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Communicating and Evaluating Science

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Title:
Communicating and Evaluating Science
Creator:
Beall, Jeffrey
Wilhite, Allen W.
Fong, Eric A.
Costa, João
Fernandes, Sofia
Gradim, Anabela
Príncipe, Pedro
Fernando, João
Gonçalves, Ferreira
Silvestre, J.
Canas, S.
Dias, J. Eiras
Paiva, Francisco
Machado, Irene
Carrozza, Chiara
Pereira, Tiago Santos
Pereira, Susana Simões
Azevedo, José Manuel Pereira
José de Oliveira Machiavelo, António
Place of Publication:
Covilhã, Portugal
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Laboratório de Comunicação Online, Universidade da Beira Interior
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Book

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Scope and Content:
Part I - Academic Integrity and research & evaluation indicators Predatory Publishers are Destroying the Integrity of Scholarly Communication - 11 Jeffrey Beall By Albert Einstein, the Editor, you, and me - 33 Allen W. Wilhite and Eric A. Fong Scientific Output in Humanities and Social Sciences: Problems and Alternatives - 49 João Costa Portuguese universities on the rankings: strategies for improvement - 59 Paula Pechincha, António Marques and José António Sarsfield Cabral The evaluation of the scientific production in biotechnology, law and arts: proposal of a model - 89 Sofia Fernandes Part II - Open Access challenges for science policy Predatory publishers and open access models - 113 Anabela Gradim OpenAIRE and the communication of science: the Open Access infrastructure for research in Europe - 127 Pedro Príncipe I know you know I quote: a strategic vision of publications in science - 135 João Fernando Ferreira Gonçalves Wine-growing science and technique – 30 years of challenges - 149 J. Silvestre; S. Canas; J. Eiras Dias Part III - Theories, methods and case studies in Science Communication Investigation in, about and through Art from the point of view of its publication: epistemological and validation aspects - 157 Francisco Paiva Graphic argumentation: diagrammatic modeling in the communication of science - 177 Irene Machado Mapping digital methods: where science and technology studies and communication studies meet? - 203 Chiara Carrozza and Tiago Santos Pereira In need of a better communication of mathematics in the press - 237 Susana Simões Pereira, José Manuel Pereira Azevedo and António José de Oliveira Machiavelo ( English )

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PAGE 1

Anabela Gradim and Catarina Moura (Org.)COMMUNICATING AND EVALUATING SCIENCEEN LABCOM.IFP COMUNICATION, PHILOSOPHY AND HUMANITIES RESEARCH UNIT UNIVERSITY OF BEIRA INTERIOR

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COMMUNICATING AND EVALUATING SCIENCE Anabela Gradim and Catarina Moura (Org.) LABCOM.IFP COMUNICATION, PHILOSOPHY AND HUMANITIES RESEARCH UNIT UNIVERSITY OF BEIRA INTERIOR

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Title Communicating and Evaluating Science Organization Anabela Gradim and Catarina Moura Collection LabCom Series Research in Communication Direction Jos Ricardo Carvalheiro Graphic Design Cristina Lopes Catarina Moura and Sara Constante (Cover) ISBN 978-989-654-238-2 (paper) 978-989-654-240-5 (pdf) 978-989-654-239-9 (epub) Legal Deposit 395070/15 Print Print-on-demand LabCom.IFP Books www.labcom-ifp.ubi.pt Beira Interior University Rua Marqus Dvila e Bolama. 6201-001 Covilh. Portugal www.ubi.pt Publishing copyright authorizations from both articles and images are exclusively the authors responsibility. Technical

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Contents Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1 Part I ACADEMIC INTEGRITY AND RESEARCH & EVALUATION INDICATORS Predatory Publishers are Destroying the Integrity of Scholarly Communication ........................................................................... 11 Jeffrey Beall By Albert Einstein, the Editor, you, and me .................................................... 33 Allen W. Wilhite and Eric A. Fong Sc Problems and Alternatives .............................................................................. 49 Joo Costa ............. 59 ...................................... 89 Part II OPEN ACCESS CHALLENGES FOR SCIENCE POLICY ............................................... 113 .................................. 127 Pedro Prncipe

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........ 135 Wine-growing science and technique 30 years of challenges. .................... 149 Part III THEORIES, METHODS AND CASE STUDIES IN SCIENCE COMMUNICATION ............................ 157 in the communication of science .................................................................... 177 Irene Machado communication studies meet? ........................................................................ 203 Chiara Carrozza and Tiago Santos Pereira .................... 237 Manuel Pereira and Antnio Notes on the authors ....................................................................................... 249

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6] 1 Introduction of an international conference on some extent, remains unclear structure this book Jeffrey Beall is quite incisive in the way he dissects the destruction of research cultures of research those without

