in the Christian Century, suggests that Jesus people still are in revolt against the society of their elders through a “new pietism” that ignores economic and social problems.
Apparently to them, “turning on with Jesus means dropping out of the social struggle,’! he says
The Rev. Dr. Hudson T. Amerd-ing, president of Wheaton College, an evangelical institution in Illinois, has voiced fears the movement may be superficial, but he also adds: “The Lord might be going outside the churches to accomplish some of His ends.”
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It’s Cook-out Time!
For cook-out time, have you ever thought of building a COSEDOR (Oven) such as were used by our forefathers some fifty to a hundred years ago — and as are still in use today by some people in our Southwest Indian Pueblos?
Mi their jacalitos, our forefathers built their fogones (fireplaces) of mud and rocks for preparation of foods and for warmth. To the rear of the jacal they made cosedores (ovens). These were used for preparation of foods, but in larger quantites, such as are consumed when many friends dropped in. Here were cooked whole lambs and goats. Also pumpkins and other foods.
The art to make a cosedor is simple, but requires much patience: First, decide what size the cosedor should be. Let us plan one whose round base is three feet in diameter. Mud and rocks .are placed until a height of one or two feet is reached,, and as round as possible. After this “tortilla” is finished, the top surface is smoothed to a finish, leaving it two or three days to dry. Meanwhile cedar sticks are prepared, three to four feet in length. These are tied at one end, and the sticks, on the loose ends are placed equal distance on top of the “tortilla” — giving the appearance of a tiny peak.
Mud is then applied to all the “peak” until the mud is three to four inches, or up to six inches thick. The only openings are the door, about one foot wide and one foot high, coming to somewhat of an oval point at the top. The other opening (la tronera), in the rear, serves as a resperator, damper, and is the size of an ordinary gallon can, round. After the cosedor is completed, it’s left to dry. Two or three days after, a fire is built and burned until only ashes remain. After the cosedor cools off, the ashes are cleaned out, the whole inside thoroughly dusted — now it’s ready for use. Let us invite some friends to show off our new cosedor! Fire is built, wood turns to ashes, the inside is thoroughly cleaned cut. Now, let’s test for right temperature. Be sure la tronera is covered securely. Place a piece of wool on a three-foot stick and insert into the oven. If the wool bursts into fire — the cosedor is too hot! Try again later, and if the wool becomes a golden hue —- the temperature is just right.
Cover the door, until all preparations are ready to be placed inside. Place the eats inside, leave overnight, and for the big meal next day, you have such delectibles!
In the arid Southwest, the outer surface of the cosedor does not need any protective coating against the elements; however, in climates where the weather is of a humid nature, perhaps a half-inch to inch thick of cement plaster is advisable.
MANY HAPPY COOK-OUTS!
—By Tony Candalaria
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Page 15


THE BATTLE OF ROUND MOUNTAIN
The decisive Battle of Round Mountain took place April 17, 1868, nine miles East of Tularosa, New Mexico, at “El Vallao”, approximately half-mile west of the base of Round Mountain, between Twenty-Six Tularosenos allied with Five U. S. Cavalrymen, against an estimated Two-hundred Apaches.
The official version of the U. S. Cavalry is found in General Orders No. 16, dated May 20, 1868, by the Command of Major General Sheridan, of Ft. Leavenworth. A framed copy of this is found at the Village Office of Tularosa, and one in the St. Francis de Paula Catholic Church in Tularosa.
The tiny settlement of Tularosa, founded April 7, 1862, had fought one challenge after another. The Mexican founders and settlers of Tularosa settled there to get away from wars, disorder, and the chaos of the Rio Grande, and hoped to find peace, silence, order, love and a life filled with tranquility. They found all these, but all so crude, and life with one challenge after another! The Earth, eternal time, coupled with the fierce and terrible Apaches, all growled a threat: IF YOU ARE ABLE TO LIVE, YOU SHALL LIVE, AND IF YOU HAVE THE WILL TO LIVE, YOU WILL LIVE, THEN THIS LAND WILL BE YOUR HOME!
So a decision of major importance that was forced upon these poor Mexican settlers was this: The easy way, make a truce with the Apaches, retreat to Mesilla, or encounter the Apache in mortal combat, and if the battle goes in the Apaches’ favor, only he will be left to know, — if victory is not the Apaches’, and he meets defeat, then all this Valley will be filled with Peace.
The decision was UNANIMOUS! Decision : Encounter the Apache in mortal combat to the end! All the people of the pueblo of Tularosa gathered in and around a jacalito, whose sticlk and mud walls needed repairing to keep out the elements, and keep the warmth. There, for the first time La Promesa Solemne was said by the following:
CASIMIRO ROMERO, JUAN CHAVARRIA, LUIS VARGAS, TEODOSIO CARRILLO, TEO-DOSIO CUBERO, DIONICIO GUILEZ, ZECUNDINO HERRO, JOSE GALLEGOS, MACEDONIO
Page 16
SANCHEZ, PEDRO CHAVEZ, LUCAS ESCAJEDA, EUGENIO CADENA, MATEO DURAN, JOSE DURAN, NICOLAS DURAN, TIBURCIO BENEVIDEZ, MARTIN GONZALES, SEVERO CONTRERAS, FALICIANO RAMIREZ, JUAN MIRABAL, CASIMIRO VALLES, TRINIDAD CHAVARRIA, YSABEL LOPEZ, NIEVES DURAN, ANTONIO RODRIQUEZ, PANCHO SAINZ
— this was April 16, 1868.
One might ask: “Where was the U. S. Cavalry? Why didn’t these people call on the cavalry for help?” The answer is that the Village did ask the U. S. Government for help, but the Cavalry had such a tremendous territory to patrol, that help came not always when asked for. The Tularosenos had no other TATA to look to, except the One in Heaven. So, all the Tularosenos asked TATA. DIOS for help. Capi-tan Teodosia Carrillo took command.
First “El Plan de Guerra” (War Plan) was discussed, and the agreement reached was that since the weapons at hand, coupled with powder, were extremely meager, the attack wust be made as early next morning as possibleHin lightening fashion, and must be completely and absolutely a surprise attack. The entire battle must be over and won within less than an hour, time taken to destroy strays, and to regroup. Don Teodosio received the nod of all. The Twenty-Six men proceeded to fill their powder horns with powder and small leather bags with steel and iron chippings, e-nough only for one hour’s fighting
— no water or food, except one “tortilla de maiz con verdolaga.”
All knelt down, made the Sign of the Cross and asked God:
WE NEED YOUR HELP IN THIS OUR HOUR. DEAR GOD, IF YOU WILL GRANT US VICTORY, THROUGH THE INTERCESSION OF THY SERVANT, ST. FRANCIS DE PAULA, WE WILL COMPLETE THE BUILDING OF OUR CHURCH, AND THE CHURCH WILL BEAR THE NAME OF ST. FRANCIS DE PAULA, AND FOR ALL YEARS THEREAFTER, THE E-VENT SHALL BE COMMEMORATED BY US AND ALL OF OUR DECENDANTS, AND THEIR DESCENDANTS.
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Continued
On April 16, After taking La Promesa Solemne, the Twenty-Six Tu-larosencs rode on horseback to Cottonwood Springs. The terrain immediately was thoroughly scouted and 2 lines of observers posted. Their position secured, then the first act of these men was a recheck of their weapons and supplies, then falling on their knees, prayed again to God.
The watch was relieved every hour. All sentry duty was on horseback, except the last before daylight. when eight men took positions about two-hundred yards East of camp with orders to proceed East and locate the enemy encampment as soon as possible and report all situations. Also, just in case of a sudden, unforeseen Apache^ attack these eight men would serve as a buffer.
The Army of Tularosa expected NO attack from the Apaches, this was supposed to be a completely surprise attack; however, this battle must be decisive and therefore no possibilities must be overlooked.
The Tularosenos had barely marched to El Pedregoso (the rocky place' 6-mi. East of Tularosa) when Don Teodosio received the first message of trouble. The scout.
reported: “Tropas de cavalleria avisandole a talon! ” (Cavalry troops hightailing it).
The Cavalry Troops under the Command of Sgt. Edward Glass, were invited by the Tularosenos for a Junta de Guerra. Sgt. Glass and his troops had just engaged the Apaches in battle. Two times the cavalry had been driven from its positions by almost two-hundred ferocious Apaches. Sgt. Glass was in a hurry to reach the settlement of Tularosa — PRONTO!
The Tularosenos made it clear to the Cavalry that the Army of Tularosa was in a hurry to attack the Apaches! Vamos, ya! PRONTO!
Each group was urging a direction opposite of the other! For a moment, tension mounted so high that a battle was about to ensue between the cavalry and the Tularosenos. Suddenly a resounding cry rent the air: “Apaches!” The A-paches numbered a few, were engaged, and forced to flee. This action united the Tularosenos and the U. S. Cavalry, and thus united pursued the Indians to the base of Round Mountain. There the main force of Apaches counter-attacked and forced the pursuers to take refuge at “El Vallao” (a four-walled
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adobe and rock structure, about six feet high, by about twelve feet wide by about twenty feet long, roofless).
The Battle of Round Mountain had commenced! And what a revolting situation! By about Noon, the Apaches had launched assault after assault in an effort to overwhelm the defending force. Don Teodosio urgently called Sgt. Glass, — The Cavalrymen and the Tularosenos — all felt that • the end, death was certain, that defeat was imminent. Out of this despair came a resurgence, a will to survive!? A new battle plan was decided upon.
All had noticed, throughout the morning, the Capitancillo of the A-paches. (Was it Santana, or Ca-dete, or Naiche?) Prior to any major assault, he would blow a horn as a signal for attack. The plan was simple: On all assaults, the Tularosenos fired at the on-rushing A-paches,E§ the Cavalry will concentrate on the Capitancillo.
During these hopeless moments, Don Donicio Guilez was elected to go fetch water from the nearby Rio. To accomplish this, during the retreats of the Apaches, a couple or more men would steal out of their _ positions and cut yucca plants.
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Page 17


THE BATTLE OF ROUND MOUNTAIN
These were fastened to Don Doni-cio’s body — head to foot, and thus camouflaged, reached the Rio, and fetched water.
At about two P.M., the Apache Capitancillo, now knowing that his Apaches had defeated the combined forces of U. S. Cavalry and the Army of Tularosa, led his warriors in for the kill: The Capitancilla blew his horn many times and on all sides an attack came forth, which by its full scale, meant the last.
All the Tularosenos knelt and prayed, and again recited La Promesa Solemne, while the Cavalrymen concentrated their last rounds on the Apache Leader. As the A-paches came to within range of the Tularosenos’ fire, Don Teodosio gave the order to fire. Abruptly, the attack froze! What luck! All the powder and chippings wasted! The Apaches knew the range of these rifles, by now, and knew their range was sorter now with the powder almost gone. The Capitancillo knew that the long range rifles of the Cavalry were trained on him. He became over confident and about two hours later, about four P.M., ordered another assault. This time
he over exposed himself, and leading his braves, within fifty yards, was hit by a cavalryman’s rifle shot. He fell of his horse, was helped up by two aides, which he shrugged off. The hom, pressed to his mouth, sounded the continuance of the attack, which had temporarily stopped. Then shaking a war lance with his right hand into the sky and a broad dagger on his left, and yelling (probably HA-ANCH-IGO!), hurry, Vamos! outdistanced his own warriors on the attack.
The Capitancillo was the first one to reach “El Vallao”. As he approached, a bullet crashed into his head, and the towering man fell face down, only a stretched hand away from the adobe walls. His end came as all the defenders blinded by the smoke and dust of battle, failed to see such a prime target. All except Don Teodosia, who loudly acclaiming God’s help and St. Francis de Paula’s intercession, and with all powder gone, in a decision of desparation, grabbed the rifle off a cavalryman, aimed and fired. He threw the rifle back to the cavalryman and proceeded to jump over the wall and on top of the dead
body of the Apache Leader.
Thereupon, Don Teodosio scalped the Apache. The Capitancillo wore a red bandana to hold his jet black hair in place. This bandana was used to tie the scalp to a quiote (yucca stick). The scalp was held high for all to see. As the Apache leader fell, the attack relented, and the attackers retreated, mourning their leader. They retreated and assembled on high ground and from there waved down into “El Vallao” signaling acceptance of the end of battle. The last assault had lasted perhaps a quarter of an hour.
For the Tularosenos, a battle that was planned as a complete surprise, to be lightening fashion, to last at the most one hour — with supplies only enough for such — lasted all day — an eternity — and with all the best laid plans gone completely sour and reversed — reversed to the point that militarily, the A-pache defeated the Army of Tularosa — yet the day was saved. In their Faith, the Tularosenos believed that through the intercession of St. Francis de Paula, God granted Peace to His children: A-paches, Mexicans, Anglo-Saxons. The Tularosa Valley was now
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“THE VALLEY OF PEACE.”
The Army of Tularosa and The U. S. Cavalry, seeing themselves without any provisions for further warfare, and not trusting the A-paches, all mounted and “Le Avisa-ron a Talon” !
Eighty-nine years later, in May 1957, a twenty-foot cross was e-rected on top of Round Mauntain. The inscription reads:
This Cross, La Cruz de San Francisco de Paula, erected on top of Round Mountain, is dedicated for the greater glory, and honor of God. This Cross is not only a memoriam to our forefathers, founders of Tularosa, but is a sign, the Sign of the Son of God, that we all lift our eyes to Her, and live in Peace. From the Valley of Tularosa, the Valley of Peace, from whence came the first terrible roar of the Atomic Bomb, which through its horror brought peace, from this Valley of Peace, that Peace may blossom once again for all the world. With this in mind, for our neighbors, and in testimony of our Holy Catholic Faith, we have set this Cross.
We offer to Our Lady of Guadalupe, this humble deed, that it may reach to all the ends of the world so that all temptors be conquered, and the innocents protected, the Truth prevail, the weak fortified, the fallen, raised, the lonely and sad be made happy and comforted, and that the strong and powerful be merciful, and that the fruits of this humble deed reach those ends. ! AVE MARIA PURISIMA!
—By Tony Candalaria
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Page 19


Traces of Life in Ancient Times Come to Light
These petroglyphs were saved from being submerged by the waters of the lake formed behind the Guri Dam.
The presence of man in Venezuela, 13,000 years ago and perhaps even earlier, has been ascertained through archeological discoveries in several parts of the country.
Excavations started two years ago in Taimataima, Falcon State, by Prof. J. M. Cruxent, of the Venezuelan Institute of Scientific Research, have uncovered a manmade stone dart imbedded in a mastodon, and a stone arrowhead by the fossilized pelvis of a megathorium^-a Pliocene ground sloth of gigantic size. More recently, another stone arrowhead was found near the femur of the fossilized remains of yet another huge animal of pre-historic times. The age of these items has been determined by tests with radio carbon 14.
The ponderous animals are believed to have come to drink at lakes known to exist in the area at that time. From this point on, only speculation points at what followed. Hunters, with their presence, would provoke and entice them into swamps bordering on the lake,; where the animals would be partially immobilized and unable to attack. After arrows shot at them would make them still more helpless, the hunters would finish them with wooden javelins and stone clubs. Their meat would provide food for days to nearby communities.
As excavations continue, Prof. Cruxent’s great hope is to find the remains of a man, that will shed some light on the way of human life in that remore era.
Already, some foreign anthropologists have come to see what Prof. Cruxent has unearthed in Taimataima. He feels, however, that his findings will not be readily recognized by the scientific community and that a controversy will arise about them. “The reason for such controversy,” he says, “is that traditional and orthodox
Some of the archeological objects found in Venezuela, estimated to be between 2,000 and 4,000 years old.
North American schools will not easily accept such antiquity data, which would revolutionize their entire chronology, just as they have not yet accepted Dr. Leaky’s date of 80,000 years of history for the sites discovered in Calico, California.”
The archeological search in Taimataima was located just by coincidence, after a farmer roaming about the site picked up an animal bone that was analyzed at the Research Institute and found to be thousands of years old.
Another archeological discovery was made two years ago, when the Guri dam across the Caroni River was completed and the waters of the river began to form a lake behind the dam. The men in charge of a rescue operation to save wild animals in danger of death when their habitats would be submerged, came upon a group of petroglyphs—drawings carved on rocks—-which were hurriedly removed to dry land before the water flooded their locations.
The crude drawings, engraved on granite rocks with other and harder rocks as tools, represent human and animal figures, birds, symbolic designs of undetermined meaning, and the figures of two bodies joined together like Siamese twins, which occur in several of the rocks.
Tests with carbon 14 reveal some of the drawings date from the year 3,000 B. C. and were probably made by hunting people—but who they were ^remains to he known. The mystery is the more intriguing since similar petroglyphs have been found in nine other sites in Venezuela, some of them separated by hundreds of miles, and yet, all appear to follow the same style and to have been made by the same people.
All of the 21 rocks, weighing 30 tons, were transported
Page 20
EL CONQUISTADOR


to Caracas, 435 miles from the Guri dam area, to be exhibted at the Museum of Fine Arts. One of them will be permanently left at the Museum, while the others will be taken back to Guri for further study.
Then, half way from Ciudad Guayana to the Guri dam, a shallow cave was found which contains many objects of inestimable old value—ceramic pieces, clay pots decorated with geometric designs, ornamental beads, and rough stone utensils of different types, which seem to have been made bBpeoples of various generations.
Just as interesting as the objects scattered on the floor are the paintings made with iron oxide on the back wall, representing simple human and animal figures, hands, combinations of straight and undulatingHines, circles, periods, stars.
While the pieces are similar to those found elsewhere in Venezuela, dating from the first millenium B. C. to the 14th century A. D., the paintings are estimated to have been made in the middle of the 15th century, before the discovery of America.
The cave is 65 feet deep, 20 feet high and 164 feet wide. As it faces west, the sun rays fully light the paintings from 4 to 5 in the afternoon. Considering the importance attached by Venezuelan aborigines to their religious beliefs and the coincidence of the sun rays hitting the back wall, the paintings suggest the possibility of some regligious cult.
At a place called El Morro, near Lake Valencia, four years of digging have produced a wealth of archeological
material revealing traces of two different cultures 2,200 years apart.
El Morro is a small land elevation overlooking the lake, and is believed to have been a burial ground for important personalities of the surrounding communities or a sort of shrine to worship idols typifying the gods of the inhabitants.
The material consists mostly of comparatively small personal ornaments, funeral offerings Made of mecacious flagstones, and objects of black ceramic with incrustations of feldspar and quartzite of surprising precision.
A partial report on the matter reads: “The funeral offerings, the burial systems, the decorations and the stone tools fit into the Arawak culture of the West Indies and the Amazon area. The findings are the more important since they have uncovered vestiges of black ceramic and pieces of white rock or flagstones, whose analysis date them as being 4,400 years old. It is-; evident that the people of that time were acquainted with ingenious techniques and knew how to devise their own tools, probably made of the same material as the objects found, to fashion perfectly round objects, and the tiny holes and concentric circles adorning so many items.”
The operation has been conducted under the supervision of Dr. Enriqueta Penalver, head of the Institute of Anthropology and History of Carabobo State. She and her assistants believe they have just scratched the surface of an archeological treasure and expect more exciting discoveries as the excavation work continues.
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Page 21


