HE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS 1 The Effectiveness of School Wellness Policy Goals: El Sol Science and Arts Academy Skyler Daviss University of Colorado Denver School of Public Affairs July 17, 2017 Author Note Send correspondence to: Summer 2017
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 2 This client based project was completed on behalf of El Sol Science and Arts Academy and supervised by PUAD 5361 Capstone course instructor Dr. Wendy L. Bolyard and second faculty reader Pamela Medina . This project does not necessarily reflect the views of the School of Public Affairs or the faculty readers. Raw data were not included in this document, rather relevant materials were provided directly to the client. Permissions to include this project i n the Auraria Library Digital Repo sitory are found in the final Appendix . Questions about this capstone project should be directed to the student author.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 3 Abstract To ensure that they properly meet the needs of their students and staff, the client , El Sol Science and Arts Academy, requested an evaluation of whether they effectively met their local school wellness policy goals. El Sol Science and Arts Academy is a public charter school located in Santa Ana, California, that serves nearly 1000 mostly low income, minority students, with 73% of their student population qualifying for free or reduced meals. This capstone project investigates by conducting two surveys, one interview, and content analyses. The findings reveal that El Sol has effectively met many of the wellness goals ou tlined in their wellness policy such as nutrition, physical activity, and staff wellness, yet s ome elements remain incomplete like student emotional health .
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 4 Table of Contents 1. Executive Summary 5 2. Introduction 6 3. Literature Review 7 a. Import ance of Wellness Policies 8 i. Nutrition 8 ii. Physical Activity 9 iii. Student Mental and Emotional Health 10 b. Barriers to Implementation 11 i. C o mmunication and Resources 11 ii. Buy In 12 iii. S ummary of the Literature 13 c. Organization Background 14 d. Statement of Purpose 15 4. Methodology 15 a. Sample 16 b. Measurement and Data Collection 16 c. Data Analysis 17 d. Validity and Reliability 18 5. Findings 19 a. Survey 20 b. Interview 22 c. Menu 23
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 5 d. Student BMI 24 e. Suspensions and Bullying Incidents 24 f. Credentials 25 g. Summary of Findings 25 6. Discussion and Recommendations 26 a. Discussion 26 b. Recommendations 28 c. Limitations 29 d. Conclusion 30 7. References 32 8. Appendix 36
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 6 Executive Summary Given rising obesity rates, as well as the association between high body mass index (BMI) and low academic performance, the Child Nutrition and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Reauthorization Act was passed by Congress in 2004. This act required all local education ag encies who participate in the National School Lunch Program to implement wellness policies. The client for this project, El Sol Science and Arts Academy, a public charter school locat ed in Santa Ana, California, serves nearly 1000 mostly low income, minority students, with 73% of their student population qualifying for free or reduced meals. Therefore, El Sol partnered with the University of California, Irvine, Sue and Bill Gross Schoo l of Nursing to develop a local school w ell ness p olicy. To ensure that they properly meet the needs of their students and staff, the client has requested an evaluation of whether El Sol effectively met their local school wellness policy goals. This capsto ne investigates this issue by conducting t wo surveys, one interview, and content analyse s. Then response frequencies and coding are calculated with the use of Excel software. The findings reveal that El Sol has effectively met many of the health and wellne ss initiatives outlined in their wellness pol icy such as nutrition, physical activity, and staff wellness, yet some elements remain incomplete , like emotional health . Due to the findings, it is recommended that El Sol evaluate emotional health curriculum, programs, and services, require all teachers to receive credentials, create a new wellness campaign, staff wellness room, logic models, and processes for reporting bullying, and monitor fr equency of celebrations and physical education excused absences. With this information, the client will be better able to identify if they are effectively supporting their students, staff, and community.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 7 Wellness is a key factor in maximizing the developm ent of youth. Wellness is defined as a conscious, deliberate process that requires a person to become aware of and make choices for a more satisfying lifestyle (Swarbick, 2006). These choices include adequate sleep and rest, eating nourishing foods, gettin g enough exercise, avoiding self destructive behavior, and being with others in mutually supportive ways (Swarbick, 2006). Promoting these habits among youth can have a significant effect on quality of life. For instance, research shows that academic perfo rmance in children is negatively linked with higher adiposity and lower physical fitness, esteem and health risk behaviors ( Freed , McCarthy, & Roberts, 2009 ; Efrat, 2011 ) . Therefore, ma king the correct lifestyle choices in childhood is instrumental in future outcomes. However, in impoverished, immigrant communities, wellness is especially difficult as the lack of resources and systemic supports result in a considerably underserved population. Schools are an ideal place for providing such assistance, as children spend a significant amount of their developmental years on school campuses (Lobstein, Baur, & Uauy, 2004) . In 2004, the Child Nutrition and Special Supplemental Nutrition Pr ogram for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Reauthorization Act was passed by Congress. This Act required that all local education ag encies that participate in the National School Lunch Program create and implement wellness policies. On e such local educat ion agency is El Sol Science and Arts Academy, a public charter school located in Santa Ana, California that serves nearly 1000 mostly low income, minority students, with 73% of their student population qualifying for free or reduced meals. El Sol develope d a comprehensive wellness policy in partnership with the University of California, Irvine Sue and Bill Gross School of Nursing (Appendix K ). This policy was centered around the following elements : nutrition, physical activity, mental health, staff wellnes s, safe and healthy
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 8 school environment, illness prevention, and medication administration. These elements were self talk . To address the health of their students and staff , ensuring the effectiveness of their wellness p olicy is necessary. Therefore , the client , El Sol Science and Arts Academy, has requested an analysis of the effectiveness of their local school wellness policy in order to ensure that they are properly meeting the needs of their students and staff. As such, this capstone investigates the following research question: Is El Sol effectively meeting the goals of their wellness policy? Since the safe and healthy school environment, illn ess prevention, and medication administration goals were evaluated in 2016, this research focus es on nutrition, physical activity, emotional health, and staff wellness. This project contains five sections. The first details the literature on the importance of nutrition, physical activity, mental health, and staff wellness in schools, as well as barriers to implementing local school wellness polici es. This section also includes background on El Sol Science and Arts Academy. The second section introduce s t he research question, hypotheses , and variables. The third section detail s the measurements, data collection, sampling plan, and data analysis. Next, the fourth section include s an analysis of the results, while describing their significance to El Sol Academy . Lastly, the fifth section contain s a list of recommendations. Literature Review Once Congress passed the WIC Reauthorization Act in 2010, all local education agencies that participated in the National School Lunch Program were required by law to create local school wellness policies. This federal mandate recognizes that, as a site where students spend a large allotment of their time, the programs and services that schools provide have an impact on student health. However, the work does not end with simply creating a policy. Evaluating the
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 9 effectiveness of local school wellness policies is a key aspect of benefitting the health of youth in America. Therefore, local education agencies must understand the importance of wellnes s policies and effectiveness in a national context, as well as the barriers and best practices. Research on the evaluation of wellness policies in schools is limited. However, available literature on physical activity and nutrition express that schools c an create healthy behavior in students which will in turn lead to higher academic achievement (Center for Diseas e Control and Prevention, 201 2). On the other hand, literature on mental health notes that schools are an essential and productive location for identifying, and addressing the emotional and behavioral health of students ( Hoagwood & Rones, 2010 ). Additiona lly, research on staff wellness shows that teachers are susceptible to burnout, which negatively affe cts the achievement of students ( Romano & Wahlstrom, 2010). Lastly, literature on barriers to implementation expresses that discrepancies in system support are damaging to the effectiveness of school wellness policies ( Black et al. , 2016) In this review of literature , the significance of local school wellness policies according to the themes of nutrition, physical activity, mental health, and staff wellness are explored . The summary is followed by a discussion of the barriers that have prevented implementation of wellness goals in schools, whic h can prevent effectiveness, as well as a brief background of El Sol Science and Arts Academy. This review of literature is meant to support the pressing need to effectively address local school wellness policies, so that the health of youth, and eventuall y entire communities, is made a priority . Importance of Wellness Policies Nutrition . Literature on school nutrition demonstrates that in terventions can change behavior (Bevans, Sanchez, Teneralli, & Forrest, 2011). In a cross sectional observational study
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 10 on the ea ting behaviors of 2039 students from 22 school s, Bevans et al. (2011) found that, among students who infrequently purchased a la ca rte food items, the availabilit y of nutritious foods during school lunch periods was associated with heal thier eating behaviors. Therefor e, this research sho ws that pol icies that address the risks that unhe althy food options pose can effectively serve students. Similarl y, Crawford, Sanchez-Vaz naugh, and Sanchez (2015) note that po licies prohibiti ng the sale of unhealthy foods and drinks in school s are associate d with lower propo rtions of overweight s tudents. It should also be noted that the authors of this study found that the decrease in total BMI is accelerated in socioeconomicall y advantaged neighborhoods. However, ther e are a dditional methods to curb nutrition behavior, such as nutrition education. Most l iterature focuses on the im pact of proper nutrition educat ion. Guarino, Parmer, Powers, and Struempler (2005), who utilized a contr ol and intervention group to analyze the consumption of junk food decreased and nutrition knowledge increased. Similarl y, CarrawayStage, Diaz, Duffri n, Hovland, and Showers (2015) found that nutrition based education led to an suggests that schools are a great resource to inform youth on healt h. Alberts, Huh, Larsen, Liao, and Robertson (2016), from thei r research on public schools in California, disc overed that nutrition educat ion even has an impact on the h ealthy choice s of kindergarteners. Clearly, literature on nutrition educat ion and healthy food opti ons in schools agree that interventions a re an effective and valuab le approach. Physical a ctivity. Literature suggests that phys ical activity is positively associated with academic achievement. For inst ance, Siege l (2006) found that re ading and math scores