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2 status quo this level within academia are distorting its ethics. Nevertheless, the author reviewing, the inquiries made by Wilhite and Fong conclude not only that they he writes. measure as well as an evaluation instrument, has been gaining weight and curricula of both individuals and research teams. Which can be challenging when its time to guarantee that bibliometric databases are able to assure a correct indicators to very dissimilar areas, disregarding each ones own community and That is certainly the case of Social Sciences and Humanities, being known that the bibliometric databases of commercial base more used in evaluation

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3 Sciences and Humanities leads the team that is now in charge of building/ market according to which universities have to design their functioning and surviving strategies. Paula Romo Pechincha, Antnio Marques and Jos validity of the methodologies used is in many cases beyond the control of the its institutional image and sense of belonging. measure, information not necessarily included in rankings, but about them Open Access Challenges for Science Policy

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4 allowing us to understand their business model and evaluate the signs that they editorial boards using the names of scientists without their knowledge, to one of Cincia e

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5 feedback), making innovation and thematic broadening a more viable survival research is a luxury of the well known. Considering that within the realm of science the question of research Theories, Methods and been the result of research in art, it is not a thesis, it does not answer to any

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6 classic bibliometric studies of science and technology, and information science. to new ways of thinking and acting, aims to be a contribution to a wider academic debate that has been emerging from several quarters imbedded with a certain sense of urgency and militancy know and feel remains to be seen.

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Academic Integrity and research & evaluation indicators Part I

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32] 11 integrity of scholarly communication Jeffrey Beall Introduction Increasingly, authors are the source of funding in academic research, a system and disadvantages those without.

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12 track and list all of them, and it is an effective strategy

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13 becoming watered down and in some research cultures may have decreased in the biomedical sciences as any biomedical researcher with an email address

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14 databases and indexing services they search. The BOAI is a substitute for thought were cleverly designed to serve as a substitute for thought, a design that has for thought. Indeed, many of us have observed for over the twelve years since the statement

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15 of Open Access Journals The Scholarly Kitchen

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16 industrys mission, in this case scholarly communication. Movements need enemies it seems. It is sad but standard and there is little the industry can do He continues, because once a social movement gets you in its sights reality matters little. I recommend defending yourselves rather than agreeing that things need to

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17 Table 1. Mandate Strength. I think such an indicator clearly signals that there is something amiss. in outlets that I choose for myself. unfortunately, in the works.

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18 The courts in the United States have dealt with a similar issue before. David L. Hudson Jr its 1988 decision City of Lakewood v Plain Dealer Publishing Co., the high court invalidated a city ordinance that gave the mayor unbridled discretion necessary and reasonable by the Mayor In the next case, again reading from Hudson : City of Cincinnati v Discovery Network, Inc. The city revoked the news

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19 advertising. could limit the number of news racks. The Court disagreed, asserting that even

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20 Hecklers veto is whats called the hecklers veto What they do is they email my library director can see, the strategy has not been successful, but it is annoying for me and others at my university

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21 conferences which will be held later this year in Las Vegas. The owner of this sees right through this tactic, the hecklers veto. years, some business schools have used included in Cabells or included in Breakdown of Research Cultures cause, the breakdown of research cultures. By research cultures, I refer to the universities, countries and regions. The role of hard work, originality, and

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22 Traditionally, hard work, originality and merit have been demonstrated communication. they frequently describe the tenure case they are considering, and the cases often many cases, including at colleges and universities here in North America, where readers. The voice of the consumer of scholarly research the readers and

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23 in regions where research cultures have broken down. The biggest victims are the honest scholars. advocates.

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24 Google Scholar I have been considering and writing about the value of Google Scholar since While Google Scholar may be useful for seeking articles by a known author world of knowledge management. Before I blogged about his research, he had 1,711 citations in Google Scholar After my

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25 his count. that were included in Google Scholar, like most of them are. The articles he written in stream-of-consciousness style. At the end of each article were the references. So in this way he was able to quickly and easily increase his citation count by hundreds of articles, effectively gaming Google Scholar metrics. While that there are hundreds or thousands of other cases, effectively rendering most Google Scholar metrics questionable. academia, and it is evidence that Google Scholar is not a trustworthy source of There is a certain hubris among academic librarians regarding the ability most cases.

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26 thinking is allowed. telling the whole truth. I think the two biggest factors that have contributed to science and the increase in the number of scientists, most all of whom need just intellectually dishonest. librarians and many others in higher education is one of the factors that has

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27 nor those who rely on the truth of science and medicine are sounding the alarm before their brains. There is a growing movement called Library as Publisher, and of course it now ignored.

