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El Eco Maya, March, 1974

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Title:
El Eco Maya, March, 1974
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El Eco Maya
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Pueblo, CO
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El Eco Maya
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Language:
English

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newspaper ( sobekcm )

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Auraria Library
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Auraria Library
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Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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VOLUMEN V NUMERO 3 MEXICAN AMERICAN -EXCHANGING IDEAS NEWS-VIEWS MARZO 1974
School busing condemned
In the growing clamor and controversial swirl of arguments revolving around desegregation and busing, little has been heard from or about the impact of
busing on Denver’s Chicano population. Perhaps symbolic of the situation of Chicano children in the schools, the far-reaching implications of the Denver de-
segregation case on Chicanos — the city’s largest minority group, has been ignored in the fears and threats of a fleeing Anglo Continued on Page 12
FUENTE DE LA FORTUNA, ornamento principal de la Plaza del Carmen, portento de belleza que se ha convertido ya en un simbolo mas de San Luis Potosi .Page s
Toward Higher Education
Many statements have ueen made concerning the Chicanos and the oppressive educational system of the Southwest. The fight against racist practices and discrimination has brought about a slow change. Much remains to be said about significant attitudes toward the education of Chicanos.
I strongly believe that higher education is the key for the success of the Mexican American. The Chicano Studies departments in many colleges of Southwest have been involved in preparing excellent trained employees in the areas of language, history and culture of the Chicano. However, there has not been a sufficient number of bi-cultural and bi-lingual trained personnel to meet the vast growing demands for teachers that have been trained *in these areas. The main reason for this being that Chicanos are under-represented in all colleges of the Southwest both in faculty and students. An 'accurate example erf this is the Metropolitan State College
where the student enrollment is less than one percent in proportion to the population of Denver for Spanish-surnamed being approximately seventeen percent. The same can be said of the faculty which makes up only 12 full-time professors of a total of 300 full-time staff.
Many schools in the Southwest exclude Chicano Inaguage. In order to combat the educational problems of Chicanos, the schools must recognize that Spanish is the social language that many Chicanos speak and cherish. All courses should be taught from a Chicano point of view. Chicano students should be made aware that they are descendants of the Aztecs of Mexico who had the most highly sophisticated civilization in the world. The entire curriculum should be centered on promoting self-image, cultural pride, respect and dignity of the Chicano.
The textbooks used in the shcool system must be rewritten to include history and culture of this minority group and to
eliminate the false version* and unjust stereotypes of the Mexican American that exists in books today. The entire population should become aware of the contributions made by the Mexican American to society.
Admission requirements should be modified in all colleges in order to accommodate Chicano . students who have had an inadequate education through no fault of their own. Institutions of higher learning should take an active role in recruiting the Chicano administrators, faculty, and students.
Financial aid in many different forms should be available including interest free loans to all those who desire a college career.
The Chicano community must take an active role in control of their educational facilities including a voice in selection of teachers and developing curricula relevant to the Chicano students should be re-trained in cultural studies and language of the Chicano.
Continued on Pa'gd 6
" * v • I.'/SI.'■! ' .0.'
GLORIA MARIN — Una de las artistes Mexicans* que mas gloria y renombre a traido a la dnematografia Mexicans en el mundo entero
EDUCATIONAL CONFERENCE TO RE HEALD.
Saturday, March 23, 1974 is the scheduled day for the first Chicano-lndio Educational Conference to be held in Denver. This Conference will be held at the Del Pueblo Elementary School located at 7th & Gala-pago Sts. in Denver’s West Side.
The purpose of this one day event is to create an awareness within the community of the present educational issues and how to relate to them. To this end, a number of distinguished speakers are scheduled for the Conference including Dr. Daniel Valdez, editor of La Luz Magazine, Sr. Arturo Rodriguez, Co-chairman of the Alternative School System in the Crusade for Justice, Sra. Flor Sainz, presenting the Feminist view of education, Sr. Evertt Chavez, Instructor in Chicano Studies at Metro. State College, Sr. Norman Pacheco,Asst. Professor of Chicano Studies at Metro.
and a Doctor of Law, Sr. Elias Kuska, Chairman of Ethnic Studies at Santa Clara University in California. There will also be a speaker from the Indian Center of Denver and others.
After the speakers, the Conference will organize and present workshops dealing with the following areas: 1.) The Present School System, 2) School Busing, 3) Bi-lingual and Bi-Cultural Education, 4) Oppunities in Higher Education, 5) Alternative Schools, and 6) Service Agencies in the Community.
All of the public is invited to attend, and no fee will be charged to community participants, although donations will be 'accepted. No one will be turned away beliefs, as no one political or philosophical concept ought to dominate the Conference. Education should be the number ONE topic. All Continued on Page 12
En la Cd de Mexico, se acostumbra vestlr a los nlnos de indltos el dia jueves de Corpus y presentarlos en la Catedral como podemos apresiar a Olimpia y Adriana Salmeron Ruiz en esta fotografia. • .... Febrero .1974, Mexico


Page 2, ECO MAYA, Marzo, 1974
Jose David Alfaro Siqueiros| 1897-1974
Ne\y Democracy, por David Alfaro Siqueiros
Mexican muralist
Siqueiros is dead at 77
Reprinted from “ElDiario" Boulder, Colo. Feb. 1974
Jose David Siqueiros was a citizen-artist, lieutenant colonel of the international brigades of the Spanish Civil War. He was the terrorist whoj disguised as a
military soldier, fired and emptied a machine gun in the bed of Leon Trotsky in an old. house in
Coyoacan. He was a hard-line Stalinist, syndicated agitator and founder of the doctrinal newspapers, El Machete and El Martillo — communist throughout/
In 1968, Siqueiros received the Lenin Prize for Peace and the National Prize for Art of Mexico. A muralist with a forceful style,
draped in the dizziness of infinite perspectives. Culprit of his own contradictions. Adolescent soldier of the Mexican Revolution.
This genial man, a year before his death, proclaimed, “My position in all areas continues to be the same, I am not a bungler.”
This painter, born 77 years ago in Camargo, Chihuahua, was
carried by his great talent to all parts of the world: to the Imperial
Palace of Peking where he Was greeted by ChourEn-Lai; to the banks of the Nile to share the hopes of Gamal Abdel Nasser —=•
“The same solutions, because Latin America and the Arabian countries share the same problefrtis.” —■ to New Delhi where he conversed with Nehru, the pacifist who was greatly enchanted by red roses.
Siqueiros was saluted by the striated domes of San Basilio, the Red Plaza, the flags covered with blood, dust and glory of the fifth regiment, and the pictures of Sergio Einstenstein whose effigy
left in a mural of the Soviet Union, the crazy love of Andre Breon, the song to liberty of Paul Eluard, the liquid style of Picasso, the gratefullness of Ho Chi Minh, to whose people Siqueiros donated the Lenin Prize.
Siqueiros was loved by three women: Graciela Amador,
Gachita, Blanca Luz .Brum, a Uruguayan poetess and Angelica Arenal, his lifelong companion. He had one daughter, Adriana, and two grandsons, David and Martin.
He painted miles and miles of square meters in his total of 42 murals. With the same hands that fired the Motchikiss machine guns in the battles of the Mexican
Revolution in 1915, he painted the respites during the battle, the marches, the hunger and thirst and all aspects of an army at war.
Siqueiros wrote hundreds of forceful manifestos, pamphk s,
articles, art essays and letters. He was criticized by controversialists, Marxists, Catholics and politicians as well as by many other distinguished personalities.
Tire hands that incited a revolution in art and love produced the “Red Christ” of the new Vatican and composed a message so that all men could unite around Christ, martyrized to gain peace.
Un hombre de garra y action David Alfaro Siqueiros, artista ciudadano
77 anos de las contradicciones MUro y metralleta; Arenga y Caballo
Jose David Alfaro Siqueiros: artista ciudadano
teniente coronel de las brigadas internacionales de la guerra civil espaYTola; terrorista que disfrazado de militar vacio el tam-bor de una pistola ametralladora Thompson contra la recamara de Leon Trotsky en una vieja casa de cayoacan; hasta la muerte, stalinista de la linia dura, agitador sindical, orador callejero de
recursos plasticos con largas tem-poradas en el pacio negro de lecumberry; fundador . de periodicos doctrinarios — “El Machete”, “El Martillo” — commit nista toda la vida, Premio Lenin de la Paz, Premio national de artes de Mexico en 1968, hombre de garra y acci6n, muralista pleno de fuerza, atrapado en el vertigo de infinitas perspectivas, reo de sus propias contradicciones, adolecente soldado de la revolution mexicana, este hombre polifac€tico y genial, a un ano de su muerto proclamaba:
“Mi position en todos los terrenos sigue siendo la misma, yo no soy uh claudicante” porque este pintor que de Santa Rosalia (Hoy Camargo), Chih. donde hace 77 aYTds nacio un 29.de diciembre, viajo transportado por el vuelo de su talento a todo el mundo: A1 Palacio Imperial de Pekin, donde Chou-En-Lai lo saludd* con su rigida mano; a orillas del nilo para compartir el sueno de Gamal Abdel Nasser- — “Las mismas soluciones, porque America Latina y los paises TRES MUJERES LO AMARON Lo amaron 3 mujeres: Graciela Amador. “Gachita”, Blanca Luz Brum “La poetiza uruguaya", y Angelica Arenal la companera de siempre. tuvo una hija ^ Adriana —, a quen llamaba abuela; tuvo dos nietos, David y martin, y pinto en miles y miles de metros cuadrados. Pinto 42 murales. Con las mismas manos conque disparo las ladoras Hotchkiss en las batallas de la revolucion mexicana en 1915, Pinto tregua de la lucha, las marchas, el ham-bre y la sed, la limepeza del fusil, la pastura de caballo.
TheEmpire That Was Maya
by James W. Reed ^ v
tienen los mismos problemas”. — aNueva Dehli donde la sombra de
fuerte rojo vigilando por los fan-tasmas de la Kipling, hablo con Nehru, el pacifista enamorado de las rosas rojas. A Siqueiros los saiudaron las estriadas cifpulas de San Basfiio, La Plaza Roja, Las banderas cubiertas de sangre, poivo.ra y gloria de quinto regimiento, las peliculas de Sergio Einstenstein cuya efigie dej6 en um mural de la union sovietica, el amor loco de Andre Breton, el canto a la libertad Paul Eluard — quien le hizo un poeiiia las cafeterias automaticas de nueva York-, la liquida mirada de Picasso, el agradecimiento de Ho Chi Minh, a cuyo, peblo don£ El • Premio Lenin.
Lo ofendieron los frios barrotes del presidio, los cuatro anos de prision a partir del 10 de Marzo de 1962 — “Disolusion social” —
Y ei minado por un cancer que ingnoraba, despuds de una larga prostration antes de llegar a la agonia, habia de recordar que in 1958 pinto la apologia de “La Futura Victoria de La Ciencia Metiica sobre el Cancer”. En el pavellon de Oncologia del Centro Medico. Iahf pinto la sangre, el dolor y la esperanza. Siqueiros 'esribio.centenares de manifiestos llamamientos, folletos, articulos, ensayos de arte, cartas; recibio la critica de polemistas, plitologos, marxistas, cat&licos, politicos; el halago critico de Lincoln Kir-stein, desde la direccion de la sec-cion Latinoamericana del Museo de Arte Moderno de Nueva York; de Jose Chavez de Aragon, de Luis Cardoza, de Nils Lindgahen, desde la rubia suecia, del Doctor Atl, atribulado en tu mutilation y enamorado del Paricutm de Paul Westheim, de pablo Neruda y Lazara Cardenas. Las manos que incitaron a la conspiration y la revuelta al. arte, al amor, que produjeronel “Cristo Rojo” del nuevo VatiCano y redaegaron uh mensage para que todos los hom-bres se unieran en tor no a Cristo martirizado para conseguir la paz, esas manos ahora abrazan a Orozco y munon mjtilado, a Diego que disuelve en su amorosa gordura las heridas de Frira Kohlo, al andarin doctor Atl y su muleta de madera, a Jose maria Velasco y la celestial tran-sparencia de sus paisajes, a tres guerras y sus ingen uos puentes de piedra...
Y a hombre, gigante minusculo, polvo de las estrellas hambriento de paz y felicidad.
Siqueiros no ha muerto porque nos lego su arte y su ejemplo.
Maya centers of population were not so concentrated as at first the vastness of their ceremonial cities might suggest. On the contrary, they were scattered over an extensive area fringing out into many small farms. The occupation of the land between the different larger centers of Takal, Uxactun, Xultan, Nakum and Narajo must have been practically continuous. As evidence multiplies, this section of the Old Empire was one of the most densely populated areas of its size in the world during the first centuries of the Christian era. Extending population figures from a house-mound survey at Uxactun to the whole penninsula, allowing from
271 to 1083 persons per square mile, the higher number being determined from simultaneous occupancy of the house-mounds, we reach estimates ranging from over thirteen million to a maximum of over fifty million for the whole penninsula (50,000 square miles of habitable lands).
With the advance of the Stela Cult, the exact Mayan system of dating structures according to astronomical events, present day archeologist have a precise means of historical dating and can correlate existing physical structures with the actual rise of the Maya Empire. Though the above figures may seem a bit high, measured reenactments
building structures similar to those of the Classic Maya using only their ancient methods and stone tools-yield the conclusion that the time and labor required to construct Maya ceremonial centers drew from a population density of only thirty persons per square mile and then only from a radius of a few miles. Therefore only about one-ninth of the total population would necessarily be engaged in basic construction, i.e., quarring, hauling and the physical raising of the huge limestone blocks. This makes no mention of the veritable army of craftsman, artisans and master architects needed to carve and finish such ornate edifaces as the Nunnery Quadrangle and the Palace fo the Palace of the Governor of Uxmal.
principal labor tax which was offered up voluntarily. This, social commitment and awareness came as a result of an interesting feature of Maya psychie which aided economic development and grandoise construction: a strictly adherred to sense of duty which the individual felt, toward his neighbors and community. The Continued on Page 4.
1. Temple I in the Great Plaza at Tikal. Tikal was the largest as well as* one of* the oldest of Maya cities. Jts first recorded date is a.d. 41 (f. "These' are" eight Targe temple pyramids, but Temple 1 soars 229 feet. The ruins are now -being.restored J^vtbe Uniyersity .., ,,. ,i. .i,i.^j| isqc,b. .Rubjic building was. of Pennsylvania.-—© George Holton accomplished" by means of the'