JOVEN ITALIANO DESEA CONOCER JOVENCITAS DE HABLA ESPANOL
Does the young Italian gentleman seek interested Spanish-speaking ladies for marriage? No, just to share some information which might improve the meals in Spanish-speaking households or nearly any household, for that matter. Joe Shutto, West 46th Avenue, Denver, has had four instructive meat cutting demonstrations since February for his customers. But so far, while Shutto’s meat men could easily handle it, none have been conducted entirely in Spanish for people who only speak Spanish. While Shutto wants to do this, and presumably Spanish-speaking homes would benefit, somehow no one seems to know quite how to go about it.
Here’s the story: Shutto explains that he chose to begin a program of education in the meat depart-I ment for customers because meat is an item on everybody’s table nearly every night of the week, and it is probably the most expensive food regularly bought. Yet the average customer has little understanding of why two or three pieces of meat which look alike have different prices, different names, and are of different values in a menu. Shutto remarked, “Why buy ground beef all the time when you may get a better value in a roast?”
The program began in February 1971 with Shutto courageously inviting 22 female home economists and representatives of consumer movements and cost buying groups to his first demonstration. He explains, “We wanted to start this somewhere, so we felt the best place to start was with women in various consumer groups.”
The response was enthusiastic, and Shutto was encouraged to continue with the clsases. However, the women were not able to help him inform the neighborhood community, partly because none of them represented Hispano groups. So by means of a sign-up sheet in the meat department, the four additional free demonstrations were arranged.
“We didn’t sponsor the demon-sttrations to gain more customers,” Shutto states. “We weren’t there to get your dollar. It was an educational thing.” But Shutto’s educational thing was still not reaching shoppers who only speak Spanish. Shutto says, “We are in a predominately low-income Spanish neighborhood. Spanish-speaking people are our customers. Why should they walk in and not know what they are getting for their food dollar?”
So in March, Shutto tried to gain the aid of the only resource which he felt might be able to help inform the Spanish-speaking people — the North Side Action Center. But they are not interested, saying that to inform the public about meat-cutting classes is not really their job.
Since that time, Shutto’s plans seem to have come to a halt for lack of someone with contacts. Shutto relys on handbills and word-of-mouth advertising (to keep prices down and still maintain a trading stamp program), yet feels he has no way at the moment to reach the people he seeks. He says, “I’m willing to stand the full expense of educating the housewife in food buying, but we need the help of some specific person or group to
find the Spanish-speaking people who would like to come.”
Shutto stated that until the Market was enlarged and remodeled this year, he had never had the opportunity to become involved in the community. However, recently he donated a week’s worth of lunches to the program at the North Side Community Center. With 30% of his employees of Mexican or Spanish descent (and maybe partly because he has “a Spanish wife”!) Joe Shutto is not apt to easily forget the community he serves. He states, “We’re planning to stay here. We have a better chance of survival than larger chain store because we feel we can offer people better service. The people of this community are down - to - earth people, and we’re willing to talk with them and listen to their problems relating to food purchases. Our store would like to become more of a neighborhood type supermarket, We are here to help our customers and to serve them just like an old-fashioned store.”
However, it should be noted that while the service aims to be of the old-fashioned type, the layout of the j store is not. Indeed, because the remodeling and expansion of the market was so distinctive, the store was recently featured in articles of two food trade publications. You might want to visit Shutto’s Market just to see probably the only grocery in the area with Spanish-style chandeliers and wrought-iron balconies.
In any case, spread the word that Joe Shutto, a yougn Italian gentleman, is seeking interested Spanish-speaking ladies. Just be sure to add the reason why!
Page 22 EL CONQUISTADOR


Produced by Dr Pepper Bottling Company of Denver, 380) Brighton Blvd., Denver, Colo, 80216 Ph.: 292-9220
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Page 23


13 LUCKY NUMBER FOR 2 MEXICAN AMERICAN CONTRACTORS
“This is a pride to our people. It shows we can do anything, given the right opportunity, and that we don’t need anything given to us except the opportunity. A lot of people will learn by this. It will give them hope and motivate them. They will realize that if we can do it, they can do it too.”
Joe Ulibarri of Ulibarri and Martinez Construction Company, currently located at 4500 West 9th Avenue, was speaking of a high-rise building. His company is in the process of constructing the building, and reached the 13th (and top) floor at the end of July.
Ulibarri related that it was just a little over a year ago when he heard that the Good Americans Organization, a non-profit group whose President was Paco Sanchez, planned to sponsor a 200-unit rent-subsidy apartment building for elderly Hispano people. Not being a bit shy, Ulibarri quickly contacted Senator Peter Dominick and Senator Gordon Allott in Washington, D. C., appealing for minority people to have the opportunity to build the high-rise.
It took confidence and courage for Ben Martinez and Joe Ulibarri to try for a job this big. This is the first high-rise in the nation being built by two minority people. Ulibarri said, “90% of the people we talked with felt it could never be done. They thought that minorities couldn’t do building contracts, because in the past minority people have always done just the heavy work - |jjj- cement pouring and brick laying. While the minorities were always in the low positions, the construction industry would die without them. Now federal jobs are required by law to have at least 10% of their workers hired from minority groups. This job, however, has 70% minority workers, and we are proud to say they include electricians, plumbers, and welders.”
Ulibarri mentioned that he is a carpenter, and there are very few minority carpenters. When asked how he was able to get started, he replied, “I took my own initiative to teach myself the trade. I couldn’t get a job because the unions barred me, so I was never given the opportunity to learn.” He had to do it himself and to make his own mistakes, and he did.
“About 15 years ago, “Ulibarri continued, “I was working on a job where I was in charge of the second
Page 24
inspection of the building. My boss asked me to hang all the doors before the inspection, and I said I would. I bought a $200 set of door tools and went to work. I hung all the doors, but not before I had ruined three to learn how!”
Just a couple of years before that Ulibarri had begun his career in building, working out of Denver. He did subcontracting and basement work, but his specialty was carpentry. When he mastered the craft, he applied for and received a license for building homes. Since then he has done work in Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming and New Mexico. He was the sub-contractor on the medical center at 20th and Wadsworth, and even tackled a-partment houses. By 1968 he had 70 people working under him.
a talented man who eventually became his partner, Ben Martinez. Martinez has been a mason contractor for 22 years in Colorado, Wyoming and New Mexico. Prior to the current one, Martinez has supervised one major high-rise: the Denver Federal Building.
As Ulibarri says, “Ben and I think alike”, and it was not long before they formed a corporation called Ulibarri and Martinez Construction Company. Despite their combined forces, however, when Ulibarri contacted Washington last year to try for this contract, the company didn’t have the bonding capacity to do a job that size. That meant that Ulibarri and Martinez had never been approved by an insurance agency for insurance a-gainst a possible 2Vi million dollar loss - - - a loss which would have to be paid by the agency if for some reason the building were not completed as contracted.
This was one whale of a problem. As Ulibarri put it, “Two apprentices were asking insurance on 2V2 million dollars.” At this point Ulibarri stressed his gratitude for the help of several people who went to bat for the company. “Ed Lucero, of the Colorado Economic Development Association, helped a lot,” he said. “CEDA does our accounting and bank work now, and in the beginning Lucero worked with the First National Bank of Denver to finance the loan. Bob Boucher of First National helped us too, partly because we were just so determined to do it. Mr. Talbert of Travelers Insurance gave us a big break on the bonding because he went back
to the Department of Housing and Urban Development and managed to have them guarantee 90% of the bonding. We have Mr. Rosenheim, Regional Director of HUD, to thank for that. Then Talbert was able to guarantee the other 10% through Travelers, and we were on our way. We had lost a month of our schedule due to the bonding problems, but we’ve caught up with it already, and we only broke ground January 15th.”
“As a matter of fact, we’re ahead of schedule. We are allowed 18 months to finish the building and we plan to do it in 14 months. Allowing for that first month lost, we hope to finish five months ahead of schedule, in April 1972, and we’re controlling our costs very well too. That’s good, since this project is being closely watched by the government. A federal man who was out here in June was so pleased he gave me a big bear hug and said, “Wait until I tell them back in Washington how well you are doing!”
We asked Joe Ulibarri how he had learned the ropes of management so well. As with his carpentry, he asserted that “I learned by experience. This job is run from the office, and actually I don’t like the office as much as the outside. So I stay inside for two or three hours, then I’m out there.”
He continued, “There are three or four hundred people involved in this job; 11 are company people. Every month we have to report to the federal government the nationalities of the people working on this job, whether they are German, English, Mexican, whatever. There are two Anglos with us, the engineer Sid Hoadly, and the General Superintendent, John Starcwich (who was also the superintendent for Brooks Towers in downtown Denver). The rest of the men are Chi-canos.
“Another employee, Dan Abeyta, is the superintendent of a project being handled by our land development company. This is separate from the high-rise, and is called the Alma (The Soul) Subdivision, located at 92nd and Huron in Thornton. We’ve been working on the Alma Subdivision since January of this year, and everything has been approved — a nursing home, shopping center and apartment building — all built by us.”
Ulibarri and Martinez are also
EL CONQUISTADOR


—By Lee Schroeder
one of the first minority contractors for the 42-year-old organization called LULAC, League of United Latin American Citizens. LULAC is a housing organization responsible for building low-income Hispano residences, but in the past the jobs have been handled by Anglos. Ulibarri, as Chairman for the Colorado Chapter, notes that now this will not be necessary, because there are many more minority contractors a-vailable. His firm is also a member of the United Latin-American Businessmen’s Association.
Ulibarri says, “I like what we’re doing, even though it’s a 24-hour-a-day job. I live with it, dream with it, and find it’s a constant fight with constant rewards. Years ago, (with my strong back and weak mind!) I used to go through downtown Denver looking at the high-rises and wanting to build my own. Now we’re doing it.” He winds up with a ready smile, “Ulibarri and Martinez Construction Company wants to be one of the best; not the biggest, but the best.”
Pictured above (left to right): Ben Martinez, John Starwich and Joe Ulibarri
Page 25
EL CONQUISTADOR


Our Lady of Guadalupe, Patroness of Mexico, whose sacred image is venerated in the Basilica of Guadalupe. The Basilica is situated north of Mexico City and was built on the same spot, where, according to tradition, the Virgin appeared to Juan Diego in the 16th Century. She is worshipped not only in Mexico but also throug-out Catholic America and in many nations of Europe and the Orient. Her Feast' Day is celebrated on the 12th of December, when thousands of people from all over the country make the pilgrimage to her shrine.
Indian dancers during the festivities in honor of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
EL CONQUISTADOR


ALGO DISTINTO PARA SU MESA
MEXI ME AT LOAF 2 pounds ground beef
1 egg slightly beaten V* cup minced onion
1Vi cups tomato & chili salsa
2 cups taco shells crushed
tsp salt 'A tsp pepper V2 cup fat
Mix ingredients thoroughly in order listed except for the fat.
Shape into loaf and place in greased baking pan. Pan in moderate over 350°F - about 1 Vt hours. Baste meat every 15 minutes with a mixture of % cup fat and 1 cup boiling water. Serves 8
GUACAMOLE DIP
4 ripe avocados
Vz cup canned tomatoes Vi cup chopped onion 1 tsp. lemon juice 1 small clove garlic
5 roasted green chili peppers diced. 1 tsp. salt
1 cup shredded lettuce Mash Avocados
Add remaining ingredients & season. Serve on shredded lettuce with corn chips.
CHILIQUILLAS CASSEROLE
1 Vi lbs. pork - diced
2 tbsp. powdered red chili
1 tsp. salt
IVi cloves garlic
2 cups water
1 Vi cups shredded Longhorn cheese
2 small chopped onions 1 cup shredded lettuce
1 cup sliced pitted olives Brown meat & seasonings in small amount of shortening.
Add chili powder & water. Cook for 50 minutes.
In baking dish, arrange alternate layers of cheese, meat mixture and
tortillas, ‘(save Vi cup cheese for topping).
Bake in moderate oven for 45 mins. Top with lettuce, onions, cheese and olives. Serves 8
CHILI RELLENOS
4 eggs 1 tsp. salt
1 cup longhorn cheese Vi cup chopped onion Vi diced tomato
8 large roasted chilies (whole)
2 Vi tbsp cooking oil Vi cup flour
1 cup canned tomatoes with chili Saute onion in small amount cooking oil. Add tomatoes & cheese Separate eggs - Beat whites until fluffy. Fold in yokes & season; stirring lightly until well blended Stuff peppers with tomato & cheese mixture & dip in flour and then roll in egg.
Fry in hot shortening until golden brown. Serve with preheated tomatoes and chili.
QUESADILLAS Com Tortillas Cheese
Run tortillas through cold water. Heat over hot grill.
Fold and add favorite kind of cheese - Heat on both sides until melted.
BEEF TACOS 2Vi cups shredded roast beef Vi tsp. Cominos (seasoning)
1 tsp. salt
1 onion finely chopped
2 cups shredded cheese
1 Vi cups shredded lettuce Vi cup tomato sauce 12 Taco shells - dry, folded 1 cup Taco sauce In 12’ ’ skillet -
Mix roast beef, cominos, tomato
sauce & salt and cook for 20 minutes over medium heat.
Spoon filling into 12 taco shells. Garnish with cheese, lettuce and onion.
Top with Taco sauce & serve
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Page 27


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'DENVER 33' PERSEVERE ON PILGRIMAGE
Picture a bulky yellow school bus flipped over on its back with its wheels in the air. Then, instead of the traditional lily to grace its stilled axle chest, picture a grape vine springing forth in renewed hope.
A bus doesn’t usually roll over when it dies, but the “Denver 33” can tell you that it might as well, for a dead bus has very little to offer even right side up. The 33 persons, mostly Chicano, were on their way from Denver to San Jose, California, to lend their support to the Feista Campesina, a giant rally on behalf of the United Farm Workers’ Organizing Committee. One of the major goals of the trip was to hand Cesar Chavez or one of his top aides a $1,000 cash donation to support UFWOC’s cause. But in southwestern Wyoming, nearly 900 miles from their destination, the school bus from Our Lady of Guadalupe parish in Denver threw a rod and died.
From such an end sprang our grape vine of hope, leaf by leaf. First, Father Tom McCormick and 22-year-old Miss Mary Ann Alonzo, leaders of the pilgramage, hitched a ride to‘ Evanston, the nearest town. Then they found a tow-truck operator who could haul the bus with a heavy rig. He was indeed a rare find, since he charged a minimal fee. Another leaf popped out when Father McCormick happened on an old seminary classmate of his who was able to provide a recently-built parish hall for the group to bed down in.
However, the real work of producing a vine of hope had just begun. Worried, urgent phone conversations with the UFWOC staff in Denver prompted boycott leader Chester Ruiz and others to work furiously against time to arrange new transportation to San Jose. The catch was that the group still had to make it to Salt Lake City, 80 miles away, to take advantage of the arrangements.
Presto! A new leaf. Father McCormick found that seminary provided more than one trusty old friend. In Salt Lake City one of these friends dispatched a school bus from Our Lady of Lourdes parish to pick up the Denver 33 in Evanston. Was the worst over yet?
No; for awhile it looked again as
if the vine were withering, until the group managed to locate a place which would rent them two, red, stake-sided flatbed trucks. Fourteen hours and 800 miles later, the pilgrims arrived campesino-style at their temporary home in a San Jose Church, San Jose, just in time to wash up, change clothes, and head for the fiesta at San Jose State College stadium (which after such a trip, seemed approriately named “Spartan.”)
The fruit of the vine ripened when staff members and supporters of the UFWOC Denver boycott office toured the 195-acre retreat in La Paz which is soon to become the new headquarters, and had two meetings with Cesar Chavez. With warmth and affection, he complimented the group for staying with the pilgrimage despite overwhelming problems. He noted that for a common cause, “You subject yourself to discipline. Take your group. The only reason you guys ever got to San Jose was because you worked together for the common good.” At La Paz Cesar Chavez quietly spoke about his philosophies of social action and his emphasis on nonviolence not as a tactic, but as a basic Christian principal.
Mary Ann Alenzo, strong leader of the pilgrimage feels that the value of the trip was in sensetising and focusing attention on the plight of farmworkers across the nation.
A grape vine, especially one grown in California, has developed much meaning in the last decade. But for the Denver 33, the symbolic grape vine of hope and pride which sprang from a dead bus indicates strength and accomplishment.
—By Lee Schroeder
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Page 28
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Do You Believe In Non-Violence?
Do You Believe in Social Change for the Poor?
CESAR CHAVEZ and The Farmworkers Invite You to Work for Then^|^ Fall.
You will receive Strikers' Wages -S($5.00 a week)
Room and Board plus the satisfaction of helping to build a strong union and a new future for farmworkers.
UNITED FARMWORKERS ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Boycott Headquarters: 3138 Humboldt Street 222-4371 534-8351 AFL-CIO
EL CONQUISTADOR
Page 29


OVER SO GIGANTIC DEPARTMENTS IN EACH STORE. ARE A FEW:
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* FAMILY SHOES
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* STATIONARY
* HOBBY SHOP
* PHARMACY
* HEALTH & BEAUTY AIDS
* SPORTING GOODS
* PET SHOP
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Page 30


LA PASTORELA MEJICANA
En aquellos anos, cuando nacio Nuestro Senor Jesus, El Nino Jesus, andaban por los montes Los Pastores cuidando sus overjas. Pasaron los anos, Los Espanoles venieron al nuevo mundojfl y con el tiempo formaron el Coloquio, conocido como LA PASTORELA MEJ| CANA, que nos da la historia del Nacimiento. Escuche el primer verso:
CUANDO POR EL ORIENTE SALE LA AURORA CAMINABA LA VIRGEN NUESTRA SENORA Despues de el equivilente de 400 versos, viene el ultimo verso, o ultimos Dos Versos:
ADIOS JOSE ADIOS MARIA ADIOS MI MANSO CORDERO PRESTAMOS VIDA Y SALUD PARA EL ANO VENIDERO 1CHANOS TU BENDICION A TODOS Y AL ERMITANO PRESTANOS VIDA Y SALUD PARA LEGAR AL OTRO ANO FIN
Si Usted y suyos decean ver y leer El Coloquio de La Pastorela Mejicana en EL CONUIQSTADOR que estara de venta para los primeros dias de Deciembre 1971, favor de completar su subcripcion (bajo) y mande $2.00 (yearly subscription rate).
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Si decea LA PASTORELA MEJICANA en forma de cuadernito indique
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Page 31


