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Women United: An Inter-organizational Approach to a Giving Group
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Merrick, Laura
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Denver, CO
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University of Colorado Denver
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English

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Women United: A n I nter organizational A pproach to a G iving G roup Laura Merrick University of Colorado Denver School of Public Affairs Author Note This client based project is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Public Administration in the School of Public Affairs at the University of Colorado Denver Denver, Colorado Spring 2019

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 2 This client based project was comp leted on behalf of The United Way of Dubuque Area Tri States and supervised by PUAD 5361 Capstone course instructor Dr. Pamela Medina Gutierrez and second faculty reader Dr. Danielle Varda . This project does not necessarily reflect the views of the School of Public Affairs or the faculty readers. Raw data were not included in this document, rather relevant materials were provided directly to the client. Permissions to include this project in the Auraria Library Digital Repo sitory are found in the final Appendix . Questions about this capstone project should be directed to the student author.

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 3 Table of Contents Executive Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 5 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 6 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 9 United Way philanthropic history ................................ ................................ ............................... 9 Relationship between host organizations and chapter ................................ ............................... 12 Evolution of donor giving ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 14 Giving groups are changing fundraising to meet donor needs ................................ .................. 15 Community work ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 16 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ . 17 Data collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 18 Data analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 19 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 19 Characteristics of Women United members ................................ ................................ .............. 19 Structure and operations of Women United chapters ................................ ................................ 20 Relationship characteristics between Women United chapters and United Way ..................... 22 Community work of Women United chapters ................................ ................................ .......... 23 Discussion and Recommendations ................................ ................................ ............................... 23 Recruit representative membership ................................ ................................ ........................... 24 Fabricate a structure that operationally delivers ................................ ................................ ....... 25 Ensure the host possesses sufficient resources to catalyze and support the chapter ................. 25 Demonstrate meaningful connections to community level social causes ................................ . 26 Conduct additional research ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 26

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 4 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 27 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 27 References ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 28 Appendices ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 32 Appendix A: Lett er to participant ................................ ................................ ............................. 32 Appendix B: Survey instrument ................................ ................................ ................................ 33 Appendix C: Research question/survey matrix ................................ ................................ ......... 48 Appendix D: Figures ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 64 Appendix E: MPA competencies ................................ ................................ .............................. 67

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 5 Executive Summary The United Way of Dubuque Area Tri States (UWDAT) unit es citizens and civic organizations in the spirit of giving, advocating and volunteering to accomplish greater good. Operating locally, though connected nationally to United Way W orldwide, the UWDAT respectfully serves with the directive to empower communities to identify local needs and address those needs by advancing accesses to education, income, and health. To facilitate thei r work, the UWDAT raises funds through various outlets with a concentrated effort historically on workplace giving campaigns. However, in the current giving landscape, the competit ion for charitable gifts is more significant than ever. T o mitigate the competition , the UWDAT , requisitioned research into the modalities of giving groups and Women United, an inter organizational group hosted within the UWDAT that emphasizes women joining together to effectuate positive changes. This research g uided an investigation into the construct of g iving group s, which mel d philanthropy and personal passions into relevant and timely mechanism s for engaged giving , and the current perceptions and performances of Women United , with the design ed end goal to as sess as an effectual giving group. The presented analysis is descriptive only and representative of an extremely limited (less than one percent) sample size. The research support s that Women United does act as a vehicle to articulate a select range of donor preferences and directly impact social needs at a community level , however, as an inter organizational giving group it flounders to meet the intention of purposeful, engaged and democratized giving. T o improve capacity as a giving group five specific recommendations recruit representative membership, fabricate a structure that operationally delivers, ensure the host possesses sufficient resources to catalyze and support the chapter ,

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 6 demonstrate meaningful connect ions to community level social causes and conduct additional research are offered. Introduction Since 1928, the United Way of Dubuque Area Tri States (UWDAT) , operating as one of more than 1,800 United Ways worldwide, has strived to present a united front in balancing the needs of local nonprofit organizations as well as the whole of the community . Traditionally, this was a balance achieved by uniting citizens and civic organizations in the spirit of giving, advocating and volunteering to accomplish greater good via concentrated and prolific workplace giving campaigns , directed gifts and awarded grants . The UWDAT , therefore, function s as a fund repository which effectively leverag es contributions into "a potent, coheren t strategy that targets the concerns that" (Cohen, 2007 , para. 47 ) donors wish to affect collectively in their community , such as health, education or financial stability . The UWDAT , serving ten counties and their respective municipalities within Iowa, Ill inois, and Wisconsin , then allocat es up to nearly $1.8 million in funds, based on need assessed via a community action plan that incorporates a volunteer led evaluation process of programs and measurable results , to community nonprofit partners that align with those collective overarching concerns. However, over the past decade this balancing act has been under threat as the UWDAT faces competition for charitable gifts from for profit online workplace giving platforms such YourCause and Benevity (Prather, 2018), the restructuring of funding priorities under the Community Impact Agenda led by United Way Worldwide, an economic recession and various demographic changes (Cohen, 2007). To combat these threats , the UWDAT has had to dig deep in to its past and revive its position as an agent of necessary and significant community change.

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 7 Developing outlets for people of all ages to live united is relevant, timely and vital as "donors have grown more interested in specifying how their charitable dollars are spent, says Mr. Fine, of the Seattle United Way" (Anft, 2015 , p.26 ). Additionally, supporters have shifted their focus from the short game of strictly financial contributions to the long game of ultimately solving problems through giving, advo cacy, and volunteering. Shifting donor focus means the UWDAT needs to deliver a rich foundation of resources, reputation, and relationships to connect people and organizations around progressive unifying giving solutions. One such response with effective o utcomes that the UWDAT acknowledges , along with being embraced the majority of the nonprofit sector, is the utilization of giving groups. Giving groups meld philanthropy and personal passions into a highly flexible, democratic, direct impact, networked vehicle for giving. According to a 2016 study by the Collective Giving Research Group , giving groups have more than tripled since 2007, have engaged at least 150,000 people and distributed over $ 1.29 billion since their inception. Generally characterized by the collective giving of individuals pooling donations together and deciding democratically how the funds are awarded, giving groups genera te philanthropic support followed by social and educational opportunities and operate independently. However, United Ways , throughout the nation are succeeding at hosting giving groups, such as the United ociety and the Greater Twin Cities , which have demonstrated significant achievements in modulating as giving groups to support their community work. Recogniz ing the powerful transformative abilities of giving groups to impact the community as well as empower participant giving the UWDAT postulated research into the composition of Women United and giving groups. The study investigates Women United, an inter organizational group collectively activating the

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 8 United Way of Dubuque Area Tri States, n.d. ) as a chapter within the UWDAT and other United Ways , and how Women United may function as a cohesive giving group. In addition, the study examined the composition of g iving group s, collaborative giving that entail groups of individuals who collectively donate money and sometimes unpaid time to support organizations or projects of mutual inter est , and the present conceptions and execution of Women United . Th e res ults provide an asses sment of modulate the desired giving group traits of purposeful , engaged and democratized giving. Research Question s 1. 2. 3. 4. What type of work are Women United chapters doing in the community? Appreciatively, the research informed by a literature review of existing research and relevant articulated quantitative and qualitative findings builds on the effectual interconnectivity of why giving groups are gainful donor interventions and the context in which Women United serves as an inter organizational group within United Way . The delivery of the methodology constructs supportive of the research follows the literature review. To conclude , an analysis summa ry of the understanding derived from this research facilitate s discussion of the outcomes and the development of recommendations to assist the UWDAT in evaluating and constructing a Women United inter organizational giving group that connect s individuals i n meaningful ways based on the mutual interest to give, advocate and volunteer for social causes in a united effort.