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 11 "improved si gnificantly as the number of physical fitness tests achieved increased" (p. 9). Additionally , Freed at al. (2009) found that s tudents with high er BMI than sta ndard s set by the Center for Disease Control, scor ed lower on California standardized math, readi ng, and language tests than students who met BMI sta ndar ds. However, it should also be noted, that recent research sho ws that several soc ioeconomic factors impact the likelihood that BMI will decrease (Rosenberg , Sallis, Conway, Cain, & McKenzi e, 2006). Yet, given t he relationship between BMI and testi ng, it is important information to consider. This relationship was also found for students who did not meet the California Fitnessgram sta ndard mile time. Essentially, scho lars agr ee that physical activity in schools is a necessary component to create a t hriving learni ng environment. This is explained by the connection between increased physical ac tivity and improved cognition and memory (Efrat, 2011). According to Chaddock-Heyman , Cohen, Hilm an, and Kramer higher fit children have larg er brain volumes in the basal gang li a and hippocampus, which r elate to su perior performance on tasks of cognitive contr ol and memory (p. 25). All in all, ample literatu re shows that phys ica l activity is essential in schools. Student mental and emoti onal health. According to Avenevoli et al. (2010), about 25% of children experience a mental health disorder annually , with the age of onset in childhood or ear ly adolescence. There is substantial evidence in literature that reveal s the implications that poor mental health has on performance in schoo l and outcomes later in life. Desocio and Hootm an (2004) sti pulate tha t emotional and behavioral disorders are associated wit h poor academic functioning, chronic abs enteeism, and disciplinary concerns. Moreover, students with emotional and behavioral disorders have the highest dropou t rate of all disability categories, as well as h igh rates of unemployment, criminal ac tivity, substance abuse, and even suicide (Leigh, WoodsGroves, & Huddle, 2014). Therefore, literature on mental he alt h largel y recommends
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 12 intervent ion in schools . In fact, m ost individuals who recei ve any mental healt h services, receive them in school ( Hoagwood et al, 2010). In general, there is a lack of ser vices deliver ed directly to students with emotional disorders, which shows the nee d for programs that are de livered or developed by the professional m enta l heal th community through an integrat ed approach with school s (Wagner et al., 2006). Therefore, althoug h mental health services in schools re main a work in progress, they a re valuable to youth a nd the large r community. Staff health. Accord ing to t he literature, k-12 teaching i s associated with emotional exhaustion and burnout (Romano et al, 2010). Thus, staff wellne ss is of per tinent concern. Rom ano et al. (2010) co nducted a study on 215 k-12 educators, finding that these educators reported moderate to high stress levels, with middle school teachers experiencing more str ess than those teaching older stude nts. This is due to several stimuli, such as student demands, physical demands, and lack of funding. Additionally, accordin g to Chang (2009), teachers may feel frustrated, bored, and depleted due to t he culture of isolation. Multiple studies report th at this stress leads to burnout and affects the experiences of stude nts (Romano et al., 2010, 123). Teacher s tress and burnout is found to lead to absenteeism an d a diminished c apacity to effectively t each students. Furthermore , Miller, Murna ne, and Wil lett (2008 ) found, in a study of northern United States school districts, that ea ch 10 additional days of teacher absence reduces mathematical achievem ent by 3.3% of a standar d devia tion (1). Therefore, li terature shows that ensur ing the wellness of educators is integral to the success of schools and their students. Barriers to Implementation Communication and resources. Most s chools do not provide adequa te financial or personnel resource s to carry ou t the implementation of welln ess policies, according to li terature. In a study involving administrators from 300 high schools, representing 22 sta tes in 4 regions,
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 13 Budd, Schwarz, Yount, and Haire-J oshu ( leas t likely to be implemented were communicatio n and promotion (p. 3). Compared to their comm unication of physical educati on (PE) or evaluation components, t he administrators were least likely to communicate and promote wellness to their students. This wa s determined to be difficult because the wellness inst ruction requirements were not definable, measurable, or affordable. Therefore, communication at several levels, including when creating the policy, allocating fu nds, and in speaki ng to students, prevented prop er implementation. In a st udy involving administr ators from 24 support system s and 1,349 schools, researchers Black et al (2016) focused on schools with low-income students. Through their surveys, the y found the gr eater likelihood of the implementation of wellness poli cies was observed among school s with perceived system suppor t. Therefore, they suggest th e formation of school-level heal th councils supported by system-leve l resources that are well-communicated and accurately perceived. This recommendation suggests that ample resources a id in appropriate understanding of wellness goals and effort s. In Color ado, the implementation of wellness policies in rural schools was evaluated by Beatty et a l. (2009), by interviewing food service providers from 18 randomly selected schools. The policies w ere foun d to contain vague language, and it was discovered that there were insuffici ent resources devoted t o the local schoo l and the abs ence of accountability mechanisms. Thus, financial resource s and effective communicati on are show n to be an obstacle t o implementation of wellness poli cies in a wide range of communities. Buyin . Although minimal, literatu re has shown that lack of buy-in from school an d district stakeholders complicates implementati on of school wellness po lici es. In a study
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 14 conduct ed in Nevada by Bancroft, Benedict, Spears , and Kerwin (2013) , wellness coordinators, principal s, and food service m anagers from 12 elementary schools participated in interviews. It unfamiliar with speci fic requirements a nd noted a lack of communication since the policy was first ena cted 3 years ago (p. S76). As a result, they did not view the policy as a h igh pri ority. This study further emphasizes the importance of fully communicating both th e requirements and the importance of wellness to those who are expected to implement the wellness policies. This also shows the value in gaining support through communicating the ben efits of wellness policies to achi eve full implementation. Similarly, through an online survey invol ving school board members from acr oss the countr y, the California School Boards Association (2008) found that ge tting buy-in and support from stakeholders was cit ed as a large concern. Summary of the Literature Overal l, the literature shows that eff ective loca l school wel lness policie s are foun dational in supporting the development of youth. First, literatu re on nutrition suggests that providing healthy options and proper nutrition education wil l improve the academic success of students. Second, literature on physical activity sta tes that physical activity is positively associated with academic achievement. Third, literature on mental health resources shows tha t thes e resources are lacki ng, yet support not only performance in school but constructive behavior outside of the academic environment. Additionally, literature indicates tha t teachers a re at risk of burnout, which negatively affects the students, and therefore administration must prioritize staff wellne ss. Lastl y, literature agree s that the most frequent barriers to the implementation of loca l school wellness policies are poor communication, a lac k of resources, and low stakeholder buy-in.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 15 Organization Background El Sol Science and Arts Academy (El Sol) is a public charter school located in Santa Ana, California. Since opening in 2001, the scho ol has prov ided instruction through dualto provide a rigorous academic environment that prepares students for entrance into a college preparator y tr ack at th e high school of thei r choice and to create a culture of kindne ss, creativity, courage, and honesty that will permit their graduates to assume leaders hip roles and achieve th eir dreams. The student population is 95% Latino, 1.11 % Asian, 1.22 % African American and 1.33% White. In addition, 45% of stude nts are English Language learners (ELS). Furthermore, about 73% of their 975 students qua lify for free o r reduced meals, provided by the federally fun ded School Brea kfast Program an d National School Lunch Program (El Sol Acade my, 2017). El Sol considers itself a Community School and that distincti on combined with its academically succe ssful performance has resulted in numerous awards and re cognition. El Sol was the California Charter School of the Year, a White House Bright Spot for Hispanic Education, a Cali fornia Distinguished School and a Title I Academic Achievement Awardee. El Sol has m any partnerships. Important partnerships include Sapphire at School, an organization that provides fresh breakfast, lunch, and snacks da ily. El Sol has partnere d with Second Harves t Food Bank to create a permanent school pantry to distribute food to t hose in need both at the school and in the community. El Sol als o opened the SOS El Sol Wellness Center , a Federally Qualified Health Center run by the nonprofit Share Our Selves (SOS), t o provide healthcare services, health education, and social ser vices to El Sol students, facul ty, staff, and Santa Ana families. Students also receive nutrition and emotional he alth classes, from UCI nursing students as part of their comm unity health clinica l training rotati on. Nutrition classes are provided for
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 16 parents as well . Additionally, El So l contracts wi th the Orange County Department of Education for mental heal th services, includ ing a full time clinical social worker and three clinical interns. Other im portant health partners in clude the UCI eye institute mobile vision van, Healthy Smiles for Kids of Orange County, the Children and Families Commission of Orange County, Pediatric Exercise and Genomics Resear ch Center and many others. Faculty and staff benefits incl ude therapy, through insur ance, and a 24 Hour Fitness gym pass . These initiatives re flect El mmunity responsibility and desire to have a large-scale impact . The 334,909 residents of Santa Ana are predominantly Latino (78.2%), Asian (10.4%), an d White (9.2%). Of this population, 22% are below the poverty level. In the 92701 zip c ode, residents live that the surrounding c achievement. As an organization tha t provides health and wellness programs and services to not only their s tudents but to the city of Santa Ana, evaluating the effectiveness of reachi ng the goals of their lo cal school wel lness policy is a productive way to reach their m ission and values (El Sol Academy, 2017). Statement of Purpose The purpose of this research is to determine if El Sol eff ectively met their wellness policy goals. Given El achieving the goals of the poli cy is a priority. Methodology T It addresses the research question: I s El Sol effectively meeting the goals of their wel lness policy? In order to address this question, two surveys and one interview were conduc ted, while