RECOMMENDED READING
Below is printed a list of books which may be of interest to those interested in the Mexican American, his culture and his emerging awareness of where he has been, where he is, and where he is going. Since we believe that “truth is stranger than fiction” and makes far more interesting reading, our list will include only books which are non-fiction.
AMONG THE VALIANT, Raul Morin, Borden, 1963, $5.50.
NORTH FROM MEXICO Carey McWilliams, Greenwood, 1968, $11.25. Also available in paperback.
DELANO, John Dunne, Farrar, 1967, $4.95. Also available in paperback.
LA RAZA: THE MEXICAN AMERICANS, Stan Steiner, Harper, 1970, $8.95.
THE MEXICAN AMERICAN PEOPLE, Grebler-Moore-Guzman, The Free Press, 1970, $14.95.
MEXICAN AMERICAN YOUTH: FORGOTTEN YOUTH AT THE CROSSROADS, Celia Heller, Random, 1966, $1.95.
SAL SI PUEDES: CESAR CHAVEZ AND THE NEW AMERICAN REVOLUTION, Peter Matthiessen, Random, 1969, $6.95.
SPIDERS IN THE HOUSE & WORKERS IN THE FIELD, Ernesto Galarza, Notre Dame Press, 1969, $7.50.
TIJERINA AND THE COURTHOUSE RAID, Peter Nabokov, New Mexico U. Press, 1969, $6.95.
MERCHANTS OF LABOR, Ernesto Galarza, McNally &: Loftin, 1964, $5.00. Also available in paperback.
A GUIDE FOR THE STUDY OF THE MEXICAN AMERICAN PEOPLE IN THE U.S., Feliciano Rivera, Spartan Books, 1969, $4.95.
ZAPATA AND THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION, John Womack Jr., Knopf, 1968, $10.00.
WITH THE EARS OF STRANGERS, Cecil Robinson, Arizona U. Press, 1963, $4.95 (paper).
LA RAZA: FORGOTTEN AMERICANS, Julian Samora, Notre Dame U. Press, 1963, $4.95.
FORGOTTEN PEOPLE, STUDY OF NEW MEXICANS, George I. Sanchez, Calvin Horn, 1967, $5.75.
BENITO JUAREZ, BUILDER OF A NATION, Emma Sterne, Knopf, 1967, $3.95.
SPANISH-SPEAKING GROUPS IN THE UNITED STATES, John Burma, Duke U. Press, 1954, $4.00.
HEALTH IN THE MEXICAN AMERICAN CULTURE, Margaret Clark, University of California Press, 1959, $6.50.
THE MEXICAN WAR, A COMPACT HISTORY, Charles Dufour, Hawthorn, 1968, $6.95.
DISCO-LANDA Record Distributors
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Rudy Garcia Proprietor
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Page 32
EL CONQUISTADOR


WORD FROM EXPERT
Smiles Reveal Your Feelings
LONDON (UPI)—-The way a person smiles reveals much about his emotions, a British psychiatric researcher says.
Dr. Ewan Grant of Birmingham University’s department of psychiatry has for the past seven years been studying how humans communicate without words.
He has listed more than 100 “face to face” signals like a twitch of the eyebrows, a frown or the lowering of the eyelids. But it is the smile, he believes that probably tells most.
“While it is easy enough to lie vvith words, it is extremely difficult to disguise true emotions coming through in nonverbal signals such as smiles,” he said.
“The way we use these signals can give extremely valuable information about the way we are thinking. The mouth is frequently used to express emotions and it is very difficult to disguise themflSB
Grant’s research is expected to help doctors see how psychiatric patients react to certain questions about their lives—not only in what they say, which could be disguised, but tnrough their non-verbal signals.
“It wi|| also be useful to husbands and boy friends,* he said. “To find out if she really means it when she safe ‘yes, darling, that would be lovely,’ don’t listen to her—watch her lips. That is where the truth will lie.”
Grant has listed five basic types of smiles.
The upper smile, or “how do you do” smile, which is seen briefly in formal meetings and
when family members greet one another. Only the upper teeth are uncovered and the mouth is generally just slightly open.
The simple smile, what Grant calls “a nonsocial smile, which occurs when a person is happy by himself.” The lips curve back and up but remain together so there is no display of teeth.
The lip-in smile, a coy version of the upper smile, has the lower lip drawn in between the teeth. “It implies that the smiler feels in some way subordinate to the person he or she is meeting,” Grant said.
The broad smile “is the one you really want to see,” Grant said. “This occurs in situations of pleasurable excitement.” The mouth is open, the lips curled back and both upper and lower teeth can be seen.
The oblong smile is one to beware of, Grant says. “It occurs when the smiler pretends he or she is enjoying something when they’re really not. Like when a girl gets too much attention from an amorous drunk or is being chased around the office by "her boss.”
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EL CONQUISTADOR
Page 33


EL AMIGO RECORDS
INFAL RECORDS, INC.
2144 Champa St. 892-7141
Evelyn's Draperies
Mr. & Mrs. Harry Sherman 1501 So. Pearl 744-6439
LA COCINA FINEST MEXICAN FOOD 50 Wilcox Castle Rock, Colo.
Capitol Gulf Service
Larry and Lee Ashley 1301 Speer Blvd.
Len's Barnum Shoes LEN ARCHULETTA 77 Knox Court
DATURA SINCLAIR ED MARTINEZ & SON 1399 Littleton Blvd.
Thelma Nelson Private School Preschool, Kindergarten First through Fifth Grades 1400 Ironton 366-2243
Strike and Spare Shop
King Louie Apparel Hilton Apparel
2057 Champa St. 255-8111
BEST WISHES from
MASTERCRAFT
4881 IRONTON 343-8880
Pikes Peak National Bank OPEN SATURDAY Colorado Springs, Colorado
Rogers Gl Thrift Mart
* Furniture * Bikes
* Baby Items * Appliances
Ask For Roger or Mary 3190 West Alameda 934-3024
HERMANS
Wholesale & Manufacturing Jewelers Herman Ulibarri
506 - 15th St. 255-6490
PHIL'S GROCERY
Come - Get Acquainted 6:30 a.m. - 7 p.m.
7I8 West 3rd Ave.
Nate's Superette
* Canned Goods * Fruits
* Meats * Vegetables
Paul Brown
2959 Wyandot 477-9867
Vic Wise Auto Body Complete Body Repair 3654 Marion St. 255-4133
6th Avenue Conoco COMPLETE AUTO REPAIR Service Calls 6th Ave. & Santa Fe 255-4076
TIRE SHOP, LTD. DAVE WOOD 44 South Federal
Cloth Every Day's Dream with the Substance of Action
EDUCATION OF THE MEXICAN AMERICANS
Education of the Mexican American, by Rueben E. Aguire, deals specifically with the language development of Mexican American children. The book informs readers of the problems Mexican American children encounter upon entering school. It explains methods that have been used effectively in overcoming many of the difficulties.
Recommended for the prospective teacher and those interested in the education of the Mexican American, the book also provides a brief insight of how the Spanish culture has influenced the Mexican American child.
Arte
Una de las culturas mas an-tiguas de la regidn andina y la mas antigua de Bolivia es la denominada Chiripa, cuyos restos se pueden ver en la peninsula de Taraco, en las riberas del lago Titicaca. El periodo principal de esta cul-tura data de unos 800 anos antes de Cristo. La ceramica chiripa presenta decoraciones geometricas con motivos es-calonados en rojo y amarillo. El sitio arqueologico mas im-portante del Altiplano es Tia-huanaco en donde se desarro-llo una notable civilizacion el aho 600 antes de Cristo hasta el 1,000 de la Era Cristiana. Las ruinas de Tiahuanaco figu-ran entre las mas notables del continente americano.
A JOB BEGUN IS
HALF WAY DONE
DO YOUR BEST TO BE THE BEST
Page 34
EL CONQUISTADOR


AZTEC CALENDAR
THE CLASSIFYING TERM FOR THIS CALENDAR IS "CUAUHXICALLl" (EAGLE'S BOWL),BUT IT IS UNIVERSALLY KNOWN AS THE AZTEC CALENDAR,OR SUN STONE,AS THE MONUMENT WAS DEDICATED TO THIS DEITY. ON THIS HUGE BASALTIC MONOLITH, HAVING AN APPROXIMATE WEIGHT OF 25 TONS, THE AZTEC CALENDAR WAS CARVED. ITS DIAMETER IS 3.60 METERS.
IT WAS FOUND BURIED ON THE SOUTH-EAST CORNER OF THE ZOCALO (THE MAIN SQUARE)OF THE CITY OF MEXICO, ON DECEMBER 17 TH, 1760. THE VICEROY OF THE NEW SPAIN AT THE TIME WAS DON JOAQUIN DE MONSERRAT, MARQUIS OF CRUILLAS. AFTERWARDS IT WAS TAKEN TO THE METROPOLITAN CATHEDRAL AND PLACED ON THE WEST WALL OF THE TOWER. WHERE IT REMAINED UNTIL THE YEAR OF 1885, WHEN PRESIDENT GENERAL PORFIRIO DIAZ ORDERED ITS TRANSFER TO THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY AND HISTORY. DURING THE REIGN OF THE 6TH AZTEC MONARCH,AXAYACATL,IT WAS THAT THIS STONE WAS CARVED AND DEDICATE** T0 THEIR PRINCIPAL DEITY, THE SUN, WHICH HAS BOTH A MYTHOLOGICAL AND ASTRONOMICAL CHARACTER.
EHECATONATIUH (SUN OF WIND), "SECOND EPOCH, AT THE END OF WHICH HUMANITY WAS DESTROYED BY STRONG WINDS THE GODS TRANSFORMED HUMAN BEINGS INTO APES, IN ORDER THAT THEY MIGHT CLING BETTER AND NOT BE CARRIED AWAY BY THE HURRIACANES,
THUS ORIGINATING THE SIMILARITY BETWEEN THE HUMAN RACE AND THE SIMIANS..."
THIS WAS BECAUSE LARGE FORESTS HAD BEEN FOUND RAZED BY TORNADOES.
TONATIUH'S FACE (THE FACE OF THE SUN) WHO WAS THE LORD OF HEAVEN, AROUND WHICH TOOK PLACE ALL DAILY OR PERIODIC PHENOMENA. THE CROWN , NOSE PENDANT, EAR - RINGS, AND NECKLACE , ARE MOST LUXURIOUS AND ARE THE ORNAMENTS PROPER OF THIS DEITY. THE HAIR WAS FAIR DUE TO THE GOLDEN APPEARANCE OF THE STAR; THE WRINKLES ON THE FACE WERE TO SHOW GREAT MATURITY OR AGE ; AND THE TONGUE, LIKE AN OBSIDIAN KNIFE STUCK OUTWARD INDICATED THE NEED OF BEING FED WITH BLOOD AND HUMAN HEARTS.
THE SIGN XIUHUITZOLLI (SYMBOLS OF THE EAST),
COAT OF ARMS WHICH WAS PLACED ON THE CORPSES OF THE NOBLEMEN AND BRAVE WARRIORS FOR THEIR FUNERALS
PLATE OF THE CONSECRATION AN DEDICATION OF THIS STONE WITH THE DATE 13-ACATL (13-CANE )
EQUIVALENT TO THE YEAR OF 1479 A. D.
THE ORNAMENTS OF CHALCHIHUITES (PRECIOUS) ARE MADE WITH JADE PLATES HAVING FIVE PERFORATIONS AND WERE ATTACHED BY MEANS OF RED LEATHER THONGS, AND FEATHER TIPS ENDING IN A PEARL. THIS IS THE MOST MAGNIFICENT ORNAMENT AND IT MEANS: LIGHT, STRENGTH AND BEAUTY.
OCELOTONATIUH (SUN OF JAGUAR),
WAS THE "FIRST AND MOST. REMOTE OF THE FOUR COSMOGONIC EPOCHS, IN WHICH THE GIANTS WHO HAD BEEN CREATED BY THE GODS, LIVED. THEY DID NOT TILL THE SOIL AND LIVED IN CAVES , ATE WILD FRUITS AND ROOTS, AND WERE FINALLY ATTACKED AND DEVOURED BY THE JAGUARS..."
THE BASIC EPOCH OF THE AZTECS GOES BACK TO THE QUATERNARY, SINCE THEY DISCOVERED BONES OF PRE - DILUVIAN ANIMALS BURIED IN DEEP GULLIES BELOW DENSE LYTHOSPHERIC LAYERS.
QUI AUHTONATlUt (SUN OF FIRE RAIN., "THIRD COSMOGONIC EPOCH, IN WHICH EVERYTHING WAS EXTINGHISHED BY THE RAIN OF LAVA AND FIRE.
MEN WERE TRANSFORMED AT THIS TIME INTO BIRDS, THUS SAVING THEMSELVES FROM THE SLAUGHTER..." THEY JUSTIFIED THIS BELIEF DUE TO THE MANY SIGNS OF VOLCANIC ATIVITIES IN OUR TERRITORY AND ALSO ON ACCOUNT OF THE DISCOVERY OF HUTS AND SKELETONS UNDER LAYERS OF LAVA AND ASHES
SNOUT OVER THE XIUCOATL'S HEAD WITH THE SEVEN SIGNS OF THE CONSTELLATION OF THE PLEIADES
XIUHTECUTLI (GOD OF THE TURQUOISE),REPRESENTED HERE AS GOD OF NIGHT. THE NOSE PENDANT AND THE EAR-RING ARE THE ORNAMENTS PROPER OF THIS DEITY; THE FACE HALF CONVERED WITH A VEIL , SIGNIFYING NIGHT DARKNESS.
IT HAS A TONGUE LIKE AN OBSIDIAN KNIFE AND TURNED OUTWARDS AS IN A CONSTANT STRUGGLE WITH TONATIUH (THE SUN)
WHOM HE FOUGHT FOR THE DURATION OF THE NIGHT
TONATIUH (THE SUN),IN PROFILE AND WITH THE SAME ORNAMENTS APPEARING IN THE CENTER OF THE CALENDAR, AND THROWING SMOKE UPWARDS, AS A SIGN OF GREAT ANGER BECAUSE OF THE DAILY STRUGGLE WITH THE GOD OF NIGHT BOTH GODS DRESSED THEMSELVES UP WITH THE XIUCOATLS, MYTHIC AND CELESTIAL SERPENTS WHEREBY THEY ACQUIRED GREATER STRENGTH AND AUTHORITY. WITHIN THOSE XIUCOATLS ARE ALL THE CHRONOLOGICAL SIGNS, INDICATING THUS THAT EVERYTHING OCCURS IN THE UNIVERSE DURING THE DAY .AND THE NIGHT.
ATONATIUH (SUN OF WATER), "MEANS THE FOURTH EPOCH, AT THE END OF WHICH EVERYTHING PERISHED BECAUSE OF TERRIFIC STORMS AND TORRENTIAL RAINS THAT COVERED THE EARTH.
REACHING THE PEAKS OF THE HIGHEST MOUNTAINS.
THE GODS CHANGED MEN INTO FISHES TO SAVE THEM FROM THIS UNIVERSAL DELUGE..."
THE DISCOVERY
OF DIFFERENT FOSSILIZED SPECIES OF MARINE FAUNA ON THE TOP OF THE MOUNTAINS, CREATEO THE BASIS FOR THIS BELIEF.
PRECOLOMBIAN MEXICO
This splendid sculpture was discovered in the 18th Century under the pavment of the Main Square of Mexico (today called Constitution Square). Carved in stone with a diameter of 3.35 meters, it weighs 24 tons. It was first placed at the base of the west tower of the Cathedral and later transferred to the National Museum. It is also called SUN STONE because the sun god TONATIUH appears in the center. Around him are the symbols of the four suns or ages of the Earth, represented by ECHECATL, god of the wind; TLALOC, god of rain; CHAL-CHIUTLICUE, god of water, and the Fire Sun. The first inner ring is divided into 20 days of the month. The sun rays extend radially from its center. On the outer circle, XIUHVOATL is represented by two serpents, and on the upper end is a date: 13 CANES (1479 of our Era).
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Page 35