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 9 Literature Review The literature review presents an integrated and multidisciplinary approach that investigates the foundation of United W ay's philanthropic history and the premise behind integrating inter organizational groups such as Women United as giving, advocating and volunteering strategies. Additionally, the literature presents empirical results on the relationship between host organ izations and chapters as giving groups, the evolution of donor giving , the impact of giving groups when applied appropriately to meet changing donor needs , and how giving groups influence work in the community . Though the evidentiary research is compelling, it is reasonable to introduce additional edifying research to validate that non profits are increasingly partnering through giving groups to collaborate in align ing resources to achieve various societal outcomes (Anft, 2015). United Way p hilanth ropic h istory The social movement that became United Way spans over a quarter century back to 1887 when five members of a community in Colorado decided to organize a campaign to create greater good through the collection and disbursement of charitable fun ds and the coordination of

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 10 relief services with cooperating agencies. Through times of trials and tribulations, United Way has emerged as a human service delivery systems, includi ng workplace fundraising campaigns, outcome based measurement, human service referral systems (2 1 (Paarlberg & Moulick, 2017, p.358) . I n keeping with tradition through its 1,800 locally governed affiliates , U nited Way plays a significant role in publicly fundraising to address community problems collectively. The idea that raised $21,700 in 1887 now leads the Forbes 100 Largest U.S. Charities 2018 list with total revenues of $3.9B. While the $3.9 billion is im pressive $3.47 billion accounts for private contributions which are two percent lower than the prior year and 16 percent lower than the peak gift year of 2007 (Barrett, 2018). However, the notable decline demonstrates the competition United Way faces for c haritable gifts especially in the "fading popularity of on the job donation drives" (Anft, 2015 , p. 24 ) the premise on which United Way's philanthropic foundation was built . According to Brian Gallagher, President and CEO of United Way Worldwide, throughou t "most of its history, United Way had no direct relationship with its donors. In fact, in most instances we didn't even know their names" (Gallagher, 2018). Barman (2002) claims that the strategic response of differentiation is adopted by nonprofits when they face a specific external challenge, that of competition It was only when the field of workplace charity became crowded with rival fundraisers that the United Way implemented the new strategy of differentiation (p. 1215) . Therefore in a strategy t o differentiate , United Way has since the 1990's been investing efforts into shifting its donor model towards direct donor engagement inside established employer partners as well as on a community level. This decision reaffirmed by a national

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 11 survey study conducted by Marx (1997) on strategic philanthropy resulted in various recommendations for United Way, one of which was to "consider new roles for itself as a facilitator of direct relationships" (p. 28) beyond the business to business fundraising construc t. that revealed locals within the community "increasingly look to share responsibility for meeting local public needs with community partners" (p. 347) and Barm an's (2017) findings that "donors' roles and networks, as well as broader societal dynamics, shape the distribution of gifts" (p. 273). Convincing data, in turn, informed United Way's expansion into community level involvement by creating groups that furth er unite and inspire change. United Way currently hosts four inter organizational groups: Women United, Student United Way, Young Leaders Society, and Tocqueville Society. United Way hosts these groups intentionally formed around a relatable identity (gend er, age, and interest) that resonates with audiences (philanthropic leaders and volunteer champions) that wish to leverage a shared platform and cause (economic stability) to serve and transform their local communities while being part of a global movement . Women United structure, operations, and membership. With a membership of over 70,000, Women United is a powerful philanthropic force, making up nearly half of the United Way inter organizational groups. Therefore, it is easy to convey that Women United plays an integral part in engaging women donors within the United Way organization and amplifying United Way's work. Women are key because not only are they more likely to give , give more , and raise more, women see the ir communities as an extension of their family reinvest an average of 90% of their income in their families, compared to 30 40% reinvestment from men (Bennett & Ellison, 2010, para. 9). Appreciating that Wom en United is an essential means to accelerating change it is fundamental that the structure, operations, and membership are in

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 12 alignment to best support the impact of participation on member giving, civic engagement and a constructive relationship between the host organization and the group. In the Bearma n , Carboni , Eikenberr y , and Franklin (2016) study a landscape survey was created to assess member composition, group structure, and operational activities. Compiling the data based on the most popular element per category exposed the typical giving group member, structure, and operations. A member generally is between the ages of 45 to 65, predominately white in ethnicity, identifies with Christianity, and is a consistent member. Structurally, the group meets in person at least quarterly, has a year commitment, delivers upon a financial promise of $400 or less, executes on one giving level and are independent of a host organization . Operationally, the group ra ises collectively an average of $776, 910 and individually $1,312 ( Bearma n e t al . , 2016) , vote s on awarded funding, and has a paid staff member that invests an average of 55 hours per month in assisting members with various activities and learning opportun ities . Relationship between host organizations and chapter Understandably, organizations that host chapters t hat pseudo function as a giving group , such as United Way and Women United, do so to garner support for specific reasons and therefore have high expectations for the benefits th at will accrue . The most robust alignment of reasons for to benefits of hosting according to Figure 1 (Appendix D) is to contribute to a culture of philanthropy in the community, to reach out to new donors and to increase community visibility. The reason for to benefits of hosting demonstrating the weakest alignment in Figure 1 (Appendix D) is to increase grantmaking capacity or fill a grantmaking gap. Arguably, there are challenges as well when dealing with the complexitie s of the host and chapter relationship . Figure 2 (Appendix D) reveals that the most significant problem is staff time; however, the

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 13 differences in mission between the giving group and the host organization is the least. What is not well understood is what it takes for philanthropic organizations to catalyze, support, and grow [chapters as giving groups], the benefits and challenges that emerge, and the ultimate impact of this relationship as a way to strengthen community and increase collective giving to the causes and communities (Bearman & Franklin, 2018, p. 6) that are at the core of the organization's mission driven work . According to the research reported in Dynamics of Hosting: Giving Circles and Collective Giving Groups (Bearman & Franklin, decision points [that] shape the contours of the [chapter as a giving group and] host relationship . Fi rst, is the t ype and level of services provided. Service type and level are considerably diverse and directly dependent on the relationship between the host and the chapter. Bearman & Franklin (2018) explains that "the most fundamental service provided by so the funds donated by members and raised through Other services most notably managed by the host on behalf of the giving group are the acceptance of gifts, disbursement of awarded funds, degree of communication and public relations activities, coordinating educational, networking or social opportunities, soliciting proposals, and recruiting members. The second point is a f ee structure. Fees are v ariab le in approach as either fee for service, a flat fee or no fee. For example, t he Chicago Community Trust underwrites membership fees as an operational mission related expense (Bearman & Franklin, 2018). Staffing structure is the third point . Interviews and general field observations indicate that staffing structure has less to do with host size or number of chapters hosted and more with the strategic reasons for

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 14 hosting, origin of the [giving circle] and pre existing relationships between dono r leaders and host staff members (Bearman & Franklin, 2018, p. 14) . The last point is i ntegration with the host . Bearman & Franklin (2018) outline three approaches along the continuum to align hosts core activities with giving group engagement. First, is p eripheral integration according to which the giving group operates within the host's strategic priorities but does so with limited support and in reduced capacities. Second, is an integrated methodology which incorporates formalized arrangements concerning staffing structures, expectations, and engagement. Third, is the intentional activation of the giving group to deliver upon the collective impact of host outcomes and donor activities. Evolution of donor giving forms granting opportunities for increased donor control. One form Ostrander ( 2007) expands instrument of pooled resources to make collective change has come to be celebrated as a more democratized form of philanthropy. Acknowledged is that donor giving, as i n any relationship, evolves in response to changing environmental conditions. The relationships between donors, local United Way s and the nonprofits that they fund are complex. According to Paarlberg & Moulick (2017, p.360), donor evolution is tied to res ource dependency and can be exercise d through "legitimacy, access to tangible resources, and