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 17 data on student BMI, absences, bullying incidences, and teacher credenti als were compiled, and the school lu nch m enu was compared to federal nutrition standards. The survey data were analyzed by calculating response freq uenci es, the interview da ta were coded, and the s tudent BMI, absences, and bullying incidences were com pared over the course of t hree year s. This section outlines the methods by first discussing the sample groups (see Appendix B) . Then it discusses how the surveys were created and distributed. Finally, the process in which the data a re anal yzed is explain ed. Based upon research discussed in the literature review, the hypotheses a re: 1. El Sol effectively acknowledges t he need to provide healthy food. 2. El Sol Science and Arts Academy effectively follows the state physical education guidelines. 3. El Sol Science and Art Academy effectively su pports the emotional well being of each of its students. 4. El Sol Science and Arts Academy effectively encourage its staff to lead healthy lifestyles both on and off campus. Sample The groups who were asked to participat e in t he study are the stakeholders mentioned in the wellness policy, including t he health cler k (n=1), Sapphire, the food service provider, (n=1), teachers and exte nded day instructors (n=63), and stude nts (n=481), using a combination of cluster and purposive sampling. According to the wellness po li cy, the teachers prov ide physical education, help to enforce the nut rition requirements, and benefit from the sta ff wellness program. The health clerk delivers emotional health services and resources on campus, and is int ended to be most awa re of student and teacher emotional health. Hence, the opinions of the teachers and the clerk will provide insight into the goals that policy enforcement achieved. Although all teachers were surveyed, only grade students were asked to participate, as they were determined to be able to maturely answer the survey questions.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 18 Measurement and Data Collection To determine if El Sol eff ectively met their wel lness goals, both qualitative and quantitative data were collected, also known as mixed methods (see Appendix A). These data were intended to measure effectivene ss by answering the research question: Is El Sol effectively meeting the goals of their wellness policy? The four goals included in this research paper a re related to nutrition, physical activity, emotional healt h, and staff wel lness. The independent variables are the actions o f stakeholders, which impact th e effectiveness of the wellness policy goals. Therefore, the independent variables ar e the (1) student BMI, (2) schoo l menu nutrition value, knowledge, (6) expressed student support, (7) bull ying incidents, (8) suspensions, (9 ) expressed teacher support, and (10) teacher physical activity, with the dependent va riable be ing effectiveness of reaching the wellness policy goals (Append ix A ). The quantitative da ta we re compiled from sur veys, teach ing credentials that represent knowledge of physical educat ion standards, the nutrition value of school lunches, student BMI, absences due to suspension, and bullying incidences, whil e the qualitative data were compiled h clerk. Two surveys were created to account for the unique invol vement of students and teachers in the ability to effectivel y meet wel lnes s goals. Fo r example, the teachers we re asked about their enfo rcement of the policy and how it impacted personal choices, whi le students were quest ion ed about their n utrition and physical activity choic es, as they relate to the wellness policy (Appendix B and C). The surveys were delivered on paper, and to ensur e a high response rat e, a statement on behalf of the client and researcher was emailed the day the sur veys were distributed, and the following week as a reminder . Since El works in the front office and communicates with students and staff about
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 19 emotional health needs, the interview was intended to discover if enough resourc es are prov ided to achieve the nutrit ion and emotional health goals of the wellness poli cy. The interview with the heal th clerk was also used to gain valuable in sight, in the case that the surveys receive a low res ponse rate and were therefore not completely representative of the target population. Regarding the remaining data, student BMI testing is conducted by volunteers at the close of each schoo l year. In addition, annua l absences, bull ying incidences, and credentials are re ported to the state each yea r. These data were provided by El Sol. Finall y, the school m enu nutrition inform ati on, from April , was provided by the food ser vice provider, Sapphire. Data Analysis Effectiveness was measured by behaviors and attit udes, as it relates to the four goals. For each hypothesis, effectiveness is def ined differently, which is detailed i n Appendix A. Thus, to measure effectiveness , the dat a were anal yzed in several ways. Concerning survey data, each response was coded in to a number scal e. For example, question 2 of the student su rvey asks if students eat a lunch from how often each response was selected, was then calculated. Next, the annual su ms of student BMI were compared acr oss three years, and a line graph was created to dem onstrat e a trend. This proc ess was repeated for the annual to tal of student absences due to suspension and bullying incidences. Furthermore, the sum of credentials was determined, then represente d by a ratio to show the portion of teac her s and extended day instructo rs who met the physical activity goal. Additionally, a content analysis of the Apri l lunch menu was conduct ed. The nutrition values of the school lun ches were compared to the standards of the policy (Appendix E). Then the amount of days that Sapphire followed the n utrition standards was represented by a ratio.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 20 Nutrition goals were met if Sapphir e complied for a t least 16 out of the 19 days, or 80 % of April. For the quantitative data analysis, the software Excel was utilized. Finally, int erview responses were them atically coded. This was done through discovering patterns in the data, based upon a shared characteristic, and then arranging these into seve ral categories. The interview responses were grouped together by quest ion. Therefore, six excerpts were co ded and several patterns were identified within each excerpt. Validity and Reliability This analysis relies on valid and reliable m ethods. To ensur e internal validity, the wellness policy was assessed by wellness goal s. This allowed for all a reas to be evaluated for effectiveness. Furthermore, the services and resources provided to t he students and staff ar e also avai lable to Santa Ana residents. Therefore, the impact on student and teacher cho ices may be evide nt among the larger population. However, schools who engage with the surrounding community less may not have similar results, which effects generalizability. Additionally, this study can be repeated each year, reflect ing reliability. Yet, it is the goal of El Sol to consistently improve heal thy choice s and decrease obesity over time, showing tha t the r esults, if effective, will not be consistent, or perfect ly reliable. It is also important to consider the political climate and the ex trem e factors that a typical El Sol student may face, which make achiev ing wellness more diff icult and therefore l imit gener alizability. Findings The results from the items of measurement a re reported below. This includes the student and teacher surveys, content an alyses, and interview. Moreover, the research question is explicitly answered by noting wheth er the hypotheses are supported by the findings.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 21 Survey Nutrition. There were 420 out of 481 students who responded to the survey, at an 87% res ponse rate, while 21 out of 63 teachers and extended day instructor s responded, a 33% response rate (see Appendix B, Table 2). The reveal that they are making the conscious decision to avoid unhealthy foo entirely (see Appendix B, Table 2). For instance, most student s (54%, n= 228) do not consume soda. According to the wellness policy, this drink is not allowed on campus and students are encouraged to avoid soda. The wellness policy also specifies that student lunches should not include chips, candy, or fried foods. The clear majority, 54% of students responded that they only consume these foods 1-3 days per week (see Appendix B, Table 1). Also, lunches from home should contain one serving of fruit and vegetables each, while Sapphire provides 2 servings of fruit and 3 servings of vegetables per week (see Appendix J). Most students (27%, n=11, 49%, 204) indicated that they either consume fruits for part of the week (1-3 days) or most of the week (4-6 days), and they eat vegetables for part of the week. Therefore, students are consuming these vital foods, yet the consistent intake of fruit and vegetables is lacking. Furthermore, students responded that they eat grains for most of the week (25%, n=148) or part of the week (39%, n=162), and eat meat for part of the week or most of the week. Their lunch from home should include one source of lean protein and one source of whole grains per day, while Sapphire serves 8-9 servings of grains and meat per week (see Appendix J). These responses revealed that students are being provided with healthy food, both through what El Sol provides on campus and what El Sol discourages students from consuming on campus. Within the teacher and extended day instructor survey, most staff responded that they only allow birthday celebrations once a month (62%) or never (38% ) (see Appendix C, Table 1) .
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 22 When foods are brough t in, 57% of teachers and extended day instructors responded that they very often follow the two-bite rule. Furthermore, foods are either rarel y (62%) or never (33%) used as a reward in the classroom (see Appendix C, Table 1 ). These responses re flect a key aspect of parent and faculty involvement in achieving the nutrition goal, as allowing competitive foods to be presented in school can dissuade students from av oiding unhealthy foods. Furthermore, by students sta ying away from proc essed foods and teachers and extended instructors l imiting the times they provide celebrat ions, which typicall y include unhe althy foods, El Sol is effectively acknowledging the need to provide healthy food. Physical activity. El Sol aims to follow state PE guidelines for their physical activity goal. The Local Control Accountability (LCAP) report shows that El Sol has in fact met the hourly requirement. The survey responses re flect that not on ly are st udents receiving the required amount of active play at school , they ar e also conti nuing thi s practice outside of school (s ee Appendix B, Table 3) . However, 12% of students did not rec eive th e required amount t he week prior to completing the survey (see Appendix B, Table 3) . Therefore, El Sol is effectively meeting the annual stat e physical educati on guidelines, yet adjustments could be m ade to encour age consistent physical activity in their s tudents a t school on a wee kly basis, which is covered further in the discussion section. Emoti onal health. El Sol -being of each of its (see Appendix J ). Therefore, four questions were as ked to gauge the prevalence of bull ying, support, and negative self-im age. There were 235 or 57% of students who disclosed that they have never be en bullied with 27% rarely experience bull ying, and 83% responded that they do not bully others. (see Appendix B, Table 4). Although, 23% of stude nts occasionally exper ience negative self-image, the majority rarely or never do (see Appendix B, Table 4 ).