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Full Text

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MAKING IT HAPPEN ... 1971

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In a few short years an entir ely new conAnother IT!ajor operational 'Change came cept o f restaurant operation has developed about as a result' of this experimentation into one of the most successful restaurant when Mr. Steak abandoned its original cafefranchise businesses in the United S , tates . teria line .concept and instityted waitres!t Qua lity control in food , personnel and manservice . A three-month test at the ' littleton agement has contributed in no small part t<;> Mr. Steak restaurant , had convinced th e r apidly growing number of Mr. Steak ment . that , with theit growing national at-resta u rants in operation . This growth was fluenc ,e, the di(le-out public actually prefers preceded by considerable research and study, waitress service . Arwther innovation about le arni ng what it takes to make the ideal food this same time was the addition of sands erv'ce operation . Experts have called the Mr. wiches to the Mr. Stea k menu . This was operation on a continuing basis, reporting their observations and suggestions to the franc;hise Associate as a result of their review of 11,is weekly ' firrancial sta'temeni provided by the Franchise ' Accou ' ntants Division : ' Recd.gnizing _ th!l importance of profes. 'sional has spared no effort in . building its training prog ram at Mr. Steak in Del')ver, its . sj:hool for restaurant training. Here eaG:h new Mr. Steak manager S te a k gr owth in food service " phenomenal". particularl y W'elcome,d by custom• practical as well as theoretical res . tau rant and business tr-aining in OJ II of the a;eas ' n ' e cessary to • the business .' This training M r . Steak restaurants have the widest ape.rs, many o f whom do n o ! care for a ' complete p eal t o the largest dine out , markettbe dinner at lunch time . , ' A m encan family . Its priced steaks, service comp a n .ies for e x ample, appeal to the middle ground of Jo assist Mr. Steak in the ' development of tonsumers , prices high enough to insure their franchise package. One these, qualit y of product, l o w enough to provide Mar k eting and Inc., a resgood f amily dining w it hin modest budgets in taurant supply warehouse and dis tribution clean, modern surroundings . For thi s reasoJ:J facility, was able to eUect e onsist ent quality Mr. Steak has becom e known as "The Famcontrol and cons i der a b i e savings Mr. ily Place". , Steak restaurant s throu g h tlleir negoliation of' It was not by accident that this p ew con national contracts . The mana&ement of Mr: cept came about . Many months ofresearch S t eak had noted that certa1n ot)1er franchi ; e and analysis were invested before the first operations had provid e d ' incomplete . equip-pilot operation was opened in Colo r ado ment packages that lack many of the i tems Spr ings , Colorado, in late 1962 . Far from a necessar y for a successful operation . Nati onal d e sirabl e location for a restaurant' , . this site Marketing ' and thrpugh large volume ; had seri>e d four other busines ses from a gapurchases , was able t o offer Mr. Steak afl the rage to a supermarket and was known as essential food servic e rtems for a comple'te " failure corner". The decor of t his firs t' Mr. equipm e nt package a t c;onsiderable savings Steak restaurant involved nothi ng more a usand th'ese savirygs tould then be reflect e d in picious than a good paint job for the inte rior the franc hise packag e . : which had a seating capacity of ohly 66. The Anothe r of service M / $ pilot project featured such entree s as a $1.19 Development , Inc. , was. pfaceEl unaer . consirloin steak of a , comm e rcial or utility grade tract to in s pec't and e xpedi.te t he construction beef, baked potato , tossed green salad and of the Mr. Steak building s . their expertise ranch house toast . Th. e steaks, peed less to , contribu ted a great deal to the ' growth of Mr. say, haq to be tenderized. This steak house 'Steak as wel l as many subsequent . " lab " helped prove the concept and even in the Mr. Steak resta urant design. sparked a rash of $1. 19 steak houses in the Franchise Ac countants , Inc.; another inde-' Denver area, a concept that has slnce spread . cbmp aQy; was permitted to offer the nationally . . . Mr. Steak fra n c hisees computerized restauThe -second Mr. Steak was esta blished at rant accoun t ing , weekly p.rofit .md los s s tateAlbuquerque, New Me:.:ico , in 1963 . . The._ Mr. • . ments, and tax ass-istance o(l a contract basis. Steak image soon outgrew both of these early , Esta blishing a solid accounting line of cbni,experimenis, to f irst free stand m u nicafioris thi s early . stage proved to be Mr. Steak building , erected in 1963 in little:an extremel y w ,ise decision b)l the Mr. ton , Colorado, a sui;urb o( D.enver . This , m a nagement. 1 • ' • re' presents seve'ra]'weeks•of , ve'ry hard work ' _ for the trainee , and he takes his ' graduation from tAr . sbribusiy . • ; Today' tbere are (wo Mr. Steak res tau ' r a nt . models....! the MOD. 150 with approxi , ni4tely . 128 . seats ' and the MOO lOO with . , approx ' imatelv 100 seals (within limi-tat ions , s e.ltir]g is fl(\xible) . Th' e greater avail ability of sites in smaller corrlll)unities led to the development of the smaller model (MOD . HiOlMr. restaurant , opening up a whole new market po{ential. ' ' Despite the facrtha't the concept ha. s been proven , Mr. Steak is neitherirv:fulging itself in relaxed satisfa c tion nor being fulled into an ' acceptance-of the status quo . Mr. Steak oper ates an the bas ic prindple•. of cooperation ana rnterctiafige or with tbe franchise ' Associate . Working in Mr. Steak and the fra,nchise Associate offer thl! p , ublic a lHJiform quality COncept , enhancing the oppertu.nity 'for a mutually and ' profitabLe busiQeSs.' Review , research and testing are constant activ.ities of the Mr. Steak managemenf to be certain that this . franchise , operation not only maintains its reputation for quality 'but also , that it can remain flexible in order to . meet the continually changing needs and desires of the pcblic. In addition , Mr. Steak ' s franch!seAssoci<\tE!s are constantly kept informed of improvements and new developments in food service in order to ! O maiota ' in a pr(ifitable operation . specially designed , buildi,,ng, coristr,ucted bf ' , Toe pu_\lli t ' has come tC? idef1tify the . MJ . . pre-stressed c oncrete .shells proved to be Steakrestau dmts with high standards of qual : inefficient in terms of costs a11d. ity for ft:JOd and. s ' ervice at moderate prices ... • ' ' ' /.),; ""' J '<; :r: ' ' During ' the several .years 'of its In ofder .,to mi,!in.tain lhes,e high standards, . , op e ratio ' n many equipment ana construction Mr. aCQUired by me r ger the three a.foreexperimentswere to be , conducted here . mentioned J:Ompanies, installing them . a.s First , a new building format , the 'fore[uf1ner . divisions within the Mr . . E:orpQration as of today's free-standing , Mr. Steak building the Product Sales and Service Division, the .' ',., MR. STEAK GARY E. CRtJMBAKER Tr.aining/Supervisor was designed to eSta_blish an image in the' Reat Estate and , Projects .DiviSion afld the ' minds of the public; this design , , proved not Divi s ion . Mr.' only to be economical but more- • . Steak's <1bility .to compl!!te ser\>i'ce Mr. Steak Tr.aining Center • ..\4th. & Sheridan t?env;r, Colorado 8P2:l1-:Ph\)n\l 42.4-6131 appealing and more functLonp.l as "Yell, and to its frand\ise Assedates . had become ' a construction time reduced considerably. reality. Through i!s Rei! I .EState and Projects , At the same _time , the management decicjed ' Division, 'Mr . .Steak . eva!uates sites , and proto forego the un1=ertainty anp inconsistency vide S periodic ' . on-site ,of • of servin g chemically tenderized steaks. ,the structioh . l}fter s;ornpletion of the • challenge became to find the nieans to PfO the Product pro, . vide uniform quaUty beef to all the Mr. Steak vide ' s basic food <1nd a restaurants to , be built across the nation. Mr. portio[! and qua'!ify-controlled b 'asis a t ; Steak has :mce met by shipprices purcn: asin , g ping only naturally agea USDA Cho1ce power . . When the franch1se s from their headquarters in Denver each 'Mr. operrsto the public , , operadn,g ";;r . Steak r , estaw'ant . ' These cuts ; Division , ha ' already , . ' ' are pertion_-con'trolled and il'ldividuall. y . trained the ' mqnager , a\sists ln ' ' wrapped , insuring flavor and . tender11,ess. , opening . the restaurant and . thE! , • . ' , ' ' , '• ' . . , , -.. . ' . , . ' . '

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EL CONQUISTADOR ••• 1971 1435LAMAR LAKEWOOD. COLORADO Official Publication of AZTEC ACTION ASSOCIATION VOLUME 2 NO. 3 SUBSCRIPTION $2.00 PUBLISHED QUARTERLY Dedicated to retaining the beauty and value of the Hispano Culture by encouraging the appreciation and advancement of the heritage of the Chicano people .of the Southwest. TABLE OF CONTENTS MAKING IT HAPPEN DENVER SCHOOLS AND THE HISPANOS THE BATTLE OF ROUND MOUNTAIN OUR LADY OF GUADALUPE BRUJERIA 'DENVER 33' PERSEVERE ON PILGRIMAGE SHUTTOS BULL FIGHTS Page 2 16 26 10 28 22 8 EXPLORING NEW MEXICO II AZTEC CALENDAR . 35 EL INDIO CHISTOSO 12 ALGO DISTINTO PARA SU MESA 27 RECOMMENDED READING 32 JESUS PEOPLE 14 IT'S COOK OUT TIME 15 TRACES OF LIFE IN ANCIENT TIMES COME TO LIGHT . • . • • • • • • 20 13 LUCKY NUMBER FOR TWO MEXICAN AMERICAN CONTRACTORS 24 LA PASTORELA MEJICANA • • . . • 31 GIL LOPEZ, Editor FRANK ZERTUCHE, Associate Editor RUDY SALAS, Public Relations TONY CANDALARIA, Staff Wrirer DORIS SIEGERT, Staff Photographer CONTRIBUTING WRITERS JOHN CONKLIN LEE SCHROEDER EL CONQUISTADOR RICH MAES DR. DANIEL VALDEZ RUEBEN E. AGUIRE BRNIE LOPEZ From the Editor MAKING IT HAPPEN! For too long Mexican American has been deprived access to the business world. This is changing rapidly and the change is attributable both to the role which Chicanos have assumed and to the growing awareness on the part of others that Mejicanos must share in the Ameri ca process. When Historians look back on the Year of the happening the be ginning of a new decade for the Chicano, they will mark it as a turning point in Mexican economic development. For it was a year in which many new Chicano owned enterprises came into being, more Chicano students were enrolled in colleges than ever before, and there were more widespread interest and concern among us than ever before about the nitty gritty economic problem of the communities in whih we live. In short it was a period in which turned from protest to produc tiOn. I have no doubt that Mejicano can and will change the hfe m the ghetto. More jobs can be created by Chicano businesses. Community residents can be trained and employed by these business firms for rewarding careers. As a consequence, more money will be circulating in the community for the good of the community. Better housing and education will also derive from the increased economic power of ghetto residents . As the Chicano improves his eco nomic condition he will likewise improve conditions around him. Those Mexican American who are making it happen in business or making it happen irt general in Mexican Communities across the nation are getting the job done be they have placed a premium pnce on specialized training, ad vanced education and long hard hours at the grindstone as their only passport to the future. -GIL LoPEz, Editor Page I

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DENVER SCHOOLS AND THE HISPANO By Dr. Daniel T . Valdes Editor' s not, e : Dr. Valdes is chairman of the division of behavioral sciences and pro fessor of sociology, Denver Metropolitan State College. The writer is an American of His panic background as anyone with any knowledge of Spanish surnames can easily tell but he writes not only ,as a Hispanic but, also, as a sociologist and educator. Above all, he is concerned about contemporary issues and problems as a human be ing. He does not speak for the His panos of Denver-no one speaks for the Hispanos. The writer, therefore, does not represent the Hispanos or any other group. As a Hispano, however, he is concerned lest, in the terribly im portant black-white (Anglo) con frontation, the welfare and the pro blems of the poor among his people might be overlooked in spite of re cent events that strongly indicate that it is dangerous to ignore them any longer. The writer is very much aware of the horrendous injustices, the tremendous hardships, and suf ferings of his brothers, the Afro-A mericans, but as a Hispano he is, also, aware of the sufferings and hardships of the poor among his people. Their hardships, their suf ferings, and their lack of opportu nities are not so accentuated or highly visible as are those of the Afro-Americans, but problems and lack of opportunities they do have. In the American Southwest, the problems faced by the Hispano poor in the realm of economic opportun ities, education, and employment far outweigh those of the Afro-A merican. His educational opportun ities and achievements are far be low those of the other major minor ity group in this area. Poorest of Poor Perhaps not so well known is the fact that the Hispano in Denver has a much lower average economic and educational status than the Afro American. It is true that the His pano does not, as a general rule, face the hard, unyielding type of segregation and discrimination, suf fered so long by the Afro-Ameri cans. But because of historical cir cumstances of the Hispano in this area he is the poorest of the poor, and the least educated of all. Some people have asked, and many have wondered, why the His pano has not gone the route of European immigrants such as the Page 2 Italian-Americans or the Irish-Am ericans who moved rather quickly into the main stream of American middle-class society. There are sev eral reasons why the Hispanos can not be compared with these groups. First, mast Hispanos in Colorado and New Mexico were not immi grants to the United States (this country did not even exist when their forefather came to this area). The Anglo-American came to this part of our country two centuries after the Spanish colonials had es tablished European civilization in what is now New Mexico and south ern Colorado. The Anglo-Americans conquered the Spanish colonial, took away his land, imposed a semi-colonial status upon him, and relegated him to second-class citi zenship. Secondly, when the other His panos (the Mexican immigrants of the 1910s and 1920s) came to the American Southwest, our economy no longer needed the millions of un skilled factory (urban) laborers re cruited from among the Irish, the Italians, the Germans, etc., who came here during the 19th Century. These jobs gave these people a firm foothold on the American dream boat. Against S e gr e gation We would like to discuss briefly the Hispano poor in the City and County of Denver, who he is and wher e he lives, how he lives. But before we do this, we should like to make one point crystal clear. We want to say it loud and strong so that •there will never be any mis understanding as to where this wri ter stands on the issue of integra tion or segregation, depending on how you state it. He is against racial an, d economic segregation without reservation. He favors integration (economic and racial integration) of our schools without qualification. Segregation in education is morally wrong and unjust. This he lmows as a human being. Segregated education is in efficient and pedagogically un sound . This he knows as a sociolo gist and as an educator. The Hispano in the City and County of Denver, although appar ently less burdened by the terrible scourge of racial-ethnic discrimina tion and" segregation, suffers greatly from a different kind of segregation and discrimination which is just as crippling. That is economic segre gation and discrimination. This he knows as an Hispano and as a stu dent of the Hispano. The writer is, therefore, against economic and ra cial discrimination, not only in edu cation, but in all aspects of life. Destroying school segregatin in our school system in the City and Coun ty of Denver will accelerate the breakdown of all types of discrimi nation, in all aspects of life. Class, racial and ethnic integration of our schools will improve education for all Americans. As a sociologist, our frame of re ference is that education is a social process, and that schools are social institutions. We look at educational situations, problems and education systems in the light of empirical re search and evidence. Great Responsibility More than most organizations , schools perform functions that are an integral part of the whole social system. They produce more than just i • tems for a specified market. They must produce children who should eventually participate fully in the various economic, political , educational, familial, and other in stitutions of the society . Next to the family, the school has the greatest responsibility to improve that par ticipation. Yet the schools seem more de tached from the total social system than other constituent parts. In the recruitment and hiring of per sonnel, for example, the schools are ingrown and isolated. Unlike gov ernment and private industry, where people with varied experience and training can rise to executive positions, the schools select admini strators almost exclusively from within their own ranks. In as large a school bureaucracy as we have in this city, pressures often demand that promotion be made only of those trained and ex perienced in the same system. It is sort of an incestuous breeding . It shields the administrators, the teachers, and the whole system from fresh ideas, and people introduced from the outside. This is one of the urgent reasons for compulsory cour ses in the sociology of education so that persons going into the school system realize it is only a part of a whole social system. In the United States, class and race are highly correlaed. In the EL CONQUISTADOR

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Continued U.S. Southwest, class and ethnic grouping are highly correlated. Hispanos tend to occupy the lower level of the stratification system in school and society. The Hispanos' increasing participation in the po litical and economic system, his eco logical mobility from farm to city and from the core city or the barrio to the suburbs and the outer city, and the Hispanos' organization for sccial action must center more on the school, and must depend more upon the school. However, in general, the more money a student's parents make, the more money will be spent on his education despite so much effort at public compensatory expendi tures for the disadvantaged. In equalities are found not only in higher education but, also, in elementary and secondary schools, and they are found both between school districts and within them. There are many areas in which these inequal ities manifest themselves. Just a few are discussed here. Children from the barrios and the ghettos start their schooling in the lowest financed elementary schools, and if they are lucky enough, they end up going to the lowest funded colleges (Metro State College re ceives considerably less money per student from the state than any other public college or university in the state). Because of high teacher turnover in the barrio schools, there is always a larger proportion of new and in experienced teachers in these schools, located in the older, and deteriorating parts of the city, the barrio has less adequate, and older school plants. Greater Dispersal In spite of the lower economic level of the Hispano in the City and County of Denver, he does not have to go to ethnically segregated schools to the extent that the N e gro must go to racially segregated schools. This has been because of the Hispano's greater dispersal throughout the city, and, of course the dispersal is based primarily on the Hispanos' greater acceptability by Anglos in predominantly residential areas of the city. At present only about 20 per cent of some 70,000 Hispanos in the City and County of Denver live in the center of the city. Approximately 40 percent have left the hard core. But they have gone to lower middle in come areas and not to the suburbs or to middle class areas. They live in various pockets (grey areas of the city) in west Denver, not the immediate west Denver, but in the area around Federal and Colfax, and north around the old Italian sec tion. The other 40 per cent of the Hispanos are now dispersed throughout the City and County of Denver, and beyond, in various new suburbs, for example. The major problem, therefore, for the Hispano is not that he is in segregated schools (segregated upon the basis of his ethnic background) but that so many of them (approximately 60 per cent) live in low-income or lower middle income areas. In pupil distribution charts prepared by the writer and repro duced here this is vividly and graph ically pointed out. The fact that the Hispanos' main problem is not eth nic segregation , but economic segregation jumps out from the charts. Bottleneck Shown As the Hispano increases his skills, as his income rises, and his educational level increases, he will move in greater numbers to areas throughout the metropolitan area. In so doing he will increase his edu cational opportunities. But the bot-tleneck to getting the increased CUMMINS POWER, INC. Diesel Engines from 100 to 800 HP Complete Sales & Service Facilities in Denver, Casper, Grand Junction, Billings, Rapid City "Where Service is our most important product" COMMERCE CITY, COLORADO "The German Surgeons" 5100 E . 58th AVENUE 287-0201 EL CONQUISTADOR Page 3

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Continued Differential treatment, not re-but by his own culture or behavior. skills and the increased educational quired or necessary for pedagogical They feel he is so different and level to move at a greater and more reasons, sometimes will follow the crippled that he cannO't be expected rapid race into areas offering better barrio child into the integrated to achieve as others do. economic and educational opportu-school. Desegregation of schools on Too many educators are blaming nities lies in the fact that the His-either the econcmic or ethnic basis the culture of the child and of the pano poor are tremendously handi-is not enough. Policies, practices, family, and offering the idea of capped as a result of having to go and programs must be established to economically segregated schools to avoid perpetuation of inequalities cultural deprivation as the total exin the low income and lower middle through the process of sorting, ranplana,tion of school failure or, more income districts. Partly because of king and selecting. accurately, child failure. This of the Hispanos' strong Catholic ori-Re-appraise Tests course, is not 'true. But if we entation, but also because of his The use of IQ tests and other it for the sake of argument or bediscontent with public schools, more types of tests for ranking and se-cause the belief makes it true in the than 15 per cent of all Hispano lecting must be re-appraised and eyes of some teachers or educators, children in the City and County of re-evaluated. Scme school counse-then the school must assume the Denver are going to Catholic pa-lors must be made to realize that responsibility for changing the cul rochial schools. children from the barrio are not ture of poverty by e:x;tending the In molding children in a stratified eligible only for army service or school into the community or bringsociety, the school engages in con-incapable of going to college to pre-ing the family and community into tinuous sorting and selecting of pare for the professions. Students the school. students, rating, ranking, and sepfrom poor families sometimes end We are referring not to ethnic or arating them into various quality up in special education programs racial cultural differences which groups. Children from higher social designed ana administratively set have never been a handicap, but strata usually enter the higher qual-up for the physically and mentally an asset, to every child who is not ity groups and those from lower handicapped. trapped in 'the culture of poverty, strata, the lower ones . School deci-Regarding cultural deprivation, but to economic cultural differences. sions about a child's ability will many educators are actually trap-Angl?s, white Hispanos, greatly influence the amount, qual-ped by this concept, and some use it mestizo H1spanos, black Hispanos, and kind of education he reas an excuse for their own failures Afro-Americans who are poor in this ceives as well as his future life, in-or the failure of the system. They country, in this century, are cui eluding whether he goes to college, believe that the rejected, disadvan-turally deprived. This is because the the jobs he will get, and his feel-taged or deprived child is handi-poor here and now live in a cuLture ings about hims elf. capp2d, not by school or sociP-ty in which economic well-being and CUSTOM-MADE R!NGS FORGED .. "'Ell\t ..... . GQLtJSMiTIJr PHONE 892-9!549 Page 4 Family Fun Center COLFAX BILLIARDS Lakewood's Finest Sports CenterQ c5l ( 5219 W. Colfax at Sheridan Phone 237 EL CONQUISTADOR