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 15 collective mission accomplishment". Inter organizational groups, therefore, meet donor evolution head on as , they facilitate legitimacy through the transparency of exchanging an understanding of a nonprofit's different programs with gained knowledge of donors' interests, provide access to material resources within the organizational structure and advance joint mission accomplishment by generating meaningful interact ions in local signature issues. danger of too much donor control has been an issue of concern in philanthropy for a long time; however, in the new philanthropy environment, where many donors want to be more engaged, this tension has gained renewed focus (Ostrander, 2007) G iving groups are changing fundraising to meet donor needs Giving groups, centered in philanthropic ideals, are changing the landscape of (Pennekamp, 2013, p. 56), as they unite members in directing responsibility for the community outcomes they mutually agree upon are most critical to address. The literature distills that as fundraising vehicles, giving g roups, are effective in meeting evolving donor needs because their naturally organic structure enables alignment with the seven principle roles of philanthropy outlined by Pennekamp (2013, p. 56): 1. Civic capacity. According to the Bearman, Carboni, Eikenber ry, and Franklin (2016) 2. Horizontal relationships. The Arise Project of the Greater Twin Cities United Way focuses on programs that support homeless LGBTQ youth. 3. Citizen agency. The United Way LINC (Lead. Impact. Network. Change.) engages young professionals through specialized networking and volunteering events.

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 16 4. Impartiality. The Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders in Philanthropy in Oakland, CA has raised funds fo r "issues such as domestic violence, health care, and scholarships" (Lindley, 2015, p. 6) . 5. Equalizing infrastructure. Giving groups extend the opportunity for donors from a wide range of income levels to participate and substantial means to participate in significant giving Bearman and Franklin, 2018, p.5) . 6. Flexibility. Eikenberry & Breeze (2018) stipulate that a key influence of giving group s suppo rting innovative, new and grassroots efforts with what is perceived to be more 7. Democracy is where you find it. Fatas & Morales (2018) observed in their research that intrinsically when it comes to collective giving i Paynter (2017) shares that when giving circles are leveraged to fund donor driven change the data reported from the Collective Giving Research Group (2016) shows that the individuals in the giving circles tend to give a bit more themselves, too that may be because many groups para. 6). Community work Bearman, Carboni, Eikenberry, & Franklin (2016) note giving groups are increasingly a significant philanthropic force in communities H old enormous potential for broad outreach, flexible and authentic engagement of donors, and a more democratic approach to building a culture of philanthropy Bearman and Franklin, 2018, p.22) emphasize the fact of

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 17 giving groups multifaceted impact. Beyond the ability to collectively give around mutual interests is the meaningful ways in which giving groups encourage, inspire and connect members to effectuate added value to the face value of financial support . Figure 3 (Appendix D) visually layouts a spectrum of ways from volunteering to fundraising, technical assistance to serving on a board to give beyond the grantmaking capacity. Additionally, the study by Carboni & Eikenberry affirms earlier research [that] by participating , members increase their knowledge about philanthropy, nonprofits, and the community and are, th erefore more likely to [direct grants] to marginalized community populations and needs as showcased in Figure 4 (Appendix D). In review the integrated and multidisciplinary literature makes way for a foundation al understanding of United Way's philanthropic history and the intent behind integrating inter organizational groups such as Women United as giving, advocating and volunteering strategies. Additionally, the literature shares empirical results on the complicated relationship between host organizations and chapters as giving groups, the tension formulated from the evolution of donor giving to exercise more control, the complex ways giving groups rise to meet changing donor needs and how the influence of giving groups on the com munity constitutes societal driven results. The whole of the literature review accumulates in supporting the purposeful connection of individuals in meaningful ways based on the mutual interest to give, advocate and volunteer for social causes in a united effort through the institutionalization of a Women United inter organizational giving group. Methodology Th is study use d a mixed method approach, encompassing a quantitative and qualitative self reported survey , outlined in Appendix B . Utilizing both a quantitative and qualitative data

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 18 collection instrument is appropriate when attempting to comprehensively capture objective and subjective data relevant to the research design . With considerable research showcasing the al., 2016, p. 32) the challenge pose d is how Women United, as an inter organizational chapter under the banner of Unite d Way, effectively fulfill s the same goal. Data c ollection The execution of the outlined research collected original data via a modified survey based on the landscape survey compiled by the Collective Giving Research Group (2016) . The survey population is l imited to existing members of Women United and distributed electronically via a Qualtrics link to the Women United Workplace online collective network group (membership of 1404) and UWDAT Women United newsletter members (209 ) . The survey data collection period was eleven days . Dispensed on Tuesday, March 26, the initial communication request to participate was followed by a second communication reminder to partake in the survey on day eight . The survey closed on Saturday, April 6 . The study allowed p artic ipants one week from the time stamp of last activity to complete it at which point if they ha d not finished the full survey the tool recorded any responses given. The survey instrument (Appendix B ) , comprised of 45 questions, addresses each of the identified research questions through the application of ordinal and nominal scales and multiple question formats including the 5 point Likert scale, multiple choice, and open ended questions . The survey is crafted to ask valid and re liable questions purposeful to the research. Th e refinement of questions for sensibility and targeted collection and approval of the survey as a cohesive tool that is representative of the intended research in a cooperative effort with the clien t reinforce s validity . Reliability is instilled in the instrument by the inclusion of closed ended

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 19 questions with exhaustive and mutually exclusive answers providing uniformity and consistency to respondents. The review of the collected data enhance s the collective understanding of Women United as a giving group in strument . Data a nalysis D escriptive statistics are used to answer the presented exploratory research questions . Leveraged as descriptive and supportive of recommendations is any qualitative data that lends a determinate level of clarity to the analysis . Additionally, presented are analyzed results derived from the multiple choice questions on the survey on selection frequency and means. Results Dispersed to 1613 participants the survey recorded the initiation of 38 responses and 15 completed responses . The captured responses translate to a two percent response rate and a one percent complete data collection rate. Descriptive statistics contributed to the analysis of the data again st the presented research questions . Organizing the data outcomes based on the most popular element per category produced the following results. Characteristics of Women United members The characteristic composition of a Women United member reveals that th ey are for the majority a paid United Way staff that has been a member for two years or less, is between the ages of 45 to 65 years old , is predominately white in ethnicity, and identifies religiously with Christianity. Additionally, members have achieved a college level education or higher, work full time earning between $75,000 t o $100,000 annually, are married and are part of a household greater than one. The data further reveals that members are part of Women United principally because they work for United Way, and get involved and stay involved because of the ability to

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 20 be engaged in community action on a local level to which they can witness their impact as demonstrated in Figure 5 . Figure 5. Reasons members get involved and stay involved. Structure and operations of Women United chapters Structurally, Women United has an intermittent membership of 21 or more that meets in person at least quarterly, has no commitment term , and does have a membership fee; however, has no set giving level, and has a minimum required to provide ($500 to $999) to be allowed to vote . Operationally, the membership does not vote on funding as the United Way organization for which Women U nited is a chapter of decides and awards annually if at all. Members also participate in a variety of capacities ranging from sitting on a board or an other governing/advisory body, providing fundraising support including introductions to new donors, contri buting additional funds and performing assistance in the form of public relations, marketing, technology, financial, or legal . Of the activities and learning opportunities provided to members through Women United chapters those of most importance are n etwo rking and social activities , followed by discussion about funding recipients or community issues , speakers or

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 21 training on philanthropy or specific community issues , site visits to nonprofit organizations, and finally meetings with charitable or community l eaders and policy advocacy and/or lobbying. When asked why a member feels their Women United chapter is completely or very much engaged in addressing community level issues that top two contributing factor responses are that active members act as leaders and that members are shown the impact of their work ( Figure 6 ). On the other end of the spectrum , but of equal relevance, are the reasons disclosed as to why members feel their Women United chapter is somewhat, very little or not at all engaged in address ing their community level issues (Figure 7) . The top contributing factor s for somewhat, very little to no community level issue engagement are no active members acting as leader s tied with lacking in membership. Figure 6 . Reasons membership is engaged i n addressing community issues. Figure 7 . Reasons membership is not engaged in addressing community issues.