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28 It turns out that the distribution and marketing of scholarly content that h -index or their citation count with the way they treat OCLC and ARL, the Association of Research Libraries. Also single industry academic library goes to OCLC, Inc., headquartered in Ohio. OCLC re-sells Though the records are available on the internet, they are not available in the MARC format libraries use, and the terms and conditions attached to the free Again, libraries collectively create the metadata records and contribute them

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29 Library of Congress. So OCLC is re-selling content back to the universities and leaders that cleverly and carefully direct the conversation away from anything that might affect the revenue it gets from libraries. Moreover, ARL, the Association of Research Libraries works closely with It sells statistical data it collects from its member libraries in annual

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30 We are now beginning to see scholarly articles describing the negative effects Journal of Surgical Education that investigated South African Journal of Science to the ethos of academic freedom and academic rigour which all scholars hold no waivers for them either

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31 Conclusion search engines. Unfair government legislation and regulation favors one kind of threaten the future of the communication of science. References 11 The 11 4 Mayo Clinic Proceedings

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32 South African Journal of Science 110 Insights 26 Journal of the College of Physicians and SurgeonsPakistan 24 Journal of Surgical Education 72

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48] 33 By Albert Einstein, the editor, you, and me 1 Allen W Wilhite and Eric A. Fong executed and the results are moderately interesting and references to you in

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34 the amount of research funding received. This increase is not only occurring At the same time there have been increases in the number of academic receive grant funding. individuals to work harder, to be more creative, and as more individuals become involved in the research environment, advances are more likely to arise. That without actually doing the necessary work. The techniques used to build this 2 In these note is based on those comments. 2) Creative achievements in the humanities differ and include activities such as art shows, books,

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35 At its heart, science is a consensus. The current frontier of any science the advancement of science. That means that the ultimate measure of research of research in and of itself. There are strengths and weaknesses of funding as formative years of ones career On the negative side however, some funded never reach a conclusion. So while grant funding is often used as a research

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36 A basic question we need to address is why do scholars add undeserving recognition and might reduce the amount of research funding I receive. Second, there is a serious ethical violation here. When your name is on an article, you are endorsing that workclaiming that to the best of your knowledge the information. adding senior authors This seems to be an unusual conclusion. If the ethical

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37 considered to be a non-issue because of the direct cost of losing credit and/ or funding. Adding an author dilutes the credit received by all of the original attract the interest of readers and editors as they wondered if this was somehow not agree to this use of his name. However, some individuals do not have the same level of self-control. Too many individuals seem to be able to convince writing realmover half of the individuals who admitted to adding an author

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38 A second reason for adding honorary authors revealed in our survey was demonstrated that while most universities may discount the credit given to an Such direct tit-for-tat trading may be uncommon, but there are frequently research teams in which the Another writes, This practice And The ethical violations here are

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39 A similar, commonly cited, reason for adding an honorary author was that the added individual was the Director of the lab or research center in which the work one scholar writes, In other cases a lab may be stocked with added an individual who had some research funding that could be used on the Consequently, institutional guidelines need to be established, known, and enforced.

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40 Coercive citations coercive citation does not refer to all references suggested by an editor, but only 3 The mischief arises because the numerator includes self-citations, articles in j that cite earlier articles in j 3)

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41 been coerced. One wrote, Another writes, And, Several editors admitted Another writes,

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42 novel methodology 4 editors decision and that change had nothing to do with the content of the work. And, Padding Citations

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43 work. Other times however it is a more targeted strategy, if I cite the editor of editor and his research. Make sure you cite at least one of his articles before you unethical.

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44 to uncover However, statistical auditing can reveal such behavior citation eventually reveals the true value of discoveries. There are huge holes in 5 5)

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45 Conclusions contributors should reveal who was in charge of the writing, formal data contributors such differentiation may make a lot of sense. Analysis, Journal of Financial Economics, Review of Asset Pricing Studies,

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46 do not want to add undeserving individuals to their author list and irrelevant seems to rewards individuals who are less inhibited by ethics. Too often they see name to the author list and the editor to the reference list. But that scholars in academic research. Nature

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47 research. British Medical Journal College Professors? The Atlantic Feb. 23.

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58] 49 and Alternatives Joo Costa 1. have been increasingly resorting to bibliometrics in order to measure the weaknesses. Peer evaluation is necessarily more informed, as it isnt solely based in the be evaluated differently by different sets of evaluators, due to the underlying

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50 evaluation in all these features. First, it is a less informed evaluation, since it human intervention. Bibliometric evaluation is done through data base searches, intervenient is null, as these take refuge in automated data obtained in databases. be fundamental to assure that indicators in which the evaluation is based Humanities and Social Sciences, it is known that the commercial bibliometrical the ongoing work of Portuguese FCT Foundation for Science and Technology, Production Index to Humanities and Social Sciences. 2. Problems of conventional bibliometrics in Humanities and Social Sciences