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Continued success is paramount. Although the disadvantaged Hispano child may try to pretend he doesn't care, he recognizes only too well that failure in education is terribly final and for him spells the end of the American dream, and of progress through education. We can not just stand by and see eco nomic and racial segregation in our school system robbing the Hispano poor and the black children of 'their main weapon in improving their life chances. Social urban renewal is impossible without the active par ticipation of educators, of business and industrial leaders, and some drastic changes in present-day edu cational programs and policies. We will not pretend to define the total role of the school in social urban re newal, but we would like to empha size the special critical function of the school in low income and low middle income areas. Must Be Convinced Probably, one of the most important tasks of the school in the barrio and the ghetto is to convince children and youth in these areas that they are part of America, and can be successful by making them a part of America, and making them successful. We are emphasizing the role and have not moved rapidly enough to responsibility of the school to the develop materials on the Hispanos. barrio and ghetto child, but we There is an unbelievable scarcity must never forget that schools do of good material on the Hispanos. not operate, and education is not Most of the material readily avail carried on, in a vacuum. Other so-able is biased, outdated or sterile cial institutions (the family, the in the face of today's problems and church, social agencies, etc.) play scciological concepts . Some ata role, and have a responsibility, in tempts have been made in our this area. Within its maximum caschools here to reduce class size and pacities, however limited, the family teacher loads, but teacher loads in must contribute to the climate , re'the barrio and ghetto schools should sources, and motivation for educa-be reduced to three classes, and the tion. number children in each class Some of the things. 1that need to should be reduced to 15. Nowhere be done are fairly simple, some of are these things being done on the the things some of us have been scale adequate to get ahead of the suggesting are being done, some in forces pushing back, much less to one place or two places, some in compensate for the cumulative demany, but nowhere adequately. The pression of human capacities, resultDenver Public Schools have what ing from years of inadequacies that are called enrichment activities have gone before. which go beyond the formal courses This writer commends the Den to create interest or enhance the ver School Board and the school adstudent's interest in learning. The rninistratin for what they have done Denver Public Schools are beginso far. They have taken some initial ning to provide textbooks, periodi-steps toward final and complete de cals, and other literature depicting !'legregation of our schools. But they the role of various racial and ethnic need then to move more boldly, and groups in the creation of the United more rapidly toward achieving this States, and in both the historical total desegregation, as soon as posand contemporary contexts. This is sible. And then, when they have especially true for the Afro-Amerifinished this magnificent task, they cans because the schools in Denver will discover that they have just 5-TRETCH Tape Odyssey and SEW A FULL LINE OF KNIT STRETCH FABRICS SEW THE MODERN WAY MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY 9:00A.M. 9:00 A.M. 9:00 A.M. 9:00 A.M. 9:00A.M. 5323 South Broadway EL CONQUISTADOR 798-5301 CASSETTES 8 TRACK TAPE DECKS POSTERS RECORDS BLACK LIGHTS HOME STEREOS TOP SELECTION OF MEXICAN TAPES 1917 SO. WADSWORTH 935-3 121 Page 5

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Continued laid the foundation for the best that no one racial or ethnic group gainst you. An elite bcdy of young possible schooling for every ci tizenis innately superior to another. All teachers should be assembled, and if child in our city. the evidence and research points, as not available, trained, ready to Perhaps, this is when their real a matter of fact, to the conclusion serve in these most difficult areas. job will begin. We think that they that educational achievement levels We would like to see educational will find that desegragation is not increase in integrated schools, not grants made to poor families to feed enough. Even bringing the schools because Anglo children have been and cloth their chi ldren in the manin the ghettoes and the barrios up mixed with other children, but be-ner and style of middle class chilto an average level is not enough. cause of the higher income backdren, and for participation in the The level must be higher. There ground of the Anglo children. educative process of the school. We must be a conscious policy, backed An example of such evidence and need to establish a crash program by the citizens of Denver, backed research can be found in a report for ghetto and barrio children in by brains and money to bring the by the U.S. Dept. of Education. reading and communication skills. ghetto and barrio school to a level Catalog No. FS5.238:38000, Super-Starting to work on cognitive abcve that of the best schools in the intendent of Documents, U.S . skills and reading readiness before district in order to enable the chil-ernment Printing Office, Washmg-the first grade or even before kindren of the poor to catch tip. We ton, D.C. 1966. . dergarten age is essential. This is must, at this point, again re-empha-What we are saying , therefore, IS because children of the poor have size that the major dimension of the that we need racial, ethnic and eco-not had much practice in conversa problem for the Hispano is economnomic class mixing. West High tion or hearing long sentences, have ic not ethnic. With the Afro-AmeriSchool is completely mixed insofar little acquaintance with books, or ' 1 b t t as Anglos and Hispanos are con-they have not been exposed to ideas can it is a so economic u I IS rat d cerned, but it is not integra e on essential in the middle class world. cial, as well . an Income basis and the results are w t + . t t t Premise Rejected bl e are not gomg o at: emp o go This writer can never accept the well known and quite visi e. into the complex details of methods h f A 1 h ' l This writer would like to see the of teaching although we are eimplied premise t at I ng o c I-Denver board set up special educad d h' 'f 11 d t dren are brought into predominate 1 h quippe to o t Is, I ever ca e o Hispano or black schools, that . this, • tional districts, with schoo sin t ese do it. But the effective teaching per se, is going to increase the edudistricts equipped with the best, of reading must be considered by cational achievement or status level and most comprehensive school members of the school board, as an of the Hispano or Black child. T.o plants. Not that one automatically objective of the highest priority . accept this premise (or to act as If gets good education out of good On a more general level, we this were true) is to go against ov-plants but buildings are never neuwould suggest the establishment, .. ... e. ... e_e.it .. h .. e_r. _ -----------------.., -y • __________ .. _______________________________ -----_ __j .. .._.. ____ .._.__ Page 6 EL CONQUlST ADOR

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DENVER SCHOOLS AND THE HISPANO o r more accurately, the conversion of the school into a community school. This means transforming the barrio school that attempts to educate the young through the usual methods of classes and teachers to a school that also serves as the focal point for community activity, ser vices, and concerns. This means providing not only space for meetings and affairs of 1the adults in the area but, also, services. Op e n Day and Night The community school is open all day and all night. The services it offers go way beyond the u sual adult education courses. These s chools should b e made the centers for disseminating basic information about the ways of the city, about housing, about. law and justice and the police, about welfare, and many other facets of urban living . Facts and discussions about the people's role as consumers and citizens t:h ould be provided adults in the school setting. Denver schools are not doing nearly enough to knit together the school, the parents, and other residents of these are as. Tutoring is another service gr eatly needed in these areas. But, perhaps, it is the teachers, admini strators, and counselors who hold the key to good education in the ghet tos and the barrios. Schools here are hardship posts, they are usually in older buildings, inadequately equipped and supplied, more over crowded, and in dirty and danger ous neighborhoods. They present heart-breaking educational and dis ciplinary problems, and require a spe c ial breed of teachers. Teachers in these sch o ols should get hardship pay. The Denver School Board must become more concerned about how our teachers are being trained. Not that they simply be trained. We are not referring only to degre e s , and higher and higher degrees. We are talking about the kind of training teachers are getting in the pro cess of receiving these degrees . There are, of course, many things to be done, some take time, and almost all cost money, many will b e politically unpopular, and all require good will, energy and brains. This writer has only tried to share some information with the reader, scme of his thoughts, some of his concerns, some of his fears, and some of his hopes. It is now up to the concerned c i tizens of Denver to make their needs and problems of all our EL CONQUISTADOR power structure respond to the people . On a more general level , we would suggest the establishment, or more accurately, the conversion of the school into a community school. This means transforming the barrio school that attempts to educate the young through the usual methods of classes and teachers to a school that also serves as the focal point for community activity, ser vices, and concerns. This means providing not only space for meet ings and affairs of the adults in the area but, also, service s. Op e n Day and Night The community school is open all day and all night. The services it offers go way beyond the usual adult education courses. These schools should be made the centers for disseminating basic information about the ways of the city, about housing, about law and justice and the police, about welfare, and many other facets of urban living . Facts and discussions about the people ' s role as consumers and citizens t:hould be provided adults in the school setting. Denver schools are not doing nearly enough to knit together the school, the parents, and other residents of these areas. Tutoring is another service great ly needed in these areas. But, per haps, it is the teachers, administrators, and counselors who hold the key to good education in the ghet tos and the barrios. Schools here are hardship posts , they are usually in older buildings, inadequate ly equipped and supplied, more over crowded , and in dirty and danger ous neighborhoods. They present heart-breaking educational and dis ciplinary problems, and require a special breed of teachers . Teachers in these schools should get hardship pay. The Denver School Board must become more concerned about how our teachers are being trained. Not that they simply be trained. We are not referring only to degrees, and higher and higher degrees. We are talking about the kind of training teachers are getting in the pro cess of receiving these degrees. There are, of course, many things to be done, some take time, and almost all cost money, many will be politically unpopular, and all require good will, energy and brains. This writer has only tried to share some information with the reader, some of his thoughts, some of his concerns, some of his fears, and some of his hopes. It is now up to the concerned citizens of Denver to make their needs and problems of all our power structure respond to the people. 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Page 8 BULLFIGHTS The CORRIDA. DE TOROS or bull fight is one of the traditional spec tacles that Mexico inherited from Spain. There is no other sport to equal it in popular enthusiasm. The cuadri/la or team, entering the ring . A picador, or horseman, facing the stands. EL CONQUISTADOR

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A pass with the small cape Citing the bull A pass with the small cape The cuadrilla EL CONQUISTADOR Page 9

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Ellndio Chistoso AMCO ELECTRIC COMPANY e INDUSTRIAL e COMMERCIAL e RESIDENTIAL e RADIO-CONTROLLED SERVICE TRUCKS 4433 WASHINGTON 266-0585 Tisquin Nuestros antepasados hacian buen uso de la tierra, y de alli sacaban todo lo necesario para el vivir. Para su recrea y gusto, tam bien trabajaban la tierra. Sin duda tenian su vino que sa caban de las huertas de uba. Esto cuando habia bastantes huertas de uba. Tambien se tomaba lo que unos le nombraban Tisquin, otros le decian Tesquin, Tesquino o Tisquina y esta tomada se prepara ba del maiz. Escarbaban un ollito, ponian trapos, a guagoches, y arriba de esto ponian el maiz, y lo tapaban con mas trapos, o guangoches. Le hech a,ban agua seguido, basta que se enraiza,ba el maiz con muchas raizes. Sacaban el maiz enraizado, lo machucab, an, hechandole bastante agua, y despues lo hiervian. Colaban esto, le qu\taban los asientos, o cunques, y el \agua que quedaba era Tisguin. Para' diferentes sabores, alguna gente le agregaba pedazos de naranja ( cuando habia), y poca miel. Page 12 Cuando se oye platicar de aquel los tiempos en que los Pobladores temian encountrar Indios, uno cree que los Indios estaban siempre lis tos para dar muerta a todo pobre Mejicano! Pero no es cierto . Escuche! Cuan do ya llego el tiempo en que ubo paz, habia Indios que todavia an daban enpatarados, es decir casi andaban desnudos, como dicemos "empleotos." Un trapito apenas les cubria el rente desde la cintura, que ni llegaba a las rodillos. Y por lo consiguiente se cubria el poster ior! tanto que las piemas quadaban desnudas casi basta la cintura. Pues un inviemo con el dia muy frio, llego un Indio vestido de esta manera al rancho de Don Rumaldo Martinez. Don Rumaldo lo vido y le dio escalofrio! Y en el modo que hablaban los Indios el Espanol, le pregunto, ?"Pa' que tu hacina?, hay ropa poniendo! " El Indio nomas dijo, ! " No frio! " Don Rumaldo, sintiendo escalo frio, le respondio, "Pero como :tu no frio? " Ellndio se quedo viendo a Don Ruma1do, mirando bien su cara ex puesta al frio, le dijo, "Que tu no frio cara ?" Don Rumaldo prontamente le re spondio, "No, cara mucho tiempo no ropa." Entonces el Indio le dijo, "Tu cara, lo mismo mi nalga! " JERRY•s Grocery & Market • Canned Goods • Fruits • Meats • Vegetables SPECIALIZING IN MEXICAN FOODS MILK Gallon ....... . .......... . . 99c MILK Yz Gallon ... ........ . .... 52c BACON Pound . . . .... ..... ..... 39c SAUSAGE Pound ...... . ..... 39c OPEN SUNDAY and HOLIDAYS 9:00 A.M. to 9:00 P.M. COLD 3.2 BEER TO GO 601 Knox Ct. 255-2370 New Mexico Inn BEER WINE MIXED DRINKS DANCING Friday, Saturday and Sunday MUSIC BY Los Populas de Texas PROPRIETOR U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANNOUNCEMENT Mexican-American Bank Opens in Houston The only Mexican-American bank in the United States has opened in Houston with first-day deposits of approximately $500,000. Pan American National Bank, lo cated at 218 Main Street, has total of $1 _ million, including $400,000 m cap1tal, $400,000 in surplus and $200,000 in undivided profits. Eighty percent of the more than 200 stockholders are Mexican-American. The Bank will concentrate its ef forts on providng hitherto unavail abl services to the local Mexican American community. To aid the more than 150,000 Spanish-speak ing people in Harris County, the bank's staff will be bilingual. Pan American's president is Amoldo Garcia, who has been in banking for 22 years and was pre viously with baniks in San Antonio McAllen, and Edinburg, Tex. Frank Pinedo, a Houston attorney and one of the founders, is chairman of the board. EL CONQUISTADOR

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Jesus People By George W. Cornell Associated Press Religion Writer Softspoken, cheerful, Bibles in hand, they extend profuse blessings to anyone they meet and then, as if imparting a choice secret, they say: "Jesus loves you." These are the street Christians, the "Jesus People" or "Jesus Freaks," who in recent months have proliferated exuberantly across the country, to the surprise and sometimes uneasiness or ordinary church folk. "Have you met the Lord?" they ask. "It's beautiful to walk with Him." Their movement started out in California and for about two years was largely concentrated in that area. But now extensions of it are cropping up from coast to coast, and from Minneapolis to Miami. "It's sweeping the country," says Evangelist Billy Graham. "It doesn't bother me that it might be a fad. At least it is a positive fad. I'm for anything that promotes the Gospel of Jesus Christ." Although many well-groomed "straight kids" are involved in it, in affluent suburbs and on cam puses, much of it is in the youth subculture, spuming traditional in cluding the church. "The church has sophisticated the gospel and added this and that and complicated it so you can't come to know Jesus personally," said Bill Squires, a youth in headband and paisley tunic, passing out leaflets in Rochester, N.Y. "Jesus is our bag. He can fill the void in your life." The movement is totally loose and unstructured, impossible to measure statistically, breaking out spontaneously in many places, with young people gathering to groove on the Bible, prayer and gospel rock. "Jesus is where it's at, man," they say. "He's really heavy." They meet in parks, store fronts, church basements, homes, school yards to sway in a circle, arms around each other's shoulders. "Hal-le-lu-ja, hal-le-lu-ja! Praise the Lord!" The roam the streets, from New York to Honlulu, "rapping" to passersby about Jesus. They point fingers skyward, and exult, "One way! One way! Various expressions of the movement have sprung up almost unexplainably in scores of cities and Page 14 communal bands. They range from the "Children of God" in Los An geles Cincinnati and Thurber, Tex., to "'fhe Way" groups in Rye, N.Y., and Wichita, Kcan.; from the "New Community" in Buffalo, N.Y., to the "Christian Liberation Front" in San Francisco; from a "Jesus Parade" in Seattle to a "Jesus Fes tival" in Evansville, Ind. The movement is reflected in re cord teen-age crowds at evangelism rallies in Greensboro, N.C.; Nor tonville, Ky.; Niceville, Fla.; Hamil ton, Ohio; San Antonio, Tex., and in Nashville, Tenn., where the dig nified First Baptist Church reverbrated with the young people's "Je sus yell: "Give me a 'J'; Give me an 'E,"' and so on through J-E-S-U-S. Kindred groups have been reported in Detroit, Cleveland, Denver, Worcester, Mass. Milwaukee, Kansas City, Spokane, Wash., and elsewhere. Participants usually call each other "brother" and "s\ster." Many affect hippie appearance--long hair, fringed ves-ts, faded jeans. "The Bible doesn't tell you to cut your hair or what kind of clothes to wear," says the Hollywood Free Paper, one of a score of underground pap ers that have sprung up to boost the movement. Many involved have been social dropouts, wandering through the drug scene, and they say Jesus set them free. "My days were in drugs, sex and lies," write a girl, Karen, in the Buffalo Jesus news-paper, Together. "Then I met a brother who seemed to have his head together ... He invited me .to a Bible rap ... I asked Jesus to come into my life, and He did and it's beautiful. " Rock music, particularly the new religiously oriented rock, is generally part of their style, as exhibited in faith rock festivals this spring in the Hollywood Bowl and at Myrtle Beach, S.C. Bible study, "Jesus teachins" and frequent mass baptisms, espe cially off Pacific beaches, are regular parts of the movement. It discounts church social action and stresses the Bible and a personal relationship to Jesus. "We sing you a new song-total liberation, the redeeming of life to life, spiirtual rebirth, reconciliation to your God," proclaims the Berk ley, Calif., Jesus paper, "Right On." The Rev. Gabriel Fackre of Andever Newton Theological School, says the movement's "vocabulary resembles that of a very conserva tive kind of Christianity," but it doesn't seem directed toward restoring the institutional church. Its countrculture garb and life style, he writes in the Christian Century, suggests that Jesus people still are in revolt against the society of their elders through a "new pietism" that ignores economic and social problems. Apparently to them, "turning on with Jesus means dropping out of the social struggle," he says The Rev. Dr. Hudson T. Amerd ing, president of Wheaton College, an evangelical institution in Illinois , has voiced fears the movement may be superficial, but he also adds: "The Lord might be going outside the churches to accomplish some of His ends." 24 HRS. • BREAKFAST • LUNCH • SPECIAL DINNERS STEAKS CHICKEN TAKE OUT ORDERS 7785 W. COLFAX AVE. 237-8824 2601 W. ALAMEDA AVE. 935-4962 GOMEZ TV Color Television Stereo • Phonograph New and Used Furniture TOM GOMEZ 433 4059 Tejon Street EL CONQUISTADOR