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 22 R elationship characteristics between Women United chapters and United Way Figure 8 . Challenges and benefits of Women United being hosted by United Way.

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 23 C ommunity work of Women United chapters Figure 9 . Community benefits in relation to funded areas. Discussion and Recommendations

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 24

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 25 Fabricate a structure that operationally delivers Giving groups are a recognized philanthropic tool that when appropriately expressed can act as an expanded resource for donors, advocates, and volunteers. As shown by Eikenberry and Breeze (2018) such giving groups to which Women United has the potential to enact " are indicative of a transformation in the way ordinary people are attempting to address community problems through giving and volunteering by demystifying the philanthropic process and enabling individuals to do something charitable in their own way s the data indicates the more closely UWDAT can align the structure t o operationally deliver in meeting the needs of the Women United membership in regards to funding levels, decision making, impact areas, and engagement outlets the more significant the satisfaction of the members . Addressing member needs includes democratizing giving by empowering chapters to have purposeful discretion over the allocation of awarded funding and/or gifts. Ensure the host possesses sufficient resources to catalyze and support the chapter Bearman & Franklin (2018) reveal in Dynamics of Hosting: Giving Circles and Collective Giving Groups that when it comes to organizations hosting giving groups t he most consistent motivation selected by more than 90 percent of surveyed hosts was to contribute to a culture of philanthropy in the community: One of our priorities is bringing people together around giving, so we view the sta f f time as being in servic e to our mission, explained Stacey Goodman of the Omaha Community Foundation (p.9). The conducted research supports that the presence of administrative support staff (over 50% of respondents indicated their role within Women United is as a paid United Wa y staff) is essential towards facilitat ing and promot ing member engagement . Therefore, it is suggested that the UWDAT formally appoint a staff member to

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 26 serve as the administrative support personnel for Women United. This role would be formalized, viewed as an extension of their responsibilities and sanctioned by leadership. D emonstrate meaningful connections to community level social causes Meaningful co nnections to community level social causes are easily demonstrated t hrough mobiliz ed giving, advocacy, and volunteerism favouring experience over expertise while reaffirming the traditions of community, neighbourhood , [and] United as a conduit for members to collectively pool their wealth to ultimately serve the public benefit (Eikenberry & Breeze, 2018, p. 357) is reinforced when the members can witness their impact. In order to create this experiential impact for the members meaningful engagements such as volunteering outings, field trips to funded organizations, and/or an event at which members interact with aided populatio ns should be organized consistently. Conduct additional research Due to the restrictive reportable sample, it is highly encouraged that the UWDAT perform further data collection and analysis. However, b efore seeking out more data, four elements are introduced for consideration. First, it is advised that the current survey be revisi ted and refin ed (i.e., breaking up the study into multiple surveys with focused topics and distributed at different times) . Second, invest time in identifying, testing and incorporating approaches to increase response rate (i.e., incentives to participate, more reminders to participate, extended time frame in which to capture responses, and not presented as student work) . Third, contemplate engaging in one on one intervi ews with Women United members and/or focus group interviews with Women United chapters as a venue to collect qualitative representative data in an organic fashion that may foster greater participation. Fourth, look into how to gather data regarding other

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 27 w omen centric giving groups locally. Reportedly the third reason, at 23 percent, that Women United members are not engaged in addressing community issues is the existence of other women based giving groups. Supplementary research is vital to building out a comprehensive body of data on which to run statistical tools on as well as allow for generalization s to be formulated and applied a cross Women United chapters to inform greater giving practices. Overall e xecuting upon the outlined recommendations will acc omplish a actualized and viable Women United chapter capable of more fully modulating a constructive giving group. Limitations Due to the low response rate (less than one percent) , the discussion and recommendation s are only made relative to the restricted sample size. Limitations directly within the constructs of this research are the accuracy of the sampling data, not recruiting a large enough sample , the collection of data being self reported and therefore unable to be independently verified, and participants not completing the survey most likely due to the predicted survey length of 11.8 minutes. Best practices indicate a high respondent break off rate at 12 minutes with seven minutes as the suggested optimum length for survey completion rate. Conclusion The consensus of research concludes that giving groups are meaningful engagements that bring together people and support around a mutual interest creating positive changes on various levels. More specifically this research sheds light, through the presented literature review , results , discussions, and recommendations on the importance of acknowledging the powerful transformative abilities that giving groups hold to articulate donor preferences and directly impact social needs at a community level . While the findings generated from this research can be conservatively applied to advance insights into the role of inter organizational giving groups and

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 28 enhance the collective understanding of Women United it falls short in solidifying Women United as a construct to advance giving groups within United Way . However , a comprehensive review of the field as a whole, nor existing or emerging models remains incomplete. It would be imprudent not to examine more intent ional, integrated and practical approach es to positive exploitation and advantageous practices of inter organizational giving groups on other organizational functionalities. References Anft, M. (2015). Local United Ways try new ways to replace lost fund ing: With workplace giving on the wane, United Ways are designing programs around what get millennials, Hispanics, women, and others excited about philanthropy. The Chronicle of Philanthropy . Retrieved from https://www.philanthropy.com/article/An Unsteady Titan Tries to/233946 Ashraf, N., Ahmadsimab, A., & Pinkse, J. (2017). From animosity to affinity: The interplay of competing logics and interdependence in cross sector partnerships. Journal of Management St udies, 54 (6), 793 822. doi:10.1111/joms.12273 Barman, E. (2017). The social bases of philanthropy. Annual Review of Sociology, 43 (1), 271 290. doi:10.1146/annurev soc 060116 053524 Barrett, W. (December 11, 2018) . Forbes. The Largest Charities for 2018. Re trieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/williampbarrett/2018/12/11/largest charities 2018/#21e0f1320221 Bearman, J., Carboni, J., Eikenberry, A., & Franklin, J. (2016). The landscape of giving circles/collective giving in the U.S. Collective Giving Resea rch Group .

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 29 Bearman, J., & Franklin, J. (2018). Dynamics of hosting. Giving circles and collective giving groups. Collective Giving Research Group . Bennett, J., & Ellison, J. (2010). Women will rule the world. Newsweek . Retrieved from https://www.newsweek.c om/women will rule world 74603 Carboni, J., & Eikenberry, A. M. (2018). Giving circle membership: How collective giving impacts donors. Executive summary. Collective Giving Research Group . w ay or b ust. Nonprofit Quarterly . Retrieved from https://nonprofitquarterly.org/2007/12/21/the united ways way or bust/ Eikenberry, A. M. (2007). Giving c ircles and f undraising in the n ew p hilanthropy e nvironment. Association of Fundraising Professionals. Einkeberry, A. M. (2008 ). Fundraising in the new philanthropy environment. The benefits and challenges of working with giving circles. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 19 (2), 141 152). Eikenberry, A. M., & Breeze, B. (2018). Growing philanthropy through giving circles: Collective giving and the logic of charity. Social Policy and Society, 17 (3), 349 364. doi:10.1017/S1474746417000124 Fatas, E., & Morales, A. J. (2018). The joy of ruling: An experimental investigation on collective giving. Theory and Decision, 85 (2), 179 200. doi:10.1007/s11238 017 9646 4 Forbes . (December 11, 2018) . The 100 l argest U.S. c harities 2018. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/companies/united way worldwide/#ae5776a671af Gallagher, B. (2018). United Way's CEO on shifting a century old bus iness model. Harvard Business Review, 96 (5), 38.