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51 a. Coverage b. Publication language c. d. e. Database endogamy emergence of evaluations based in bibliometrical data, researchers in these areas laboratory in Humanities and Social Sciences whose name I will refrain from Likewise, a survey by Professor Rui Santos, from FCSH/Nova University,

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52 Science Citation Index, and 300 items from Arts and Humanities Citation Index Citation ind. No. References No. Articles Total No. WoK % WoK SCI 200 8 107 6 663 82,2 300 12 683 4 353 34,3 AHCI 150 7 111 3 546 49,9 SSCI 150 5 572 807 14,5

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53 Book Citations in 2007 (source: Times Higher Education with Thomson) per occurrence Occurrences and citations in WoS In the survey undertaken to Norwegian authorities, Gunnar Sivertsen found

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54 As Gunnar Sivertsen showed, there is an evident lack of rationale for a of Sociology, not covered in WoS. Such arbitrariness makes Web of Science, as an evaluation instrument, hardly reliable and surely not very stable. led to the recognition of fado as World Heritage by UNESCO, archaeological on local economies, and remain invisible to bibliometric indicators.

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55 3. Constructing an alternative model indicators. of Gunnar Sivertsen. This model assumes that the data included must have a they would add to, or eliminate from the list. analysis. As a result, it was decided to include in the Portuguese list all

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56 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. theyd been marked for removal by the surveyed researchers. a. b. A markedly international editorial board c. database rankings were taken into account, and were established levels of of Scimago were all considered Level 2.

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57 There are challenges involved in the construction of instruments of this nature. makes foreseeable, in a near future, a trend for a growing recognition of such allowing for the inclusion of new titles, and also for a review of the levels

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88] 59 Portuguese universities on the et al ., 2014). In the USA, et al the latter were more focused on commercial interests et al ., 2014). The main university rankings remain centred on research and, within it, less

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60 The last decade has seen the emergence of a substantial number and variety are rankings to suit every taste, including those that have essentially a national the latter attract the most interest from stakeholders, they are the ones which will There are currently 10 global rankings, which can be seen in Table 1 et al Ranking Agency Country Year Academic Ranking of World Universities Shanghai Jiao Tong University China 2003 Ranking Web of Universities Council 2004 Performance Ranking Research Universities National Taiwan University Taiwan 2007 Leiden Ranking Centre for Science & Technology Studies, University of Leiden The Netherlands 2008 SCImago Institutions SCImago Lab 2009 University Ranking by Academic Performance Middle East Technical University, Ankara Turkey 2009 Rankings The United 2010

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61 THE World University Ranking* Times Higher Education The United 2010 U-Multirank Center for Higher Education Policy Studies The Netherlands and Germany 2014 Best Global Universities Rankings U.S. News USA 2014 It was in the 21 st today the best known internationally et al i ) they are ii ) the weight given to research is substantially greater than iii ) or other formats.

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62 et al ., i ii iii Finally, the rankings ensure high visibility for both the HEI and the countries Strategies and Processes et al i ii ) research rankings, i.e., those whose weight is determined by criteria and iii ) other rankings, which value other indicators of HEI activity, as is the case of free access to those institutions activities. Another case is U.Multirank, a multidimensional ranking focused on indicators that seek to cover all the activities of of knowledge or those connected with involvement in activities of the regions where the HEI are located. In fact, in recent years, following the criticism levelled at the rankings for other rankings have emerged that seek to focus their analysis and evaluation considered to be universitys third mission. rankings to devote less attention to teaching and third mission activities. As et al

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63 evaluate what is socially relevant in the HEI activities, or whether they focus on evaluating indicators that are easy to measure, as is the case with those drawn from the large data-bases such as Thomson Reuters Web of Science, or The Times Higher Education ranking, but the collaboration was discontinued as The are

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64 The Institute of Higher Education of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China, and its yearly lists include 500 universities from all over the world. The ranking indicators, but the former receive more attention. The indicators also include Nature and Science The Research rankings The annually include 750 universities from all over the world. The research indicators

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65 Science data base. The and visibility on the Web, but all very focused on research activities) include The by the National University of Taiwan and its yearly lists include 500 universities are also drawn from Thomson Reuters Web of Science data base. However, The annually include 2000 universities from around the world in an effort to extend the lists to a higher number of universities and not merely elite universities. Thomson Reuters Web of Science data base.

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66 Other rankings The largest in terms of HEI listed) includes 12,000 HEI from around the world and institutions on the Web. The worldwide. It has set out to be a multi-dimensional ranking, with its indicators covering teaching, learning, research, knowledge transfer, international outlook and involvement in activities undertaken in the regions where the HEI are located. Its sources of information include data submitted by the HEI themselves, the sourcing universities themselves.