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 23 However, when asked i f they have a teacher or faculty memb er to tal k to when having a bad day, this was thinly distributed. In other w ords, there is no majority and the percentages for each response are similar. Due to this insight about s taff and faculty support, the thresho ld for effectivenes s was not met. Staff wellness. Most teachers and extended day instructor s (76%, n=16) acknowledge that they always have someone to talk to when they are having a bad day, they are satisfied or very satisfie d with t he resources for their em otional support, and satisfi ed with resources to limit stres s (see Appendix B, Table 5). Of teachers and extended day instructors, 48%, noted that they were physically active for 1-3 days per week. Despite 10% not engaging in physical act ivity, most teachers were active in some regard (see Appendix B, Table 3). Although their physical activit y is not required, this habit contributes to proper wellness. Therefore, it can be concluded that El Sol effectivel y encourages it s staff to l ead heal thy lifestyles both on and off campus. Interview The themes gathered from the interview with El Sol include: Resources, Communication, Observations, Bullying, Effectiveness , Stress, Policy Violation, Policy Enforcement, and Denial ( see Appen dix D, Table 7). These themes summarize the key findings regarding nutrition, emotional health, and staff we llness. For instance, the heal th clerk str essed that ther e are s to which she can direct s tudent s to. To direct the se resources, she relies on her per sonal observations as well as those of parents, faculty, and staff. Furthermore, the open line of communication with various stakeholder s is something entire El Sol comm unity is able to (see Appendix J) . Moreover,
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 24 the health clerk believes that the policy, as written, is effective in addressing the areas of wellne ss in detail. However, the themes reveal th at certain goals of the polic y are not bei ng enforced. Specifically, as someone who works in the front office , the health clerk believes that the plan to limit bir thday celebrations to once a month is being violated. In addition, though she considers stress as th e main emotional concern among staff, she disclosed that s taff wellness is not a top priority, compar ed to supporting students and parents. Stress is not limited to workload, and is also a result of teacher s shouldering the burden of student and parent stress. On the other hand, bullying wa s noted as the main emotional con cern of stude nts. In thi s case, ther e is frequent communication on the issue, with bullyi ng take n into deep conside ration. An interesting theme from the interview was denial. According to the healt h clerk, par ents and staff do not always acce pt recommendations from El Sol, due to culture. In summary, this interview revealed that El Sol may not be effectively achiev ing the nutrition and staff we llness goals of the wellness policy. Menu After com paring the nutrition standards of the wellness policy to the nutrition information of the food served by Sapphir e, it i s clear that Sapphir e is helping El Sol to effectively achieve their nutrition goal, wit h 100% of their April breakfast and lunch m enu meetin g the wellness policy s tandards (see Appendix E, table 8). Therefore, students who receive lunch from school , are receivin g nutr itious meals if competing foods are not also being served. An example of information can be found in Appendix E. Student BMI The possible change i n physical activity levels as well as nutrition choice s of students i s reflected in the student BMI rates (Appendix F ). By California standards , the BMI rate s of only
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 25 grade and grade students are required. Thus, Table 10 and Figures 1 and 2 in Appendix F show the change per and grade students over three years. After the wellness policy went into effect in May 2014, the rate of graders in the healthy fitness zone (HFZ) increased in subsequent years, while the number of graders in the HFZ decreased. Furthermore, since the wellness policy was created, graders in the health risk and needs improvement zone has decreased, while graders have no clear pattern. Overall, when comparing BMI overtime, the percentage of those at health risk decreased by 8%. These findings may reflect that El Sol is effectively meeting the nutrition goal. Student Suspension Rates and Bullying Incidences Student suspension rates and bullying inci dences are a key indicator of the emotional ability to view the campus as a welcom ing space. Over the past three years, bullying had increased and then fell to ori ginal levels (see Appendix G, Figure 3). It is possibl e that as the years went by, prevention tactics were not effective; or, a s ingle incident caused a large fall out that was difficult to control. If adjustments were not m ade since 2015-2016, it is possible that a spike cou ld occur aga in. On the other hand, suspensions decreased significant ly (s ee Appendix H, Figure 4). This coul d mean that fewer incidences occu rred. However, this coul d also be the result of a change in parameters to keep students from missing school. There fore, one form of incident that typi call y indicates poor emotional healt h seem s to be decreasing, while the other has alarming changes reflecti ng that El Sol m ay not effectively support the emotional wellbeing of its students.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 26 Credentials The credentials of El Sol teachers an d instructors are presented in their an nual School Accountability Report Card (SAR C). Appendix I reveals tha t near ly all teachers h ave followed this area of t he wellne ss policy, aside from thr ee who have temporary credentials a nd are stil l clearing their California Teaching Credential. However, there is one credentialed PE teacher for grade students, whose sole job description is to provide PE instruction. A credential allows El Sol to determine if teachers are aware of the PE requirements, so that state guidelines can be followed. However, this is not enough to determine that El Sol does not effectively follow state physical education guidelines. Summary Overal l, the findings answ er the research questio n: Is El So l effectivel y meeting the goals of their wel lness policy ? Based upon the findings, El Sol does eff ectivel y meet thei r nutrition, physical activity, and staf f wellness goals. However, they do not effect ively meet their emotional health goals. The table featured below, summarizes how the three out of four hypotheses were supported: Summary of Findings Hypothesis Finding H1: El Sol effectively acknowledges the need to provide healthy food. Supported H2: El Sol Science and Arts Academy effectively follows the state physical education guidelines. Supported H3: El Sol Science and Art Academy effectively supports the emotional well being of each of its students. N ot Supported H4: El Sol Science and Arts Academy effectively encourage its staff to lead healthy lifestyles both on and off campus. Supported
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 27 Discussi on and Recommendations Although El Sol is moving in a positive direction towar ds achievi ng their welln ess objectives, especially considering the ample programs, resources, and services , they have not effectivel y m et all of their wellness policy goals. However, the findings do indica te th at El Sol effectivel y acknowledges the ne ed to provi de healthy food, supporti ng the first hypothesis. This is done through the healthy lunches and breakfas t distribu ted through Sapphir e. However, there are discrepancies regarding compliance with the plan t o limit the frequency of birthday celebrations, given t he survey responses and interview, which suggest that some te achers do not enforce thi s plan. Nevertheless, since student s are making nutritious decisions on t heir own, as shown by their survey response s, and cel eb rations do not hol d as much weight as da ily lunch and breakfast , this reveals th e posi tive nutrition efforts. Finally, t he rate of years. Also, El Sol effectively follows the s tate physica l education guidelines, w hich supports the second hypothesis. The survey shows that El Sol meets the weekly hourly requirement and students are also active outside of sch ool. However, El Sol should address the thre e teacher s that are not permanentl y credentialed a nd the surve y responses revealing that a sm all nu mb er of students may not be m eeti ng the weekly requirement. The lac k of credentials raises questions about wheth er teachers fully know the PE standards, especially sinc e page 13 of the policy requires this. However, El Sol effectively follows the state physical education guidelines . Despite certain findi ngs showing effectiveness , the lack of consistency indicates tha t changes should be made. The emotional health goal canno t be determined as effectively met given that most students eith er rarely or never h ave someone to talk t o when they are havi ng a bad day. However, there a re emotional healt h services and cla sses provided to students in grades K -8.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 28 Although El Sol pr ovides the findi ngs reveal that this is not occurr ing effectively (see Appendix J). Most students are immigrants or the famil y members of immigrants, and frequent Immigration and Customs Enforcement raids as well as the harsh language towards immigrants during the election year, has a large effect on the em otional health of students, faculty, and staff and their willingness to focus on wellness . Therefore, targeting this issue is difficul t, and the emotional health of students is an area that needs more obse rvation and evaluation. Lastl y, the staff wellne ss goal is being effectively met because most teachers engag e in physical activity and are satisfied with resources for stress and em oti onal support. Although, the heal th clerk acknowledged tha t stress is stil l an issue for faculty and staff, and El Sol has m et t he effect iveness criteria (see Appendix J). Furthermore , the heal th clerk noted tha t teachers and staff may be refusi ng help due to denial . These findings parallel Bancroft et al. which ci tes employee buy -in as an impediment to effectively implementing wellness p olicies . Since these stakeholders m ay not be follo wing the birthday policy or utilizing avai lable resources due to denial, this reveals the need to comprehensively promote wellnes s in the lifestyles of all s takeholder s so that the goals can be effectivel y met across the board. This a lso relates wellness policies, the core domains least likely to be implemented were communication and promotion (p. 1). The interview suggests th at the importance of staff we llne ss m ay be communica ted the least, which may explain their denial of resources. Furthermore, this project highlights the importance of creating more focused implementation and evaluation goals.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 29 Recommendations El Sol Science and Arts Academy clearly provides ample resources t o their students, faculty, staff, and parents. However, minor changes in communication, buy-in, and enforcement should be made to ensure that the Academy is effectively meeting their we llness goals. To follow the state physical education guidelines to help promote strong and flexible bodies and minds, and to prevent childhood obesi ty it is key that El Sol ensures that a ll teachers receiv e their credentials within the next two years (see Appendix K). In additi on, teachers shoul d be reminded that when students have an excused absence from inst ructed physical activity, that they re main somewhat physically active that day, such as a light walk. To proc laim that El Sol effectively acknowledges the need to provide healthy food, it is important that t he birthday policy is ( see Appendix K ). This requires communication, as the inconsistent findings revealed poor com munication of re sponsibilities an d expectatio ns. Therefor e, it is re commended to ensure that a staff member m onitor the food brought int o the school. Furthermore, there should be more advertising for the school pantry, in the cas e that students are unable to receive nutritious food for financial reasons. supports the emotional we ll-being of each of its students, it is recommend ed that the UCI nursing faculty review their curriculum for both nutrition and emotional healt h classes in the next year, consideri ng the findings related to negative self-image, bullying, and th e lack of s see Appendix K ). This evaluation should also determine how many students, staff, and famil y members utilize the existing services for emotional health. Additionally, repor ting and addressing bull ying should be made easie r as the reported incidences do not match the numb er of students who expressed
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 30 through the survey that they are being bullied. This could be done by providing a form specificall y for reporting inci dences and se tting u p meetings in the front o ffice. To effectively encourage its staff to lead healthy lifestyles bo th on and off c ampus El Sol should determine if they use the provided programs, resources, and services (s ee Appendix K ). The interview revealed that focus is on par ents and students. There fore, it is suggested to require the facul ty and staf f to m ake personal we llness goals. At the beginning of the next semest er and at t he end of the year, faculty and staff shoul d check-in with the healt h clerk to determine if they are on track to reach their goals. Moreover , the wellness policy proposed that El Sol consider a staff we llness room. Given the newly availa ble space on cam pus, it is advised to institute this within th e next yea r. Furthermore, it is suggested to launch a competition to encourage physical activity and the use of the gym pass. There are several ways t o motivate a ll stakehold ers to create a lifestyle of wellness. For example, wellness po sters can be posted in classrooms and around the campus. Furthermore, wellness mantras can be devel oped annuall y for each grade, as well as for faculty and staff. El Sol should also consid er including a wellness s ection in the weekly newsletters, to notify families of recommended nutr itious food and servings, foods allowed in school, resources to obtai n this food for a re asonable price, and emotional health advice or resources. This is a costeffective way to addres s the possibility that needs and resources are not being communicated equal ly across al l stakeholders. Furthermore, a survey secti on should be provided on the back of newsletter s, so that families m ay provide feedback on the effectiveness of the newsletter. On the other hand, this information could also be pr ovided over social media outl ets, especially through a wellness cam paign. Final ly, logi c models should be developed based on each goal to encour age the use of implementation and evaluation plans for programs, services, and goals, and to more
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 31 easily measure pr ogress in the future (see Appendix J ). A logic model is a visual tool that is used connected tables that categori zed information by the stake holders involved, t he activitie s the stakeholders provide, and Logic models are m ade more practical with the use of S MART (specific, measureable, achievable, relevant, and time-based) goals, as these create a clear system for evaluating objective s. Therefore, El Sol shoul d create logic models usi ng SMART goals for each of their wellness programs and services. Limitations Upon complet ing the data analysis and interpreting the findings, several limitations were noted . Firs t, there were minor typos i n the nutrition and physical activity sections of the student survey, as both the option of 4-7 days per week and 1-2 times per day were provided (Appendix B) . Although this may have caused confusion, one opt ion indicates most of the week while the latter is a t least once a day or m ore. Also, students were asked if they received lunch from ho me or from scho ol, yet ther e was not an option for both or none to communicate under or over eating. Since several students did not answer this question, under or over eat ing could be an issue. The timeline changed as well , causing certain students to r espond to the survey after Memorial Day weekend. This c ould have negatively impacted their nutrition responses. Regardless , the findi ngs showed that students limit th e amount of processed food in their di et. Also, due t o the age of those who responded, they may have not t aken the survey as seriously. Yet, the hig h response rate helps t o account for this. For student BMI, student retention can have an impact on the finding s, as it was compared by grade rather than per student. Additionally, the month of April was used which i ncluded Spri ng Break. However, the detailed nutrition information checklis t that
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 32 Sapphire keeps, shows that the polic y is tak en very seriously. Finally, for the teacher survey, m any may have felt ne rvous to answ er honestly. This could help to explain why the interview findings di d not coincide with the survey findings. Unfortunately, t he response rate was not as high as expected, which could have attributed to this limitation. An important aspect to consi der overall, is that the goals were very broad. Therefore, effectivel y meeting th e four goals is difficult, especially consideri ng the obstacles that a typical El Sol studen t, teacher, or e xtended day instructor may deal with. Consequent ly, these findings reflect a need for restructuring measurements as not ed in the recommendations. Conclusion This research paper ans wered the research question: does E l Sol effectively meet thei r wellness policy goals? By conducting an interview with the healt h clerk, as well as collecting survey responses, teaching credentials, bullyi ng incidences, absences due to suspe nsion, student BMI, and the nutrit ion information of school breakf ast and lunch, two hypothese s were ac cepted and two were re jected. Alt hough th e nutrition , physical activity, and staff wellne ss goals are effectivel y met, the emotional health goal is not. Considering the totality of these findings, it is clear that El Sol is working towards a culture of wellness, not only wit hin their schoo l but for the entire city of Santa Ana. If they apply the recommendations, they may be able to effectively meet each of their goals by 2020.