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 30 Karlan, D., & McConnell, M. A. (2014). Hey look at me: The effect of giving circles on giving. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 106 , 402 412. doi:10.1016/j.jebo.2014.06.013 Lindley, D. (2015). Generate more revenue through giving circles. Successful Fundraising, 23 (10), 6 6. doi:10.1002/sfr.30217 Marx, J. D. (1997). Corporate philanthropy and united way: Challenges for the year 2000. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 8 (1), 19 30. doi:10.1002/nm l.4130080104 Ochs, A. (August 11, 2016). The foundation world couldn't care less about your cause? Start a giving circle. Inside Philanthropy. Retrieved from https://www.insidephilanthropy.com/home/2016/8/11/the foundation world couldnt care less about you r cause star.html Ostrander, S. A. (2007). The growth of donor control: Revisiting the social relations of philanthropy. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 36 (2), 356 372. doi:10.1177/0899764007300386 Paarlberg, L. E., & Ghosh Moulick, A. (2017). Ca ptured by partners: Interorganizational relationships and fund allocation stability in united way systems. International Public Management Journal, 20 (3), 356 380. doi:10.1080/10967494.2016.1237398 Paarlberg, L. E., & Yoshioka, T. (2016). The impact of loc al economic structure on community philanthropy. Public Administration Review, 76 (2), 340 350. doi:10.1111/puar.12442 Paynter, B. (November 2017). Women are fueling the growth of collective philanthropy giving circles. Future of Philanthropy. Retrieved from https://www.fastcompany.com/40497674/women are fueling the growth of collective philanthropy giving circles

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 31 Pennekam p, P. H., & Focke, A. (2013). Philanthropy and the regeneration of community democracy. National Civic Review, 102 (3), 47. with philanthropy: Networks bring toge ther like minded donors. Star Tribune. Retrieved from http://www.startribune.com/greater twin cities united way giving communities meld personal passions with philanthropy/492035091 Renz, D. O. & Herman, R. D. (2016). The Jossey Bass Handbook of Nonprofit Leadership and Management . Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. United Way of Dubuque Area Tri States . (n.d.) . Women United. Retrieved from https://dbqunitedway.org/cms view page.php?page=women united United Way of Lincoln and Lancaster County . ( n.d. ). Women in Philanthropy. Retrieved from http://www.unitedwaylincoln.org/leadership giving/women in philanthropy/

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 32 Appendices Appendix A: Letter to p articipant Hello, Thank you for your interest in participating in the Women United survey! As a Ma ster of Public Administration graduate student at the University of Colorado Denver School of Public Affairs I've crafted this survey to collect information in support of my capstone research project. My research project investigates Women United as an int er organizational group and its potential to democratizes giving within the United Way framework. You have been selected to participate through your membership in Women United. The survey takes close to ten minutes to complete. Completion of the survey can be done online at your convenience. Participation in this survey is strictly voluntary. However, consent is implied by the action of returning the survey. You can refuse to answer any question or terminate your participation at any time. All responses wil l be kept confidential. No personally identifiable information will be associated with responses. Only group results will be documented and presented. The results of this survey will be presented to a review committee at the University of Colorado Denver i n support of this research project. Please submit your responses by the end of the day on Friday, April 5th, 2019. Your participation is greatly appreciated. Your responses to the survey are valuable in f you have questions or concerns regarding the survey or research, please contact Laura Merrick at laura.merrick@ucdenver.edu. Thank you for your time and consideration. With gratitude, Laura Merrick

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 33 Appendix B : Survey i nstrument Women Uni t ed Landscape Survey Questions (Amended from the Collective Giving Research Group, 2016, p. 35 43). 1. What is your role within Women United? (Please select one .) Volunteer LEADER Volunteer MEMBER Paid staff ADMINISTRATOR Paid staff working for HOST Other, please specify ____________________ 2. How long have you been a member? (Please select one .) Less than 1 year 1 2 years 3 4 years 5 years or more 3. How did you find out about your Women United chapter? (Please select one .) United Way w orkplace giving campaign Local United Way outreach event Friend/Co work/Associate Other, please specify ____________________ 4. Why did you become a member of Women United ? (Please select all that apply.) To be involved in community action at a loc al level To advocate for underrepresented populations To volunteer for United Way organizations

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 34 To meet other community members Other, please specify ____________________ 5. What keeps you involved in Women United ? (Please select all that apply.) The organizations and/or populations you are able to impact The advocacy opportunities The volunteer opportunities Other, please specify ____________________ 6. About how many members currently participate in your Wome n United chapter? (Please select one .) 5 members or less 6 10 members 11 15 members 1 6 20 members 21 or more members 7. Which best describes your Women United chapter membership structure? (Please select one .) Intermittent: participation fluctuates from event to event Constant: participation is for a fixed term (e.g. members renew annually) A mixture of intermittent and constant Other, please specify: ____________________ 8. What length of membership comm itment does your Women United chapter require? (Please select one .) None

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 35 1 2 year 3 4 years 5 years or more 9. What is the typical environment for your Women United chapte r meetings ? (Please select one .) In person only Online only A mixture of in person and online Does not meet Other, please specify: ____________________ 10. H ow frequently does your Women United chapter meet? (Please select one .) Monthly Quarterly Semi annually Annually Does not meet Other, please specify: ____________________ your Women United chapter ? (Please select one .) One giving level that every member must meet (or exceed) Multiple, set giving levels (tiered g iving) Varying amounts once a year Varying amounts several times a year

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 36 No set giving level Other, please specify: ____________________ 12. Is there a membership fee in order to be part of your Women United chapter? (Please select one .) Yes No No t sure 13. What minimum dollar amount must members give in order to be allowed a vote or have a say in funding decision making? (Please select one .) No minimum required $99 or less $100 $249 $250 $499 $500 $999 $1,000 or greater Other, please specify: ____________________ 14. About how many members participated in funding decision making during the past year? (Please select one .) 5 members or less 6 10 11 15 1 6 20 members 21 or more

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 37 Not applicable 15. Which of the following best describes how funding recipients are chosen? (Please select one .) Consensus in which all members agree upon which funding recipients are chosen Members vote on recipients and majority rules Decision is made entirely by a board or committee Members nominate or vote on a slate; board or committee selects recipients Members or committee nominate; members decide individually to fund or not Decision is made by the host organization for whic h Women United is a chapter Other, please specify: ____________________ 16. Beyond funding through the Women United chapter , in what other ways do Women United chapter members give time, talent, or resources to funding recipients? (Please select all that apply.) Provide technical assistance, including public relations, marketing, technology, financial, legal, or accounting support Provide fundraising support, includ ing introductions to other donors Participate on the board or other governing or advisory body Give additional funds directly None of the above Other, please specify: ____________________ 17. What activities or learning opportunities are provided t o members through your Women United chapter ? (Please select all that apply.) Speakers or training on philanthropy or specific community issues

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 38 Leadership training Site visits to nonprofit organizations Meetings with nonprofit or community leaders Discussions about funding recipients or community issues Discussions about personal or group values Networking opportunities Social activities or celebrations Policy advocacy and/or lobbying None of the above Other, please specify: ___________ _________ 18. In your opinion how engaged is your Women United chapter in the community? (Please select one .) Completely Very Much Somewhat Very little Not at all 19. If your Women United chapter is Completely of Very Much engaged, what do you feel are the contributing factors? (Please select all that apply.) Supported heavily by United Way Large membership to contribute funds Active members that act as leaders Ongoing recruitment

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 39 Members are shown impact of their work Variety of communication channels are utilized Numerous outlets for volunteering and advocacy Few to none other women based giving groups N/A Other, please specify ____________________ 20. If your Women Un ited chapter is Somewhat , Very little or Not at all engaged, what do you feel are the contributing factors? (Please select all that apply.) Supported minimally by United Way Lacking in membership No active members acting as leaders Minimal recruitment efforts Members are not shown impact of their work Poor communication Limited outlets for volunteering and advocacy N/A Other, please specify ____________________ 21. W hat is the name of the United Way that hosts your Women United chapter ? 22. How long has your Women United chapter been in existence ? (Please select one .) 1 year or less 2 4 years 5 9 years