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CURTIS PARK CREAMERY • CANNED GOODS • FRUITS • VEGETABLES • MEATS COLD 3 . 2 BEER TO GO Open 7 Days a Week 7 :00 A . M. to 9:00 P.M. 908 30th Street 825 Las Palmas Cafe Excellent Mexican Food OPEN Mon. Thurs. 10:00 A.M. to 5:00P.M. Fri & Sat. 10:00 A . M . to 10:00 P.M. 960 Santa Fe 534-9412 EL CONQUISTADOR It's Cook-out Time! For cook-out time, have you ever thought of building a COSEDOR (Oven) such as were used by our forefathers some fifty to a hundred years ago -and as are still in use today by some people in our South west Indian Pueblos? In their jacalitos, our forefathers built their fogones (fireplaces) of mud and rocks for preparation of f oods and for warmth. To the rear of the jacal they made cosedores (ov e n s ) . These were used for pre pamtion of foods , but in larger quantites, such as are consumed wh e n many friends dropped in. H e re were cooked whole lambs and goats. Also pumpkins and other foods. The art to make a cosedor is sim p le, but requires much patience: First, decide what siz e the cosedor should be. Let us plan one whose round base is three feet in diameter. Mud and rocks .are placed until a height of one or two fee t is reached, . and as round as possible . After this "tortilla" is finished, the top surface is smoothed to a finish, leaving it two or three days to dry. M e anwhile cedar stidks are pre pared, three to four fe e t in length. Thes e are tied at one end, and the sticks , on the loose ends are plac e d equal distance on top of the "tor . tilla" giving the appearance of a tiny peak. Mud is then applied to all the "peak" until the mud is three to four inches, or up to six inches thick. The only openings are the door, about one foot wide and one foot high, coming to somewhat of an oval point at the top. The other cpening (la tronera), in the rear, serves as a resperator, damper, and is the size of an ordinary gallon can, round. After the cosedor is com pleted, it's left to dry. Two or three days after, a fire is built and burned until only ashes remain. After the cosedor cools off, the ashes are cleaned out, the whole inside thoroughly dusted-now it's ready for use. Let us invite some friends to show off our new cosedor! Fire is built, wood turns to ashes, the in side is thoroughly cleaned out. Now, let's test for right temperature. Be sure la tronera is covered securely. Place a piece of wool on a three foot stick and insevt into the oven. If the wool bursts into fire -the cosedor is too hot! Try again later, and if the wool becomes a golden hue -the temperature is just right. Cover the door, until all preparations are ready rto be placed inside. Place the eats inside, leave over night, and for the big meal next day, you have such delectibles! In the arid Southwest, the outer surface of the cosedor does not need any protective coating against the elements; however, in climates where the weather is of a humid nature, perhaps a half-inch to inch thick of cement plaster is advisable. MANY HAPPY COOK-OUTS! -By Tony Candalaria & COMPANY MECHANICAL CONTRACTORS Industrial Piping-Power Plants Air Conditioning-Plumbing Heating-Sheet Metal Work 2820 SOUTH ZUNI STREET ENGLEWOOD, COLORADO Phone 761-0720 fast! safe! sure! Anotb" s .. vice of the GREYHOUND SUPPORT YOUR ADVERTISERS Page 15

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THE BAnLE OF ROUND MOUNTAIN The decisive Battle of Round Mountain took place April 17, 1868, nine miles East of Tularosa, New Mexico, at "El Vallao", ap proximately half-mile west of the base of Round Mountain, between Twenty-Six Tularosenos allied with Five U. S. Cavalrymen, against an estimated Two-hundred Apaches. The official version of the U. S. Cavalry is found in General Orders No. 16, dated May 20, 1868, by the Command of Major General Sheridan, of Ft. Leavenworth. A framed copy of this is found at the Village Office of Tularosa, and one in the St. Francis de Paula Catholic Church in Tularosa. The tiny settlement of Tularosa, founded April 7, 1862, had fought one challenge after another. The Mexican founders and settlers of Tularosa settled there to get away from wars, disorder, and the chaos of the Rio Grande, and hoped to find peace, silence, order, love and a life filled with tranquility. They found all these, but all so crude, and life with one challenge after another! The Earth, eter:nal time, coupled with the fierce and terrible Apaches, all growled a threat: IF YOU ARE ABLE TO LIVE, YOU SHALL LIVE, AND IF YOU HAVE THE WILL TO LIVE, YOU WILL LIVE, THEN THIS LAND WILL BE YOUR HOME! So a decision of major importance tha:t was forced upon these poor Mexican settlers was this: The easy way, make a truce with the Apa ches , retreat to Mesilla, or encounter the Apache in mortal combat, and if the battle goes in the Apaches' favor, only he will be left to know, if victory is not the Apaches', and he meets defeat, then all this Valley will be filled with Peace. The decision was UNANIMOUS! Decision: Encounter the Apache in mortal combat to the end! All the people of the pueblo of Tularosa gathered in and around a jacalito, whose stidk and mud walls needed repairing to keep out the elements, and keep the warmth. There, for the first time La Promesa Solemne was said by the following: CASIMIRO ROMERO, JUAN CHAVARRIA, LUIS VARGAS, TEODOSIO CARRILLO, TEODOSIO CUBERO, DIONICIO GUILEZ, ZECUNDINO HERRO, JOSE GALLEGOS, MACEDONIO Page 16 SANCHEZ, PEDRO CHAVEZ, LUCAS ESCAJEDA, EUGENIO CADENA, MATEO DURAN, JOSE DURAN, NICOLAS DUR AN, TIBURCIO BENEVIDEZ, MARTIN GONZALES, SEVERO CONTRERAS, F ALI CIANO RA-MIREZ, JUAN MIRABAL, CASI MIRO VALLES, TRINIDAD CHAVARRIA, YSABEL LOPEZ, NIEVES DURAN, ANTONIO RODRIQUEZ, PANCHO SAINZ -this was April 16, 1868. One might ask: "Where was the U. S. Cavalry? Why didn't these people call on the cavalry for help?" The answer is that the Village did ask the U. S. Government for help, but the Cavalry had such a tre mendous territory to patrol, that help came no : t always when asked for. The Tularosenos had no other TAT A to look to, except the One in Heaven . So, all the Tularosenos asked TATA DIOS for help. Capitan Teodosia Carrillo took com mand. First "El Plan de Guerra" (War Plan) was discussed, and the agreement reached was that since ,the weapons at hand, coupled with pow der, were extremely meager, the attack wust be made as early next morning as possible, in lightening fashion, and must be completely and absolutely a surprise attack. The entire battle must be over and ARE YOU ARTISTICALLY INCLINED? FIND OUT! FREE CLASSES In Photography, Theatre, Dance, Sculpture, Art, Cinematography, Music, Writing, Basic Design, Silkscreening won within less than an hour, time At The taken to destroy strays, and to regroup. Don Teodosio received the nod of all. The Twenty-Six men MODEL CITY proceeded to fill their powder horns with powder and small leather bags RESIDENT with steel and iron chippings, enough only for one hour's fighting CULTURAL no waJter or food, except one "tortilla de maiz con verdolaga." CENTER All lmelt down, made the Sign of the Cross and asked God: 11 8 E • 2Oth WE NEED YOUR HELP IN THIS OUR HOUR. DEAR GOD, IF YOU WILL GRANT US VIC892 1017 TORY, THROUGH THE INTER-iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii• iiiiiiiiiii CESSION OF THY SERVANT, ST. FRANCIS DE PAULA, WE WILL COMPLETE THE BUILDING OF OUR CHURCH, AND THE CHURCH WILL BEAR THE NAME OF ST. FRANCIS DE PAULA, AND FOR ALL YEARS THEREAFTER, THE E VENT SHALL BE COMMEMOR ATED BY US AND ALL OF OUR DECENDANTS, AND THEIR FRANCIS CJlJtlaUL Complete Service on Chenille Spreads, Blankets, etc. e PICK-UP AND DELIVERY 1259 Kalamath 825-3527 DESCENDANTS. .. .................. .. EL CONQUISTADOR

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Continued On April 16, After taking La Proreported: "Tropas de cavalleria adobe and rock structure, about s ix m esa Solemne , the Twenty-Six Tu-avisandole a talon! " (Cavalry feet high, by about twelve feet wide l a ros encs rode on horseback to troops hightailing it). by about twenty feet long, roofCottonwood Springs. The terrain The Cavalry Troops under the less). immediately was thoroughly scout-Command of Sgt. Edward Glass, The Battle of Round Mountain ed and 2 lines of observers posted. were invited by the Tularosenos for had commenced! And what a reTheir position secured, then the a Junta de Guerra. Sgt. Glass and volting situation! By about Noon, first act of these men was a rehis troops had jus' t engaged the the Apaches had launched assault check of the ir weapons and supApaches in battle. Two times the after assault in an effort to over plie3, then . falling on their knees , cavalry had been driven from its whelm the defending force. Don prayed agam to God. p os itions by almost two-hundred Tecdos io urgently called Sgt. Glass, The watch was relieved every ferocious Apaches . Sgt. Glass was -The Cavalrymen and the Tulahour. All sentry duty was on horsein a hurry to reach the settlement rosenos all felt that the end, exce pt. the last before dayof Tularosa PRONTO! death was certain, that defeat was light. wh e n e1ght men toolk positions The Tularosenos made it clear to imminent. Out of this despair came about two-hundred yards Eas t of the Cavalry that the Army of Tu-a resurgence, a will to survive. A camp with orde rs to proceed East Iarosa was in a hurry to attack the new battle plan was decided upon. and locate the enemy encampment Apaches! Vamos, ya! PRONTO! All had noticed, throughout the so
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THE BATTLE OF ROUND MOUNTAIN These were fastened to Don Donicio's bodyhead to foot, and thus camouflaged, reached the Rio, and fetched water. At about two P.M., the Apache Capitancillo, now knowing that his Apaches had defeated the combined forces of U. S. Cavalry and the Army of Tularosa, led his warriors in for the kill: The Capitancilla blew his horn many time s and on all sides an attack came forth, which by its full scale, meant the last. All the Tularosenos knelt and prayed, and again recited La Pro mesa Solemne, while the Cavalrymen concentrated their last rounds on the Apache Leader. As the Apaches came to within range of the Tularosenos' fire, Don Teodosio gave the order to fire. Abruptly, the attack froze! What luck! All the powder and chippings wasted! The Apaches knew the range of these rifles, by now, and knew their range was sorter now with the powder almost gone. The Capitancillo knew that the long range rifles of the Cavalry were trained on him. H e became over confident and about two hours later, about four P.M., ordered another assault. This time he over exposed himself , and leading his braves, within mty yards, was hit by a cavalryman's rifle shot. He fell of his horse, was helped up by two aides, which he shrugged off. The horn, pressed to his mouth, sounded the continu ance of the attack, which had temporarily stopped. Then shaking a war lance with his right hand into the sky and a broad dagger on his left, and yelling (probably HAANCH-IGO!), hurry, Vamos! out distanced his own warriors on the attack. The Capitancillo was the first one to reach "El Vallao". As he approache d , a bullet crashed into his head, and the towering man fell face down, only a stretched hand away from the adobe walls. His end came as all the defenders blinded by the smoke and dust of baHle, failed to see such a prime target. All exc ept Don Teodosia, who loudly acclaiming God's help and St. Francis de Paula's intercession, and with all powder gone, in a decision of d esparatio n, grabbed the rifle off a cavalryman, aimed and fired. He threw the rifl e back to the cavalryman and proceeded to jump over the wall and on top of 1the dead body of the Apache Leader. Thereupon Don Teodosio scalped the Apache. 'The Capitancillo wore a red bandana to hold his jet black hair in place. This bandana was used to tie the scalp to a quiote (yucca stick). The scalp was held high for all to see. As the Apache leader fell, the attack relented, and the attackers retreated, mourning their leader. They retreate d and assembled on high ground and from there waved down into "El V allao" signaling acceptance of the end of battle. The last assault had la sted perhaps a quarter of an hour. For the Tularosenos, a battle that was planned as a complete surprise, to be lightening fashion, to last at the most one hour wi 1th supplies only enough for such -lasted all day -an eternity-and with all the best laid plans gone completely s our and reversed -reversed to the point that militarily, the Apache defea 1ted the Army of Tular osa -yet the day was saved. In their Faith, the Tularosenos be lieved that through the intercession of St. Francis de Paula, God granted Peace to His children: A paches, Mexicans , Anglo-Saxons . The Tularosa Valley was now SALUDOS AMIGOS GUNBY CHAPEL OF ROSES 420 E. Alameda MEMORIAL CHAP E L 300 So . Logan DENVER, COLORADO 80209 RAMON J . TREVINO Page 18 744-6113 744-6114 FOR TIRES NEW TIRES RECAPS WHY PAY MORE ALL PASSENGER TIRES WHOLESALE • RETAIL ED HEIDT 1301 E. 20 AV. 825-3756 EL CONQUISTADOR

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"THE VALLEY OF PEACE." The Army of Tularosa and The U. S. Cavalry, seeing themselves without any provisions for further warfare , and not trusting the A paches , all mounted and "Le Avisa ron a Talon" ! Eighty-nine years later, in May 1957, a twenty-foot cross was e rected on top of Round Mauntain. The inscription reads: This Cross, La Cruz de San Francisco de Paula, erected on top of Round Mountain, is dedicated for the greater glory, and honor of G o d. This Cross is not only a memoriam to our forefathers , founders of Tu larosa, but is a sign, the Sign of the Son of God, that we all lift our eyes to H e r , and liv e in Peace . From the Valley of Tularosa, the Valley of Peace, from whence came the first terribl e roar of the Ato mi c Bomb, which through its horror brought peace, from this Valley of Peace, that Peace may blo sso m once again for all the world. With this in mind, for our neighbor s, and in testimony of our Holy Catholic Faith, w e have set this Cross. We offe r to Our Lady of Guadalupe, this humble deed, that it may reach to all the ends of the world so that all temptors be conquered, and the innocents protected , the Truth prevail, the weak f o rtified , the fall e n, raised , the lonely and sad b e made happy and comforted, and that the strong and powerful be m e r cif ul , and that the fruits of this humble de ed reach those ends. ! AVE MARIA PURIS IMA! -By Tony Candalaria DENVER WOOD PRODUCTS CO. 1945 West 3rd Ave. 744-3161 J,jALL US Qji m .. .. 44th Avenue Drive Thru Liquors 2300 West 44th Ave. EL CONQUISTADOR ' / ,,,/ E I ___;;, /f':'-------, RESTAURANT Real AUTHENTIC MEXICAN FOOD TAKE OUT ORDERS OPEN DAILY EXCEPT CHRISTMAS OPEN DAILY AT 11 :00 A.M. TUES.-THURS. TILL MIDNITE FRI. & SAT. TILL 2 A .M. • SUN. & MON. TILL 10:30 P.M. PLENTY Of PARKING 1435 E. Evans Ave. Pueblo, Colorado • . . Phone 542-9688 534-7241 3360 Downing St Page 19

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Traces of Life in Ancient Times Come to Light These petroglyphs were saved from being submerged by the waters of the lake formed behind the Guri Dam. The presence of man in Venezuela, 13,000 years ago and perhaps even earlier, has been ascertained throug h archeological discoveries in several parts of the country. Excavations started two years ago in Taimataima, Falcon State, b y Prof. J . M. Cruxent, of the Venezuelan Institute of Scientific Research, have uncovered a m an made stone dart imbedded in a mastodon, and a stone arrowhead by the fossiliz e d pelvis of a me gathoriuma Plio c ene ground sloth of g i g anti c size. More recentl y , another stone arrowhead was found near the femur of the fossilized remains of yet another hug e animal of pre-historic times. The a g e of the s e items has be e n determined by tests with radio carbon 14. The ponderous animals are believed to have come to drink at lakes known to exist in the area at that time. From this point on , only spe c ulation points at what followed . Hunters, with their presence, would provoke and entice them into swamps bordering on the lake , where the animals would be partially immobilized and unable to attack. After arrows shot at them would make them still more helpless, the hunters would finish them with wooden javelins and stone clubs. Their meat would provide food for da y s to nearby communities. As excavations continue, Prof. Cruxent's great hope is to find the remains of a man, that will shed some light on the way of human life in that remore era. Already, some foreign anthropologists have come to see what Prof. Cruxent has unearthed in Taimataima. He feels, however, that his findings will not be readily reco g nized by the scientific community and that a con troversy will arise about them . "The reason for such con troversy," he says, "is that traditional and orthodox Page 20 Some of the archeological objects found in Venezuela, estimated to be between 2,000 and 4,000 years old. North American schools will not easily accept such antiquity data, whi c h would revolutionize their entire c hronolo g y, just as they have not yet accepted Dr. Leaky's date of 80, 000 years of history for the sites discovered in Calico , California." The arc heolo g ical s earch in Taimataima was lo c ated just by coin c idence , after a farmer roaming about the site picked up an animal bone that was analyzed at the Re s earch Institute and found to be thousands of years old. Another archeolo g i c al discover y was made two years a g o, when the Guri dam across the Caroni River was completed and the waters of the river began to form a lake behind the dam . The m e n in charg e of a rescue operation to save wild animals in danger of death when their habitats would be submerg ed , came upon a group of petroglyphs-drawing s carv e d on ro cks-which were hurriedly removed to dry land before the water flooded their locations. The crude drawin g s, engraved on granite rocks with other and harder rocks as tools, represent human and animal fig ures, birds, symbolic designs of undetermined meaning, and the figures of two bodies joined to g ether like Siamese twins, which oc cur in several of the rocks. Tests with carbon 14 reveal some of the drawing s date from the year 3,000 B. C. and were probably made by hunting people-but who they were remains to be known. The mystery is the more intrig uin g since similar petroglyphs have been found in nine other sites in Venezuela, some of them separated by hundreds of miles, and yet, all appear to follow the same style and to have been made by the same people. All of the 21 rocks, weighing 30 tons, were transported EL CONQUISTADOR

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to Caracas, 435 miles from the Guri dam area, to be exhibted at the Museum of Fine Arts. One of them will be permanently left at the Museum, while the others will be taken back to Guri for further study. Then, half way from Ciudad Guayana to the Guri dam, a shallow cave was found which contains many objects of inestimable old value--ceramic pieces, clay pots decorated with geometric designs, ornamental beads, and rough stone utensils of different types, which seem to have been made by peoples of various generations. Just as interesting as the objects scattered on the floor are the paintin g s made with iron oxide on the back wall, representing simple human and animal figures, hands, combinations of straight and undulating lines, circles, periods, stars. While the pieces are similar to those found elsewhere in Venezuela , dating from the first millenium B. C. to the 14th century A. D ., the paintings are estimated to have been made in the middle of the 15th century, before the discovery of America. The cave is 65 feet deep, 20 feet high and 164 feet wide . As it faces west, the sun rays fully light the paintin g s from 4 to 5 in the afternoon. Considering the importance attached by Venezuelan aborigines to their religious beliefs and the coincidence of the sun rays hitting the back wall, the paintings su g gest the possibility of some regligious cult . At a place called El Morro, near Lake Valencia, four years of digging have produced a wealth of archeological material revealing traces of two different cultures 2,200 years apart. El Morro is a small land elevation overlooking the lake, and is believed to have been a burial ground for important personalities of the surrounding communities or a sort of shrine to worship idols typifying the gods of the inhabitants. The material consists mostly of comparatively small personal ornaments , funeral offerings made of mecacious flagstones, and objects of black ceramic with incrusta tions of feldspar and quartzite of surprising precision. A partial report on the matter reads: "The funeral offerings , the burial systems, the decorations and the stone tools fit into the Arawak culture of the West Indies and the Amazon area . The findings are the more im portant since they have uncovered vestiges of black ceramic and pieces of white rock or flag stones , whose analysis date them as being 4,400 years old. It is evident that the people of that time were acquainted with in g enious techniques and knew how to devise their own tools , probably made of th e same material as the objects found, to fashion perfectly round objects , and the tiny holes and concentri c circles adorning so many items." The operation has been conducted under the super vision of Dr. Enriqueta Pefialver , head of the Institute of Anthropolo gy and History of Carabobo State. She and her assistants believe th e y have just scratched the surface of an archeolo g ical treasure and expect more exciting discoveries as the excavation work continues . Sears Sears invites you to visit its store ... To iust browse, if you wish ... It's the Most Complete Department Store in Town. OPEN MONDAY THRU SATURDAY NIGHTS UNTIL 9:00 P.M. USE SEARS CONVENIENT CREDIT PLANS You can count on us -Quality costs no more at Sears Phone 632-5566 CATALOG: 473-3080 SOUTHGATE SHOPPING CENTER COLORADO SPRINGS, COLORADO __ _j EL CONQUISTADOR Page 21