MOUNTAIN BELL
Page 3. ECO MAYA. Marzo. 1974
Mountain Bell today (Marchl. 1974) asked the Colorado Public Utilities Commission for a 6.4% increase in operating revenues and asked for a hearing to determine revenue levels needed to meet future service demands.
Rate changes requested today would become effective on March 31, producing an additional $15.7 million in revenues from selected business and residential telephone services.
The only rate change affecting all customers uniformly is a 4 percent hike in basic monthly telephone service charges. For Pueblo residence telephone subscribers, depending on the type of service, this will add from 19 to 25 cents to monthly rateS? Rural eight party and the recently approved four party rates are not affected.
The increases would bring Mountain Bell's earnings, based on last year’s costs, to the level PUC approved in 1972 as ap-
propriate for the company's service and financial needs.
"We have to cover continuously rising costs of providing service, in fact revenue from, today's filing is only half of what we need," Harvey Clark, Pueblo District Manager for the company said.
Clark explained that rate changes filed with the PUC are based on previous year costs, but revenue from such a filing is inadequate to meet current service cost. For this reason. Mountain Bell is asking the commission for a public hearing to decide the company’s commission for a public hearing to decide the company’s complete service and earning needs.
Other changes, described in a notice mailed to customers today by the company, would affect selected services and areas. The amount of the increases vary from service to service depending on costs of providing
the service.
Rate changes affecting customers of selected services throughout the state are for: extension phone charges (affect-ting 470,000 extension sets) nonlisted directory service (about 33.000 customers); Wide Area Telecommunications Service or WATS, to conform tc in-state lone distance charge* (440 customers).
In 1974 the company expect* to spend more than $195 million on service projects in the state -nearly double that spent five years ago. Also, union contracts are up for renegotiation in July
Mr. Clark also said that following a request by the PUC., Mountain Bell has been studying the feasibility of charging for local service based on customer usage. "This may be the most, equitable form of charging," he said, "but right now it's not economically possible and customers aren't interested. It
Remember ILfhen?
Remember the stories about Abraham Lincoln reading books as a boy by the dim light of a cabin fireplace? Well, unlike some of the stories about our forefathers and folk heroes, this one is probably true. In those days, about the only other possible source of light around the house was the whale oil lamp or candles, neither of which was very bright.
These beautiful kerosene lamps-or, j’coal oil” lamps, as they were first called-didn’t come into being until around the period of the American Civil War, when Mr. Lincoln probably had little time to take advantage of the better lighting to read very many books.
You wouldn’t think it to look at their delicate design, but these lamps were a product of industrialization. About 1850, a process was perfected in Scotland for deriving liquid fuels from coal or shale, and the first kerosene for these lamps came from coal - hence the name “coal oil.” Later, of course, most kerosene was derived from oil, and the process of deriving liquid fi/els from coal was generally forgotten.
However, as we all are well aware, there’s a shortage of oil and natural gas today, and finding alternatives to these resources has taken on new urgency. And it so happens that one of the most promising alternatives is synthetic oil and synthetic natural gas derived from coal. Coal is abundant and readily available already. The demands of our economy dictate a need for a great deal of gaseous and liquid fuels. That’s why coal gasification and coal liquefaction are two more reasons why we at Public Service Company are building a place for coal in your energy future.
Public Service Company «lr J Cdfemdl®
will probably be the end of the decade before charging for telephone service in this way would be acceptable!'
rnXuQSQOCOGflaXEQ
DIBUJO COMEROAL
flrefiive
TOTTING
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PROMPTLY
PRODUCED
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* ILLUSTRATIONS
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Maya Enterprises
Gao WllT NORTHERN AVCNUC Puma. Colorado 81004
DIAL-
543-5207
TV Eco Newspaper Is a Bi-lingual newspaper, published monthly by Maya Enterprises 600 West Northern A ve.
El Eeo Maya has a circulation of 10,000 copies and is distributed in Pueblo. Denver. Colorado Springs and the San Luis Valley Area.
EDITOR: Ernesto Barrios SALES: Wanda M. Schmitz COMPOSITION: Nita Barrios ASSOC. EDITOR: Joaquin Diaz CONTRIB. EDITOR: Joe Padilla PHOTOGRAPHY: Wiliam Forehand Jack Avalos LA YOUT: Miguel A. Jimenez Ernesto Barrios
QUALITY CONTROL: Paul Bueno DISTRIB. MANAGER: TV. Schmitz DISTRIBUTION: Ray Aguilera Jr.
Todo a sun to relaclonado cor\ public id ad en general articulos etc. deben ser tratados con la direccion de Eco Publlcaciones Box 2024 - Los articulos son de la exclusiva responsabllldad de qulen losflrma.
La meta de auienes hacemos ECO es convertir a nuestro per-iodico en una tribuna abterta para todos los criterios, y mas que todo acrecentar el in teres de nuestros lectores a un posit i-vismo mayor en nuestra comuni-dad.
En nuestros columnar se senalan err ores, pero apuntando siempre a una soluclon.
= * REAL ESTATE — —Commercial ™ —Residential = PROPERTY MANAGEMENT
INSURANCE: == —Auto ZZ —Home SI —Life —
n
r


Page 4, ECO MAYA, Marzo, 1974
Published by: EL ECO MAYA 600 W. Northern Ave. Pueblo,Colo. 81004
why explore the planets
Until now, man has been restricted in his investigations of the other planets in our solar system by the limitations of Earth-based scientific instruments.
Now, man has the ability to explore the planets with unmanned probes in space, unimpeded by the distortions of our atmospheric blanket.
Planetary exploration can provide new knowledge in three general areas of:
• The origin and evolution of the solar system.
• The origin and evolution of life, and the possibility of life on other planets.
• Comparative studies of other planets to aid in understanding natural phenomena on Earth.
Evolution of the Solar System
Each planet in our solar system appears to represent a different stage of Earth's evolution: Mars an early stage, Venus a later stage, and Jupiter a much earlier stage.
Analyses of the chemistry, topography, radiation and physical properties of each planet can give us new understanding of the evolutionary processes at work in the solar system.
Neptune, outside the influence of the sun's magnetic field, is an ideal experimental laboratory from which to observe the undisturbed interstellar medium.
The radically tilted rotational axis of Uranus indicates an extraordinary event surrounding its origin. This may offer a clue to the origin of the solar system.
Evolution of Life
The possibility of life on other planets has intrigued mankind for many centuries.
Discovery of life ^elsewhere in the solar system would have profound influence not only upon science, but man's philosophies as well.
If life exists on another planet, this fact would yield unique information on the origin of life. If there were a fundamental difference in the chemical makeup of extraterrestrial life, it would indicate a different origin, implying that life is a common phenomenon in
Edited by: Jose R. Padilla Special Excerpts Jose R. Padilla
the universe. If life on other planets were chemically similar to life on Earth, it would suggest that life somehow travelled through interplanetary space.
Conversely, failure to find life on a planet whose environment is hospitable to life would imply that the origin of life is an unusual event, rather than a predictable outcome of geochemical processes.
Our first search for extraterrestrial life will begin when Viking soft-lands on Mars in 1976. Scientists theorize that, because Mars bears some physical similarities to Earth and possesses certain life-supporting ^elements, there is a possibility of finding evidence of life there.
The atmospheric colors of Jupiter and Saturn indicate possible biologically-related compounds. Investigations of these planets might lead to revisions of our theories of the origin and evolution of life on Earth.
Comparative Studies of the Planets
If the other planets in the solar system are in different stages of evolution, studies of these stages should give us new insights into the past, present and future of Earth.
A closer study of Venus, which may represent a later stage of development of Earth, might provide clues to the future development of our planet. Examination of the dense atmosphere of Venus, which is rich in carbon dioxide, might give us new information about our own air pollution problems.
Mars exhibits a phenomenon similar to Earth's continental drift. If continental blocks shift and produce tremors on Mars, examination of the tremors may lead to better understanding of the same mechanics which operate on Earth.
In addition, each comparative study will serve as an evaluation of the scientific theories that describe physical phenomena on Earth.
WANTED:
OVERSEAS OPERATORS
First Issue of ’ECO’ Published This Week
POSITIONS OPEN — APRIL
Apply Now
CALL 233-3627 FOR APPOINTMENT
I
A.T. & T. Long Lines International Operating Center
( NEED OPERATORS FOR NIGHT SHIFTS ) $108.00 per week to start
By Jon Heaton
The recently-organized staff of a new bi-lingual magazine, "ECO,” published its first issue this week in Pueblo. Conceived and designed for Westerners whose roots can be traced to the rich cultures of Mexico and Central America, the publication’s first issue contains an intriguing breadth of articles in contemporary Spanish and English, and some outstanding, original illustrations.
Content of the first issue — apparent depth and insight editorially — portends the start of something fine for the entire Southwestern United
States.
Publisher Gonzalo Barrios states that he has the staff, facilities, and desire to produce an accurate, interesting, and relevant publication which will be devoted to serving the best interests of all the people in this area. The bulk of the staff-writing and editorial chores are divided between Dr. Jose A. Nina-hualpa (Spanish text), and Charles Carruth (English), while art work is the primary responsibility of the publisher himself. Management is under the supervision of Ernest Barrios. The ECO is printed by Maya Enterprises, located on Lake at Northern.
THE COLORADO TRIBUNE
EMPLOYMENT OFFICE.
1881 Pierce Street Lakewood, Colorado 80215
“An Equal Opportunity '
PUEBLO, COLORADO NOVEMBER 2, 1968
(•v -- ^ '
No. 12

(ELE((iONEt.
MUIKALEt
ZACAZONAPAN (Ruben Mendez del Castillo) CANTA: Antonio Zamora En el estado de Mexico, naci yo soy de Zacazonapan donde creci viendo la peha prenada y los Tres Reyes
llenos de pinos la dura cuesta y el Fraile canaverales y sus molinos si senor...
Llena de cumbres mi tierra es un tazon
pocas casitas y un raro cerro pelon
y se esc a pan de mi Zacazonapan cantares
que atrapan el corazdn. « Todos todos tomemos que brindaremos por
Zacazonapan y por el Estado de Mexico.
Valle de Bravo muy chavo eonocf ahora tiene un laguna que antes no vi
luego pase por Toluca que es del Estado la men nuca y sin toear el Distrito vivi en Satdiite y el Molinito si senor...
En Tlalnepantla se palpa un dineral
es con Naucalpan la zona mis industrial
y se escapan de mi Zacazonapan cantares que atrapan al corazon. Todos, todos tomemos que... Mexico patria y estado si senor soy mexicano dos veces mi doble honor
todavia en hora temprana pinta Velazquez y escribe Sor Juana y hoy en Texcoco inspirado Netzahuakoyotl canta al estado si senor...
Casi rodeando al Distrito Federal como diadema lo luce la capital y se escapan de mi Zacazonapan cantares
que atrapan al corazdn.
Todos, todos tomemos y...
POSTERS
WATER-BEDS
BEADS
675 S. Union St. Pueblo Ph: 542-9779
EDUCATIONAI______________
Continued from Page 1. persons who feel that education is important should make it a MUST to attend this Conference! Ojala Adeiante!
The Chicano Educational Conference will begin at 8:00 AM with the registration, so plan to attend and be on time. Those interested in gaihing more information please contact Ms.» Angela Beard at ph. 292-5190 ex. 312 or Ms. Murial Ashmore at ph. 534-5141. This Conference will be sponsered jointly by MECHA of Community College of Denver, UMAS-CCC of Metropolitan State College UMAS of University of Colorado, Denver Center, and The Westside Action Center.
Reprinted fronp(“£l)J%serit°.Kv \ t , Denver, Colorado ' , . . ,,