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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 37 Appendix Appendix A: Variables and Measurement Type of Variable Variable Name Measure Data Source Hypothesis 1: El Sol effectively acknowledges the need to provide healthy food. DV Effectiveness Obesity rates decline Students are provided nutritious foods on campus Student BMI Document Analysis Teacher survey Interview Student Survey IV Student BMI Obesity rates decline Student BMI IV School Lunch Menu Nutrition Value Students are provided nutritious foods on campus Document Analysis IV Frequency of Birthday Celebrations Students are provided nutritious foods on campus Teacher Survey Interview Student Survey Hypothesis 2: El Sol Science and Arts Academy effectively follows the state physical education guidelines. DV Effectiveness Student exercise for at least 4 days per week All teachers know PE standards Teacher Survey Credentials IV Student Physical Activity Student exercise for at least 4 days per week Teacher Survey IV All teachers know PE standards Credentials Hypothesis 3: El Sol Science and Art Academy effectively supports the emotional well being of each of its students. DV Effectiveness Students express that support is given Decrease in incidents requiring disciplinary action Survey Interview Suspension Rates Bullying Incidents IV Expressed Student Support Most students express support is given Survey Interview IV Bullying Incidents Overall decrease in bully ing Bullying Incidents IV Suspensions Overall decrease in suspensions Suspensions Hypothesis 4: El Sol Science and Arts Academy effectively encourage its staff to lead healthy lifestyles both on and off campus. DV Effectiveness Teachers express that they are supported Teachers engage in weekly physical activity Teacher survey Interview
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 38 IV Expressed Teacher Support Teachers express that they are supported Teacher survey Interview IV Physical Activity Teachers engage in weekly physical activity Teacher survey
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 39 Appendix B: Student Survey and Responses The following questions pertain to student behavior since the El Sol wellness policy was enacted in 2014. Please circle only one option per question. Nutrition 1. How often d o you eat breakfast ? a. 1 3 days per week b. 4 7 days per week c. 1 time per day d. I do not eat breakfast 2. On most days, do you eat a lunch from school or bring lunch from home? a. School lunch b. From home 3. How often did you drink soda last week? a. 1 3 days per week b. 4 7 days per week c. 1 2 times per day d. I did not drink soda last week 4. How often did you drink milk last week? a. 1 3 days p er week b. 4 7 days per week c. 1 2 times per day d. I did not drink milk last week 5. How many times did you eat fruit last we ek? a. 1 3 days per week b. 4 7 d ays per week c. 1 2 times per day d. I did not eat fruit last week 6. How many times did you eat vegetables last w eek? a. 1 3 days per week b. 4 7 days per week c. 1 2 times per day d. I did not eat vegetables last week
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 40 7. How often did you eat the following last week: Chips, Candy, Fried Food, or Fast Food a. 1 3 days per week b. 4 7 days per week c. 1 2 times per day d. I did not eat chips, candy, or fried food last week 8. How often did you consume grains/breads last week? a. 1 3 days per week b. 4 7 days per week c. 1 2 times per day d. I did not eat grains/ breads last week 9. How often did you consume meat/meat alternatives last week? a. 1 3 days per week b. 4 7 days per week c. 1 2 times per day d. I did not eat meat/ meat alternatives last week 10. What grade are you in? a. 4 th grade b. 5 th grade c. 6 th grade d. 7 th grade e. 8 th grade Physical Activity 1. How many days were you physically active for at least 30 minutes last week at school (sports, playing outside, etc.)? a. 1 3 days per week b. 4 7 days per week c. 1 2 times per day d. I was not physically active last week 2. How many days were you physically active for at least 30 minutes last week, outside of school (sports, playing outside, etc.)? a. 1 3 days pe r week b. 4 7 days per week c. 1 2 times per day d. I was not physically active last week Emotional Health
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 41 1. If you are having a bad day , th ere is at least one teacher or faculty member who you can talk to? a. Always b. Very Often c. Rarely d. Never 2. Have you experienced bullying this year? a. Always b. Very Often c. Rarely d. Never 3. Have you bullied someone this year? a. Always b. Very Often c. Rarely d. Never 4. How often do you view yourself negatively? a. Very F requently b. Frequently c. Occasionally d. Rare ly e. Never Table 1 : Student Survey Responses
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 42 1 3 days per week 4 6 days per week 1 2 times per day None Soda 26% 5% 16% 54% Milk 27% 43% 16% 14% Fruit 27% 49% 19% 6% Vegetables 38% 28% 16% 18% Processed Food 54% 16% 15% 15% Grains/ Breads 35% 39% 16% 10% Meat/ Meat Alt 39% 34% 17% 10% Breakfast 19% 58% 15% 8% 1 3 days per week 4 6 days per week 1 2 times per day None Student (School) 10% 72% 16% 2% Student (Home) 24% 54% 18% 5% Teachers/ Instructors 48% 33% 10% 10% Table 3: Summary of Physical Activity Responses Table 2: Summary of Nutrition Responses
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 43 Appendix C: Teacher and Extended Day Instructor Survey and Responses The following questions pertain to how teachers interact with students as well as teacher behavior, since the El Sol wellness policy was enacted in 2014. Please circle only one option per question. Nutrition 1. How often do you allow birthday celebrations to take place in the classroom (students or parents bring in food for the class)? a. Once a week b. A few times a week c. Once a month d. Never 2. When sweets are served, are they small enough that they may be consumed in approxima tely 2 bites? a. Always b. Very Often c. Rarely d. Never 3. Is food used as a reward in the classroom? a. Always b. Very Often c. Rarely d. Never Physical Activity 1. How many days were you physically active for at least 30 minutes last week? a. 1 3 days pe r week b. 4 6 days per week c. 1 2 times per day d. I was not physically active last week Staff Wellness 1. If you are having a bad day, there is at least one teacher or faculty member who you can talk to? a. Always b. Very Often c. Rarely d. Never 2. How satisfied are you with the re sources provided at El Sol for your emotional support?
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 44 a. Very Satisfied b. Satisfied c. Unsure d. Dissatisfied e. Very Dissatisfied 3. How satisfied are you with the resources provided at El Sol to limit the amount of stress in your life? f. Very Satisfied g. Satisfied h. Unsure i. Dissatisfied j. Very Dissatisfied 4. Has the wellness policy affected your wellness choices at school? a. Extremely Influential b. Very Influential c. Somewhat Influential d. Slightly Influential e. Not At All Influential 5. Has the wellness policy affected your wellness choices at home? a. Extremely Influential b. Very Influential c. Somewhat Influential d. Slightly Influential e. Not At All Influential Table 4: Teacher and Extended Day Instructor Survey Responses
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 45 Always Very Often Rarely Never Bad Day (Student) 24% 17% 31% 28% Bad Day (Teacher) 76% 10% 5% 10% Bullied 8% 9% 27% 57% Bully 2% 1% 14% 83% Very Frequently Frequently Occasionally Rarely Never Negative Self Image 10% 6% 23% 36% 25% Very Satisfied Satisfied Unsure Dissatisfied Very Dissatisfied Support 33% 43% 10% 14% 0% Stress 15% 55% 20% 10% 0% Table 5: Summary of Emotional Health Responses Table 6: Summary of Staff Wellness Responses
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 46 Appendix D: Interview Questions, Response, and Themes Table 1. Are you able to provide resources to teachers, students, and faculty regarding emotional health? I notice that something is not right, because you spend a lot of time here, I would approach ou would want to look into it," and then maybe she could provide it but I think that I am able to direct them. Working in the front office I am confident in t hat line of communication because [speaking about herself] you are the first face that catch on to their behaviors, or how their personalities they go out through the years. So re people who will talk behaving the same or they seem a little differe nt so then I would just tell Sara, that their mom is sick and something is off. Then that is how I would direct it. 2. What are the most common emotional concerns among students? I think it is mostly bullying, which I think is common anywhere [most schools ]. But I also think that they take everything as bullying. Like they might be paying around, but because it nvolved in a situation he would go speak to measure people would consider b ullying, it depends on that person specifically. 3. What are the most common emotional concerns among faculty and staff ? the students here are very open, especially in elementary school. So, they are open to tell you how they feel, and their emotions. And I can only imagine th at when approaching their teachers, maybe telling them about their family problems or their friends, sometimes they are would be the most com mon thing here.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 47 4. Do you feel that the Wellness Policy is effective in addressing the nutrition of students, faculty, and staff? following through. I do kn ow the wellness policy, so I can come up with some examples. month. But being here [the front office], you can see parents coming in and dropping off food the day of enforcement part, we are failing. But we do well in addressing the issue, like it shows that we are aware. 5. Do you feel that the Wellness Policy is effective in addressing the emotional health of students, faculty, and staff? I think we are doing what we can. We have someone who deals with discipline, we have a counselor, we have a speech therapist. We have all of those measures of aid that we can provide our students. I think here however, the culture, being Mexican, most of our community here is Hispani might need this extra something is wrong. [accomplishing]. I know what we are attempting to. We were trying to plan a hike because just being outside helps with stress. But I think that our main focus here is our students and our children. So, we fail in helping each other really. 6. Are there any changes that you feel should be made to the wellness policy? I think that we should be more strict in enforcing it. We should all be on the same page. and we know what through with it.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 48 Theme Meaning Connotation Resources Known system to direct resources towards students out of concern for their wellbeing. There are several measures of aid to provide for the student in multiple areas, as they are aware of the need. Positive Communication Parents and faculty frequently communicate to ensure that the emotional concern for students is addressed. Students are open ab out their emotions. Positive Observations Parents and faculty notice incidences or needs and report them. Although she works in the front office, the clerk reports are helpful in addressing that. Positive Bullying Bullying incidences are recognized and addressed. At times, this is miscommunication, but they work to settle differences regardless. Positive (because it is addressed) Effective The policy itself covers the areas it should address, and in detail. Positive Stress Teachers and faculty have stress over the incidences that students and parents must deal with in everyday life, not just workload. They stress about providing enough support and doing their part. Negative Policy Violation Birthday celebrations are more frequent than once a month. Instead, parents drop off food the day of the birthday. Negative Policy Enforcement/ Failure Although there is an attempt, the nutrition policy is not enforced enough. No one is turning birthday celebration food away. Everyone needs to do their part to help one another out for staff wellness to be accomplished, since the focus is mainly on students and parents. Negative Denial Due to culture, as most of the community is Hispanic, additional support for their children. Negative Table 7: Interview Themes