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67 described above. Ranking Agency Number of Universities Indicators Databases University Ranking Symonds 700 universities worldwide Teaching and Research Elsevier THE World University Rankings Times Higher Education 400 universities worldwide Teaching Research indicators Web of Science, Thomson Reuters Academic Ranking of World Universities Shanghai Jiao Tong University 500 universities worldwide Teaching Research teaching indicators rely factors) Web of Science, Thomson Reuters Best Global Universities Rankings U.S. News 500 universities worldwide Research Web of Science, Thomson Reuters Leiden Ranking Centre for Science and Technology Studies, Leiden University 750 universities worldwide Research Web of Science, Thomson Reuters

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68 Scimago Institutions Ranking Scimago Lab, 5000 institutions and organisations education, government agencies and businesses worldwide) that conduct research. research, innovation, and Web visibility, but all very focused on research activities Elsevier PATSTAT Google and visibility). Performance Ranking of for World Universities National University of Taiwan 500 universities worldwide Research Web of Science, Thomson Reuters University Ranking by Academic Performance Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey 2000 universities worldwide Research Web of Science, Thomson Reuters Ranking Web of Universities Cybermetrics Lab, National Research Council 12000 HEI worldwide with a focus on research Visibility and Ahrefs Presence and activity on the search, Google Scholar

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69 U-Multirank Center for Higher Education Policy Studies Netherlands, e Centre for Higher Education Germany 1200 HEI worldwide Teaching / learning Research transfer International outlook Involvement in regional activities Web of Science, Thomson Reuters national statistics databases Data submitted by the HEI Student surveys Patent databases number of HEI. As a result, the best known global rankings continue to focus which has, naturally, attracted strong criticism above anything else by the motivations or interests inherent to the institutions themselves. Thus, it makes sense to resort to other criteria to assess the a global scale.

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70 However, this issue is not easily solved that one has to submitted by 171 HEI from 39 countries that answered the following question i ) achieved this status also because they attract more attention from the media and, ii different results as well for instance, one can access the Leiden Ranking with the website seeking with this tool to determine the frequency with which certain words are used in searches with Google Search and times university ranking, shanghai ranking or leiden ranking were used in

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71 et al ., 2014) and the frequency of access Rankings RISP UG CI CI Ranking) CI Webometrics MI MI LI University) ANI East Technical University, Turkey) ANI so it was not included in the studies conducted by the USA and the UG.

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72 the number of accesses on Google Search. ARWU. th level and generating an even lower level of interest Middle East Technical University at Ankara. By analysing the data collected et al ., 2014). Position of Portuguese universities on the rankings There have always been Portuguese universities on the global rankings. the ARWU ranking.

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73 ARWU, 2014) 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 UL 301400 404502 401500 -403510 402503 402501 401500 401500 401500 301400 201300 UP ----403510 402503 402501 401500 301400 301400 301400 301400 UC ----------401500 401500 UTL ---------401500 401500

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74 Similarly, there have always been Portuguese universities among the 400 on decreased and it seems that only in 2013 did this trend reverse. 2004 200 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 UP 501600 451500 401450 401450 343 293 UNL 340 277 341 401500 401500 384 401450 401450 353 312 UC 452 266 319 387 366 396 394 385 358 351 UCP 391 338 401500 401500 501600 501550 501550 551600 551600 501550 UL 551600 551600 601650

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75 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 UL ----351400 UM --351400 351400 351400 UP -301350 351401 351400 -UA -301350 351400 --UC -350400 ---UNL -350400 ---on the Leiden ranking. Since 2010, when a decision was made to list 500 universities, six Portuguese universities have been regularly ranked between

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76 2008 2009 2010 2011/12 2013 2014 UM -----379 UNL --398 357 353 404 UP --357 354 391 436 UA --413 315 306 446 UL --397 413 420 507 UC --412 418 426 513 UTL --348 344 368 -In the SIR Global edition, the Scimago Institutions Rankings have over the years used different indicators, but the default ranking of HEI, government Portuguese universities but not in terms of number

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77 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 UL 480 548 522 511 485 122 UP 320 311 289 270 242 221 UC 535 562 541 531 487 455 UA 597 551 550 550 524 517 UNL 653 715 690 663 611 586 UM 753 754 744 684 631 600 UTL 306 317 307 294 273 -UTL Technical University of Lisbon The number of Portuguese universities on the Taiwan ranking has increased 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 UL ----480 -411 224 UP 459 375 332 328 320 328 296 279 UC --487 478 433 478 387 368 UM ------494 470 UA -------487 UTL --353 380 381 380 365 -

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78 institutions, albeit not always the same ones 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 UL 425 414 408 362 125 UP 259 229 218 219 189 UC 377 374 373 345 304 UA 426 406 390 405 400 UM 534 523 486 455 427 UNL 500 478 471 478 429 UAlg 953 933 873 866 897 UTAD 1312 1219 1274 1291 1041 UE 1197 1170 1211 1168 1091 UBI 1553 1517 1468 1371 1207 IPL ----1512 UCP 1703 1692 1671 1742 1571 ISCTE-IUL 1956 ---1713 IPP ----1841 ISPA ----1944 UTL 583 484 455 436 -IST 635 708 724 848 -UMa 1793 1768 1739 1769 -IPB 1917 1894 1818 1860 -UFP 1854 1849 1811 1905 --