Chuckle Of The Month
Dear Friends.
We have the distinguished honor of being on a committee for raising five million (5.000.000.00) dollars for placing a statue of Richard Nixon in the Hall of Fame in Washington. D.C.
The committee was in a quandry as to where to place the statue. It was thought not wise to place it beside the statue of George Washington, who never told a lie. nor beside Franklin D. Roosevelt, who never told the truth, since Richard Nixon could never tell the difference....
We finally decided to place it beside Christopher Columbus -the greatest new dealer of them all. He left not knowing where he was going, and upon arriving did not know where he was. He returned, not knowing where he had been and did it all on borrowed money.
Yours truly,
Nixon statue committee
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page 5, ECO MAYA. Marco, 1974
NOTICE: Send your Classified Ad or Announcement to "EL ECO MAYA" Insert your message here & mail it in. Classifieds will NOT be taken by phone All classified Ads must be prepaid by check or money order —10c. per word. Deadline is the 20th. day of each month for the following issue. Send to:
ECO PUBLIC A TIONS P.O.Box 2024 Pueblo, Colo. 81004
li-SMS* ‘Want % Advertise In |
tfSSRSL, OurWewspaper? vfL a
IS* AGENCIES 6 J§J
1HJ * RESTAURANTS-AND MORE-CALL - Wanda Schm,tz (758-7490 or 543-5207) IDI
IS ----------------------------Ernesto Barrios- El
[CJ WE SERVE OVER 15,000 RESIDENTS AND SUBSCRIBERS Qj]
FUENTE DE LA FORTUNA
Pagina Do la Pagina 1
-LA PLAZA ESPAISIA-
Por JESUS LOKEDO LEON
Mira, Juanillo, voy a eontarte un cuento, Bueno, es una historia, pero como tormina triste, quiero hacdrtela un cuento...
AHA en Granada, la de Espafia... habia nn poeta. ;Pero un gran poeta! ; Bramaba con los toros, jugaba con la luna, bailaba con la gitana y su pandereta.. ,'y luego volvia a ha. corse nitio!
^Sonries... ? ;Qud bien que te gusta este cuento!
Pero aqnel niflo inquieto... eiempre ha. bfa adivinado en su vida... nn horizonte de perros. Ffjate nomds... Y fueron olios, pre. dsamente, los aue un dia lo mataron, pero-.
;No llores, Juanillo...! ;Apenas iba a la mitad de mi cuento!
Bueno__ ;Vamos a verlo a la Inna ahf
en la Plaza Espana de ml San Luis tan quie. to!... ;Te lo voy a ensenar!
Se 11am aba Federico...
iLo ves?.*Verdad que en sus profun. aos o?os hay algo como nn sueno inacabado?
;Mira.--! ;Aun tienen sus labios algo de aquella su inerefble sonrisa!... Ahora te en. sedard al divino Flaco. ;Si! ;Asf le llamaban sns amigos! No te imaginas cufinto le que-rfan. Tambidn fne un poeta. ;Y fue mTisico! Si lo hnbieras oldo... ;Tocaba el niauo como si jugaran sobre dl las mariposas!
j,Que por qnd qniere esa lAgrima salir de tmo de sus ojos?..-. Agustln tuvo un gran rival ... Y fueron sns propios suefios los que lo hundieron en la resana. ;Pero tuvo nn gran amor!... No sd si serfa el tiltimo o si seria
el prinjero... Lo qae si, es quo asi eomo dl am6, asi llord.
Y todo lo quo llord. .. nos lo dejd en cancio-nes.
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«Qud por qnd te enento otra historia triste?
Es que. • • Los grandes hombres siempre se nutrieron de grandes desdichaa.
;Y siempre supieron amar! iQue el musico te parece mAs vlejof... Bueno, solamente vivi6 mAs anos sobre la tie-rra que el poeta, pero... ;Los dos murieron jdvenes porque amar on mucho!
Los dos pudieron haber amado mAs... a
pesar de su desgracla. __
Pero.... jVente, Juanillo!... ;No te que-dee mAs tiempo pensando!... No sea que despuds te mesueltes a llorar... ;Vente! ;Vamos a ver la alegria y el hondo sefioria del baile flamenco!
£Asl que quieren gritar.• -;01d!... al ver el gallardo giro de la gitana?
iQue?... ;Ah, si!... ;Ella tiene dos cla-veles blancos reventAndose en sn blusa!... ;Dos elaveles en punto de alborada!
iVerdad qne es muy hermosa? can la gaita?. • • Es ahi en el Centro Tanri-...jOye, Juanillo!... iOyes qud bien to-no, ese hermoso edlficio aue se asoma en la esq ulna... ;EstA sonando la gaita!... I Ahi es-tA soplando un viento espafiol abrazado a nuestro Mdxico!
^ Ya vez c6mo nuestra historia por fin no aeabd triste... ?
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Page 6, ECO MAYA, Marzo, 1974
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Senator Peter H. Dominick
.....No. 248 Old Senate Building, Washington, D.C. 20510
Senator Floyd Haskell
.....No. 5237 North Senate Building, Washington, D.C- 20510
Representative Donald Brotzman
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Representative Pat Schroeder .....1313 Longworth Building, Washington, D.C. 20515
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Representative William Armstrong
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Representative James Johnson
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TOWARD HIGHER EDUCATION FOR CHICANOS
Institutions of higher learning have a commitment to the Chicano community having the responsibility of conducting community classes taking the college to the people, promoting cultural events and implementing a curriculum that is for the people it serves. Educational facilities should be available to the people of the community
Reuben E. Aguirre Chairman, Chicano Studies Metropolitan State College Denver, Colorado.
Apuiula Num Riettoi dt
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Un kilo de pancita de res o de carnero ya cocida, se pone a dar un hervor en agua con sal, dos dientes de ajo y una cebolla. Cuando hierve se le anade una salsa hecha en la siguiente forma: 50 gramos de chile ancho y 50 gramos de chile pasilla, se asan, se desvenan, se remojan y se muelen con dos dientes de ajo. Se vierte la salsa en la olla del menudo que ya se habr& picado en trozos pequenos y se deja hervir, sazonandose con una rama de epazote.
ENCHILADAS VERDES
Se prepara una salsa con 250 gramos de tomates verdes, dos dientes de ajo y cuatro chiles poblanos desvenados y sin pellejo, todo molido con un trozo de cebolla. Se frie en man-teca caliente, anadiendole un vaso de erema de leche y sazo-nando con sal y pimienta. Las tortillas se frien en manteca, se rellenan con polio o came de res deshebrada, se enrollan, se acomodan en un plat6n refractario, se banan con la salsa y se meten al horno unos minutos. Se sirven bien calientes.
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Page 7, ECO MAYA. Marco. 1974
Chicano Newsletter Blocked
Publication of a Chicano student and faculty newsletter was banned last week by MSC Vice President for Academic Affairs Richard Netzel because some of the contents were of a "stongly militant and inflam— atory" nature.
Netzel, who said he has no objection to the group publishing information related to organizational or departmental activities, instructed MSC Print Shop Manager Mike Motoishi not to publish the newsletter after Motoishi had brought the matter to Netzel's attention.
State regulation, Netzel' had explained, prohibit the use of state funds for publishing material of a political nature. Netzel's authority to ban the publication of the newsletter, Viva, stemmed, he continued, from the Chicano Studies Department’s co-sponsoring the effort with students from UMAS, the Chicano Business Students Association and the Chicano Careers Club. Trustee regulations prohibit departments from endorsing political stnads of any kind.
A COLORADO INDUSTRY
Material in the newsletter considered inflammatory by Netzel included accounts of recent controversial police actions involving Denver Chicanos.
Following Netzel's action, a petition was circulated among student organizaitons and some faculty which protested the ban as a denial of free speech. By earilier in the week, the basis for Netzel's authority appeared to be understood and the students involved in Viva's pro-ducation expressed the belief that publication could go on with UMAS, CBSA and the CCC as the sole sponsors.
Later, three top administrators were contacted in an effort to determine what policy exists covering the publicaiton of non-institutional material by the shop for student organizations. The responses indicated that there exists no clear-cut college policy other than complying with state regulations.
Ultimately, the fate of Viva may rest with MSC’s Board of Publications and Public Information. The board has the authority to approve all publications originating on the campus, and if approval is given the sponsors of a publication are authorized to seek funds from the Student Affairs Committee.
— Reprinted from "The Aurarian Metropolitan State College
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put a I'ttle sunshine in your life!
SCHOOL BUSING; jsHSi
I Continued from Front Page
population to the suburbs and the preoccupation with possible bus routes and anticipated pupil' movement. If the Denver Public Schools had attacked the problem of Chicano dropout rates with only a fraction of the concern and vigor that it now attempts to maintain the districts Anglo population, Chicanos would not now be faced with the prospect of busing.
No other group has had so little to do with the desegregation case,and at the same time will be so greatly affected by it. And yet, no other population group in the school district is more opposed to busing than Chicanos.
Indeed, by every measure anc report available, Chicano children are the recipients of an inferior brand of education, of which Denver school boards past and present must be held largely accountable. Yet, while increasingly aware and vocally critical of. this low educational status, | Chicanos generally have not considered themselves part of the j desegregation issue and have not pursued desegregation as an alternative to the inadequacies of education currently and histor-, ically offered in barrio schools.!
Ironically, an even greater! paradox lies in that nowChicanosI have suddenly found themselves[ thrust in the middle of a tug-of-war which places desegregation I jnd its negative and disruptive j busing implication for community-conscious Chicanos on one end of the rope and the! school board with its tradition-! ally hollow interpretation of the “neighborhood school" on the other. For Chicanos, either end of the rope offers the same; noose.
The desegregation arguments and plans, submitted to the| Court, revolve around the de^ termination of bus routes andl the number of bodies involved.1 Not one plan, to this point,! has as a basic feature of its! implementation a proposal fori structual changes within the! school system. Yes, one plan[
Continued on Page 8
Patience&
Knowledge
Take time to read the following article, if could save you a lot of money and heart ache:
HOME BUYING, the Economic Factor: by John C. Garcia
The first article of this series will have to do with homebuying. If you are now renting and think you want to purchase a home, take this advice.
1. Call a real-estate agent and cash money you have, and the annual income that you have from all sources. It might well be that you are not ready to buy a home. Their areas many as 7 differ-ways to buying a home.
As an example:
1. V.A. guaranteed loan (must be a Veteran)
2. FHA or HUD insured loan
3. Conventional financing
4. Assumption (take over existing mortgage)
5. Conventional M.G.I.C. 10% down or 5% down.
6. Cash
7. Contract for Deed
Which of the above fit you? An experienced real-estate agent can advise you. If your particular situation does not fit into any of the above listed catagories then you are not ready. I have not discussed government supplementary home-buying methods because they are not stable and are constantly changing. In the next series, I will discuss the property itself.
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Page 8, ECO MAYA, Marzo, 1974
Do barrios exist in Denver?
The following article is based on the 1970 Census which does not indicate a higher percent after three
Education Fund (M.A.-L.D.E.F.) has filed a suit against The United States Census Department for
years, being Chicanos are the miscounting Chicanos in the fastest growing ethnic group 1970 Census, in Atzlan. The Mexican Generally, the 1970 Census American Legal Defense & information indicates that
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Chicanos in Denver, as well as Colorado, have lower incomes; larger families; less educational attainment; less likely to have graduated from high school; more likely to be at or below a poverty level (about $3700/year for a family of four at the time of the 1970 Census); and is a much younger population group than either the Black or total populations.
More specifically, in Denver. 57 percent (some 48,000) of all Chicanos reside in 19 of the city’s more than 124 Census tract areas. The Chicano population within these 17 Census tracts ranges from a low of 32% in tract 0045.01 to a high of 79% in tract 0019. Although the overall percentage of Chicanos in only 17 census tracts is high, it should be noted that it is somewhat misleading to rely solely on census tracts. For example, within tracts 0011.01 and 0011.02, the general area oi Pecos street to the Valley highway and 32nd Avenue to 46th Avenue (lower Denver), the Chicano population would probably run as high as 90% ol the total population. However, census tracts divided as they are, split the ethnic nature ol this community in half.
Do barrios exist in Denver?
If a barrio can be defined as a large geographical area containing a significantly high number of low-income Chicanos, then there is no question that barrios (not clusters) exist in Denver
pattern in Denver (shown on As far as the income picture the map of Denver’s census of Denver’s Chicano tracts) is the emergence and* population is concerned, the development of one huge average (mean) Chicano family predominately Chicano area is some $3,533 lower than the that will encompass about 25% city-wide average. While this of Denver’s total land area, difference in and of itself is North Denver is just beginning considerable, remembering that to feel the implications of this Chicano families tend to be trend. larger than other families
The youthful characteristic magnifies the income gap. Since of the Chicano community the mean (average) family in-within the 17 tract acre is seen comes for each census tract was in the elementary schools ser- not reported in the Census ving the 17 tract area. At the reports, one cannot then make elementary level, Chicanos clear-cut comparisons with the comprise over 25 percent of the city-wide average or mean, school district’s total Chicano However, by looking at the enrollment at the elementary median (mid-point) it is safe
level. This should say
something to the Denver Public Schools, but unfortunately educational institutions have a whether census tracts are used way of becoming deaf (and

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(and unfortunate) to conclude that these areas are substantially lower income areas. Again remember that this 17 tract area is an area of high Chicano youth population and therefore llar-ge families characterize the 17 tracts. Only two tracts have median family incomes in excess of $8,000 (0009.01 and 0045.01) and even that level of family income is probably well below the city-wide median.
Reprinted from "ElEscriior" February 1974
SCHOOL BUSING...
Continued from Page 7
< offers “magnet school centers" iand only involves the busing of some 2700 students but, it destroys eleven schools, involving mostly minority children, in the i process. The other plan offers a "paired school" concept and some cultural experiences but, 14,000 students must be bused to accomplish it. And, at this same time, the Court is searching for a definition as to what •constitutes an integrated school.
Continued on Page 11
THE EMPIRE THAT.
Continued from Page 4
in Coba-Yaxun axis is about sixty-two miles long. As the ancient traveler proceeded along his way, legally immune from all human evils, he would stop at the evenly spaced roadside sanctuaries which acted as the Maya measure of distance. There he would pray and burn copal in honor of Ek Chuah, the God of traders and merchants.
In the next article in this series on ‘The Empire That Was Maya”, ,we will meet Ek Chddh‘ to discuss commerce and trade in the far-fluWf'reaches of Maya Central America.