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 49 Appendix E: Nutrition Information Checklist (4/3/17 4/7/17) Table 8: Nutrition Responses
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 50 Week Week Met Week Not Met 4/3 4/7 Yes 4/10 4/14 Spring Break 4/17 4/21 Yes 4/24 4/28 Yes Total 100% 0% Table 9: Nutrition Information Evaluation Summary
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 51 Appendix F: Student BMI Student Body Mass Index Overtime (5 th and 7 th grade) 5 th Grade 7 th Grade Year Healthy Fitness Zone Needs Improvement Health Risk Healthy Fitness Zone Needs Improvement Health Risk 2013 2014 51% 21% 28% 66% 23% 11% 2014 2015 59% 20% 20% 60% 18% 22% 2015 2016 60% 17% 23% 57% 23% 20% 0 20 40 60 80 2013-2014 2014-2015 2015-2016 5th Grade Student BMI Overtime HFZ Needs Improvement Health Risk 0 20 40 60 80 2013-2014 2014-2015 2015-2016 7th Grade Student BMI Overtime HFZ Needs Improvement Health Risk Figure 1 : 5 th Grade Student BMI Overtime Figure 2 : 7 th Grade Student BMI Overtime Table 1 0 : Student BMI 2013 2016
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 52 Appendix G : Reported Incidents of Bullying and Harassment Overtime Figure 3: Reported Incidents of Bullying and Harassment Overtime 0 5 10 15 20 2014-2015 2015-2016 2016-2017 Reported Incidents of Bullying and Harassment Overtime
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 53 Appendix H : Student Suspensions Over T ime 0 5 10 15 20 2014-2015 2015-2016 2016-2017 Suspension Rates Overtime Figure 4: Suspension Rates Overtime
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 54 Appendix I : Teaching Credentials 2014 15 2015 16 2016 17 With Full Credential 32 34 38 Without Full Credential 0 3 3 Table 11: Teacher Credentials
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 55 Appendix J: S.M.A.R.T. Goals (Specific, , Achievable, Relevant, and TimeBased) Figure 5: Emotional Health SMART Goals Figure 6: Nutrition SMART Goals
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 56 Figure 7: Physical Health SMART Goals Figure 8: Staff Wellness SMART Goals
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 57 Ap pendix K: Compet encies This capstone project reflects sev eral core areas communicated in the Accelerated Masters in Publi c Administration program. Primari ly, competency in the areas of (1) critical thi nking and probl em sol ving, (2) applying a public service perspecti ve, and (3) comm unicating with a diver se and changing citizenry is demonstrated. This is exemplified through the project recommendati ons and purpose. PUAD 5005 Policy Process & Democracy Throughout the capstone project, utilizing critical thinking to solve problems was key to making recommendations to the client. For instance, the findings supported the 1 st , 2 nd , and 4 th hypothesis, yet not the 3 rd . Addressing this required researching similar instances outside of El Sol and finding ways to apply different perspectives to understand the project findings. Since the PUAD 5001: Introduction to Public Administration & Public Service A public service perspective was also applied in this capstone project. Every local education agency is required by Congress to create and implement a local school wellness
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 58 desi gned to create a hea lthy lifestyl e for students, sta ff, and, in the long run, parents and the larger community. Furthermore, the process of the evaluati on clearly shows that El Sol values more succ essful, El Sol is will eventually be more eff ective a t achieving their goa ls of addressing the health needs of thei r students and sta ff. PUAD 5008 : Evidence Based Decision Making Finally, the project reveals an understanding of leading and managing public gov ernance. An important aspect of management is utilizing continuous improvement approaches to stay focused on mission. To ensure that El Sol is following this thoroughly doing so, the recommendation include a suggestion to utilize S.M.A.R.T. goals organized through logic models. Having all objectives be specific, measureable, achievable, relevant, and time based allows for all goals to be more easily implemented and evaluated. This can also be done through a logic model, a visual tool which clearly outlines objectives. Therefore, the recommendations to utilize continuous improvement approaches show an understanding of leading and managing public governance. In conclusion, the Accelerated Masters in Public Administration program provides knowledge of nonprofi t research, theory, and practice. To demonstrate this understanding, this capstone project provides an example of critical thinking, problem solving, applying a public service perspective, and understanding leading and managing public governance.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 59 Appendix L : Wellness Policy Introduction El Sol Science and Arts Academy recognizes the associations between student health, academic success, and overall wellness. Due to the fact that students spend a significant amount of their developmental years on the school campus and engag ing in school related events, health at school plays a significant role in overall student well being. The close knit nature of the El Sol Science and Arts Academy community enables the school to build a strong foundation for tea ching excellent lifelong health habits. By educating students and parents about the various aspects of physical and mental health, and by promoting a healthful environment on campus, El Sol has the potential to positively affect the lives of students and t heir families. In 2004, Congress passed the Child Nutrition and Women Infants and Children (WIC) Reauthorization Act. This act requires that all local education agencies participating in the National School Lunch Program or other child nutrition programs must create a local wellness policy. The legislation also places the responsibility of developing the wellness policy on the local level administrators so that the individual needs of each school or local education agency will be addressed individually (10 8th Congress, 2004). Currently El Sol Academy does not have any specific guidelines for holistic health Background The creation and preservation of good health requires attention to the components of both physical and emotional health. Nutrition, illness care and prevention, environmental health and safety, and exercise are the foundational aspects of physical health. An atmosphere that promotes high self esteem, healthy choices, and self respect is vital to the development of emotional health
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 60 and resiliency. By working to improve spec ific aspects of both emotional and physica l health, El Sol Science and Arts Academy can improve the overall well being of it s students. Unhealthy body weight represents one obstacle the El Sol co mmunit y must face i n its efforts to promote student health. Childhood obesi ty is a g rave public h ealth challenge of the 21st century. Obesi ty is a life long struggle: childre n who are overweight or o bese are likely to be overweight or obese a s adults. According to t he World Health Organization, the death of ov er 2.8 billion people annually can be attributed to overweight and obesity , thus it is imperative to s tart a heal thy lifestyle at a young age (WHO, 2013). I t has also been found tha t obese childr en who have poor dietary intak e and little physical activity ar e more like ly to have ast hma, sleep apnea, type 2 diabetes, renal injury, emotional problems, and othe r comorbidities (Shi, X., Tubb, L., Fingers, S., Chen, S., & Caffrey, J., 2013). Obese stude nts suff er from lo wer self esteem, and are more li kely to be the targets of bullying. According to JoAnn Stevel os, (2014), 24 percent of boys and 30 percent of girls experienced bullying, teasing, or rejection on a daily basis becaus e of their s ize (2014). Physical activity leads to a decline in obesi ty (California Department of Education, 2009, p.1) as well as symptoms of anxiet y and depression (California Endowment, West Ed, University of California, San Francisco, & California Education Supports Project, 2010). The California Department of Education states in their Cal ifornia After School Physic a l Activity Guidelines that schools that off er physical ac tivity have higher reading, writing, and mathematics test scores (2009, p. 2). Poor oral health, chronic il lness, high leve ls of stress , and depression have been linked to poor performance in school. Conversely, school base d health programs and feelings of school reduce substance use and ear ly sexual ini tiation. (California Endowment, et al., 2010) environment can have a s ignificant impact on student healt h. Indoor and outdoor a ir q uality, temperature, lighting, pest control and cleaning procedures, as well as the safety, adequacy, and cleanlines s of facili ties and buildings have all been shown to play critical rol es in reducing illness and stress, thereby improving the abili ty to lear n and concentrate (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012) Currently El Sol Science and Arts Academy has many health-promoting assets on its campus: a thriving partnership with the UC Ir vine nursing program, whose students provide heal th screenings, annual immunization drives and health fairs, and health education to the El Sol students and fa milies; an onsite we llness center serving the needs of the families and surrounding community; a terrific vendor providing high quality school breakf asts and lunches; on site dental education, screenings, and treatment by the Healthy Smiles mobile van and professional staff; a licensed mental he alt h counselor on site Monday s, Wednesdays, and half day Fridays ; and a faculty who are all certified in leading physical educat ion. In addition, the school rece ntly const ructed a Leader in Energy an d Environment Design (LEED) silver leve l classroom buil ding as well as a state of the art pl ayground to encourage safe and active pla y. The desire to create a kind and supportive learning commun (www.elsolacademy.net/about_us). While the se measures are excelle nt, a more deta iled and comprehensive approach is necessary to achi eve optimal health goals. Ther e are sev eral areas where current school policy and practi ce could be im proved. For example, cupcakes, pizza, cooki es, and soda ar e the most common food items brought i nto the classrooms for school functions or birthday celebrations.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 61 Large portio ns and frequent consum ption of thes e fat and calorie laden foods is inconsistent wi th been ea ting both a packed lunch from ho me and the meal provi ded to them at school, putting them at risk for inappropriately h igh caloric intake. A BMI screeni ng conducted in 2013 at the school foun d that the rate of over weight students doubled and the number of obese students quadrupled between fifth grade and seventh grade (Neudorf, 2013). In addition, bullying and negative s el f tal k were two of the major em otional health iss ues identified by the fac ulty. In order to facilitate the adoption and acceptance of the wellness pol icy, it is crucial that the entire E l Sol community is able to par ticipate in its development. The well ness po licy will thereby become a living docum ent for the El So l community, designed and regularly updated to encourage healthier h abits in all it s members. To this end, multipl e stakeholders were involved in the process. At an initia l meeting, the school were consulted regarding the c urrent policies on nutrition, emotional health, physical activity, medication administration, illness, and staff wellne ss. It was determined that whil e there a re some policies tha t exist, adherence is inconsistent. In s everal instances, guidelines have not yet been established. ucate young people for a lifetime of wellguidelines (Appendic es A and B). By basing their breakfast and lunch options ar ound food items that a re locally sourced and in season, they can provide the students with fresh ingredients at an affordable price. Chef Azm in Ghahreman develops his menus around the Mediterranean Food Pyramid (Appendix C), which recommends eating plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. He prepare s food with oils derived from plant s and fish to promote the production of g ood cholestero l, shown to reduce the risk of heart disease and cancer. Questionnaires were then sent out to the facul ty (Appendix D) and parents (Appendix E) asking them for their perspectives on the c urrent health guideli nes at El S ol and how they thought th ey could be im proved. Twenty-seven faculty members responde d to the survey and almost unanimously agreed that they shoul d serve as role models and promote healthier habits in their that the environment at El Sol is conducive to offering students emotional support, most of the way. The staff o ffered several suggestions on how to make the students feel m ore comf ortable expressing their needs. These included : having more assemblies that focused on family problems, low self esteem, negative self talk, and bullying; employing a middle school counselor; and making more support groups available on campus. Fifty four parents responded to the surveys that were sent home with their children. The parents would also like to have a healthier school environment. The majority thinks that some