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 40 10 years or more 23. Does your Women United chapter have any paid staff support (e.g., hourly administrative or program assistance by member or staff employed at United Way )? (Please select one.) Yes No Not sure 24. If your Women United chapter has paid staff support, please specify the average number of hours paid staff provide support to the giving group per month : (Please select one .) 1 hour or less 2 9 hours 1 0 19 hours 20 hours or more N/A 25. If your Women United chapter has paid staff support, describe what activities they are responsible for or assist with? (Please select all that apply.) Tracking and processing donations Developing strategic plan Arranging meetings Coordinating recruitment efforts Grants management Arranges for education opportunities Manages communication Other, please specify: ____________________

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 41 N/A 26. What challenges does your Women United chapter face being hosted at United Way, if any? (Please select all that apply.) Evaluation of impact Unlocking donor capacity Staf fing Expectations Cultivation/Recruitment Communication None Other, please specify: ____________________ 27. What benefits to United Way does your Women United chapter provide? (Please select all that apply.) New and diverse donors Greater reach to donors and supporters Opportunity to demonstrate core stewardship of mission Engage leaders Ambassadors None Other, please specify: ____________________ 28. What benefits to the community does your Women United chapter provide? (Please select all that apply.) Additional funding support

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 42 Increased awareness via advocacy Readily available pool of volunteers Other, please specify: ____________________ 29. Has your Women United chapter received additional funds or sponsorships from outside of the membership (from individuals, businesses, philanthropic organizations, etc.)? (Please select one.) Yes No Not sure 30. What is the source of these additional funds from outside of the membership? (Please select all that apply.) Individual donors who are not members Foundations or corporations United Way N/A Other, please specify: ____________________ 31. Which of the following areas does your Women United chapter primarily fund? (Please select all that appl y.) Arts, culture, and humanities Education Health Human services Public affairs/society benefit

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 43 Religion related o Youth serving Women and girls Specific race/ethnic group(s) LGBTQ N/A Other, please specify: ____________________ 32. What types of funding support does your Women United chapter provide? (Please select all that apply.) General, operating, or unrestricted support Program support Capital support (e.g. for buildings or construction projects) Capacity building su pport Endowment support Support for individuals (e.g. scholarships or fellowships) N/A Other, please specify: ____________________ 33. Where, geographically, does your Women United chapter primarily fund? (Please select all that apply.) Local State Regional or multi state o Tribal Lands

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 44 National Other, please specify: ____________________ 34. Please provide your best estimates for the amounts for the following in the 2018 calendar year : Total dollars RAISED in 2018 calendar year: Total dollars GIVEN in 2018 calendar year: Total NUMBER of grants, scholarships, or donations awarded in 2018 calendar year: N/A 35. About how often are grants, scholarships, or donations awarded by your Women United chapter? (Please select one.) Monthly Quarterly Semi annually Annually On a rolling basis N/A Other, please specify: ____________________ 36. What is your RACE/ETHNIC identity makeup? (Please select all that apply.) White Black or African Latino/a or Hispanic Ameri can Indian or Alaska Native Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 45 Multiple races/ethnicities Other, please specify: ____________________ 37. What is your AGE range ? (Please select one .) 18 24 years 25 3 4 years 3 5 44 years 45 64 years 65 years and older 38. What is your RELIGIOUS affiliations? (Please select all that apply.) Christian Jewish Muslim Hindu Buddhist No religious affiliation Other, please specify: ____________________ 39. What is your INCOME range? (Please select one .) $ 2 4 ,000 or less $ 2 5 ,000 $ 49,000 $ 50,000 $ 74,000 $ 75,000 $ 99,000 100,000+ 40. What is your EMPLOYMENT status? (Please select one .)

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 46 Part Time (less than 40 hours/week) Full time (more than 40 hours/week) Temporary Retired Not employed 41. What is your HIGHEST LEVEL OF EDUCATION you have completed? (Please select one .) Some h igh s chool High s chool graduate Some vo cational s chool Vocational s chool g raduate Some college/ University Student College/ University g raduate Masters s tudent Masters g raduate Doctorate s tudent Doctorate g raduate 42. What is your RELATIONSHIP status? (Please select one .) Single Married Divorced Widowed Separated 43. What is your FAMILY UNIT size? (Please select one .)

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 47 1 3 members 4 6 members 7 9 members 10 or more members 44. Please share anything else that you would like me to know or I should have asked about your Women United chapter: 45. Please provide your email address (This is voluntary and will only be used to contact you regarding this research):

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 48 Appendix C : Research q uestion/ s urvey m atrix Research Question Related Survey Questions Research Question 1: What are the characteristics of members? 1. What is your role within Women United? (Please select one.) Volunteer LEADER Volunteer MEMBER Paid staff ADMINISTRATOR Paid staff working for HOST Other, please specify 2. How long have you been a member? (Please select one.) Less than 1 year 1 2 years 3 4 years 5 years or more 3. How did you find out about your Women United chapter? (Please select one.) United Way workplace giving campaign Local United Way outreach event Friend/Co work/Associate Other, please specify 4. Why did you become a member of Women United? (Please select all that apply.)

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 49 To be involved in community action at a local level To advocate for underrepresented populations To volunteer for United Way organizations To meet other community members Other, please specify 5. What keeps you involved in Women United? (Please select all that apply.) The organizations and/or populations you are able to impact The advocacy opportunities The volunteer opportunities made Other, please specify 36. What is your RACE/ETHNIC identity makeup? (Please select all that apply.) White Black or African Latino/a or Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Multiple races/ethnicities Other, please specify:

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 50 37. What is your AGE range ? (Please select one.) 18 24 years 25 34 years 35 44 years 45 64 years 65 years and older 38. What is your RELIGIOUS affiliations? (Please select all that apply.) Christian J ewish Muslim Hindu Buddhist No religious affiliation Other, please specify: 39. What is your INCOME range? (Please select one.) $24,000 or less $25,000 $49,000 $50,000 $74,000 $75,000 $99,000 $ 100,000+ 40. What is your EMPLOYMENT status? (Please select one.)

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 51 Part Time (less than 40 hours/week) Full time (more than 40 hours/week) Temporary Retired Not employed 41. What is your HIGHEST LEVEL OF EDUCATION you have completed? (Please select one.) Some high school High school graduate Some vocational school Voc ational school graduate Some college/ University Student College/ University graduate Masters student Masters graduate Doctorate student Doctorate graduate 42. What is your RELATIONSHIP status? (Please select one.) Single Married Divorced Widowed

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 52 Separated 43. What is your FAMILY UNIT size? (Please select one.) 1 3 members 4 6 members 7 9 members 10 or more members Research Question 2: United chapters structured, and how do they operate? STRUCTURE 6. About how many members currently participate in your Women United chapter? (Please select one.) 5 members or less 6 10 members 11 15 members 16 20 members 21 or more members 7. Which best describes your Women United chapter membership structure? (Please select one.) Intermittent: participation fluctuates from event to event Constant: participation is for a fixed term (e.g., members renew annually) A mixture of intermittent and constant Other, please specify: ____________________

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 53 8. What length of membership commitment does your Women United chapter require? (Please select one.) None 1 2 year 3 4 years 5 years or more 9. What is the typical environment for your Women United chapter meetings ? (Please select one.) In person only Online only A mixture of in person and online Does not meet Other, please specify: ____________________ 10. How frequently does your Women United chapter meet? (Please select one.) Monthly Quarterly Semi annually Annually Does not meet Other, please specify: ____________________