COMO LLEVARSE BEEN CON LA GENTE
1. Pongale riendas a su lengua; diga siempre menos de lo que piensa. Cultive un tono de voz grave y persuasi-vo. A menudo importa mas la forma en que listed dice las cosas que lo que dice.
2. Prometa poco y cumpla flelmente sus promesas, no im porta cuanto le cueste.
3. Nunc a desaproveche una oportunidad de decir una palabra amable o animadora a algulen o de alguien. Alabe las cosas blen hechas sin tener en cuenta quien las haya hecho. Si la critica es necesaria, critique para ayu-dar, nunca con malevolencia.
4. Interesese en los demas —en sus proyectos, su bienestar, sus hogares y familias. Alegrese con los que se regocijan, y llore con los que lloran. Que todos los que lo encuentren, sientan que listed los considera como alguien de importancia.
5. Sea alegre. No permlta que las esquinas de su boca se inclinen hacla abajo. Oculte sus penas, tristezas y chascos bajo una sonrlsa. Riase con las anecdotas sa-namente divertidas, y aprenda a contarlas.
* Dios llama a los hombres cuando estan oc up ados; Satan&s los llama cuando est&n ociosos.
* Nadie sube a un monte por quedar mirandolo.
* Siempre resulta ventajoso el hacer un poqulto mas de lo que parece ser necesario.
*. Una juventud bien empleada es el fundamento para una vejez honorable.
* Yo no trabajo; empleo mi tiempo en lo que me entusiasma, que es todo esto. Cuando se encuentra la fe-licldad en el ejercicio de la vocacidn no se puede decir que se trabaja. (Ramon Men6ndez Pidal)
LO QUE PIENSAN LOS HUOS:
A los 5 afios: papa lo sabe todo.
A los 8 afios: pap& lo sabe casl todo.
A los 12 afios: hay bastantes cosas que pap& no sabe.
A los 15 afios: pap& comprende poco.
A los 20 afios: pap& no comprende nada.
A los 30 afios: le pedir£ consejo a papa.
A los 50 afios: si papa viviese aun ...
EL AMOR. Hay ciudades adonde van de viaje todos los enamorados de la tierra. Son felices alii. Y luego dicen: “iQu6 hermosa es Venecia! jQu6 hermosa es Granada!" Y no; lo que es hermoso es el amor —en cualquier parte del mundo. (Alejandro Cason a)
* Hay hombres, muchos hombres, que se deslizan por la vida sin haber conocido su ser interior y verdade-ro. (Juan Antonio de Zunzunegui)
CURIO SIDADES
* En tlempos de San Agustin se creia que en la for-macion de un nuevo ser, el padre contribuia con el alma y la madre con el cuerpo.
* Pilato coloco la estatua de C6sar en el templo de Jerusalem
* “Aunque yo no crea lo que tu dices, luchard por tu derecho de decirlo.” (Voltaire).
* Cretan los judios ortodoxos que las mujeres no tenian alma ni eran, per tanto, capaces de desenvolvi-miento espiritual ni de llegar a ser dngeles, y asi es que todas las im&genes o estatuas de Angeles que se encuen-tran en los paises orientates son del sexo iqasculino. La idea de la mujer sin alma se transfirid a las lenguas ro-manticas, en las que la palabra angel es siempre mascu-lina y carece de forma femenina. N in gun rabino hu-biera permitido entrar en discusiones religiosas con mujeres ni tratar de asuntos espirituales con ellas.
COSAS EN QUE PENSAR
* Tres cosas para amar: Valor, Caballerosidad y
Slncerldad.
Tres cosas en las cuales deleltarse: Verdad, Liber tad y Belleza.
Tres cosas que admirar: Sabiduria, Dignidad y Dorn inio de si mismo.
Tres cosas que aborrecer: Ociosidad, Descuido e In-temperancia.
Tres cosas que gobemar: Temperamento, Lengua y Conducta.
Tres cosas por las cuales pelear: Honor, Patria y Hogar.
Tres cosas que atesorar: Vida, Dios y Etemidad.
CONSEUO SABIO: Un hombre hallo las ventanas de su casa cubiertas de hielo, y procuro quitarlo raspando los cristales.
—I Que haces alii? —le pregunto un vecino.
—Estoy qultando el hielo, porque no puedo ver a tra-vds de estos vidrios.
Viendo el vecino cu&n lento y duro era este trabajo, le dijo: —Pon fuego y calentando la habitacion desapa-recera el hielo por si mismo.
Sabio consejo. Si nuestro corazon tambien estd frio, a causa de la incredulidad y frialdad que nos rodea, no procuremos vanamente libramos del hielo mediante es-fuerzos propiog. Pidamos, al Senor ciencia y fuego espiri-fuai dentrb del doia^bn/y dfesaparecera el hielo por si.
Page.9. ECO MAYA. Marzo. 1974
Sundstrand-Denver Involved In Shuttle Orbiter Power Job
The Denver Aviation Division of the Sundstrand Corp. will account for roughly 35 per cent of the work involved in a $10 million Sundstrand contract with Rockwell International Corp. to build the auxiliary power unit for the Space Shuttle Orbiter.
Rockwell’s Space Division is developing the orbiter and in-tegrating the complete system for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The auxiliary power unit Sundstrand will build will provide power for the orbiter’s hydraulic system which operates the wing elevons, rudder. speed brakes, _ landing gear, steering and main engine controls.
A spokesman for the Denver Aviation Division said the local organization will participate in
the manufacturing and milling work, but that the engineering, assembly and testing will be done at Sundstrand's complex in Rockford. 111.
He estimated the Denver contribution would amount to about 35 per cent of the job. The Denver division, with about 1.200 employes, is basically a machining support facility for the Rockford division. Employment has bounced back at the Denver division from more than 500 two-and-a-half years ago to more than 1,300. and now approaches the level of 1965-66 before the engineering division was moved to Rockford.
Over-all aviation sales climbed to $103 million in 1973 and are expected to hit $120 million in 1974, the company spokesman said.
FIRST REUSABLE
The shuttle is a combination space airplane and is the first reusable space transportation system. It will lift off from earth as a rocket, fly in space on its mission and then return to earth to land much like a jetliner. The shuttle's payloadcarrying orbiter will have a carrying capacity of 65.000 pounds. Its cargo will range from satellites to passengers and sections of other vehicles to be assembled in space.
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Page 10, ECO MAYA, Marzo, 1974
Allende’s widow to speak at March 17 rites
Hortencia Allende, widow of the slain former president of Chile, Salvador’^Allende, and representatives of other, national
and international liberation struggles will speak in Denver at the first anniversary of the March 17 attack oil the Crusade for
Justice.
They will join with local leaders in a day of commemoration exactly a year to the day of the police attack on the Crusade and Escuela TlateJolco which left Luis "Junior" Martinez dead and dozens injured and scores arrested. The day of protest will take place on the capitol steps.
Other * speakers will include: Rudolfo "Corky” Gonzales, (Head of the Crusade), Los Tres del Barrio (charged with shooting a narcotics agent who happened to be a drug pusher), Angela Davis (co-chairperson of the National Alliance against Racist
and Political Repression) Juan Mardi Bras (leader of the Puerto Rican Socialist Party for the independence of Puerto Rico), Bert Corona (founder of Centro de Ac-cion Social Autonoma in Los Angeles), and Mario Cantu (director of CASA in San Antonio).
The demonstration will be the first appearance of Mrs. Allende in this area. She has addressed several labor unions in the U.S. Salvador Allende was killed by the military junta which took over the democratically elected government in Chile.
Since March 17, no policemen have stood trial for the attack, although only four of the nearly 60 persons arrested were prosecuted and only one of them Mario Vasquez was convicted of any wrong doing. According to Chicanos at Vasquez’ trial, the testimony of the police officers vas often contradicted, yet the jury convicted him.___________
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March 17 will mark the first anniversary ot the murderous police assault on a building used as a dormitory for Escuela Tlatelolco, the Chicano school run by the Crusade for Justice in Denver.
The cops used a jaywalking incident in the early morning hours after a mafianitaa celebration (Chicano birthday party) as a pretext for the attack. Suddenly, more than 200 heavily armed police appeared and began firing into the building. A powerful explosion left the place in ruifls.
Luis (Junior) Martinez, a dance instructor at the Escuela, was killed by police bullets that night. He was 20 years old.
Several others were shot, and 70 were arrested. The charges were so phony that only one of the frame-ups was successful. Mario Vasquez, a Crusade activist, was convicted of first degree assault and sentenced to 15 years.
The Denver Chicano Liberation Defense Committee, which was set up to defend the March 17 victims, is continuing the fight to reverse the Vasquez conviction. The committee recently informed The Militant that in the past 12 months more than 100 Crusade activists and supporters have been arrested or taken to court in a campaign of harassment.
Among those with serious charges still pending against them are Francisco (Kiko) Martinez and Gary Garrison. Martinez is a young activist lawyer who frequently defends Chlcanos against the government. When police sought to link him with a series of bombings, a campaign of racist hysteria was whipped up by Denver's newspapers in banner headlines. Having convicted Martinez in its pages, the Denver Post went so far as to offer a reward for information leading to his capture Vigilante "justice," cattle-baron style lives on in Denver.
An instructor at Escuela Tlatelolco, Garrison has received the same slanderous treatment in the columns of the capitalist press. The authorities are trying to frame him up on charges of attempted arson, mischief, and conspiracy.
Garrison is charged with having thrown a dynamite bomb that did not explode through the window of a paint store. As El Gallo, newspaper of the Crusade for Justice, put it, "This supposed bombing was oddly similar to others reported in Denver. . . . Suspiciously enough, almost all of these bombs fail to explode. Instead, the police arrive just in time to disarm them."
Chicanos have taken the offensive by initiating a $10-million libel suit against Denver's other daily rag, the Rocky Mountain News. Statements criticizing the News's racist brand of journalism have been issued L>y the National Lawyers Guild, Congress of Hispanic Educators, Denver Opportunity, Servicios La Raza, Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund, Manuel Salinas of the U. S. Justice Depart-uent, and State Representative Roger Cisneros.
In order to help combat this unprecedented wave of attacks, the committee is calling a national and international day of solidarity with the Crusade for Justice and the Colorado Chicano movement on March 17. The committee reports that it has invited Hortensia Allende, widow of Salvador Allende; Puerto Rican Socialist Party leader Juan Marl Br&s; Los Tres del Barrio; Angela Davis; and antideportation leaders Mario Can hi and Bert Corona to speak at the event in Denver.
The Crusade for Justice has played an important role in the national development of the Chicano movement. The March 17 event gives the whole Chicano movement an opportunity to come to the Colorado activists' defense. The defense committee says, "People throughout the nation can help us on this day by publicizing the event, its history and purpose, by organizing rallies," and through other support activities.
For further information, write Denver Chicano Liberation Defense Committee, P. 0. Box 18347, Denver, Cblol 80218; .Reprinted from "The. Militant”^ Feb. 22, J 974
Por J.M. Tort
Page 11, ECO MAYA, Marzo, 1974
ILa Raza en Acddnl
Miguel Pendas
Remember Junior Martinez
HECTOR ORTEGA
Hector Ortega was another of the actors who was awarded the coveted "Silver Goddess” in this year’s presentations.. Ortega won for his role as the
governor in Alberto Isaac’s. The Corner of the Virgins.
SCHOOL BUSING__
Continued from Page 8
Yet, through all this, the same structure that now regulates the schools, the same people who mandate policy, determine curriculam, assign and hire teachers, and make educational decisions — the same structure and persons who have allowed this tragic situation to occur — remain intact with or without bussing. In every other facet of life involving some kind of a failure, those responsible for the failure are held accountable. In education, as in the unfolding Denver desegregation case, they remain untouched, the structure unaltered, and only the victims of the tragedy punished. Therein lies the issue confronting Chicano communities and children in this desegregation case. Desegregation offers little to improve education for Chicano children and an unchanged "neighborhood school" concept only perpetuates the dismal experiences of the past
Interestingly, the only substantive curriculum changes geared for Chicano children, as part of the submitted plans, have been made by Chicano organizations and these proposals can best be implemented without bussing. One need only ask, where would the possibilities of an effective bilingual-bicultural education program be greatest? In a predominantly Chidano school or in one of ten, fifteen or 20 percent Chicano.
So now the Court has decided that Black schools in Northeast Denver have suffered as the result of the school board's segregationist policies, and the schools must now be desegregated “root and branch." So to have Chicano children suffered from school board decisions, or more specifically, the school board lack of decision, their failure to take any concrete action towards enhancing education for Chicano youngsters. While Black children may have suffered due to segregation, Chicano children have suffered due to neglect and ignorance on the part of school officials.
Yes, something must now be done. But must all educational problems .require the same singular solution as in this case of bussing? Do all eye problems require the same pair of glasses? Do all human ailments require the same prescription? Unfortunately, the bussing of Chicano children, in the name of equality, will destroy the possibility of real equitable solutions, namely changes in the schools Chicanos now attend.
Court-ordered expansion of the school board; Court-ordered elections of school board members by homogenous and. compact geographical districts; Court ordered bilingual-bicultural educational programs administered by qualified bilingual-bicultural educators and resource persons; Court-ordered School responsiveness to the community the school serves ... would go much further towards real solutions for Chicano children than the most skillfully devised bussing plan ever contrived. However, it is easy to bus students than to revamp systems.
The old saying states "that Justice is blind," not paying attention to race, color and creed. So while justice may be blind, Chicanos hope Judge Doyle isn't
•ir Ton want to see my Father it will cost yon ten bucks—lie’s a doctor,”
IRAN EORY
Beautiful Spanish actress Iran Eory who has worked in Mexico for several years is now filming In Search of a Wall under the direction of Julio Bracho.
JORGE STHAL Camera laureate, Jorge Sthal, is currently in charge of the photography of "The Holy Labor”, directed by Arturo Rip-stein. For its technical and artistic quality, this film requires a cameraman of the artistic experience and sensibility of Jorge Sthal.


Page 12, ECO MAYA, Mgrzo, 1974
Mexican Consul Strives To Encourage Tourist Business
By JANE EARLE Denver Post Staff Writer Wehn Mexico’s newly appointed - consul to Denver arrived here Jan. 5, the temperature was 17 degrees below zero.
Consul Guillermo Valdes had driven from Mexico City to assume his new post, but his plunge from sunny warmth to arctic cold hasn’t dampened his enthusiasm either for Denver or for life in the United States.
“I love this country,” Valdes said. “It is a wonderful place to live.”
Valdes, who has spent most of his career with the Mexico diplomatic corps in the United States, was consul to Kansas City, Mo., for 13 years. ASSIGNED TO DENVER He returned to Mexico City for a year and a half to serve there in foreign relations before being assigned to Denver.
The consul plans to encourage even more tourism from the United States to Mexico. Tourists from Colorado, Utah and Wyoming, the three states served by the Denver consul’s office, numbered 50,000 last year. Despite the rapid increase in tourism (from only 7,000 for the region in 1971). Valdes said
Denver Post Photo
GUILLERMO VALDES
Wants two-way exchange.
there is no anti-American sentiment in Mexico.
The Mexican government encourages not only tourism, but foreign investment in Mexican industry, Valdes said. Tax rates for business investment are favorable in Mexico and labor is much cheaper, the consul said. Mexican banks pay 9 per cent interest on regular savings de-
posits and 10.5 per cent on longterm deposits, he said.
Valdes wants to make his office in Denver the center for a two-way exchange of information between citizens of Mexico and United States.
HELP INVESTORS
He hopes to bjing important Mexican artists, literary and entertainment figures to Denver to “help us understand each other better.” Valdes, will make himself available to potential American investors in Mexican enterprises and help them to get the information they need.
The consul also hopes to establish a sister city relationship between Denver and Mazatlan where many residents of the region vacation.
“But it is only one month,” (sine his arrival), Valdes said. “It will take time to do these things,”
In the meantime, Valdes is looking forward to enjoying life in Denver. He plans to learn to ski and is enrolling both his daughers in the University of Denver.
Although he arrived during unusually severe cold weather, Valdes said, “they say after April the weather is fine.”
Spanish Speaking Leader Heads Rights Commission
Edward L. Barrera, an insurance executive and Mexican American civic leader, Has become the first Spanish surnamed American to head the Michigan Civil Rights Commission.
Barrera said he hopes his appointment “will serve to encourage both private and public sectors to employ and upgrade those of Spanish speaking extraction as well as those of all minority groups.”
Four years ago Barrera was the first Spanish speaking person selected to serve on the commission.
He is a 39-year-old native of Flint, Mich., and the son of parents bom in Mexico. As a commissioner, he helped prepare a report on the problems migrant
farm laborers face in Michigan. He also assisted the. commission in alleviating discrimination -against the Spanish speaking, and in placing more Spanish surnamed employes on the agency’s staff.
A graduate of the University of Michigan, Barrera taught school and then worked his way up in the insurance business. He is now a district manager. He is also active in several Spanish speaking civic organizations.
Barrera devotes much of his time to bettering the lot of his people.
“I realized that the educational problems of Mexican Americans could not be solved without getting at the problems of employment, housing and other areas,” he said. “But the Mexican American is still
THE EMPIRE THAT______________
Continued from page 2 foremost authority on Maya civilization, J. Eric Thompson says, "They took pride in their work, especially the care of their fields, but there was no marked desire to get ahead. No one desired more than his fair share, for that could only be attained at the expense of one's neighbors". This surprisingly ‘advanced’ philosophy was activated by voluntary group labor, the dynamics of which can be envisioned when the surplus time and productivity of the agricultural sector was utilized to support large numbers of workers.
Thus, having abundant free time, the Indians were always, willing to work upon the construction of a temple city, since in the long run such labor would benefit the whole community. Also it must be remembered that the Maya city was a ceremonial, not an urban center; a place prepared for religious functions and markets. In the Maya frame of reference it was only right that the bounty of the Gods be returned to glorify the Gods and that man humbly seek only his basic sustenance that he might earn his small place in the Universe. More pragmatically, the confidence cfained from observing traditional rituals and paying homage to omnipotent deities resulted in greater interest and application in work. Therefore production was probably correspondingly greater. Herein lies the psychological energizing force in production and introduces the great variable in economics - the human motive.
Most of the great Maya structures were preconceived by the ancient architects to be completely uninhabitable - being built solely for religious purposes. The only real function that such poorly lit, vaulted structures could have had may have been for storage of paraphernalia used for religious ritr.. uals. Such mystic temples would
have been ideal for ascetic withdrawal in preparation for periods of religious festivals and sacrifice; for only at such times would brave men wander_into the maze of dimly lighted alcoves inhabited by the Gods cr quietly chant in chambers frequented by their ancestors. Yet all Maya energy was not directed skyward. In Piedras Negras elaborate steam-rooms, public baths, sweat-houses and ball courts have beep found. Many cities also had their own reservoirs. At Yaxchilan a stream was diverted to flow through an underground aquaduct into which drains from the city above discharged fluent.
In addition to labor levies for construction there were taxes in kind, the most important being the contribution of maize. Part of each farmer’s surplus was turned over to the tax collector, "Batab", who then brought it to the state depositories. Additionally, the personal fields of the priests and nobility were cultivated and harvested. Oddly similar to a feudal system in dull bloom across the Atlantic, no nobles, priests, and civil and military officials lived upon the tax tribute of the peasant. In addition, a sizeable number of artisans were supported out of the accumulated surplus brought to the official underground storage vaults called “chaltuns".
Road construction was another part of the personal tax. Caus-wavs were built by those clans that lived along the thoroughfares. Such labor was not hard to find for it was acknowledged a great advantage to have a road close by one’s house. Maya road building was presumably carried out by a corvee levied on the village through which the road passed, with each particular village or city being required to keep up its share.
Maya roads constructed during the Classic Period (A.D. 300 -900) seem to have connected most of the inland cities with those of the coast, in Chfchen
Itza, there were eight "sacbeob” (streets) within the city Two of these lead out to other May? cities. A causeway south of Takal acted as a dike holding back a man-made reservpir and Continued on Page 8
operating under a fantastic disadvantage—the notable lack of professionals, such as attorneys, economists and psychologists who could contribute to the movement.”
Barrera said he would work to promote the rights of all Americans in his role as commission president. “I’ve always had an affinity for the problems of blacks and other minorities as well as those of the Spanish speaking. The same constitutional rights are involved for all of lis.”
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Full Text