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79 2009 Jul 2010 Jan 2011 Jan 2012 Jan 2013 Jan 2014 Jan 2015 Jan UP 149 214 178 81 93 110 137 UM 267 275 151 290 263 337 228 UC 357 324 333 261 185 269 288 UNL 487 -422 496 327 385 354 UA ----451 -470 UTL 330 323 305 188 184 --UL 434 484 353 380 294 385 -UCP 490 ------UCP Portuguese Catholic University In 2014, U.S. News launched the Best Global Universities ranking, which U.S. News Best 2014 University of Lisbon University of Porto 333 University of Coimbra 430 University of Aveiro

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80 In an overall assessment of the situation, one can say that in 2005 there It should be noted that it is on the research rankings based on bibliometric the Portuguese universities fare the best.

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81

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82 the dilemma To rank or to be ranked? It is clear that those two extremes. In fact, it does not seem very advisable to disregard the other hand, some of the ranking indicators may be used to foster a culture of degree of validity of the methodologies used is in many cases beyond the bad, it may have negative consequences for the universitys image, while the Having said this, it is also clear that all universities are to varying extents i ) the rankings do not cover the full range of the universities missions ii ) in

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83 i ) Universities that do not have awardii ) The care facilities for international students. et al ., 2014). That is to say that if there are different rankings with et al iii )

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84 strategy, organisation, management and academic area. Strategy between rector and faculties Have led to benchmarking exercises Organisation ranking Reorganisation of structure Organisation of research team Management well as control of the relevant indicators. Academic Area weighting they had been given by the rankings with a view to bringing about

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85 Weighting Research Organisation Schools international student facilities, laboratories, dormitories Curriculum undergraduate Students PhD recruitment

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86 Faculty highly-cited scholars salaries research/relieve them of teaching Public Image/ Marketing Public Relations Nature and Science and other to enhance their organisation and the quality of activities, and become more feedback and advice to universities, it is based on data connected with the Rauhvargers, 2013).

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87 Universities. [ com/ leidenranking.com/ University of 2013 UNESCO EUA Publications 2014. Jounal of Sudies in nturanking.lis.ntu.edu.tw/

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88 Trends 2010: a decade of change in European EUA Publications. rankings/ multirank.eu/ Academic Performance. [ U.S. News Best Global Universities rankings. [Accessed universities Universities. [ Internationalisation NVAO Nederlands-Vlaamse Accreditatieorganisatie, Netherlands, December, 2010.

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110] 89 1 Introduction and results of this model. targeted in the evaluation. Notwithstanding, the standardisation of singular and areas. In the Library and Information Management of the Portuguese Catholic 1)

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90 da Universidade Catlica Portuguesa, Centro Regional do Porto], there are sustain decision-making within the range of the research activities. Bibliometrics and Scientometrics in the Evaluation of Bibliometrics and Scientometrics constitute the main tool for the evaluation ARAJO Informetrics and Webometrics. In a concise form, Bibliometrics studies books, articles and documents through rankings decisions about the allocation of resources. Scientometrics, as Informetrics, is

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91 between researchers and to analyse the areas of interest. Informetrics focuses on words, documents and databases by utilising Boolean and Probabilistic models with a view to recovering the information. Webometrics emerges to study a new reality, the In literature theories and studies arise, suggesting that the excessive focus on extracted from the and is considered essential for ENS [Exact and Natural Sciences] and for the SSH [Social Sciences and Humanities] In the Lesson of Wisdom delivered by Professor Jos Meirinhos in the existed in these areas that have modalities and their own circuits of trends and According to

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92 research through the study of three academic units of the Portuguese Catholic University UCP is a national university with a unique history and of a religious nature, consistent with other similar higher education institutions that invest on the 2004 as one of the 26 State Associated Laboratories by the Foundation for

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93 The centre research unit of general interest whose mission is to contribute to the innovation of the traditional research model in Portugal, relying on team work and from an in 2004 with the creation of Centro de Investigao em Cincia e Tecnologia das by FCT Research Method ones currently being enforced. how they disclose it. The data collection through the interview surveys had as

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94 Some interview surveys were also conducted with the Coordinator of the

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95 this means. In other words, its goal was to understand whether there is disclosure of the research activities to society and how that dissemination is done. collaboration. From the data gathered, we conducted a statistical analysis of the consistent in the ESB inasmuch as their motivations to communicate are linked as being known in the community, the construction of the curriculum and career

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96 bibliometric indicators in a standardised way EA and ED refer that their information gathered in the interview surveys conducted with the directors and session with the researchers of the same areas.