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 54 through your Women United chapter ? (Please select one.) One giving level that every member must meet (or exceed) Multiple; set giving levels (tiered giving) Varying amounts once a year Varying amount s several times a year No set giving level Other, please specify: ____________________ 12. Is there a membership fee in order to be part of your Women United chapter? (Please select one.) Yes No Not sure 13. What minimum dollar amount must members give in order to be allowed a vote or have a say in funding decision making? (Please select one.) No minimum required $99 or less $100 $249 $ 250 $499 $500 $999 $1,000 or greater

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 55 Other, please specify: ____________________ OPERATE 14. About how many members participated in funding decision making during the past year? (Please select one.) 5 members or less 6 10 11 15 16 20 members 21 or more Not applicable 15. Which of the following best describes how funding recipients are chosen? (Please select one.) Consensus in which all members agree upon which funding recipients are chosen Members vote on recipients and majority rules Decision is made entirely by a board or committee Members nominate or vote on a slate; board or committee selects recipients Members or committee nominate; members decide individually to fund or not Decision is made by the host organization for which Women United is a chapter

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 56 Other, pl ease specify: ____________________ 16. Beyond funding through the Women United chapter , in what other ways do Women United chapter members give time, talent, or resources to funding recipients? (Please select all that apply.) Provide technical assistance, including public relations, marketing, technology, financial, legal, or accounting support Provide fundraising support, including introductions to other donors Participate on the board or other governing or advisory body Give additional funds directly None of the above Other, please specify: ____________________ 17. What activities or learning opportunities are provided to members through your Women United chapter ? (Please select all that apply.) Speakers or training on philanthropy or specific community issues Leadership training Site visits to nonprofit organizations Meetings with nonprofit or community leaders

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 57 Discussions about funding recipients or community issues Discussions about personal or group values Networking opportunities Social activities or celebrations Policy advocacy and/or lobbying None of the above Other, please specify: ____________________ 18. In your opinion how engaged is your Women United chapter in the community? (Please select one.) Completely Very Much Somewhat Very little Not at all 19. If your Women United chapter is Completely or Very Much engaged, what do you feel are the contributing factors? (Please select all that apply.) Supported heavily by United Way Large membership to contribute funds Active members that act as leaders Ongoing recruitment Members are shown the impact of their work

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 58 Variety of communication channels are utilized Numerous outlets for volunteering and advocacy Few to none other women based giving groups N/A Other, please specify ____________________ 20. If your Women United chapter is Somewhat, Very little or Not at all engaged, what do you feel are the contributing factors? (Please select all that apply.) Supported minimally by United Way Lacking in membership No active m embers acting as leaders Minimal recruitment efforts Members are not shown the impact of their work Poor communication Limited outlets for volunteering and advocacy Existence of other women's giving groups in the community N/A Other, please specify ____________________ 29. Has your Women United chapter received additional funds or sponsorships from outside of the membership (from

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 59 individuals, businesses, philanthropic organizations, etc.)? (Please select one.) Yes No Not sure 30. What is the source of these additional funds from outside of the membership? (Please select all that apply.) I ndividual donors who are not members Foundations or corporations United Way N/A Other, please specify: ____________________ 35. About how often are grants, scholarships, or donations awarded by your Women United chapter? (Please select one.) Monthly Quarterly Semi annually Annually On a rolling basis N/A Other, please specify: ____________________

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 60 Research Question 3: What characterizes the relationship between Women United chapters and United Way? 23. Does your Women United chapter have any paid staff support (e.g., hourly administrative or program assistance by member or staff employed at United Way)? (Please select one.) Yes No Not sure 24. If your Women United chapter has paid staff support, please specify the average number of hours paid staff provides support to the giving group per month: (Please select one.) 1 hour or less 2 9 hours 10 19 hours 20 hours or more N/A 25. If your Women United chapter has paid staff support, describe what activities they are responsible for or assist with? (Please select all that apply.) Tracking and processing donations Developing a strategic plan Arranging meetings Coordinating recruitment efforts Grants management

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 61 Arranges for education opportunities Manages communication Other, please specify: ____________________ N/A 26. What challenges does your Women United chapter face being hosted at United Way, if any? (Please select all that apply.) Evaluation of impact Unlocking donor capacity Staffing Expectations Cultivation/Recruitment Communication None Other, please specify: ____________________ 27. What benefits to United Way does your Women United chapter provide? (Please selec t all that apply.) New and diverse donors Greater reach to donors and supporters Opportunity to demonstrate core stewardship of mission Engage leaders Ambassadors

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 62 None Other, please specify: ____________________ Research Question 4: What type of work are chapters doing in the community? 28. What benefits to the community does your Women United chapter provide? (Please select all that apply.) Additional funding support Increased awareness via advocacy Readily available pool of volunteers Other, please specify: ____________________ 31. Which of the following areas does your Women United chapter primarily fund? (Please select all that apply.) Arts, culture, and humanities Education Health Human services Public affairs/society benefit Religion related Youth serving Women and girls Specific race/ethnic group(s) LGBTQ N/A Other, please specify: ____________________

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 63 32. What types of funding support does your Women United chapter provide? (Please select all that apply.) General, operating, or unrestricted support Program support Capital support (e.g., for buildings or construction projects) Capacity building support Endowment support Support for individuals (e.g., scholarships or fellowships) N/A Other, please specify: ____________________ 33. Where, geographically, does your Women United chapter primarily fund? (Please select all that apply.) Local State Regional or multi state Tribal Lands National Other, please specify: ____________________

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 64 Appendix D : Figures Figure 1. R easons for and benefits of hosting giving groups . Dynamics of hosting. Giving circles and collective giving groups by Bearman, J., & Franklin, J., 2018, Collective Giving Research Group , p. 16.

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 65 Figure 2. Challenges of hosting giving groups . Dynamics of hosting. Giving circles and collective giving groups by Bearman, J., & Franklin, J., 2018, Collective Giving Research Group , p. 18. Figure 3. Giving circles giving beyond grants . The landscape of giving circles/collective giving groups in the U.S. by Bearman, J., Carboni, J., Eikenberry, A., & Franklin, J. , 2016, Collective Giving Research Group , p. 23.

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 66 Figure 4. Giving circles funding issue areas or populations . The landscape of giving circles/collective giving groups in the U.S. by Bearman, J., Carboni, J., Eikenberry, A., & Franklin, J. , 2016, Collective Giving Research Group , p. 24.

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 67 Appendix E : MPA c ompetencies This capstone project encompasses a range of competencies derived from the participation in the required and elective course work that comprise s the MPA program. The competency areas most actualized are identified along with a brief narrative of how the application of gained knowledge and skills influenced and informed the development, delivery, and outcomes of the project. Th e partnership with the UWDAT enabled the application of acquired skills such as critical thinking and data analysis, the provision of collaborative leadership and experiential management, the use of nonprofit research techniques and best practices , and the refinement of written and oral communication. To lead and manage in public governance In the MPA program, we learn that citizen engagement matters because it is what democracy demands. A strong democracy functions off the act ive engagement of its citizenship. Collective action by citizens creates cohesive communities through multiple channels of two way (outward facing and inward facing) engagement including public information officers, volunteerism, advisory boards, surveys, online interactions, and coproduction. It is imperative that the results of engagements are reflections of the stakeholders. Such sentiments ring true in the nonprofit sector as reflected in the purpose of this capstone project. Overall th e execution of th e research demonstrate d within the context of public administration the harnessing of the power of people (Women United or giving groups) to solve systemic population level problems ( access to health, income, education) by leveraging the nonprofit sector ( UWDAT) . By exercising collaborative leadership and experiential management in coordination with research theory and nonprofit best practices , this project explored Women United as a vehicle to articulate