PAGE 1

School busing condemne d In the growing clamor and controversial swirl of arguments revolving around desegregation and busing, little has been heard from or about the i mpact of busi ng on Denver ' s Chicano pop ulation. P erhaps symbolic of the s ituation of Chicano children i n the schoo ls, the far-reac hing implications of the Denver deseg r egation case on Chicanos -the city's largest minority group, ha s been ignored in the fears and threats of a fleeing Anglo FUENTE DE LA FORTUNA, ornamento principal de Ia Plaza del Carmen, portento de belleza que se ha convertido ya en un simbolo mas de San Luis Potosi .Pooe s Toward Higher Education Many have oeen made concerning the Chicanos and the oppressive educational system of the Southwest. The fight against racist practices and discrimination has brought about a slow change. Much remains to be said about signi ficant attitudes toward the ed ucation of Chicanos. I strongly believe that higher education is the ke y for the success of the Me xica n American. The Chicano Studies departments in many colleges of Southwest have been involved in preparing excellent trained employees in the areas of language, history and culture of the Chicano. However, there has not been a sufficient number of bi -cultural and bi-l ingua l trained personnel to meet t h e va s t growing demands for teachers that have been traine d in these areas . The main reason for this being that Chicanos are under-represented in all colleges of the Southwest both in faculty and students. An where the stu den t enrollment is less than one percent i n proportion to t he population o f Denver for Spanish-surnamed being approximately seventeen percent. The same can be said of the faculty which makes up only 12 fullt i me professo r s of a total of 300 full-time staff. Many schools i n the Southwest exclude Chicano lnaguage. In order to comba t the educational probtems of Chica n os, the schools must recogn ize that Spanish is the social language that many Chican os speak and cherish. All courses s hould b e taught from a C hicano point o f view. Chicano students should be made aware that they are descendants of the Aztecs of Mexico who had the most h i ghl y sophisticated civilization i n t h e world. The entire curriculum should be centered on promo ting self-i mage, cultural pride, respect and dignity of the Chicano. The textbooks used in the shc .ool sys _ tel)1 must be .rewritten elimin ate the false and unjust stereotypes of the Mexican American that exists i n books today. The entire population should become aware of the contributions made by the Mexican American to socie ty. Admissi o n requirements should be modified in all colleges in order to accommodate Chicano . students who have had an in adequate education through no fault of their own. Institutions of higher learning should take an active role i n recruiting t he Chicano administra tors, faculty, and students. Financial aid in many different forms should be available in cluding interest free loan s to all those who desire a college ca r eer. G LORIA MARIN una de las artlstas Mexlcanas Que mas gloria y ren ombre a traldo a I a c lnemalografla Mexlcana mundo entero EDUCATIONAL CONFERENCE TO BE HEALD. Saturday, Mar c h 23. 1974 is the scheduled day for the first Chicano-Indio Educational Con tere nce to be held in Denver . This Conference will b e held at the Del Pueblo Elementarv School locat e d at 7th & Gal a pago Sts . i n Denver's West Side . The purpose of this one day event is t o create an awareness within the community of the present educational issues and how to relate to t h em. To this end , a number of distinguished speakers are sch eduled for the Conference including Or. Daniel Valdez, editor of La Luz Maga zine, Sr . Arturo Rodri guez , Co chairm an of the Alternati ve School System in the Crusade for Justice, Sra . Flor Sainz , presenting the Feminist view of education, Sr. Evertt Chavez, Inst ructor in Chicano Studies at Metro. State College , Sr. Norman Pac hec o , Asst. Profes sor of S t udies at Metro. and a Doctor of Law, Sr. Elias Ku ska. Chairman of Ethnic Studies at Santa Clara University in Californ ia. There will also be a speaker from the Indian Cente r of Denver and others. After the s peakers. the Co n ference wilt orga nize and present workshops dealing with the following areas : 1.) The Present School System, 2 ) School Bus i ng , 3) Bi -l ingual and Bi -Cultural Education, 4) Oppunities in Higher Education, 5 ) Alternative Schools, and 6) Service Agencies in the Community. Ali of the public i s invited to attend, a nd no fee will be c harged to community partici pants , although donations will be accepted. No one will be turned away beliefs, a s no one political or philosophical con cept ought to dam i na te the Conference. Education should b e the number ONE topic. All Continued on Page 12 t 'acctlrate •example of this is , Metropolitan State Col!ege , h istory. and culture of. this minority group and. to The Ch icano community must take an active role in control of their educational facilities including a voice in selection of teachers and developing curricula relevant to the Chicano students should be re-trained in cultural -stud ie s and language of the Chicano. Contll)ued on ..... . ,,,..,.,.(.•'-' En Ia Cd de Mexico, se acostumbra vestir a los nlnos de indltos el dla )ueves de Corpus y presentarlos en Ia Catedral como podemos apreslar a Ollmpla y Adriana Salmeron Rulz en esta foto9rafla. Febrero 11974, Mexico ' \'\ \ \ A \ I •'' I I ---."

PAGE 2

Page 2, ECO MAYA, Marzo, 1974 Jose oavid Alfaro Siqueiros : '1897 197 4 murc:Jist New Democracy, por David Alfaro Siqueiros Un h ombre de garra y acci6n David Alfaro Siqueiros, artista ciudadano 77 a5"os de las contradicciones Mtiro y metralleta; Arenga y . Caballo Jose David Alfaro Siqueir os: ar tista ciudadan o teniente co r o n e t de las br.igada s internacional es , de Ia guerra civil espallola; terrorista que disfrazado de milit
PAGE 3

@ Page 3 . ECO MAYA. Marzo . 1974 . M 0 UN T A IN BELL Mountain Bell today (Marchi. 1974) asked the Colorado Public Utilities Commission for a 6.4 % .ncrease in operating revenues and asked for a hearing to determine revenue levels needed to meet future service demands. Rate changes requested today would become effective on March 31, producing an add itional $15. 7 million in revenues from selected business and resi dential telephone services. propriate for the company's service and f i nancial needs.. we have to cover cont•n uously r ising costs of providing service, in fact revenue from. today's filing Is only half of what we need," Harvey Clark, Pueblo District Manager for the company said. Clark explained that rate changes filed with the PUC are based o n previous year costs . but r evenue from such a filing is i n adequate to meet current serv ice cost. For this reason , Mountain Bell is asking the commission for a public hear i ng to d eci de the company's com mission for a public hearing to dec i de the compan y ' s complete ser vice and earning needs . the setv ice. Rate changes affectmg customers of selected serv1ces throughout the state are for: extension phone charges (affect ting 4 70.000 extension sets) nonlls 1ed directory servicE (about 33.000 customers): Wid( Area Telecommunications Ser vice or WATS, to conform tc in-state lone distance (440 customers). In 1974 the company expect! to spend more than $195 million on service projects in t h e state. nearly double that spent five years ago. Also, union contracts are up for renegotiation i n July will probably be the end of the decade before chargmg for tele phone service in thes way would be acceptable:' TM is o Bi-llfl.101 nt'"'!lpiiP'=' publlshtd mon rhr y b y Moya Entaprixs 600 h'ur Nortlw:mA'"" Boo Mo)'IJ has o dn:ulllrion of 10.000 cop;u and U disrrlbilUd tn Dl'n'"'' Coloro2do Spriltgs tmd rhc San Luis l'oll('y A n"a. ED!TOR: Erncsto B11rrios SALES: Wanda M. Sell mfr.: COMPOSJTIO : Nita Barrios The o nly rate change a Hecti ng all customers uniforml y is a 4 percent hike in basic monthly telephone service c h a rges. For Pue bl o residence telephone sub sc r ibers, dependi ng on the t y p e of serv ice. this w i ll add from 19 to 25 cents to monthly Rural eight party and the recently approved four party rates are not affected. Other c hanges, descri bed in a notice mailed to cu stomers today b y the company, would affect sel ected services and areas . The amount of the increases vary from service to service depending on cos ts of providing Mr. Clark also said that follow ing a reque s t by the PUC .• Mountain Bell has been the feasibility of charging for local s ervi ce based on c u s tomer usage . "This ma y be the most. equitable form of charging," he sai d , "but right now it's not economica ll y possibl e an d customers aren't interested. It PfiOTOGR.APHl': WOllam FordtDnd Jack Aw,lot LAYOUT: Mi111d A . Ernuro Barrios The increases would bring Mountain Bell's earnings, based o n la s t year's costs, to the level PUC approved in 1972 a s ap-Remember llihen? Remember the stories about Abraham Linco l n reading books as a boy by the dim ligh t of a ca bin fireplace? Well , unlike some of the stories a bout our f o ref at hers and folk heroe s , this one is prob a bly true . In those days , a b out the only other possible source o f light a r ound the house was the whale oil lamp or candles , neither o f which wa s very bright. The se beautiful kerosene lamps-or, oil " lamps , as the y were first ca lled didn ' t come i nto being until around the period of the American Civil War , when Mr . Lin col n pr obably had little time to take advantage of the better lighting to read very many books . You wouldn ' t think it to look at their delicate design , but these lamps were a product of industrialization . About 1850 , a process was perfected in Scotland for deriving liquid fuels from coa l or shale , and the first kerosene for these lamps came from coal-hence the name coal oil. " Later , of course , most kerosene was derived from oil , and the process of deriving liquid fu' els from coal was generally forgotten . However , as we all are well aware , there s a sho rtage of oil and natural gas today , and finding alternatives to these resour ces has taken on new urgency . And it so happens that one of the most promising alternatives is synthetic oil and synthetic natural gas derived from coal. Coal is abundant and readily available already . The demands of our economy dictate a need for a grea t deal of gaseous and liquid fuels . Thafs why coal gasification and coal liquef actio n are two more reasons why we a t Public Service Company are building a place for coal in your energy future . AT IJ>W toRICU • QUihl; pROMPTLY" PROBIJCE.D • COMME RCIAL ART • DESIGN & LAY OUT • IllUSTRATIONS • TRADEMARKS 'CREATI VE PRINTING • LETTER HEADS MAYA ENTERPRISES 6Q0 WII:•T NO•T.,C"N AVII:NUII: CIJI..o•o.oo 81004 QUA CITY l;O/tl'TROL: Paul I}TSTRJB . MANAGER: W. Schmit: DISTR.{BfJT;ION : R11y AguiltTG Jr. Todo asunto r-tladon.ado CO'\ publkidad t n artlnllc •r rrvtados con Ill dirtcciOn de Eco Box 2024 L os tJrt icu los so n de Ia exclusiva ruporual>llldad d t qulen los {Irma. La d e quttmu hactmos T:a?coes paro todos los cri t t rios, y mas todo d inreru dad. En muttras col umntJs sfemprt STOP BY OUR OFFICE MAIN AT FIRST * .REAL ESTATE -Oommercial Residential PROPERTY MANAGEMENT INSURANCE: -Auto -Home -Life ::i'IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIJ II II! 1111111 If you are a precision pri.duction machinist and have at least three years expe11ence, own your own tools and setups--SUNDSTRAND Wduld like to talk to you. Aa Equal Opportunity Employer, MF Wanted: lD and OD Grinders WITH THREE TO FIVE Y EARS EXPERIENCE. YOU MUST OWN YOUR OWN TOOLS . SUNSTRAND has one of the finest fringe benefit programs available: -Health care benefits -Retirement provisions -Vacations: up to four weeks (11 paid Holidays per Year). -Educatinal reimbursements -Sick Leave SUNDSIRRND IMMEDIATE PLACEMENT Apply Employment Office sumDSTPJJm

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IWARTIN IWARIET'TA Until now, man has been restricted in his investi gations of the other planets in our solar syste m by the limitations of Earth-based scientific instruments. Now, man has the ability to explore the planets with unmanned probes in space, unimpeded by tho. distortions of our atmospheric blanket. Planetary exploration can provide new knowledge in three general areas of: • The origin and evolution of the solar system . • The origin and evqlution of life, and the possi bility of life on other planets. • Comparative studies of other planets to aid in understanding natural phenomena on Earth. Evolution of the Solar System Each planet in our solar system appears to repre sent a different stage of Earth's evolution: Mars an early stage, Venus a later stage, and Jupiter a much earlier stage . Analyses of the chemistry, topography, . radiation and physical properties of each planet can give us new understanding of the evolutionary processes at work in the solar system. Neptune, ouiside the influence of the sun's magnetic field, is an ideal experimental laboratory from which to observe the undisturbed medium. The radically tilted rotational axis of Uranus in dicates an extraordinary event surrounding its origin. This may offer a clue to the origin of the sol ar system. Evolution of Life The possibility of life on other planets has in trigued mankind for many centuries . Discovery of life .elsewhere in the sol ar system would have profound influence not only upon science, but man's philosophies as well . If life exists on another planet, this fact would yield unique information on the origin of life. If there were a fundamental difference in the chemical make up of extraterrestrial life, it would indicate a different origin, implying that life is a common phenomenon in Publish .ed by: EL EGO MAYA . 600 W. Northern Ave. Pueblo, Colo. 81004 Edited by: Jose R. Padilla Special Excerpts: Jose R. Padill a the universe. If life on other planets were chemically similar to l ife on Earth, it would suggest that l ife somehow travelled through interplanetary space. Conversely, failure to find life on a planet whose environment is hospitable to life would imply that the origin of life is an unusual event, rather than a predictable outcome of geochemical processes . Our first search for extraterrestrial life will begin when Vik ing softland s on Mars in 1976 . Scientists . theorize that, because Mars bears some physical simi larities to Earth and possesses certain life-supporting \elements, there is a possibility of finding evidence of life there. The atmospheric colors of Jupiter and Saturn in dicate possible biologically-related compounds: In vestigations of these planets might lead to revisions of our theories of the origin and evolution of life on Earth. Comparative Studies of the Planets If the other planets in the solar system are in different stages of evo lution , studies of these stages should give us new insights into the past, pres"ent and future of Earth. A closer study of Venus. which may represent a later stage of development of Earth, might provide clues to the future development of our planet. Exam ination .of the dense atmosphere of Venus, which is rich in carbon dioxide, might give us new information about our own air pollution problems. Mars exhibits a phenomenon similar to Earth's continental drift. If c5ntinenta\ blocks shift and pro tremors on Mars, examination of the tremors may l ead to better understanding of the same me chanics which operate orr Earth. In addition, each cOmparative study will serve as an evaluation of the scientific theories that describe physical phenomena on Earth. WANTED : I First Issue of 'ECO' -VERSEAS OPERATORS Published This Week POSITIONS OPEN -APrt!L Apply Now CALL: 233-3627 FOR APPOINTMENT ' A.T. & T. Long Lines International Operating Center (NEED OPERATORS FOR NIGHT SHIFTS) $1 08 .00 per week to start EMPLOYMENT OFFICE: 1881 Pierce Street Lakewood, Colorado 80215 By Jon Hearon The recently-<>rganized staff of a new bi-llngual magazine, "EGO, " publlshed its first Issue this week in Pueblo. Conceived and designed for Westerners whose roots can be traced to the rich cultures of Mexico and Central Ameri ca, the publication's first Issue contains an intriguing breadth of articles in contemporary Spanish and English, and s o m e outstanding, original illustrations. Content of the first Issue apparent depth and insight editorially portends the start of something fine for the entire Southwestern United States. Publisher Gonzalo Barrloi; states that he has the staff, facilities, and desire to prO duce an accurate, Interesting, and r e I e v a n t publication which will be devoted to serving the best interests or all the people in this area. The bulk of the staff-writing and edil<>rial chores are divided between Dr. Jose A. Nina hualpa (Spanish text) , and Charles carruth si eeiior ... En Tlab..,pantla ee palpa un Qineral 1 • es cen NaucalpM> Ia zooa mas industrial y se eeeapan de Jlli Zacazonapan cantares que atrapan a1 coraz6n. Todos, todos tomemos que ... Mexieo patria y eatado si seiior soy mexicano dos veces mi doble honer todavia en hora temprana pinta Vellizq11n y ...,ribe Sor Juana y hoy en Texcoco inspirado NetzahualcOyotl canta al estado si sefior . . . Casi . rodeando al Distrito Federal como diadE>ma lo luce Ia capital y se eseapan de mi Zac8zonapan can tares que atrapan al coraz6n. todos tomemos y ... .... ESSENCES GIFT PIPES POSTERS WATER-BEDS BEADS 675 S . Union St. Pueblo Ph : 542-9779 EDUCATIONAL .... Continued from Page l. persons who feel that education i s important should make it a MUST to attend thi s Conference! Ojala Adelante! The Chicano Educational Con terence will begin at 8:00 AM with the registration, so plan to attend and be on time. Those interested in 9aining more infor mation please contact Ms. • Angela Beard at ph. 292-5190 e x. 312 or Ms . Murial Ashmore at ph. 534-5141. This Con ference will be sponsered jointly by MECHA of Community College of Denver , UMAS -CCC of Metropolitan State College UMAS of University of Colorado, Denver Center, and The Wastside Action Center. ;•:: ' .::.;.: ity R eprinted q,.scrita,r ," 'JI' :