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JOVEN ITALIANO DESEA CONOCER JOVENCITAS DE HABLA ESPANOL the young Italian gentleman mterested. Spanish-speaking ladies for ?Tiarnage_? No, just to some mformatwn which might the mealsinSpanish-speakmg households or nearly any house hold, for that matter Joe Shutto West. 46th Ayenue, has had four meat cutting demonstrations smce February for his customers. But so far while Shutto's meat men could easily handle i ,t, none have been conduct ed entirely in Soanish for people ":ho only speak Spanish. While Snutto wants do this, and presumably Spamsh-speaking homes would benefit, somehow no one seems to know quite how to go about it. Here's the story: Shutto explains that he chose to begin a program of education in the meat departf?r customers because meat IS an Item on everybody's table every night of the week, and It IS probably the most expensive food regularly bought. Yet the average customer has little under standing of why two or three pieces of meat which look alike have dif ferent prices, different names and are of different values in a Shutto "Why buy ground beef all the time when you may get a better value in a roast?" The program began in February With Shutto courageously in VIting 22 female home economists and representatives of consumer and cost buying groups to !"tis demonstration. He ex plams, We wanted to start this somewhere, so felt the best place to start was With women in various consumer groups." Page 22 The response was enthusiastic, and Shutto was encouraged to con tinue with the clsases. However, the women were not able to help him inform the neighborhood commun ity, partly because none of them re presented Hispano groups. So by means of a sign-up sheet in the meat department, the four addi tional free demonstrations were ar ranged. "We didn't sponsor the demon sttrations to gain more customers," Shutto states. "We weren't there to get your dollar. It was an educa tional thing." But Shutto's educa tional thing was still not reaching shoppers who only speak Spanish. Shutto says , "We are in a predomi nately low-income Spanish neigh borhood. Spanish-speaking people are ou_r customers. Why should they walk m and not know what they are getting for their food dollar?" So March, Shutto tried to gain the aid of the only resource which he felt might be able to help inform the Spanish-speaking people -the North Action Center. But they are not 1nterested, saying that to in form public about meat-cutting classes IS not really their job. Since that time, Shutto's plans seem to have come to a halt for lack of someone with contacts. Shutto relys on handbills and word advertising (to keep pnces down and still maintain a trading stamp program), yet feels he has no way at the moment to reach the people he seeks. He says "I'm willing to stand the full pense of educating the housewife in food buying, but we need the help of some specific person or group to find the Spanish-speaking people who would like to come." Shutto stated that until the Market was enlarged and remodeled this year, he had never had the opportunity to become involved in the community. However, recently he donated a week's worth of lunches to the program at the North Side Center. With 30% of his employees of Mexican or Spanish descent (and maybe partly because he "a Spanish wife"!) Joe Shutto IS not apt to easily for get the community he serves. He states, "We're planning to stay here: We have a better chance of survival than larger chain store be cause we feel we can offer people better The people of this commumty are down -to -earth and we're willing to talk With them and listen to their prob lems relating to food purchases. Our store . would like to become more of a neighborhood type supermarket We are here to help our and .to serve them just like an old fashwned store." J:Iowever, it should be noted that while th:e service aims to be of the type, the layout of the store I.s not. Indeed, because the re modeling and expansion of the mar ket was so distinctive, the store was recently featured in articles of two food trade publications. you might want to visit Shutto's Market just see the only grocery m area With Spanish-style chan deliers and wrought-iron balconies. In any case, spread the word that Joe a yougn Italian gentle man, seeking interested Spanish speakmg ladies. Just be sure to add the reason why! EL CONQUISTADOR

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Produced by Dr Pepper Bottling Company of Denver, 3801 Brighton Blvd., Denver, Colo . 80216 Ph., 292-9220 EL CONQUISTADOR Page 23

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13 LUCKY NUMBER FOR 2 MEXICAN AMERICAN CONTRACTORS "This is a pride to our people. It shows we can do anything, given the right opportuni,ty, and that we don't need anything given to us except the opportunity. A lot of people will learn by this. It will give them hope and motivate them. They will realize that if we can do it, they can do it too. " Joe Ulibarri of Ulibarri and Martinez Construction Company, currently located at 4500 West 9th Avenue, was speaking of a high-rise building . His company is in the process of constructing the building, and reached the 13th (and top) floor at the end of July. Ulibarri related that it was just a little over a year ago when h e heard that the Good American s Organization , a non-profit group whose President was Paco Sanche z , planned to sponsor a 200-unit ren t s ubsidy apartment building for eld e rly Hispano people. Not being a bit shy, Ulibarri quickly contacted Senato r Peter D o minick and Senator Gordon Allott in Washington, D. C . , appealing for minority people to hav e the oppo11tunity to build the high-rise. It took confidence and courage for Ben Martinez and Joe Ulibarri to try for a job this big. This is the first high-rise in the nation being built by two minority people . Ulibarri said , "90% of the p eople we .talked with felt it could never be done. They thought that min oritie s couldn ' t do building contracts because in the past minority have always done just heavy work ---cement pourmg and brick laying. While the min orities were always in the low pos itions, the construction industry would die without them. Now federal jobs are required by law to have at least 10% of their wo11kers hired from minority groups . This job , however, has 70% minority workers, and we are proud to say they include electricians, plumbers , and welders." Ulibarri mentioned that he is a carpenter, and there are very few minority carpenters. When asked how he was able to get started, he replied "I took my own initiative to teach myself the trade. I couldn ' t get a job because the unions barred me so I was never given the oppor to learn." He h!ld to do . it himself and to make h1s own mis takes, and he did. "About 15 years ago, "Ulibarri continued "I was working on a job where I in charge of the second Page 24 inspection of the building . My boss asked me to hang all the doors be fore the inspection, and I said I would. I bought a $200 set of door tools and went to work. I hung all the doors, but not before I had ruined three to learn how!" Just a couple of years before that Ulibarri had begun his career in building, working out of Denver. He did subcontracting and basement work, but his specialty was carpentry. .When he mastere.d the craft, he applied for and received a license for building homes . Since then he has done work in Colorado , Nebraska, Wyoming and New Mex ico. He was the sub-contractor on the medical cente r at 20th and Wadsworth, and e ven tackled apartment houses. By 1968 he h a d 70 people working under him . a talented man who eventually be came his partner, Ben Martinez . Martinez has been a mason contractor for 22 years in Colorado , Wyo ming and New Mexico. Prior to the current one Martinez has super vised one 'major high-rise: the Denver Federal Building. As Ulibarri says, "Ben and I think alik e " , and it was not long before they formed a corporation called Ulibarri and Martinez Con struction C ompany . D e spite their combined forces, however , when Ulibarri contacted Washington last year to try for this contract, the company didn ' t have the bonding capacity to do a job that size. Tha' t m eant that Ulibarri and Martinez had never been approved by an in surance agency for insurance against a possible 2112 million dollar loss ---a loss which would have to be paid by the agency if for some reason the building were not com pleted as contracted. This was one whale of a problem. As Ulibarri put it, "Two apprent ices were asking insurance on 2112 million dollars . " At this point Ulibarri stressed his gratitude for the help of several people who went to bat for the company. "Ed Lucero , of the Colorado Economic Development Association , helped a lot," he said. "CEDA does our accounting and bank work now, and in the be ginning Lucero worked wi,th the First National Bank of Denver to finance the loan. Bob Boucher of First National helped us too, partly because we were just so determined to do it. Mr. Talbert of Travelers Insurance gave us a big break on the bonding because he went back to the Department of Housing and Urban Development and managed to have them guarantee 90% of bonding . We have Mr. Rosenhe1m, Regional Director of HUD, to thank for that. Then Talbert was able to guarantee the other 10% through Travelers, and we were on our way. We had lost a month of our sched ule due to the bonding problems, but we've caught up with it already, and we only broke ground January 15th. " "As a matter of fact, we're ahead of schedule . We are allowed 1 8 months to finish the building and we plan to do it in 14 months. Al lowing for that first month l ost, w e hope to finish five months ahead of schedule, in April 1972, and we're controlling our costs very well t oo. That's good, since this project is being closely watched by the government. A federal man who was out here in June was so pleased he gave me a big bear hug and said , "Wait until I tell them back in Washington how well you are doing! " We asked Joe Ulibarri how he had learned the ropes of management so well. As with his carpentry, he asserted tha t "I learned by ex perience. This job is run from the office, and actually I don't like the o ffice as much as the outside. So I stay inside for two or three hours, then I'm out there." He continued , "There are three or four hundred people involved in this job; 11 are company people. Every month we have to report to the federal government the nation alities of the people working on this job, whether they are German, Eng lish, Mexican , whatever. There are two Anglos with us, the engineer Sid Hoadly, and the General Sup-erintendent, John Starcwich (who was also the superintendent for Broo ks Towers in downtown Den ver). The rest of the men are Chi canos. "Another employee, Dan Abeyta, is the superintendent of a project being handled by our land development company. This is separate from the high-rise, and is called the Alma (The Soul) Subdivision, located at 92nd and Huron in Thornton. We've been working on the Alma Subdivision since January of this year, and everything has been approved -a nursing home , shopping center and apartment building all built by us." Ulibarri and Martinez are also EL CONQUISTADOR

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one of the first minority contractors for the 42-year-old organization called LULAC, League of United Latin American Citizens. LULAC is a h ousing organization responsible for building low-income Hispano residences, but in the past the jobs have been handled by Anglos. Uli barri, as Chairman for the Colorado Chapter, notes that now this will not be necessary, because there are many more minority contractors a vailable . His firm is also a member of the United Latin-American Businessmen's Association. Ulibarri says, "I like what we're doing, even though it's a 24-hour-aday job. I live with it, dream with it, and find it's a constant fight with constant rewards. Years ago, (with my strong back and weak mind!) I used to go through downtown Denver looking at the high rises and wanting to build my own. Now we 're doing i rt." He winds up with a ready smile, "Ulibarri and Martinez Construction Company wants to be one of the best; not the biggest, but the best." -By Lee Schroeder EL CONQUISTADOR Pictured above (left to right): Ben Martinez , John St a rwich and Joe Ulibarri Page 25

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Page 26 Our Lady of Guadalupe, Patroness of Mexico, whose sacred image is ven erated in the Basilica of Guadalupe. The Basilica is situated north of Mex ico City and was built on the same spot, where, according to tradition, the Virgin appeared to Juan Diego in the 16th Century. She is worshipped not only in Mexico but also throng out Catholic America and in many nations of' Europe and the Orient. Her Feast I Day is celebrated on the 12th of December, when thousands of people from all over the country make the pilgrimage to her shrine. Indian dancers during the festivities in honor of Our Lady of Guadalupe. EL CONQUISTADOR

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ALGO DISTINTO PARA SU MESA MEXI MEATLOAF 2 pounds ground beef 1 egg slightly bea ,ten Y4 cup minced onion 1 cups tomato & chili salsa 2 cups taco shells crushed tsp salt Y4 tsp pepper cup fat . Mix ingredients thoroughly m order listed except for the fat. Shape into loaf and place in greased baking pan. Pan in moderate over 350F -about hours. Baste meat every 15 minutes with a mixture of cup fat and 1 cup boiling water. Serves 8 GUACAMOLE DIP 4 ripe avocados cup canned tomatoes cup chopped onion 1 tsp. lemon juice 1 small clove garlic 5 roasted green chili peppers diced . 1 tsp. salt 1 cup shredded lettuce Mash Avocados Add remaining ingredients & season. Serve on shredded lettuce with corn chips. CHILIQUILLAS CASSEROLE 1 lbs. pork diced 2 tbsp. powdered red chili 1 tsp. salt tortillas, (save cup cheese for topping). . Bake in moderate oven for 45 mms. Top with lettuce, onions, cheese and olives. Serves 8 CHILI RELLENOS 4 eggs 1 tsp. salt 1 cup longhorn cheese cup chopped onion diced 'tomato 8 large roasted chilies (whole) 2 tbsp cooking oil cup flour 1 cup canned tomatoes with chili Saute onion in small amount cook ing oil. Add tomatoes & cheese Separate eggs -Beat whites until fluffy. Fold in yokes & season; stir ring lightly until well blended Stuff peppers with tomato & cheese mixture & dip in flour and then roll in egg. Fry in hot shortening until golden brown. Serve with preheated toma toes and chili. QUESADILLAS Corn Tortillas Cheese Run ' tortillas through cold water. Heat over hot grill. Fold and add favorite kind of cheese -Heat on both sides until melted. cloves garlic BEEF TACOS 2 cups water 2 cups shredded roast beef 1 cups shredded Longhorn cheese tsp. Cominos (seasoning) 2 small chopped onions 1 tsp. salt 1 cup shredded lettuce 1 onion finely chopped 1 cup sliced pitted olives 2 cups shredded cheese Brown meat & seasonings in small 1 cups shredded lettuce amount of shortening. cup tomato sauce Add chili powder & water. Cook 12 Taco shells dry, folded for 50 minutes. 1 cup Taco sauce In baking dish, arrange alternate In 12" skillet layers of cheese, meat mixture and Mix roast beef, cominos, tomato sauce & salt and cook for 20 minutes over medium heat. Spoon filling into 12 taco shells. Garnish with cheese, lettuce and onion. Top with Taco sauce & serve -By Dora Zertuche LA NUEVA POBLANA The Luevano s invite ljOU t.o MEXICAN FOOD OUR SPECIALTY ORDERS TO GO CALL 4001 Teion Street Ph.one 477-9919 Delivered HOT To Your Door! WE CATER TO PARTIES, PICNICS, CLUBS AND ESPECIALLY OOD f EACII ORDER INDIVIDUALLY PACKAGED ANO DELIVERED PIPING HOT AND READY TO SERVE All Dinners Include-SALAD • POTATOES • VEGETABLE SIDE • ROLLS --------------------------------------------EL CONQUISTADOR Page 27

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"We serve fun and the best Mexican food in town" Fun's in the air the moment you step into Trini's Restaurant! It's gay, colorful, romantic. The food's exciting, authentic We serve beer. Trini's is fun -for families, for late-night snack crowds, too! TRINI'S FOODS OF MEXICO 4455 WEST COLFAX fast! safe! sure! MONEY ORDERS Another Service of the GREYHOUND CORPORATION .;<:r-:;J;;;;. . Page 28 'DENVER 33' PERSEVERE ON PILGRIMAGE Picture a bulky yellow school bus flipped over on its back with its wheels in the air. Then, instead of the traditional lily to grace its stilled axle chest, picture a grape vine springing forth in renewed hope. A bus doesn't usually roll over when it dies, but the "Denver 33" can tell you that it might as well, for a dead bus has very little to offer even right side up. The 33 persons, mostly Chicano, were on their way from Denver to San Jose, California, to lend their support to the Feista Campesina, a giant rally on behalf of the United Farm Work ers' Organizing Committee. One of the majo r goals of the trip was to hand Cesar Chavez or one of his top aides a $1, 000 cash donation to support UFWOC's cause. But in southwestern Wyoming , nearly 900 miles from their destination , the school bus from Our Lady of Guad alupe parish in Denver threw a rod and died. From such an end sprang our grape vine of hope, leaf by leaf. First, Father Tom McCormick and 22-year-old Miss Mary Ann Alonzo, leaders of the pilgramage, hitched a ride td Evanston, the nearest town . Then they found a tow-:truck operator who could haul the bus with a heav y rig. He was indeed a rare find, since he charged a minimal fee. Another leaf popped out when Father McCormick happened on an old seminary classmate of his who was able to provide a recentlybuilt parish hall for the group to bed down in. However, the real work of pro ducing a vine of hope had just be gun . Worried , urgent phone conver sations with the UFWOC staff in Denver prompted boycott leader Chester Ruiz and others to work furiously against time to arrange new transportation to San Jose. The catch was that the group still had to make it to Salt Lake City, 80 miles away, to take advantage of the arrangements . Presto! A new leaf. Father McCormick found that seminary provided more than one trusty old friend . In Salt Lake City one of these friends dispatched a school bus from Our Lady of Lourdes parish to pick up the Denver 33 in Evanston. Was the worst over yet? No; for awhile it looked again as if the vine were withering, until the group managed to locate a place which would rent them two, red, stake-sided flatbed trucks. Fourteen hours and 800 miles later, the pil grims arrived campesino-style at their temporary home in a San Jose Church, San Jose, just in time to wash up, change clothes, and head for the fiesta at San Jose State College stadium (which after such a trip, seemed approriately named "Spartan.") The fruit of the vine ripened when staff members and supporters of the UFWOC Denver boycott office toured the 195-acre retreat in La Paz which is soon to become the new headquarters, and had two meetings with Cesar Chavez . With warmth and affection, he complimented the group for staying with the pilgrimage despite overwhelm ing problems. He noted that for a common cause, "You subject yourself to discipline. Take your group. The only reason you guys ever got to San Jose was because you work ed together for the common good." At La Paz Cesar Chavez quietly spoke about his philosophies of social action and his emphasis on nonviolence nort as a tactic, but as a basic Christian principal. Mary Ann Alenzo, strong leader of the pilgrimage feels that the value of the trip was in sensetising and focusing attention on the plight of farmworkers across the nation. A grape vine , especially one grown in California , has developed much meaning in the las ; t decade . But for the Denver 33, the sym bolic grape vine of hope and pride which sprang from a dead bus in dicates strength and accomplish ment. -By Lee Schroeder JUAREZ LOUNGE ADEM AS VINOS , CERVEZAS, LICORES WILLIE GARCIA, PROPRIETOR 2100 LARIMER 244 EL CONQUISTADOR

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Do You Believe In Non-Violence? Do You Believe in Social Change for the Poor? CESAR CHAVEZ and The Farmworkers Invite You to Work for Them this Fall. You will receive Strikers' Wages-( $5.00 a week} Room and Board plus the satisfaction of helping to build a strong union and a new future for farm workers. UNITED FARMWORKERS ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Bovcott Headquarters: 3138 Humboldt Street 222-4371 534-8351 AFL-CIO EL CONQUISTADOR Page 29