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 62 Eightyone second, fifth, and eighth grade students were inter viewed at random to determine their food pre ferences, their attitudes about physical activity opportunities at school, and whether they felt there was an adult on campus to whom they could go with emotional health concer ns (Appendix F) . In the surveys, a majority of the students ind icated that their favorite drink to consume at school is water. The students also stated that their least favorite lunch item was vegetables and pasta was one of their favorite s. When the stude nts were asked whether they thought th ey re ceived enough exercise at schoo l, an overwhelm ing majority believed that they did. When asked if they felt they had an adul t to talk to at school when they were feel ing upset, most of the students also said yes and stated that they would talk to their teacher. Only 2 children stated that they would talk to the cou nselor, which may have been due t o the finding that many were unaware of the presence of a counselor on the school campus. Informal interviews were also conducted with two other staff m embers who have responsibilities related to the health of students. In response to quest ions about children coming to school when their condit ion is bad enough to have stayed at home, they responded that this seems to happen approximately 20% of ti me. It was felt that par ents are very well-informed about the medication administrati on policy on campus and a re aware that they must bring a mpus. There are currently children attending El Sol who requi re medication or accommodations for epilepsy, asthma, and environmental and food allergies. Peanut allergies are not common, but provisions are made for those ch ildren to eat at a peanut free table if necessary. These staff members stated that they feel adequately prepared to handle th e medications and situations presently encountered at the school. After com piling all th e data received from the various stakeholder s, the wellness po licy was developed and follows below.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 63 Nutritional Guidelines for Foods at School El Sol Science and Arts Academy acknowledges the need to provide healthy food to grow strong bodies and minds and to promote academic success. B EVERAGES o Due to the fact that our bodies are 80% water it is very important to stay hydrated o Even juice products that are 100% juice are high in sugar so it is recommended to limit juice 2 3 times a week. S CHOOL B REAKFASTS AND L UNCHES o Serves cultural favorites o Introduces students to a wide variety of foods o Manages to offer high quality food at affor dable prices L UNCHES F ROM H OME o all fruits and vegetables (one serving each) are okay o protein: all foods made from meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy products, nuts, and seeds o whole grains: any food made from wheat, rice, oat s, cornmeal, barley or another cereal grain o whole grain pasta and turkey meatballs o peanut butter and jelly, chicken salad, or tuna salad sandwich on whole wheat bread o lean meat (ham, turkey, chicken) sandwich or wrap with or wit hout low fat cheese
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 64 o homemade soup o baked chicken nuggets o turkey or chicken hot dogs, turkey burgers, or chicken sloppy joes on wheat bun o turkey meat or chicken tacos o chicken fajitas o bean, veggie, and/or low fat cheese quesadillas o sushi o mini pizza o chicken teriyaki and brown rice o cereal with whole grains o breakfast burrito o popcorn o rice cake o low fat cheese o yogurt o trail mix o jerky o granola o graham or animal crackers o fig bar o baked pita or tortilla chips o pico de gallo o pretzels o whole grain crackers o hummus o applesauce, fruit cup, fruit leather, or fresh fruit o sweet potato or other fresh vegetable o hardboiled egg o sunflower seeds o edamame o cottage cheese o chips (unless they are baked) o candy o soda o o fruit roll ups/fruit snacks (unless made with greater than 90% fruit juice and real fruit)
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 65 o fried foods B UYING V S P ACKING A L UNCH o This will discourage overeating. B IRTHDAY C ELEBRATIONS , S CHOOL F UNCTIONS , AND F UNDRAISING o On the day designated by each classroom, parents are welcome to bring treats to class as organized by the teacher. Teachers may need to have parents sign up in advance to limit the number of sweet items chosen. o o books o stickers o art supplies o mini cupcakes o brownie bites o fruit dipped in a small amount of dark chocolate o small cookies o fruit smoothies, fruit kabobs, or a fru it salad (may be drizzled with honey or dark chocolate) o vegetable platters with hummus o mini bagels with light cream cheese (diced fruit or vegetables may be added to the light cream cheese to enhance flavor) o popcorn
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 66 o If parents have any questions on what is acceptable, please contact Sara Flores or N UTRITION E DUCATION o The nursing students teach nutrition, exercise, emot ional health, the body systems, and how to stay healthy to the El Sol students. o The El Sol students then present what they have learned about healthy lifestyles to their peers, families, and community during the wellness festival in May. F OR F UTURE D ISCU SSION o Possible ways to encourage studen ts to try new menu items could be to have the o Teachers could also display more posters in the classroom regarding nutrition education and develop at least one project a year that aims to increase nutritional kn owledge in their students. This could include activities such as the food rainbow where the teacher hangs a rainbow in her classroom and when her students have tried a type of healthy food in a color found on the rainbow, they list it in that section. For example, if a child eats a strawberry, they put the word strawberry on the red stripe in the rainbow. This may encourage healthy eating and make it fun for the students. Physical Activity El Sol Science and Arts Academy follows the state physical educati on guidelines to help promote strong and flexible bodies and minds, and to prevent childhood obesity. These standards can be found at: http://www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/documents/pestandards.pdf
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 67 P HYSICAL E DUCATION F OR F UTURE D ISCUSSION Emotional Health El Sol Science and Art Academy supports the emotional well being of each of its students, recognizing that stress and insecurity present significant barriers to health, academic E MOTIONAL H EALTH E DUCATION M ENTAL H EALTH C OUNSELING o A teacher, parent, or administrator may refer a child to the mental health clinician for evaluation and tre atment . F OR F UTURE D ISCUSSION Illnesses El Sol Science and Arts Academy recognizes that a child who is sick is not ready to learn.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 68 R EASONS TO K EEP Y OUR C HILD AT H OME (compiled and adapted from the Center for Disease Control and the California Department of Health) C ONTAGIOUS D ISEASES (per El Sol Parent Handbook) must be reported to school office o chicken pox o pink eye o strep throat o measles o lice F OR F UTUR E D ISCUSSION Medication Administration It is important for the faculty and staff to help students take all medications as prescribed by the
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 69 lower ing the risk of adverse affects. M EDI CATION P OLICY (per El So l Parent Handbook) All medications must be kept in the office. Students are not to be in possession of any medication while on campus . F OR F UTURE D ISCUSSION Staff Wellness El Sol Science and Arts Academy encourage its staff to lead healthy lifestyles both on and off campus. Healthier lifestyles contribute to improved morale, an excellent role model for the students, and a greater commitment to the comprehensive health plan t hat is being created. F OR F UTURE D ISCUSSION o This room could include, but not be limited to, yoga mats, ex ercise videos, books, magazines, a television, and comfortable seating. o Monthly talks or classes on various health and fitness topics could be offered to the staff to increase their knowledge and well being.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 70 Safe and He althy School Environment El Sol Science and Arts Academy is aware that the natural, built , and social env ironments are an important influence on the health and well being of its students and staff. S AFETY Zero tolerance policy for alcohol, drugs or paraphernalia, vaporizers, weapons, or int imidating or threatening behavior on campus. See El Sol family handbook for discipline policy. All visitors to the school must register at the front desk and display a visitor badge. Playground and internet safety rules see parent handbook All students mu st be accompanied by an El Sol staff member when crossing the street between the upper and lower campuses. G REEN B UILDINGS AND P RODUCTS A new LEED rated classroom building was recently constructed on then lower campus. o Better ventilation and temperature co ntrol o Noise reduction and improved acoustics o Non toxic flooring, cabinetry, and paints o Natural lighting to promote views of nature and reduced stress More green campus buildings are planned. H EALTHY P RACTICES Paper and plastic are recycled in classrooms. An air quality assessment is currently being conducted on campus. C ARING C OMMUNITY To promote parent involvement, parents are required to volunteer 20 hours on campus per year. F OR F UTURE D ISCUSSION Perform an environmental audit using the Health School E nvironments Assessment Tool (HealthySEAT at http://www.epa.gov/schools/healthyseat/index.html ) Future remodeling and construction projects on the school campus will follow green building pri nciples to the extent possible. Non toxic methods and products will be employed whenever possible for cleaning, pest control, printing, and art projects. Recycling will be encouraged. Recycling receptacles will be available next to all waste containers. En courage the use of reusable water bottles. Increase number of water fountains on campus to minimize the use of plastic water bottles.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 71 Evaluation To ensure this becomes a living document, can adapt to changes, and achieves the desired maximum results the effectiveness of the wellness policy must be evaluated on a regular basis. F OR F UTURE D ISCUSSION This project is/was supported by funds from the Division of Nursing (DN), Bureau of Health Professions (BHPr ), Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) under Grant Number D11HP22200, Innovations in Nursing Care & Education: UCI Family Health Centers NPA, Award Amount: $1,493,102.00. The information or c ontent and conclusions are those of the author and should not be construed as the official position or policy of, nor should any official endorsement be