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 68 and empower donor preferences and directly i dentify and address social needs at a community level with the intention of purposeful, engaged and democratized giving. To articulate and apply a public service perspective With the role of the nonprofit sector centered around a construct that adds value to social services via positive impacts in response to pressing societal issues it is critical that the effectiveness of mission driven work is assessed 6, p. 97), maximize preferences and generate social impact. Thus, the UWDAT , a s a nonprofit conceived of issues manifested by market failures and shaped by historical context, exercise of wealth, legal and regulatory frameworks, political trends and economic events (Renz, 2016) , was an excellent client with which to partner. I t is easy to see that Women United , with a membership over 70,000 strong , is a philanthropic force within United Way that is effective in engaging women donors to accelerat e change . In applying a public service lens to Women United as an inter organizational group, it is fundamental that the structure, operations, and membership all alig n to United Way as the host to constructively deliver on member giving , civic engagement , and community impact . T o analyze, synthesize, think critically, solve problems and make decisions The project required extensi ve research which relied heavily on among many other skills the knowledgeable application of nonprofit management and theory in coordination with the develo pment of a deeper understanding of organizational practices, giving trends, donor motivation, engagement concepts, and the collection and analysis of data . The capstone project, therefore, utilized a multi faceted approach beginning with convergent thinking in refining the definition of the problem to be investigated followed by critically assessing the immediate

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 69 environment through sha red perspectives to the desired outcome to inform mutually aligned mission driven goals. Therefore, the survey instrument developed allowed the reporting of ex periential data in a format designed to instill validity and reliability concerning the agreed up on evaluation criteria . T he collected data transcribed into descriptive analysis was shared via limited tangible results and recommendations for consideration to the UWDAT. The UWDAT can then leverage the relayed finding into facilitating decision making t o improve giving in service to the Women United mission. To communicate and interact productively with a diverse and changing workforce and citizenry With its existence comprised of various elements nonprofits such as UWDAT can exist as a segment of society on a local level ( UWDAT ), define its own society (Women United) and operate within the public sphere (United Way Worldwide). In practice, the UWDAT functions as a unifying institution to Women United based on shared purposes, ethics, and values . Wo men United, in turn , provides a platform for voices to be heard, constructive social norms to be nurtured and societal problems to be solved at a local level . For c ollective aspirations to have the desired efficacy requires communication i nclusive of an ag reed upon common understanding of the problem. Engaging in constructive and inquisitive conversations with the client and translating significant research into meaningful exchanges was required to define the problem addressed in this capstone. By construct ing a timeline of deliverables that laid out performance indicators, project elements, research allocation and appropriate feedback opportunities for the capstone project and presenting it to the UWDAT encouraged transparency , accountabilit y , and alignment of goals .

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WOMEN UNITED AS A GIVING GROUP 70 A dditionally, a cooperate approach was undertake n to solicit responses from the intended survey audience . The aim was to garner a significant enough response to generalize recommendations across Women United chapters . With a response rate prohibitive to statistical analysis or generalizations the data was acutely a ssess ed based on evaluative thinking. The derived insightful endorsements and propositions were communicat ed, both written and orally, to the UWDAT , to encourage dialogue tha t fosters continuous improvement and the enhan cement of the implementation of Women United for greater mission advancement.

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Form Name: capstone repository permission Submission Time: November 18, 2019 9:11 am Browser: Chrome 70.0.3538.102 / Windows IP Address: 170.178.228.10 Unique ID: 556745437 Location: 42.550701141357, -90.693099975586 Description Area SCHOOL OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS ELECTRONIC CAPSTONE REPOSITORY Description Area Dear Capstone Author and Capstone Client:The Auraria Library Digital Library Program is a nonprofit center responsible for the collection and preservation of digital resources for education.The capstone project, protected by your copyright, and/or created under the supervision of the client has been identified as important to the educational mission of the University of Colorado Denver and Auraria Library.The University of Colorado Denver and Auraria Library respectfully requests non-exclusive rights to digitize the capstone project for Internet distribution in image and text formats for an unlimited term. Digitized versions will be made available via the Internet, for onand off-line educational use, with a statement identifying your rights as copyright holder and the terms of the grant of permissions.Please review, sign and return the follow Grant of Permissions. Please do not hesitate to call me or email your questions.Sincerely,Matthew C. MarinerAuraria LibraryDigital Collections ManagerMatthew.mariner@ucdenver.edu303.556.5817 Grant of Permissions Description Area In reference to the following title(s): Author (Student Name) Laura Merrick Title (Capstone Project Title) Women United: An Inter-organizational Approach to a Giving Group Publication Date 05/07/2019 I am the: Client Description Area As client of the copyright holder affirm that the content submitted is identical to that which was originally supervised and that the content is suitable for publication in the Auraria Library Digital Collections.

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Description Area This is a non-exclusive grant of permissions for on-line and off-line use for an indefinite term. Off-line uses shall be consistent either for educational uses, with the terms of U.S. copyright legislation's "fair use" provisions or, by the University of Colorado Denver and/or Auraria Library, with the maintenance and preservation of an archival copy. Digitization allows the University of Colorado Denver and/or Auraria Library to generate imageand text-based versions as appropriate and to provide and enhance access using search software. This grant of permissions prohibits use of the digitized versions for commercial use or profit. Signature Your Name Jessica Bleile Date 11/18/2019 Email Address jessica.bleile@dbqunitedway.org ATTENTION Description Area Grant of Permissions is provided to: Auraria Digital Library Program / Matthew C. MarinerAuraria Library1100 Lawrence | Denver, CO 80204matthew.mariner@ucdenver.edu303-556-5817

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Form Name: capstone repository permission Submission Time: May 6, 2019 1:36 am Browser: Firefox 66.0 / OS X IP Address: 173.29.27.100 Unique ID: 502283421 Location: 42.550701141357, -90.693099975586 Description Area SCHOOL OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS ELECTRONIC CAPSTONE REPOSITORY Description Area Dear Capstone Author and Capstone Client:The Auraria Library Digital Library Program is a nonprofit center responsible for the collection and preservation of digital resources for education.The capstone project, protected by your copyright, and/or created under the supervision of the client has been identified as important to the educational mission of the University of Colorado Denver and Auraria Library.The University of Colorado Denver and Auraria Library respectfully requests non-exclusive rights to digitize the capstone project for Internet distribution in image and text formats for an unlimited term. Digitized versions will be made available via the Internet, for onand off-line educational use, with a statement identifying your rights as copyright holder and the terms of the grant of permissions.Please review, sign and return the follow Grant of Permissions. Please do not hesitate to call me or email your questions.Sincerely,Matthew C. MarinerAuraria LibraryDigital Collections ManagerMatthew.mariner@ucdenver.edu303.556.5817 Grant of Permissions Description Area In reference to the following title(s): Author (Student Name) Laura Merrick Title (Capstone Project Title) Women United: An Inter-organizational Approach to a Giving Group Publication Date 05/05/2019 I am the: Author (student) Description Area As copyright holder or licensee with the authority to grant copyright permissions for the aforementioned title(s), I hereby authorize Auraria Library and University of Colorado Denver to digitize, distribute, and archive the title(s) for nonprofit, educational purposes via the Internet or successive technologies.

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Description Area This is a non-exclusive grant of permissions for on-line and off-line use for an indefinite term. Off-line uses shall be consistent either for educational uses, with the terms of U.S. copyright legislation's "fair use" provisions or, by the University of Colorado Denver and/or Auraria Library, with the maintenance and preservation of an archival copy. Digitization allows the University of Colorado Denver and/or Auraria Library to generate imageand text-based versions as appropriate and to provide and enhance access using search software. This grant of permissions prohibits use of the digitized versions for commercial use or profit. Signature Your Name Laura Merrick Date 05/05/2019 Email Address laura.merrick@ucdenver.edu ATTENTION Description Area Grant of Permissions is provided to: Auraria Digital Library Program / Matthew C. MarinerAuraria Library1100 Lawrence | Denver, CO 80204matthew.mariner@ucdenver.edu303-556-5817