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Chuckle Of The Month Dear F dends, W e have the distinguished honor of b eing on a committee for rais i ng five million (5.000,000.00) dollars for placing a of Richard Nixon in the Hall of Fame i n Washington. D . C . Th e committee wa s i n a quandry as to where to p lace the statue. It was thought not wise t o piKe it beside the statue of George Wash i n ton, who never told a lie, nor bes i de Franklin 0 . Roosevelt, 'Who never told the truth, since Richard Nixon could never tell the d i ffere nce . .. .... . We f inally decided to place i t b eside Christopher Columbusthe greatest new dealer of them all. He left not knowing where he wa s going, and upon arriving did not know where he wa s . He returned, not knowi ng where he had been and did it all on borrowed m o ney. Yours t ruly , stat ue comm i ttee .._s, ECO MAYA, Marzo , 1974 NOTICE: Send your Classif ied Ad or Announc.ment to "El ECOMAYA'' lnsertyourmessagehere& mail it in. Classif ieds will NOT be taken by phone All classified Ads must be prepaid by check or money order 10c.. per 'NOrd . Deadline is the 20th. day of each month for the following issue . Send to: ECO PUBLICATIONS P .O. Box 2024 Pueblo,Col o . 81004 St>orching For look At VA AQruired Homes fAtu-I Housing Opporiunity BEST BUY IN TOWN SALE CfA_dvertise qfl Uf, 10 *STORIES 0 ffil 10: ur
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CHINESE FOOD FillED CHICKEN . S PIECES ana DRINKS TO GO mAkS • CHOPS ' • SIAFOOOS IESTAU.AHT OPEN rr A.M . TO' 9 : 30 f' . M . CLOSlO WEDNESDAY 564-8595 CAFE 564-851)5 BAR 564-9112. 424 WfST NOitntUN A.Yf. & BAR & ... ; , , ,,.. 753 Santa F e Or . D e nv e r , COlO. Ddncing Fri.,Sat.,& H o lidays B p .,;,. until 2 a.m . Sun.6p.m. until 12p.m. W e l c ome to the hom e o f the MEXICAN HAMBURGER The Mea l that's sure t o Fill . . \ . • . . In Colorado Springs : 116 South Wahsatch. Phone: 473-6220 In Denver , 1050 17th StrMt. Rm. 524 Phone o 837-4173 Los anuAcios haccn grandet= sooegodo ... the will :t ji! M'''' ' i;.lo• to II th e m you ..aw their ad in EL E C Q MAYA TOWARD HIGHER EDUCATION FOR CHICANOS Institutions of h igher l earn ing ha ve a commitment to the Chicano community having the re spo n sibility of conducting community c lasses taking t h e . college to the p eop le, promoting cu ltur a l events and implementing a curriculum that i s for the peopl e it serves. Education al facilities s h o uld be availab l e to the people of the community .WANTED : CONSTRUCTION I SKILLED TRADESMAN The PEACE CORPS and VISTA need Skilled Tradesmen Appre n tice and Journeymen to superVise projects and teach skills in 69 nations, 50 stat es. Start thiS July. No upper age limit. Living allowance, transporta t ion, 42 days p ai d vacation, medical benefits. Singles and marrieds with no dependents preferred. See re c ruiters: March 18-22, Colorado Divisio n of Employ ment. 1 n Pueblo: 701 Court Street. Phone o 544-1972 (GOT A PROBLEM)? WRITE YOUR CONGRESSMAN! Senator P eterH . Dom i n i ck .. N o . 248 Old S enate Bui lding , Washington , D . C . 20510 S enator Floyd Hask ell ...... No: 5237 North Senate Buil
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Page 7, ECO MAYA, Mono, 1 974 Chicano Newsletter Patience& = Blocked Publication of a Chicano student and faculty newsletter was banned l ast week by MSC Vke President for Academi c Affairs Richard Netzel because some of the contents were of a "stongly m ilitant and inflamatory" nature. Netzel. who said he has no objection to the group publis h i ng information related to organ izational or departmental activ ities, instructed MSC Print Shbp Manager Mike Motoishi not to publish t h e newsletter after Motoishi had brought the matter to Netzel's attention. State regulation, Netzel' had explained, prohibit the use o f state funds for publishing mater i al of a politica l nature. Netzel's authority t o ban the publication of the newsletter, Viva, stemmed, he continued, from the Chicano Studies Department's co-sponsori ng the effort with students from UMAS, the C h i cano Business Students Associ ation and the Chicano Career s Club. Trus tee regulatio n s prohibit departments from endorsing political stnads of any kind. Material in the newsletter Kn ]edg cons i dered i nflammatory by OWl! e Netzel included accounts of re-,... loi.AYA .. ECO PUauCAnOtiS lOX tOU cent controversial police act tons i nvolv ing Denver Chicanos. Following Netzel's action, a petition wa.s circulated among student organizaitons and some Take time to read the following ,....---------------------, art1cle. if could save you a lot of money and heart ache: faculty which protested the ban HOME BUYING, the Economic Factor : by John C. Garcia for Netzel's authority appeared to be understood and the The first article of this series stu d ents involved in Viva's pro will have to do with home-ducation expressed the belief that publication could go on with UMAS, CBSA and the CCC as the sole spo n sors . Later, three top administrators were contacted i n an effort to determine what policy exists covering the public aiton of non institutional material by the shop for student. organizations. The responses indicated that there e x ists no clear-cut college policy other than complying with state regulations. Ulti mately, the fate of Viva may rest with MSC's Board of Publications and Public Inforbuying . If you are now renting and think you want to purchase a home, take this advice. 1. Call a r eal-estate agent and cash money you have , and the annual i ncome that y o u have from all sources. It might well be that you are not ready to buy a home. Their are as many as 7 differ ways to buyi ng a home. A s an example: 1. V.A. gua r anteed loan {mus t be a Veteran) mation. The board ha s the 2 . FHA or HUD insured loan authority to approve all publications originating on the cam-3 . Conventional f inancing pus, and i f approval is given 4. Assumption (take over ex is from t h e Student Affairs ting tnortgage) FUSES are SAFETY VALVES Always Keep a Supply Handy! • .,._.. " cent:,..! te .. phone c. utilil;ies corpor-ation A COlORADO INDUSTRY Committee. 5 Conventional M . G.I.C . 10 % Reprinted from "The A ururfan " Metropolitan State College down or 5o/o down. 6. Cash 7. Contract for Deed •pop c natoon to the suburbs and Which of the above fit you? Preoccupation with possible An experienced real-estate agent PHONE 433-8791 DENVER. COLORADO 80'211 routes and anticipated pupil' can advise you. If your partIf the Denver Public icular situation does not fit into had atti'Lcked the prob-any of the above listed catagories of Chicano dropout rates then you are not ready. I have DE VER'S LARGEST I DEP EN DENT SUPF,R MARKET only a fraction of the not discusse d go vernment sup• l cc,nco"n and vigor that it now plementary home-buying methDISCOUNT PRICES EVERY DAY _, at1:emots to maintain the ods because they a r e not stable Anglo would population, Chicanos and are constantly changing. I n U.S.O.A. CHOICE MEATSOUR SPECIALTY not now be faced with the next series, I will discuss the prospect of busing. No other group ' has had so little t o do with t h e desegrega tion case,and at the same time will be so greatly affected by it. yet, no other population r group i n the school district is more opposed to busing than Chicanos. Indeed, by every measure anc report available, Chicano child ren are the recipients of an inferior brand of education, of which Denver school boards past and present must be h eld largely accountable . Yet, while increasingly aware and vocally critical of. t h is low educational status. Chicanos generally' have not con si d ere d themselves part of the desegregation issue and have not pursued desegregation a s an alter native to the inadequacies of education currently and historically offered i n barrio schools. lemonade made in the shade with GW pure sugar little sunshine m your lite! Ironically, an even greater paradox tie s i n that nowC::hicanos have suddenly found themselves thrust in the middle of a tug-of war which places desegregat ion Jnd its negative and disruptive 'Jusin g implication for com munity-conscious Chicanos on one end of the rope and the school board with its traditionally hollow interpretation of the "neighborhood school" on the other. For Chicanos, either end of the rope offers the same noose. The desegregation arguments and plans, submitted to the Court, revolve around the de termination of bus routes and the number of bodies involved. Not one plan, to this point, has as a basic feature of its implementation a proposal for sttuctual changes within the school system. Yes, one plan Continued on Page 8 the property itself. CHECKING " CHECK AND SAVE" Maintain $100 Minimum Balance During Statement P eriod and The r e are NO Service Charges for Your Checking Account. Write All the Checks Y ou Like -FREE! SAVINGS From Passbook Savings to Cenificates of Deposit, Our Interest Rates are the Maximum Allowable by Law! L04NS For: Auto Household Goods Home Improvement A FULL SERVICE BANK eoronado National Banlf Member F . D .I. C . Featurin g High Standards of Fresh Produce D ai l y earonado National Ban& "Den ve r's only owned bank: Serving the Entir e Community of Metro-Denver'" 1400 Irving Street (Near Colfax and Federal in the Avondale Shopping Center) D enver, Colorado 80204 Telephon e 303 3811 Hours: 106 Monday thru Friday 9-12 Saturday Drive-Up and Night Depository Available COUPON Good for FREE replica of original Aztec Calendar when you open a NEW Savings or Checking acct.

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t tF'V! f r 1 p c. Q Page 8, ECO MAYA, Marzo, 1974 Do barrios exist in Denver? The following article is Educa(ion Fund (M.A: : based on ' the 1970 Census L.D.E. F.) has filed a s uit which does not indicate a against The United States higher percent after three Census Department for years, being Chicanos are th e miscounting Chicanos in the fastest growing ethnic group )970 Census. in Atzlan. The Mexican Generally , the 1970 Censu ! American Legal Defense information indicates that Mistet Penguin Tuxet/fJ R-enf(// Try coming out in a way all your own . That's Mister Penguin Formal Wear grooming. For Any Brocades, knits and tuxedos-all in a Information variety of colors, ruffled colored shirts, straight or flared trousers-542-3344 GROUP DISCOUNTS 518 N. MAIN STREET PUEBLO, COLO. COMPLETE LINE OF MEXICAN FOODS -Fresh Produce Daily (}]d Fashton Meat Dtsplay 727 SANTA FE DRIVE --DENVER Open Weekdays 8:30A. M . to 8:30P.M. SUNDAYS 9:00A.M. 6:00P.M. NO NEED TO BEA GENIUS ••• Wlen you can' t figure out how your bills will get paid call the friendly people at Chicanos in Denver, as well as Colorado, have l o wer incomes ; larger families ; less educational attainment; less likely to have graduated from high school: more lik ely t o be at or below a p overty level (about $3700/year for a family of four at the time o[ the 1970 Census) : and is a younger p opulation group than eithe( the Black o r t o t al populations. More specifically, in Denver , 57 percent (some 48,000) of all Chicanos r eside in I 9 of the city's more than I 24 Census tract areas. The Chicano populatio n within these I 7 Census tr ac t s ranges from a low o f 32% in tract 0045.01 t o a high of 79% in tract 0019. Although the overall per centage of Chicanos in only 17 census tracts is high , it should b e noted that it is somewhat misleading to rely solely o . n census tracts. For example, .)Vithin tracts 0011.0 I and 0011.02, the general area ol Pecos street to the Valley high way and 32nd Avenue to 46th Avenue (lower Denv.,l:r), the Chicano population w -ould probably run as high as 90% o l the total population. However , . census tracts divided as they are, split the ethnic nature ol this community in half. Do barrios exis t in Denver ? If a barrio can b e defined as a large geographical area con taining a significantly high number of low-income Chicanos, then there is n o question that barrios (not clusters) exist in Denver whether census tracts are used Denver census tract o r not. M ore accurately, the 6lirid). patte rn in Denver (shown on As far as the income pictur e the map of Denver' s . census of Denver' s Chicano tracts) is the emergence and• .Populatio n is C:oncerned, the development of one huge average (mean) Chican o family predo minately Chican o area is some $3,533 lower than the that will encompass about 25% city-wide average. While thi s of Denver's total land area. d ifference in and o f its e l f is North Denver is just beginning considerable, remembering that to feel the implications of this Chicano families tend to be trend. larger than other families The youthful characteristic. magnifie s the income gap. Since of the Chicano communi!) the mean (average) family in within the 17 tract acre is seen comes for each census tract was in the elementary schoo ls sern o t reported in the Census ving the I 7 tract a rea. At the reports , one cannot th en make elementary level, Chicanos clear-cut comparisons with th e compriseover25 percentofthe city'-wide average o r mean. school district's total Chicano However, by looking a t th e enrollment at the elementary median (mid-point) it is safe level. This should say (and unfortunate) t o conclude something to the Denver Public that these areas are substantially Schools, but unfortunately lower income areas. Again educational institutions have a remember that thts I 7 tr ac t area way o f .becoming deaf (a-nd is an area of high Chicano r----------------------.. -youth population and th e r efo r e i lar . ge families characterize the m ... 117 Cohl rado Phone (303 ) U-..: PTJ EBLO , COUIR.AD O 8 1 00 5 PH 543-0721 EL MAS COMPLETO SURTIOO EN INSTRUMENTOS MUSICALES 117 COLORADO AVE : PUEBLO 17 tracts. Only two tracts hav e median family incomes in ex cess o f $8,000 (0009.01 and 0045.0 I) and even that l eve l of family income is pr obab l y well below the city-wide median. Reprinted /!Om '"El EscritOr" February I 974 SCHOOL BUSING ... Continued from Page 7 offers "magnet school centers" I l and only involves the busing of '71 CONVENIENT DOWNTOWN LOCATIONS PARKII\ti BY THE Q6X, CR M.Qtill:i LOWEST PARKINJ RATES IN DENVER! (Storage for Cars Available) Office Location. : 1709 Arapahoe St. Denver, Colo. , Mr. Mark .. ..... • Area' oirector some 2700 students but, it des troys eleven schools, invo lving :mostly minority chOdren, in the 1 process. The other pl a n offers a "paired school" concept and some cultural experiences but, 14,000 stude nts must be bused to accomplish it. And, at this same time, the Court is searching for a definition as to what •constitutes an integrated school. Continued on Pag e 11 THE EMPIRE THAT ..... . Continued Page 4 in Coba-Yaxun a xis is about sixty-two miles long . As the ancient traveler proceeded along his way, legally immune from all human evils, he would sto p at the evenly spaced sanctuaries whic h acted a s the Maya mea sure of distance. There he would pray and burn copal in honor of Ek Chuah, the God of traders and merchants . In the next article in this series on "The Empire. That Was ' fYlaya", ' , we will 11Jee.l Ek 'to ' dis'cuSs ccirnmerCe and trade in the far-flu' n9""'-feaches of Maya Central America.