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 72 A PPENDIX A: L UNCH G UIDELINES FOR S CHOOL L UNCH P ROVIDER California Department of Education (http://www.cde.ca.gov/ls/nu/he/newfbmplunch.asp) Amount of Food per Week (Minimum per Day) Meal Pattern Grades K 5 Grades K 8 Grades 6 8 Grades 9 12 Fruits (cups) b 2 () 2 () 2 () 5 (1) Vegetables (cups) b 3 () 3 () 3 () 5 (1) Dark Green c Red/Orange c 1 Beans and Peas (legumes) c Starchy c Other c,d Additional Veg to Reach Total e 1 e 1 e 1 e 1 e Grains (oz eq) f 8 g 5 (1) 5 (1) 5 (1) 5 (1) Other Specifications: Daily Amount Based on the Average for a 5 Day Week Meal Pattern Grades K 5 Grades K 8 Grades 6 8 Grades 9 12 Min max calories (kcal) h 550 h < 10 < 10 < 10 < 10 Sodium (mg) h,i Trans Fat h : Nutrition label or manufacturer specifications must indicate zero grams of trans fat per serving. *For the 2012 13 School Year (SY), U.S. Department of Agriculture has lifted the weekly maximums for grain and meat/meat alternates. The daily and weekly minimums for grains and meat/meat alternates still apply. 2012 Lunch Meal Pattern a. Food items b. One quarter cup of dried fruit counts as cup of fruit; 1 cup of leafy greens counts as cup of vegetables. No more than half of the fruit or vegetable offer ings may be in the form of juice. All juice must be 100% full strength. c. Larger amounts of these vegetables may be served.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 73 d. National School Lunch Progr from the dark green, red/orange, and beans/peas (legumes) vegetable subgroups as defined in .10(c)(2)(iii). e. Any vegetable subgroup may be offered to meet the total weekly veg etable requirement. f. Beginning July 1, 2012 (2012 13 SY), at least half of grains offered must be whole grain rich. Beginning July 1, 2014 (2014 15 SY), all grains must be whole grain rich. g. Beginning July 1, 2012 (2012 13 SY), all fluid milk must be low fat (1 percent or less, unflavored) or fat free (unflavored or flavored). h. Discretionary sources of calories (solid fats and added sugars) may be added to the meal pattern if within the specifications for calories, saturated fat, trans fat, and sodium. Foods o f minimal nutritional value and fluid milk with fat content greater than 1 percent are not allowed. i. Final sodium targets must be met no later than July 1, 2022 (2022 23 SY). The first intermediate target must be met no later than SY 2014 15 and the second intermediate target must be met no later than 2017 18 SY. See required intermediate specifications in 210.10(f)(3)
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 74 A PPENDIX B: B REAKFAST G UIDELINES FOR S CHOOL L UNCH P ROVIDER Traditional and Enhanced Food Based Menu Planning Options for School Breakfast Program. Components Food Items/Servings Ages 1 2 Yrs Preschool Grades K 12 Grades 7 12* Grains/Breads**
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 75 A PPENDIX C: T HE M EDITERRANEAN F OOD P YRAMID
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 76 A PPENDIX D: F ACULTY Q UESTIONNAIRE This surve y is designed to help develop a Wellness Policy for El Sol Science and Arts Academ y. The Wellness Policy will be a document that outlines a comprehensive health program desi gned to maintain a high level of well being for the students a t El S ol. It will co ver proper diet, exercise, emotional stabilit y, and illness prevention. Please answer the following questi ons to the best of your ability t o ensure that we can deve lop the most effective Wellness Poli cy possible. Your answers will remain anonymous. Nutrition 1. What food and drink items are usually brought to class functions? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________ _______________ 2. What are the biggest complaints the students seem to have about the food? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ _____________________ ___________________________ 3. What are the biggest complaints the students seem to have about the beverages served on campus? ________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ _____________ ________________________________________________ 4. What foods have you noticed go uneaten the most at breakfast and lunch? ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _______________________ ________________________________________________ 5. What foods are the most popular at breakfast and lunch? ________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _________________ ________________________________________________ 6. Do you think healthy nutritional guidelines are important to follow during school fundraising activities or school functions? Explain. ______________________________________________________ __________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 7. What kinds of foods or treats do you think a parent co u birthday celebration?
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 77 _________ _______________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 8. What kinds of foods or treats do you allow a parent to bring in for the Emotional Support 1. Have you noticed any emotional issues that the students face? If so please describe. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________ 2. If a student was having a bad day and wanted to talk to a staff member about their problem, do you think they would feel that they have someone to talk to? ________________________________________________________________________ ______________ __________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 3. Do you find the environment at El Sol conducive to offering students emotional support? a. Yes b. No 4. Do you think there are any steps that could be tak en to improve the emotional support system at El Sol? If yes, please explain. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________ ______________ Physical Activity 1. Do you think the students get enough exercise during school hours? a. Yes b. No 2. How many hours of exercise a week would you estimate the students receive during school hours? a. 0 2 hours b. 2 4 hours c. 4 6 hours d. 6 hours or more Illn ess Policies
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 78 1. Have you noticed many children coming to school sick when their condition is bad enough to stay home? a. Yes b. No
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 79 A PPENDIX E: P ARENT QUESTIONNAIRE This surve y is designed to help develop a Wellness Policy for El Sol Science and Arts Academ y. The Wellness Policy will be a document that outlines a comprehensive health program desi gned to maintain a high level of well being for the students a t El S ol. It will co ver proper diet, exercise, emotional stabilit y, and illness prevention. Please answer the following questi ons to the best of your ability t o ensure that we can deve lop the most effective Wellness Poli cy possible. Your answers will remain anonymous. Este cuestionario est diseado para ayudar a desarrollar una Normativa de Bienestar para El Sol Sc ience and Arts Ac ademy. La Normativa de Bienestar ser un documento que resuma un detallado programa de salud diseado para mantener un nivel elevado de bienestar en los est udiantes de El Sol. Cubrir die ta apropiada, ejercicio, estabili dad emocional, y prevencin de enfermedades. Por favor, conteste a las siguientes preguntas lo mejor que pueda para asegurar que podamos desarrollar la Normativa de Bienestar ms efectiva posible. Sus respuestas permanecern annimas. Parents 1. Do you know what your child eats for breakfast or lunch at school? List a few examples. Sabe lo que su hijo come o desayuna en la escuela? Liste unos pocos ejemplos. ________________________________________________________________________ ___ _____________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 2. Es ms probable que Ud. prepare la comida de su hijo, o que haga que se la den en la escuela? a.Pack their lunch/ Que prepare la comida de su hijo b.Get lunch at school/ Que haga que se la den en la escuela 3.Does your child eat breakfast at home or at school?/ Su hijo desayun a en casa o en la escuela? a.At home/ En casa b.At school/ En escuela 4.Do you know if there are any current policies on what foods and drinks your children are allowed to bring to school? List a few policies that you know. / Sabe si hay alguna norma actual sobre las comidas o bebidas que sus hijos estn autorizados a llevar a la escuela? Describa algunas de las normas que conozca. ___________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________ _____________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Qu alimentos le gustara ver en el desayuno o la comida de su hijo? _______________ ____________________________________________________________
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 80 ___________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 6.If the school developed stricter nutritional guide lines do you think it would be possible for Si la escuela desarrollara manuales de nutricin ms estrictos, piens a que sera posible para Ud. seguirlos? (Ej. solo jugos con 100% jugo, ms frutas y verduras, ms granos integrales, papas solo asadas) a.Yes/ S b.No/ No 7.Do you think healthy nutritional guidelines are important to follow during school fundraising activities or school? Explain./ Piensa que es importante seguir los manuales de nutricin durante las actividades de recogida de dinero de la escuela o las fu nciones escolares? Explique. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 8.Do you Piensa que es importante seguir los manuales de nutricin durante la celebracin en clase de un cumpleaos de un estudiante, o cree que est bien llevar madalenas/torta? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _________________________ _________________________________________ 9.How would you feel about a monthly birthday celebration in class for every student that had a birthday within that month? / Cmo se sentira acerca de una celebracin mensual en clase para todos los estudiante s que cumplieron aos ese mes? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 10 .What healthy snacks do you think the 5 th grade students could sell before class on Fridays to replace the Krispy Kreme donuts that they used to sell to help raise money for science camp? / Qu tentempis sanos piensa que podr an vender los estudiantes de quinto grado antes de clase los viernes para reemplazar a los donuts de Krispy Kreme que solan vender para recolectar dinero para el campamento de ciencias? __________________________________________________________________ _________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 11.Does your child have any food allergies?/ Su hijo tiene alguna alergia alimentaria? a.Yes/ S
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 81 b.No/ No )/ Cmo te sientes acerca de El Sol de la Academia de convertirse en un "libre de man" zona? (nada que contenga man permitidos en el campus) ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 13. Would you be likely to enroll your child in after school sports programs if these became available? / Inscribira a su hijo en uno de los programas de ejercicio despus de la escuela si estos estuvieran disponibles? a.Yes/ S b.No/ No 14.What makes you more likely to read something that your child brings home? Mark all that apply. / Qu le hace ms propenso a leer algo que su hijo trae a casa? Marque todas las que corresponda. a. The document has a lot of color/ Que el documento tenga mucho color b.The document requires a signature / Que el documento requiera una firma c.The document is in English / Que est en ingls d.The document is in Spanish/ Que est en espaol
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 82 A PPENDIX F: S TUDENT S URVEY Favorite food served at breakfas t? Cereal: French Toast: Breakfast burrito: Least favorite food served at breakfas t? Favorite food served at lunch? Least favorite food served at lunch? What is your favorite thing to drink at school? What other drinks would you like to see? Do you think you eat healthily YES: NO: Sometimes: Both: Ask the students the questions in the first column. If they say a response that is already typed next to the question add a t ally mark questions please use the empty boxes to write down any interesting comments that the kids may have said. If you run out of bo xes please use the back of the paper.
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 83 at school? Do you think you exercise enough at school? YES: NO: If you were really upset or sad do you have an adult you feel like you could talk to at school? YES: NO: Who do you think you would talk to? Teacher: Counselor: Parents: Siblings: Friends: Coach: Do you have internet access at home? YES: NO: Maybe: Do you want to work in health care when you get older? (doctor, surgeon, YES: NO: Write down the students names who answered yes in the next columns so they can be health ambassador s
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL SCHOOL WELLNESS POLICY GOALS 84 nurse, etc?)
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