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DEPARTMENT STORES OVER 50 GIGANTIC DEPARTMENTS IN EACH STORE ... HERE ARE A FEW: * LADIES' FASHION * FAMILY SHOES * MEN'S FASHION * CHILDREN'S WEAR * JEWELRY * RECORDS * STATIONARY * HOBBY SHOP * PHARMACY * HARDWARE * HEALTH & BEAUTY AIDS * AUTOMOTIVE CENTER * SPORTING GOODS * ELECTRONICS * PET SHOP * MAJOR APPLIANCES BEST OF ALL YOU CAN JUST SAY "CHARGE IT" 74TH & FEDERAL 1225 N. CIRCLE DR. WESTMINSTER COLORADO SPRINGS 28TH & WALNUT BOULDER 2626 11TH AVE. GREELEY 6th & PEORIA AURORA SHOP WOOLCO 10 a.m. to 9:30p.m. MON. THRU SAT.,,. SUN. 11:00 a.m. to 6 p.m. Page 30 EL CONQUISTADOR

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LA PASTORELA MEJICANA En aquellos anos, cuando nacio Nuestro Senor Jesus, El Nino Jesus, andaban por los montes Los Pastores cuidando sus overjas. Pasaron los anos, Los Espanoles venieron al nuevo mundo, y con el tiempo formaron el Coloquio, conocido como LA PASTORELA MEJICANA, que nos da la historia del Nacimiento. Escuche el primer verso : CUANDO POR EL ORIENTE SALE LA AURORA CAMINABA LA VIRGEN NUESTRA SENORA Despues de el equivilente de 400 versos, viene el ultimo verso, o ultimos Dos versos: ADIOS JOSE ADIOS MARIA ADIOS MI MANSO CORDERO PRESTAMOS VIDA Y SALUD PARA EL ANO VENIDERO ECHANOS TU BENDICION A TODOS Y AL ERMITANO PRESTANOS VIDA Y SALUD PARA LEGAR AL OTRO ANO FIN Si Usted y suyos decean ver y leer El Coloquio de La Pastorela Mejicana en EL CONUIQSTADOR que estara de venta para los primeros dias de Deciembre 1971, favor de completar su subcripcion (bajo) y mande $2.00 (yearly subscription rate). EL PASO DEL NORTE CAFE "We serve fun and the best Mexican food in town" TAKE OUT ORDERS • We Cater to Parties 534-9633 2111 LARIMER ST. DENVER, COLORADO COLORADO 6001 DEXTER STREET COMMERCE CITY, COLORADO 80022 303/218 MAILING ADQRESS: P . O . BOX 162., STOCKYARD STATION DENVER, COLO. 80216 HEAVY CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS BUILDERS, DESIGNERS ENGINEERS BOB HIGGINS INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS M/t..,NAGER i -TORCH INDUSTRIES < ' PRE FAB METAL BUILDINGS CANOPIES SPECIAL PRODUCTS LOCATED AT 7777 BRIGHTON ROAD DUPONT, COLORADO 80024 • 287..0281 IICOIQUISTADOB iPOR PRIM ERA o one year$2.00 o twoyears-$4.00 o payment enclosed o bill me later NAME ..... ... . . ........... ....................................... . ADDRESS ........................................................ . CITY ...................... STATE .. ... ............ ZIP . . ........ . Mail To : 1435 Lamar Street * Lakewood, Colorado 80214 EL CONQUISTADOR VEZ! Si decea LA PASTORELA MEJICANA en forma de cuadernito indique aqui ( ___________ ), Si hay sufficientes llamadas para el cuadernito, El Conquistador se enpernara para consiguirlas localmente . Page 31

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RECOMMENDED READING Below is printed a list of books which may be of interest to those interested in the Mexican American, his culture and his emerging awareness of where he has been, where he is, and where he is going. Since we believe that "truth is stranger than fiction" and makes far more interesting reading, our list will include only books which are non-fiction. AMONG THE VALIANT, Raul Morin, Borden, 1963,$5.50. NORTH FROM MEXICO Carey McWilliams, Greenwood, 1968, $11.25. Also available in paperback. DELANO, John Dunne, Farrar, 1967, $4.95. Also available in paperback. LA RAZA: THE MEXICAN AMERICANS, Stan Steiner, Harper, 1970, $8.95. THE MEXICAN AMERICAN PEOPLE, Grebler-Moore-Guzman, The Free Press, 1970, $14.95. MEXICAN AMERICAN YOUTH: FORGOTTEN YOUTH AT THE CROSSROADS, Celia Heller, Random, 1966, $1.95. SAL SI PUEDES: CESAR CHAVEZ AND THE NEW AMERICAN REVOLUTION, Peter Matthiessen, Random, 1969, $6.95. SPIDERS IN THE HOUSE & WORKERS IN THE FIELD, Ernesto Galarza, Notre Dame Press, 1969, $7.50. TIJERINA AND THE COURTHOUSE RAID, Peter Nabokov, New Mexico U. Press, 1969, $6.95. MERCHANTS OF LABOR, Ernesto Galarza, McNally & Loftin, 1964, $5.00. Also available in paperback. A GUIDE FOR THE STUDY OF THE MEXICAN AMERICAN PEOPLE IN THE U.S., Feliciano Rivera, Spartan Books, 1969, $4.95. ZAPATA AND THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION, John Womack Jr., Knopf, 1968, $10.00. WITH THE EARS OF STRANGERS, Cecil Robinson, Arizona U. Press, 1963, $4.95 (paper). LA RAZA: FORGOTTEN AMERICANS, Julian Samora, Notre Dame U. Press, 1963, $4.95. FORGOTTEN PEOPLE, STUDY OF NEW MEXICANS, George I. Sanchez, Calvin Horn, 1967, $5.75. BENITO JUAREZ, BUILDER OF A NATION, Emma Sterne, Knopf, 1967, $3.95. SPANISH-SPEAKING GROUPS IN THE UNITED STATES, John Burma, Duke U. Press, 1954, $4.00. HEALTH IN THE MEXICAN AMERICAN CULTURE, Margaret Clark, University of California Press, 1959, $6.50. THE MEXICAN WAR, A COMPACT HISTORY, Charles Dufour, Hawthorn, 1968, $6.95. RAINBOW BILLIARDS WE KEEP YOU IN GOOD SPIRITS LUNCHES 5231 Pecos Street Phone: 477-9780 Page 32 DISCO-LANDA Record Distributors Mexican Records 8 Track Tape Cassets Hermino Perez Salesman Rudy Garcia Proprietor 3785 Federal Blvd. 433-8271 Denver, Colorado MAESE WASH and DRY *WASHERS * DRYERS * Wash 20c * Dry JOe OPEN 24 HOURS 2 Convenient Locations 5416 West Colfax 6376 West Colfax Parking Available Proprietors Phil & Madaline Maese RELIABLE CARPETS and SERVICE Specializing in Carpets and Drapes 3946 North Federal 455-0296 EL CONQUISTADOR

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WORD FROM EXPERT Smiles Reveal Your Feelings LONDON (UPI)-The way a I when family members greet person smiles reveals much one another . Only the upper about his emotions, a British teeth are uncovered and the psychiatric researcher says. . mouth is generally just slightly Dr. Ewan Grant of Bir mingham University's departop;n . . . . ment of psychiatry has for the rhe stmple smtle, past seven years been studying calls "a nonsocial smtl.e, how humans -communicate withoccurs when a person IS happy out words. by himself." The lips cun:e He has listed more than 100 back and up .but "fac e to face" signals like a together so there IS no display twi t ch of the eyebrows, a frown of teeth. or the lowering of the eyelids. The lip-in smile, a coy ver But it is the smile, he believes sion of the upper smile, has the tha t probably tells most. lower lip drawn in between the ' While it is easy enough to teeth. "It implies that the lie with words, it i s extremely smiler feels in s ome wc:y subor diffi c ult to disguise true emodinate to the person he or she tion s coming through in nonveris meeting , " Grant s aid. bal s ignals such as s miles," he The broad smile " is the one said. you really want to se c," Grant ' Th e way we use these signals said. "This occurs in situations can give extremely valuable inof pleasurable excitement." The formation about the way we are mouth is open, the lips curled thinking. The mouth is freback and both upper and lower quently used to express emuteeth can be seen . tions and it is very difficult to The oblong smile is one to be disguise them." ware of Grant says . "It occurs Grant's research is expecte? when the smiler pretends he or to help doctors see how she is enjoying something when atric patients react certam they're really not. Like when a questions about their girl gets too much attention oniy in what they say, whicn from an amorous drunk or is could be disguise?, but tnrough being chased around the office their non-verbal signals . byi1er boss. " "It will also be useful to hus band s and boy friends," he s aid. "To find out if she really means it when she says ' yes, darling , that would b e lovely,' don ' t lis ten to herwatch her lip s . That is where the truth will lie." Grant has listed f i ve basic typ e s of smiles . The upper smile , o r "how do The KE G 3.2 Beer to G o 38th and S H OSHONE you do" smile, which . is seen DENVER, CO L ORA D O b riefly in formal mce tmgs and I BUY U.S. S AVINGS BONDS DENVER WOOD PRODUCTS CO. E L CONQUISTADOR ------------------JOE'SFINA SERVICE OUR HOBBY GAS, OIL, TIRES & ACCESSORIES TRUCKERS WELCOME JOE LUCERO, OWNER 38TH & KALAMATH A NEW WAY OF LIFE Mister Softee the leader in the booming mobile soft ice cream business a nd one of America's most successful young enterprises-is now opening up territories here! Last year Mister Softee dealers coast to coas t reported earning $9,000 to $48,000 for 7 month s ' work ... never a dealer failure! If you are aiming high and have the ambition to get there, here your opport unity . A minimum down pay ment puts you in the driver's s eat, with th e balance on a pay-as-you-profit basis . Wha t 's more, we will train you , back you with advertising and promotional aids, and work with you until succes s is a s sured. Write or wire for complete details ... now! MISTER SOFTEE 4155 JASON STREET DENVER, COLO. 802 I I Page 33

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EL AMIGO RECORDS INFAL RECORDS, INC. 2144 Champa St. 892-7141 Evelyn's Draperies Mr. & Mrs. Harry Sherman 150 I So. Pearl 744-6439 LA COCINA FINEST MEXICAN FOOD 50 Wilcox Castle Rock, Colo. Capitol Gulf Service Larry and Lee Ashley 130 I Speer Blvd. Len's Barnum Shoes LEN ARCHULETTA 77 Knox Court DATURA SINCLAIR ED MARTINEZ & SON 1399 Littleton Blvd. Thelma Nelson Private School Preschool, Kindergarten First through Fifth Grades 1400 Ironton 366-2243 Strike and Spare Shop King Louie Apparel Hilton Apparel 2057 Champa St. 255-81 I I BEST WISHES from MASTER CRAFT Page 34 4881 IRONTON 343-8880 Pikes Peak National Bank OPEN SATURDAY Colorado Springs, Colorado Rogers Gl Thrift Mart * Furniture * Bikes * Baby Items * Appliances Ask For Roger or Mary 3190 West Alameda 934-3024 HERMANS Wholesale & Manufacturing Jewelers Herman Ulibarri 506 15th St. 255-6490 PHIL'S GROCERY Come -Get Acquainted 6:30 a.m. -7 p.m. 718 West 3rd Ave. Nate's Superette * Canned Goods * Fruits * Meats * Vegetables Paul Brown 2959 Wyandot 477-9867 Vic Wise Auto Body Complete Body Repair 3654 Mario11 St. 255-4133 6th Avenue Conoco COMPLETE AUTO REPAIR Service Calls 6th Ave. & Santa Fe 255-4076 TIRE SHOP I LTD. DAVE WOOD 44 South Federal Cloth Every Day's Dream with the Substance of Action EDUCATION OF THE MEXICAN AMERICANS Education of the Mexican Ameri can, by Rueben E. Aguire, deals specifically with the lanruage devel opment of Mexican American chil dren. The book informs readers of the problems Mexican American children encounter upon entering school. It explains methods that have been used effectively in over coming many of the difficulties. Recommended for the prospective teacher and those interested in the education of the Mexican American, the book also provides a brief in sight of how the Spanish culture has influenced the Mexican American child. Arte Una de las culturas mas an tiguas de Ia regi6n andina y Ia mas antigua de Bolivia es Ia denominada Chiripa, cuyos restos se pueden ver en Ia peninsula de Taraco, en las riberas del lago Titicaca . El perfodo principal de esta cul tura data de unos 800 aiios antes de Cristo . La ceramica chiripa presenta decoraciones geometricas con motivos es calonados en rojo y amarillo. El sitio arqueol6gico mas im portante del Altiplano es Tia huanaco en donde se desarro116 una notable civilizaci6n el aiio 600 antes de Cristo hasta el 1,000 de Ia Era Cristiana. Las ruinas de Tiahuanaco figu ran entre las mas notables del continente americana. A JOB BEGUN IS HALF WAY DONE DO YOUR BEST TO BE THE BEST EL CONQUISTADOR

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AZTEC CALENDAR THE CLASSIFYING TERM FOR THIS CALENDAR IS "CUAUHXICALLI" (EAGLE'S BOWL), BUT IT IS UMVERSALLY kNOWN AS THE AZTEC CALENDAR, OR SUN STONE,AS THE MONUMENT WAS DEDICATED TO THIS DEITY . ON THIS HUGE BASALTIC MONOLITH, HAVING AN APPROXIMATE WEIGHT OF 2!1 TONS, THE AZTEC CALENDAR WAS CARVED. ITS DIAMETER IS 5.10 METERS. IT WAS FOUND BURIED ON THE SOUTH4EAST CORNER OF THE ZOCALO (THE MAIN SQUARE)OF THE CITY Of MEXICO, ON DECEMBER 17TH, 1760. THE VICEROY OF THE NEW SPAIN AT THE TIME WAS DON ,JOAQUIN DE MONSERRAT, MARQUIS OF CRUILLAS. AFTERWARDS IT WAS TAKEN TO THE METROPOLITAN CATHEDRAL AND PLACED ON THE WEST "wALL OF THE TOWER . WHERE IT REMAINED UNTIL THE YEAR Of 1885, WHEN PRESIDENT GENERA L PORFIRIO DIAZ ORDERED ITS TRANSFER TO THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY AND HISTORY. DURING THE REIGN OF THE 6TH AZTEC MONARCH,AXAYACATL,IT WAS THAT THIS STONE WAS CARVED AND DEDICATE" TO THEIR PRINCIPAL llf:ITY, THE SUN, WHICH HAS BOTH A MYTHOLOGICAL AND ASTRONOMICA L CHARACTER . EHECATONATIUH (SUN OF WIND) , "SECOND EPOCH, AT THE END OF WHICH HUMANITY WAS DESTROYED BY STRONG WINDS THE GODS TRANSFORMED CARRIED AWAY BY THE HURRIACANES, THUS ORIGINATING THE SIMILARITY BETWEEN THE HUMAN RACE AND THE SIMIANS ... " TH I S WAS BECAUSE LARGE OUR TERRITORY AND ALSO ON ACCOUNT OF THE DISCOVERY OF HUTS ANO SII:ELETONS UNOUI 1..AYERS OF LAVA AND ASHES TONATIUH'S FACE I THE FACE OF THE SUN I WHO WAS THE LORD OF HEAVEN, AROUND WHICH TOOk PLACE ALL DAILY OR PERIODIC PHENOMENA. THE CROWN, NOSE PENDANT, RINGS,ANO NECII:LACE , ARE MOST LUXURIOUS AND ARE THE ORNAMENTS PROPER OF THIS DEITY. THE HAIR WAS FAIR DUE TO THE GOLDEN APPEARANCE OF THE STAR' THE WRINII:LES O N THE FACE WERE TO SHOW GREAT MATURITY OR AGE ; AND THE TONGUE, l.III:E AN OBSIDIAN II:NIF[ STUCk OUTWARD INDICATED THE NEED OF BEING FED WITH BLOOD AND HUMAN HEARTS. THE SIGN XIUHUITZOLLI (SYMBOLS OF THE EAST), COAT OF ARMS WHICH WAS PLACED ON THE CORPSES OF THE NOSLEMEN AND BRAVE WARRIORS FOR THEIR FUNERALS XIUHTECUTLI (GOD OF THE TURQUOISE), REPRESENTED HERE AS GOO O F NIGHT. THE NOSE PENDANT AND THE EARRING ARE THE ORNAMENTS PROPER OF THI S DEITY; THE FACE HALF CONVEREO WITH A VEIL, Sl\o NIFYING NIGHT DAR II: NESS. THE SAME ORNAME NT S APPEARING IN THE CENTER OF THE CALENDAR, AND THROWING SMOII:E UPWARDS, AS A SIGN OF GREAT ANGER BECAUSE OF THE DAILY STRUGGLE WITH THE GOD OF NIGHT BOTH GODS DRESSED THEMSELVES UP WITH THE XIUCOATLS, MYTHIC AND CELESTIAL SERPENTS WHEREBY THEY ACQUIRED GREATER STRENGTH AND IT HAS A TONGUE LIKE AN OBSIDIAN kNIFE AND TURNED OUTWARDS AS IN A CONSTANT STRUGGLE WITH TONATIUH (THE SUN I AUTHORITY. WITHIN THOSE XIUCOATLS ARE ALL THE CHRONOLOGICAL SIGNS, INDI CATING THUS THAT EVERYTHING OCCURS IN THE UNIVERSE DURING THE DAY . AND THE NIGHT . WHOM HE FOUGHT FOR THE DURATION OF THE NIGHT PRECOLOMBIAN MEXICO ATONATIUH (SUN OF WATER), " MEANS THE FOURTH EPOCH, AT THE EltO OF WHICH E:VERYTHING PERISHED BECAUSE OF TRRIFIC STORMS AND TORRENTIAL RAIN S THAT COVERED THE EARTH . REACHING THE PEAKS OF THE HIGHEST MOUNTAINS. THE GODS CHANGED MEN fiSHES TO SAVE THEM FROM THIS UNIVERSAL DELUGE ... " THE DISCOVERY This splendid sculpture was discovered in the 18th Century under the pavment of the Main Square of Mexico (today called Constitution Square). Carved in stone with a diameter of 3.35 meters, it weighs 24 tons. It was first placed at the base of the west tower of the Cathedral and later transferred to the National Museum. It is also called SUN STONE because the sun god TONATIVH appears in the center. Around him are the symbols of the four suns or ages of the Earth, represented by ECHECATL, god of the wind; TLALOC, god of rain; CHALCHIVTLICVE, god of water, and the Fire Sun. The first inner ring is divided into 20 days of the month. The sun rays extend radially from its center. On the outer circle, XIVHVOA.TL is represented by two serpents, and on the upper end is a date: 13 CANES (1479 of our Era). EL CONQUISTADOR Page 35

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. . .. .. ... : . ' .. ... '• • 'f J .... • '. '' we 'are . Privi'leged to . bB associated' ' I With such a dedicated ' ' ' . . -• l . ' . j o • • , J t L ' , ; . and humanitarian cause. Harry Yaffe, Administrator .. BETH ISRAEL HOSPitAL 0... : I . Denver, Colorado . '

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We Congratulate ' I I, • EL CONQUISTADOR For Its Fine In O . r -KFSC Denver, Colorado 80205 Spanish Language Radio lOOOW 1220 KC 2185 Broadway Phone 222-8935