PAGE 9

COMO LLEV ARSE "BIEN CON LA GENTE 1. P6ngale rtendas a su lengua: d tg a slemp r e menos d e lo que p le nsa. Cultive un tono de voz grave Y persuasi ve . A menudo tmpo rta. mas la f orma en que usted dlce las cosas q ue lo que dice. 2 . P ro m et.a poco y cum pl a !ielme:nte sus promesas. n o tmporta cuanto le c u es te. 3. Nun c a d esaprovech e una oportunldad de declr una pala bra amab le o anlmadora a a.lgulen o de algulen . Alabe las casas b ie n h ec has s ln t.ener e n cuenta qulen las baya h ec h o . Sl Ia c riUca es n e cesarla, critiqu e para ayudar, nunca co n male v o l encla. 4 . In te r ese s e e n los dem as -en s us proyectos , su b len c star, s u s h ogares y f a mUJas . Alegrese con los que s e r egoclja n , y llo r e con lo s que lloran . Que todos lo s que lo e n c u entren, s lentan que usted los consldera como algulen de lmportancla . 5 . Sea alegre. No perm.Jta que las esquinas de su boca s e lncllnen bacia abajo . Oculte sus pena s, trlstezas y c hasc cs bajo una sonrlsa. Riase con las anl!cdotas sanamente dlvertldas, y aprenda a contarlas. • Dlos llama a los hombres cuando estan ocupados ; SatanAs los llama cuando est.an oclosos. • Nadle su be a un monte por quedar mlrindolo . • Slempre resulta ventajoso el hacer un poqulto rna., de lo que pn.rece ser nece s arlo. • . Una juventud. bien empleada es el fundamento para una vejez honorable. • Yo no traba.Jo; empleo mi tlempo en to que me entuslasma, que es tod o esto . Cuand o ee encuentra la fe Ucldad el ejerclcio d e la vocact6n no se puede deelr que se trabaj a . (Ram6n Pldal) LO QUE PIENBAN LOS HIJOS: A lo s 5 alios: papa lo sabe todo. A loo 8 alios: papA lo sabe casl todo . A los 12 aii.os: hay bastantes cosa.s que papA no sabe . A l os 15 afios: papA comprende poco. A los 20 a.ftos: pap& no comprende nada. A los 30 alios: l e pedtre consejo a papa. A l os 50 aDos: s i pap&. vivtese a im . EL AMOR. Hay ciudades adon d e van de vtaje todos l os enamo r ados d e l a tierra. Son felice s alli. Y 1uego dtcen : "iQul! hermosa es Venecta! iQul! hermosa es Granada!" Y no; lo qu e es hermoso es el amor -en cualquier parte del mundo. (Alejan dro Casona ) • Hay hombres, muchos hombr es, que se de s Uzan por Ia vida sin baber conoctdo s u ser interior y verdade ro. (Juan Antonio de Zunzunegull CURIOSIDADES • En ttempos de San Kgustin se c r eia que en la for mac16n d e un nuevo se r , el padre contribuia con el alma y la madre con el cuerpo. • Pilato coloc6 I a estatua de cesar e n el templo de Jeru salen. "' 11Aunqu e yo no crea lo que tti dices, lucbarl! por tu derecho de decirlo." (Voltaire ) . • Creia11 los j udio s ortodoxos que las mujeres no tenian alma ni eran, per tanto, capaces de desenvolvl mtento esplrltual nl de llegar a ser a ngele s , y asi es que todas las lmligenes o estatuas de qu e se encuentran en los paise s orienta l es son del sexo lll asc ulln o . L a Idea de la mujer s in alma se transfiri6 a las lenguas ro mAntlcas , en la s que Ia palabr a angel es siempre mascu Una y carece de forma femenina . Ningtin rabino hubiera permttldo entra r en discusiones r eligiosas con mujere s nl tratar de as un tos espiritual es con ellas. COSAS EN QUE PENSAR • Tre s cosas para amar : Valor, C aba.llerosidad y Slncerldad. Tres cosas en las cuales delettarse: Verdad, Libertad y B elleza. Tres cosas que admlrar: Sablduria, Dlgnldad y Domlnlo de si mlsmo. Tres cosas que abo rrecer: Ociosidad , Descuido e Intemperancia . Tres cosas que gobernar: T emperamento, Lengua y Conducts. Tres cosas por las cuales pelear: Hon or, Patria y Hogar. Tres casas que atesorar: Vida , Dio s y Eternid ad. CONSEJO SABIO : Un hombre hall6 las ventanas de su casa cubiertas de hlelo, y procur6 quitarlo raspando l os cristales. -l Que h aces alii? le pregunt6 un veclno. -Estoy qultando el h lelo, porque no p uedo ver a traves d e estos vldrlos . Vlendo el veclno c uan Iento y duro era este trabajo, le dljo: Pon f u ego y calentando Ia habltacl6n desapa re ce r8. el hielo 'J)or si mismo. S a bio conse jo. S i nuestro coraz6n tambten esta frio, a causa de la inc r edulldad y frialdad que nos rodea, n o procuremos va.namente librarnos del hielo mediante es . . al cie nci a y fuego espirt., , . de_\ 1sapa{tcer_a, fl s h t•i f\1 . '#'"'' ' Poge ,9 , ECO MAYA , M a rzo , 1974 Sundstrand-Denver Involved In Shuttle Orbiter Power Job The Den\ •er A vi a ti on Div ision of the Sundstrand Corp. will account for roughly 35 per cen t of the work inv o h ed in a S l O m i I I i o n Sundstrand contract w i t b RockweU lnte mat.ion a l Corp. to build the .!lllilliM.l' unit for the Space Shut. tie Orbi ter. RoCkwell' s Spa c e Division is developing the orbiter and In tegrating the complete system for the National Aeronautics and S p a c e Administration (NASA). The auxiliary power unil Sundstrand will bui!d will provide power for the orbiter ' s h ydraulic system which operates the wing elevons, rud der . speed bi!kes landing gear , steering and main engine controls. A spokesman for the Denver Aviation Division said the local organization wiU par ticipate in the manufactu ring and milling work, but that the engineering. assem bly and testing will be d one a t Sundstrand ' s complex in Rockf ord. lll. He estimated Lhe Denver contr ibution woul d amount t o abou t 35 per ccnl of the job. The Denv er d ivision, with about 1.200 employes, is basically a machining support facility for the Rockford division . Emplo y . ment has bounced hack a t tile Den\• er division from more than 500 t w o-anda half yea r s ago to m ore than 1,300. and now approache s the level of l96H6 before the engineering div i sion was moved to Rockford. 0 ver-a II aviation saJes climbed to $103 million in 1973 and are expected t<> hit $120 million in 1974, the company spokesman said . FIRST llEUSAilLE The slluttle Is 1 combi nation airp lane and Is the first reusab l e space transport ation S)stem. It .,.,; n Uh off from earth as a rocket , Oy in space on its mi ion and then return t o earth to land muc h like a jetli n er . The s h utt les payload carrying orbit.c.r w ill have a car r y i n g capacity o f 65.000 pounds. Its c a rgo will r a nge from satelliles to p assengers and sec ions o f o t h e r ' ' chicles to be assemb led i n space . Sundstrand Items made in Denver i nclude the con s tant speed drive , a major aircraft component. and the rirm rna chines various components s u c h as air c raft fuel pumps, auxilia ry power systems and emergency power units . Sundstrand ' s FIMid H andlin g Division in I>nwet employs more than lOCI RADIO KAPI PRESENT A TOO OS L O S DIAS LAS MEJORES PROGRAMACIONfS EN ESPANOL MARCANDO EL PASO EN LA MUSICA REGIONAL! 1 ' P alm Reade r & Advise r . SHE HELP YOU ON ALL PROBLEMS OF LIFE • Ar e you Suffering 1 • Are you Sick ? • Do you Need Help ? • D o you hav e bad Luck ? BRING YOUR PROBLEMS TO MADAM NORA. CToday) AND BE RIO OF THEM NOW . • Sufre usted ? • Esta Ud. Enfermo ? • Neceslta Ayuda ? • Tlene mala suerte? TRAIGA SUS PROBLEMAS A MADAM NORA, Ahora mismo y deshagase de euos-OPEN 7 Days a Week 7 :00a.m. to 10 : p . m . Caf.l: 632 Springs (No Appointment Needed) , <945 e : JIIEVAt'A.BT ' . COLORADO SPRINGS , COLO . . SUSCRIBASE Yes I would like to receive my copies of "EL ECO MAYA" to become the largest SpanishNewspaper in af.l of Colorado. Please enter my name for a -1 Year Subscription. Name----------------------------------------City State-----------------------ZiP------Send Completed Blank with Check or Money Order for $3.50 to: ECO PUBLICATIONS P.O. Box 2024 Pueblo, Colo.

PAGE 10

' f.J, ./I'.(Jj ,fj Page 10, ECO MAYA, Marzo, 1974. . . Allende's widow to speak at March 77 rites H o rtencia Allende, widow of the slain f ormer presi d ent of Ch ile , Salv a d or,.,llende, and repr esenta t ives of othe r nati onal arid interna tional liberatio n s truggl es will ' speak in Denver at t h e first anniver sary of th e March I 7 attack o n th e Crusad e f o r EARN CASH TWICE WEEKLY ... be. BLOOD PLASMA DONOR NOW ACCEPTING BOTH MALE & FEMALE ages 18 to 60 HOURS: 8 :00am to 7 :15pm Mon. & Thur . PLASMA 8 :00amto3:15pmTues. & F•iday Closed WEDNESDAY COMPONENTS. INC: 50 W . 10th Ave., DENVER COLO. Phone 892-5773 Physician In Attendance New Donors $1.00 With This ad SABOREE LAS MEJORES TORTILLAS DE HARINA Y MAIZ DE PUEBLO PH 5461275 L a f amilia R a m irez , cuenta con Ia mci's ampli a ex p erie ncia en s u r ani'o, Ia sa t isfacciO n de miles de hogares del s uroeste c:2 T exas , asl lo atest iguan . Aho r a sirviend o a todl el basto estado de Colorado A sus orciFmes en 1812 Santa Fe Dr. Ble nde , C olo. T e l e f o no : 546-1275 THE BEST CORN & FLOUR TORTILLAS IN COLORADO !!!!1.!! 1812 SANTA FE DR. BLENDE , COLORADO. PUEBLO ' S MEETING PLACE 24-HOUR DINING ROOM "a to f,altuin? CONTINENTAL COCKTAIL LOUNGE NIGHTLY ENTERTAINMENT BANQUET & MEETING ROOMS FOR 500 .,,,.Ktcu, COMPLETE CONVENTION FACILITY FIN E F -OODS PARTY FACILITIES FOR YOUR DINING PLEASURE ALL MAJOR CREDIT CARDS GRACIOUS DINING IN RELAXED SETTING Complete Me_ nu AT 25 & HIWAY 50 EAST 4ll Ju stice. They will join with l ocal l eaders i n a day of commemoratio n exactly a year 1 0 the . day of the po lice a ttack on th e Crusade a n d Escue Ia TlateJoico which l eft Lui s Martinez dead and dozen s injured and scores a rrested. The day o f protest will tak e place o n the capitol steps . Other • s peakers will include: Rudoifo " C orky" Gonzal es, (Head of the Crusade), Los Tres del Barr io {charged with shooting . a narcotics agent who h a p pened t o be a drug pu she r), Angela Dav is Ceo-chairperso n of the Nati o nal Alliance against Raci s t and Political R epression ) Jua n M a rdi Bras (lead e r of the Puerto Rican Socialist Part y for the independence of Puerto Rico), Bert Corona (founder ofCenrr o de Ac c i o n Social Autonomar in Los Angeles). and Mario Cantu (di rect o r o f CASA in San An' t o ni o). The dem o nst r atio n will be th e first a ppear a n ce of Mrs . Allende in this a r ea. She h as add r essed seve ral lab o r uni o ns in the U . S . Salva d o r Allend e was killed by th e military j u nta whic h t ook o ver the democratically e lecte d g overnm e nt in Chile . Since M a r ch I 7, n o policemen h ave s tood tri a l f o r th e attack, a hh ough only f o ur o f the nearly 60 perso n s a rrested wer e pr osec ut ed a nd only o n e o f th em Mario V asq u ez wa s convic t ed of any wron g doing . Acc ording to C hicanos at Vasq u ez' trial , th e t es tim o n y of th e p olice o ffic e r s .vas o ften contradi c t e d , yet the jur y convi cted him . RECORDING STUDI O W HOLESALE Br R,ETAIL SPANIS H RECORDS & STEREO T APES BUS. PH. 992-7141 RES. ?H. 288-3003 V. M . HERNANDEZ 2144 CHAMPA STREET DENVER, COLO. 80202 Cet Acquainted Special! New location! 115 N . GRAND AVE. New savings! 10c A MILE (PLUS GAS) Rate EL LENGUAJE DE LAS FLORES dQue se r(a el mundo s in flo r es? Seda como un cielo sin estre ll as, como un nifio sin sonrisas, o como una madre sib ca rifio . L as flores sa lpi ca n de b elleza Ia ti erra ; so n como las notas d e l pentagrama: le dan sonido a I a vida . lr uno por un camino y deten e rse a ratos a cont emplar l as flor eci llas d e l campo, es uno d e los deleites m as preciosos que p u e d e expe rim entar nues tr o esp( ritu . V i sitar un parque donde h ay plantas y flores es tambilm una experi e n c ia grata. 0 ir al jardin d e l patio de nuestra casa y cortar alii con nues t ras manos varias rosas del rosal que sembramos, jc6mo nos g u s ta hacer e so ! Las flores l as vemos e n t odas partes : si e m pre adornando, siempre h a lagando a nuestros ojos co n I a b elleza d e s u s co l o r es y co n e l e n c an to de sus f orinas va ri a das y arm6nicas. dQue h ay e n una flor que Ia hace se r apetecida? Ell a es un o bj e t o fr agi l y d elica do. Su vid a no dura much o . j Ah ! p e ro es q u e I a flo r es una c reaci 6 n marav ill o sa. Ella es e x t r ac to d e I a b elleza. Pince l es divinos pinta ron sus petal os. M a n os sa bia s y provid e nciales l e di e ron forma e n cantadora. Y ella es t a n gen e r osa, que aun n os regal a s u exquis ita fra gan c i a, impregnand o de grato aroma e l a mbi ente que I a rod ea. Ese, pues, es elle nguaj e d e las flor es: b elleza, armon(a, fragancia. d A quien no l e agra d a escuchar es t e l engua j e? L as flor es no habl a n mal d e n a di e, n o in s ult a n , no pone n tri s teza e n l os co r azo n es. Elias espa r ce n a legd a sa n a, produce n un estado d e p az y cumple n s u mi si6n d e a dornar . La muj e r es m as bella s i una flor I a adorna; I a casa se ve m as bonita y es mas atrayente si ramos de flor es se co l ocan e n e lla. Y aun e n l o s se rvici os funebr es yen l o s cementerios, l as flo r es se acer ca n a n oso tr os para d e cirnos que h ay cons u e l o e n e l dol o r y ami s t a d e n I a aflicci6n . dSABIA USTED QUE? 1 : El cance r d e l pulm6 n se d esa rr o ll a t a n ve l ozm ente que casi s i empre es un caso p erdido cuando se e n cuentra e l tumor. 2 . E l mar Mediterraneo se es ta co nvirti endo e n una sucursa l del Mar Muerto. La acumulaci6n d e d ese c h os ori gina I a producci6n d e hidr oca r buros , que a fect a n a cuanto se r vivien t e ande por sus aguas. 3. L os h ebreos co nsideraban d es d e tie mpos muy a nti g u os a l os S a lmos divididos e n c in co libr os cada uno concluyendo con una doxolog(a. Cada uno d e es t os li bros co rrespond e n e n e l mi s m o o rd e n con l os cin co libr os d e tylois h Es t os c in co lib ro s que form a n un P entate uco e n verso co ncuerd a n e n s u s pa rt es con l os t e m as principal es d e G e n e s is, Exo d o, Leviti co, Numeros y D euteronomi o . 4 . El V atica n o anunci6 que 1 3.45 0 s ac erdotes aban dona ron s u m ini ste ri o r eligioso entre 1964 y 19 69. A co mi e n zos d e 1970 I a I g l es ia Cat 6lico Rom a n a t e ni a 425 . 000 sace rd o t es e n t odo e l mundo. 5. E l cos t o d e ca d a v i aje a I a Luna h a es t ado e n torno d e l os 3 75 mill ones d e d61 a r es .