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97 which do not enable the usage of these bibliometric indicators, mainly due to the Scopus and the conclusion, we can consider that this number, by itself, is already an indicator After data analysis, we may conclude that it is not adequate to use a single the data collection, namely in the interviews to leaders and to managers of the This model should value the qualitative evaluation of the research results

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98 activities with industry, economics and society, and how the investments achieved knowledge. The creation of these indicators will enable the assessment of the relevance of all the outputs these indicators.

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99 These dimensions will be evaluated on the basis of criteria aimed at assessing analysis of data collected. It turned out that the target-audiences are different, and so are the means of dissemination. Still, the revitalisation and dissemination is valued, either for reinforcing the diffusion and the sharing of knowledge, or

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100 Image 2 Primary, secondary and tertiary indicators of the models of evaluation of the scientific and in the attribution of the weights allocated, which will be done according such as economics, industry and society in general, through the secondary and

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101 and dissemination. data so, four different techniques of data gathering were settled. We would also

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102 CITAR we observe its innovative character in Portugal for it articulates distinct and in the decision taking at strategic levels. The urgency of the evaluation is a adequate to all the SSH. article/view/8023>.

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103 GARFIELD, EugeneCitation indexes for science. A new dimension in documentation through association of ideas. International Journal of Akadmia, 2003. [Accessed 5 Nov 2013]. Course Handouts. Available at 9704-012-0. MEIRINHOS, Jos FranciscoUniversidade e conhecimento. O lugar das Humanidades [em linha]. Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto, the social sciences [em linha]. CWTS Centre for Science and Technology

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104 ISSN 0099-0086. Bibliometric characteristics of contributions by Turkish authors. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology [em linha].

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105 Annexes Image 4

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106

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109

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110 Image 9 The section of the Scientific Communication and Dissemination of the model

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Open Access challenges for science policy Part II

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126] 113 Anabela Gradim

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114 1 Little Science, Big Science every 10 to 15 years.

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115 scientists were to double every 15 years, we would soon reach a stage where grow at the same rate). a new rise. Price believes that the current state of Big Science radically new changes are introduced that trigger this rise). These, in turn, were also the consequence of factors unrelated to the traditional assessment, as well as in the attraction of grants and research funding. 2

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116 3 In the United States in 2013, the Obama administration 4 Gratis OA Libre OA Green OA Gold OA

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117 forged editorial boards using the names of scientists without their knowledge. through abusive control of the original website or through the creation of to them. ) 5 has 5) is the

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118 Misleading Metrics with 26 entries that

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119 countries, where library budgets, even in national consortia, can only with its consequences for science, for the academy and for the researchers that do it innocently but among the authors who contribute to enlarge this market

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120 1 st ) There is a very clear difference between a Call for Papers and for articles 2 nd ) Call for Papers 3 rd ) No serious, revision. Such claims are bound to be bogus. 4 th 5 th university or a recognisable and actual research centre? Can that be checked? it comes to concocting names that simultaneously have an air of seriousness and can be concluded from a quick glance at Bealls list. 6 6)

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121 6 th 7 th 8 th 9 th the contrary, they do not seem to have an identity altogether and feel like 10 th with instructions for authors, guidelines for submission, a statement of ethical

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122 before you submit anything. The internet is rife with stories of authors who have fall into this category automatically generated by SciGen, 7

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123 knowledge of chemistry would be able to detect. However, for all his merits, this study alone. 8 assessment, we are faced with a kind of Darwinian race, where the measured and Fong.

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124 Bo-Christer, SOLOMON 7015/10/73 Bohannon Hungary

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125 92-79-01947-3 Christensen Lars Lindberg, 2007, The Hands-On Guide For Science DAVIS, Phil, 2012, The emergence of a citation cartel, The Scholarly citation-cartel/ Science Science, Technology and Humanities, John Wiley and Sons. 5-19. da Investigao, Centro de Estudos de Comunicao e Sociedade,

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126 Foundation, Ireland. Universal Publishers, 2001. Monastersky, Richard, 2005, The number thats devouring science, The chronicle of Higher Education, vol 52. Noorden, Richard von, 2014, Publishers withdraw more than 120 gibberish Solla Price, Derek J., 1963, Little Science, Big Science, Columbia University Press, New York. Wilhite, Allen, & FONG 2012, Coercive Citation in Academic Publishing, science.1212540 Vinkler, Peter, 2009, The Evaluation of Research by Scientometric Indicators, Chandos Publishing, Oxford.

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134] 127 of the funders of science The beginning of the 20 th which was reasserted 10 years after the beginning of this initiative 1 or reference the integral text of those articles, collect them for indexation, introduce them as data in software, or use them for any other legal aim without to the Internet.