PAGE 11

HECTOR ORTEGA Hector Ortega was another of governor in Alberto Isaac's . .I.b.e the actors 'Nho was awarded Corner of the Virgins. the covete d "Silver Goddess" in this year's presentations .. Ortega won for his role as the SCHOOL BUSING .... Continued from Page S Yet. thr o ugh all this , tbe same structure that now regulates the schools, the same people who mandate policy , determine curriculam, assign and hire teachers , and make educational decisi Ons lhe same structure and persons whohave allowed this tragic situation to occurremain intact with o r without bussing . In every o ther facet of life in Votving some kind of a failure , those responsible for the failure are held acco untable. In educati o n , as in the unfolding Denver desegregation case, they remain untouched , the structure unaltered , and only the vic tims of the tragedy punished . Th e r ein lies the issue confronting Chicano communities and children in this deseg regati o n case . Desegregati o n of fers littl e t o improve education for Chicano children and an unc hanged "neighb o rh ood school'' co n cep t o nly perp et uates the di s mal ex periences o f the past Int eresti ngly , the o nly subs tantive c urri c ulum c h anges geared for Chica n o chil dren . as part of the s ubmitted plans, have been made by Chica n o orga n izat i o n s and these pr o p osals can best be implem e nted without bussing . One need only ask, where would the possibilities of an effective bilingual-bicultural education program be greatest? In a pred o minantJy Chiano school o r in one of ten, fifteen o r 20 percent Chicano. So now the Court has decided that Black schools in N o rtheast Denver have suffered as the result of the school board's segregationist policies, and the schools must now be desegregated "root and branch ." So to have Chicano children suffered from school board decisions, o r m o re specifically. the school board lac k of decision , their failure to take any concrete action t o wards enhancing education f o r Chican o youngsters. While Black children may have suffered due to segregation , C hican o c hildren have suffered due to neglect and ignorance on the part of school officials. Yes, something must now be done. But must all educational problems : r equire the same singular solution as in this case of bussing ? D o all eye problems require the same pair o f glasses? D o all human ailments the same prescription ? Unf ort unately, the bussing of Chicano in the name of equ ality, will destroy the possibility of real equitable so luti ons, namely changes in the schools Chicanos now at tend . Court-ordered expansion o f the school board; Court-ordered elec ti ons of school board members by homogen o us and . compact geographical districts ; Court ordered bilingual-bicultural educational programs administered by qualified bilingual-bicultural educators and resource persons; Court-ordered School responsiveness to the com munity the school serves ... would go much further towards real solutions for Chicano children than the most skillfully devised bussing plan ever contrived. However, it is easy to bus students than to revamp systems. The old saying st,tes " that Justice is blind," not paying attention to race, color and creed. So while justice may be blind, Chicanos hope Judge Doyle isn't ... ... -.:.x.:.: ............... -.. ........... .. .... IRAN EORY Beautiful Spanish actress Iran Eory who has worked in Mexico for several years is now filming In Search of a Wall under the direction of Julio Bracho . -JOElGE STHAL Camera laureate. Jorge Sthal , is currently in charge of the photography of "The Holy Labor " , directed by Arturo Rip stein. For its technical and artistic qual ity, this f.ilm requires a cameraman of the artistic experience and sensibility of Jorge Sthal. Pllgo 11, ECO MAYA, Mono, 1974 i La Raza en Acci6n! Remember Junior Martinez March 17 will mark th e first anniversary ot th e murderous police assaull on a building u sed as a dormitory for Escuela Tlatelolco, the Chicano school run b y the Crusade for Justice in Denver. The cops used a jaywalking incident in the early morning hours after a marlanitas celebration (Chi cano birlhday partY) as a pretext for tbe attack. Suddenly, more than 200 heavily armed police appeared and began firlng into the building. A power ful explosion left the place ln ruins. Luis (Junior) Martinez, a dance instructor at th e Escuela, was killed by police bullets that night H e was 20 years old. Several others were shot, and 70 were a.rrested . The charges were so phony that only one of the frame-ups was successfuL Mario Vaaquez., a Cru sade activist. was convicted of first degree assault and sentenced to 15 years. The Denver Chicano Liberation Defense Commit tee, which waa aet up to defend the Ma.r.:h 17 victims, is continuing the fight to reverae the Vasquez conviction. The committee recently informed The Militant that in the past 12 months more than 100 Cru sade activists and supporters have been arrested or taken to court in a campaign of harassment. Among those with serious charges stW pending against them are Francisco (Kiko) Marti nez and Gary Garrison. Martinez is a young activist lawyer who frequently defends Chicanos against the government. When police sought to Llnk hlm with a eeriee of bomb ingBt a campaign of racist hysteria was whipped up by Denver's newspapers in ' banner headl.ines . Having convicted Martinez in it s pages, the Denver Po st went so far as to offer a reward for information leading to his capture. Vigilante "justice," cattle-baron style, lives on Ln Denver. An instructor at Escuela Tlatelolco, Garrison has received the same slanderous treatment in the col umns of the capitalist press. The authorities are trying to frame him up on charges of attempted arson, mischief, and conspiracy. Garrison is charged with having thrown a d yna mite bomb that did not explode through the window of a paint store. As El Gallo , newspaper of the Cru sade for Justice, put i4 "Thi s supposed bombing was oddly similar to others reported in Denver .... Suspiciously enough, almost all of these bombs fail to explode. Instead, the police arrive just in time to disarm them." Chicanos have .taken the offensive by initiating a $10-million libel suit against Denver's other daily rag, the Rocky Mountain News. Statements criticizing News's racist brand of journalism have been issued by the National Lawyers Guild, Congress of Hispan ic Educators, Denver Opportunity, Servicios La Raza, Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund, Manuel SaUnas of the U.S. Justice Departnent, and State Representative Roger Cisneros. 'If you want .lo see my Father It will cod you ten buck-tae•s a declor," In order to help combat this unprecedented wave of attacks, the committee is calling a national and. International day of solldarlty wlth the Crusade for Justice and the Colorado Chicano movement on March 17. The committee reports that it bas invited Hortensia -Allende, widow of Salvador Allende; Puer to Rican Socialist Party leader Juan Marl BrAs; Los Tres del Barrio; Angela Davis; and antideportation leaders Mario CantU and Bert Corona to speak at the event in Denver. The for Justice bas played an important role in the national development of the Chicano movement. The MarCh 17 event gives the whole ChiCano movement an opportunity to come to the COlorado activists' defense. The defense committee says, "People throughout the nation can help us on this day by publicizing the its history and purpose, by or ganizing rallies," and through other Support activities. For further information, write Denver Chicano LibCOlo : 8021'8 J.R.eprinted from 'IJ'he. Militant" 1 917'( , --.---_.. .... .,..,. • ' - • '-.. • • • • • • I

PAGE 12

Page 12, ECO 197<1;. , , , Mexican Consul Strives To Encourage Tourist Business _ Speaking Leader Heads Rights Commission By JANE EARLE Denver Post Staff Writer Wehn Mexico's newly appoin t ed -consul to Denver arrived here Jan. 5 , the temperature was 17 deg rees below zero. Consul Guillermo Valdes had driven from Mexico City to as s ume his new post, but his plunge from sunn y warmth to arctic c old hasn't dampen e d his enthusiasm either for Denver or for life in the United States. Jove this c ount ry." Valdes s a j d . ' Jt is a wondetful plac e to live."' Valdes, who h as spent most o [ his car eer with the Mexico d iplomatic c orps in the U n ited was consul t o Kansa s C i t y . for 13 year'' ASSIG!\ED TO DENVER He returne d to Mexico C ity for a y ear and a half to s er v e t h ere in f orei g n r elations before b e ing ass igned t o D e n v er. The con s u l plans to enc ourage even more touri s m from the U n i t c J Stat e s to Mexico. Touris t s from C o lorado , Utah and W yomin g , the t hree states s erved b y the D enve r consul' s office, numb e r e d 50,000 las t year . D espit e the rapid inc rea s e in tour i s m 1 from only 7 ,000 for the region in 1971). Val des s aid THE EMPIRE THAT .. .. Continued from page 2 foremost authority on IVIaya civi lization, J. Eric Thompson says, "They took pride in their work, especially the care of their fields, but there was no m arked desire to get ahead. N o o ne desired more than his fair s h are, for that could only be attained a t the expense of one's neighbor s". This surp ri singly 'advanced' philosophy was act ivated by voluntary group labor, the dynamics of which can be envisioned when the surplus time and product i v ity of the agri cultura l sector was utilized to support large numbers of work ers. Thus, having abundant free time, the Indians were always, willing to work upon the con struction of a templ e city, since in the long run such labor would benefit the whole community. Also it must be remembered that the Maya city was a ce r emonial, not an urban c-ente r ; a pl ace prepared for religious functions and m arke ts. In the Maya frame of r e feren ce it was only right that the bounty of the Gods be returne d to glorif y the Gods and that man humbly seek only hi s basic sustenan ce that he might earn his s mall place in the Universe. More p ragmaticaNy, t h e confide n ce gai ned from observing traditional ritual s and paying homage to omnipo tent d eities re sulted in greater interest and application in work. Therefore production was probably corresp ondingl y greater. Herein lie s the psyc ho logica l e nergi zing force in pro ductio n and introduces the great variable in economics-the human motive. Most of the great Maya structures were preconceived by the a n cient architects to be completely uninhabitablebei n g built solel y for religious purpose s . The only real function that s uch poorly lit, vaulted structures could have had may hav e been for storage of para phernalia used for r religious rituals . Such mystic temples would Denv er Po!>t Photo GUILLERMO VALDES Wants two-way there is n o anti-Amerkan sen timent in M e xico. The Mexican g o verrunent en courages not only tourism , but foreign investmen t i n M e xican indus try, Valde s s aid. Tax ra tes for business investment are fa vorable in M exico and labor is m uch c heaper , the consul said. M e xic a n banks pay 9 pet cent i nterest on regular savings deha ve been idea l for ascetic with drawal in p reparation for periods of rel igious festivals and sacr ifice; for only at suc h times would brave men wander into the maze of dimly lighted a l c oves inhabit ed by the Gods o quiet l y chant in chambers frequented by t h eir ancestors. Yet all Maya energy was not directed st:yward. In Piedras Negras elaborate stea m rooms, public baths , swea t houses and ball courts have bee11 found. Many cities also had their own reservoirs. At Yaxchil an a strea m was diverted to flow through an underground aquaduct into which drains from the city above discharged f lu ent. In addition to labor l evies for construction there were taxes in kind, the mos t important being the contribution of maize. Part of each farmer's surp lu s was turned over to the ta x collector, "Batab", who then brought it t o the s tate depo sit ories. Additionally, the perso nal fields of the prie s ts and nobility were cultivated and harvested. Odd l y s imilar to a feudal system in dull bloom across the Atlantic, no nobles , pri ests, and civil and military officials li ved upon the tax tribute of the pea sant. In addition , a sizeable number of a rtisan s were supported out of the accumul ated sur plus brought to the official underground storage vaults called "chaltuns". Road construction was anoth er part of the personal ta x . Caus wavs were built b y those c l ans that l ived a l ong the thorough f ares. Such labor was not hard to find for it was acknowledged a great advantage to have a r oad close by one's house. Maya road building was presumably car r ied out b y a corvee levied on the village through which the road passed , with each particular village or city being required to keep up its share. Maya road s constr ucted during the Classic Period (A. D . 300 900) seem to have con n ected m 'ost of the i nl and cities with those of the coaSt. In Chi<:hlm posits and 10.5 per cent on long term deposits , he said. Valdes w a nts to make his o f fice in Denver the center for a two-way exchange of infonna lion between cit izens of Mexico and United States. HELP INV!'STORS , He h opes to b (ing importan t Mexican artists , literar y and entertainment figures to Denver to "help us understand each o t her better." Valdes will make hims elf a vailable to poteniial American investors in Mexican enterpr i ses and help t hem to get the information !he y need. The consul als o h o p e s t o es tabli s h a sister cit y i elationship b e tween Denver and Mazatlan wher e man y residents of the region vacation. " But it is only one month , " (sine his arrival) , Valde s said. ''It will take time to do these things." _ In the meantime , Valdes is looking forward to enjoying life in Denver. H e plan s to l earn to. ski and is enrolling both his daughers in the Universit y o f Denver. Although he arri ved during unusually severe col d weather , Valdes said , "they say after April the weather is fine." ltza, t h ere were eigh t "sacbeob" (streets) wit hin th e city T wo of these lead out to other cities . A causeway south of Taka l acted as a dike holding back a man-made reservpir and Continued on Page 8 Edward L. B arrera, an insurance and Mexican American civic leader, lias become the first Spani sh surname d American to head the Michigan Civil Rights Commission. Barrera said he h opes his appointment "will serve to encou rage both private and public sectors to employ and upgrade those of Spanish speaki n g extraction . as well as those of all min o ri ty groups." Four years ago B a r rera was the first Spanish speak ing person se lected to serve on the commission. He is a 39-y e ar-old native of Flint, Mich., and son of parents born in Mexico. As a commissioner he helped prepare a report on the problems m.igran; farm laborers face in Michigan. H e also assisted the . commission in alleviating discrimination against the Spanish speaking, and in placin g more Spanish surnamed e mployes on the agency ' s staff . A graduate of the University of Michigan , Barrera taught school and then worked his way up in the insurance business. He is now a district manager. He i s also active in several Spanish speaking civic organi zations. Bl\ffera devotes much of h is time to bettering the lot of his people. "I realized that the. educational problems of Mexi can Americans could not be solved without getting at the problems of employment, housing and other areas," he said. ''But the Mexican American is still operating under a fantastic disadvantage-the notable l ack of professionals, such as attorneys, economists an d p sychologists who could contribut e to th e move ment. 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