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128 th 2 launched 3 4 5 establish that each attachments/download/4.html

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129 6 came into force. 7 resulting from of aggregation of information, monitoring and statistics, technical directives and

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130 since December 2012, and its information is accessible not only through the

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131 8 ). with national funders to reinforce the services of analysis of the research

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132 of their data in the infrastructure, statistic information about the results of the as integrated services of information breakthroughs, interconnection of data, Other science funders with national and transnational range are also th the integrated system of information management which will be foundation to

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133 establish itself as a legal entity so as to ensure, with reliability and continuity, the Portugal, under the coordination of the National Secretariats of the countries international alignment and statistic indicators.

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148] 135 Joo Fernando Ferreira Gonalves Introduction germinated in industry now extend to the remaining sectors of our daily lives. second question relates to the self-consciousness of this system, in other words, knowledge? In order to answer these questions, regulatory authorities, funding handbooks on quality, among others. Amidst all these mechanisms, some more citation indexes.

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136 sciences. Signalling here is not considered under the view of the communication signalling mechanism are achieved in the citation indexes. On this basis, we will identify the virtues and fallacies of the system signalling the relevant differences of uncertainty t and has available a series of messages, or strategies that he/she may send

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137 1 m 2 m 3 m 1 a 2 a 3 a k contingency that enables the emergence of situations as is the Sokal case. What we would like to address in this essay are thereby the signals, i.e., the individual, which isnt merely a monetary cost as far as fees are concerned and among other intangible factors. In other words, if the signalling costs, for a certain signal are the same for all candidates, that signal good from the bad lecturers, based on this signal. All candidates could make the

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138 The traditional signals In the insular stage of the academic community, the recognition was obtained among others, would then be given due recognition according to its the value. academics or, to use the language of the game theory, what is the balance of our game of academic signalling? It is worth highlighting that there are two extremes of balance in the signalling games, in other words, stable situations individuals.

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139 in an article in which the author describes how the citation indexes work and a relation between the cited works and the referring works. The underlying logic is that the most cited articles are those that have greater relevance in the context analysed and that which, through the analysis of these citation indicators, we can 109). and Web of Science necessarily an increase in the signalling cost for those who do not write English

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140 a text. This contamination of the signalling costs becomes even more marked in the area of Social and Human Sciences, in which this skewing is not only linguistic but also thematic, since themes of local and national relevance may be the merit of work and the eloquence in the English language. The second bias of this indexation system concerns its vulnerability to strategic use. Since the acknowledgment on the basis of citation lies on an gain increased attention when citation indexes are taken on as quintessential signalling mechanisms. and in the search for knowledge.

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141 state, research as an activity begins to make a start and the receivers are not Thereby, a scholar in the early years of his/her career in our society of hunters will be wise enough to devote himself/herself to the study of the techniques,

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142 o Avanada em Assuntos

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143 attention to the study of hunting. u p u p2 + p c 0 p

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144 st degree equation to a 2 nd terms, this means that a strategic dimension was added to our distribution model we argue that the indexation of citations will add a third strategic value to the choice of the research thematic. Let us have a look at what the introduction of the citation indexes brings to our that our balance transforms itself in a share balance since, as much as the universe of citation grows there will always be a distinction between the various works it the hunting issues. u p(p 2 u p + p 2 c, p 1

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145 rewards and the thematic distribution of the research. At an initial stage, the return In the second stage, we enter a 2 nd degree equation, since with the emergence to become a more viable strategy relation between the thematic distribution and usefulness reaches the third degree.

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146 the indexes, a vicious cycle of correlation which is adverse to innovation. Finally, there is one last factor which must be taken into account. The consequently a signalling cost. This means that certain themes will never be luxury only affordable by the renowned. and Social Inequality 1178-1179. University of Chicago Press. Documentation through Association of Ideas. Science, 122 Hall. Science, 162

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147 63. Cambridge University Press. Nature, 246 The Logic of Strategy 301-335.

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154] 149 Wine-growing science and technique 30 years of challenges. Introduction than 100 years old, has been through several restructurings, such as the tutelage 1977 this institution was integrated in the National Centre of Viticultural Studies goods and workforce were transferred to the National Institute of Agrarian INIAV Dois Portos. Throughout its history, we would like to highlight the concern in the

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150 national origin, and not many contributions came from authors of other countries. The evolution of CTV Over more than 30 years, CTV has undergone several restructurings. The Leitura Internacional [International Reading committee] is highlighted, when technical notes and review articles of the different sectors of the science and were Portuguese, English and French. It was also from this restructuring that the

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151 of three thematic areas Viticulture, Oenology and Wine-growing Economy Currently, the Editorial Review Board is constituted by around 60 members of the editorial board of CTV was its admission into Indeed, between 2010 and 2014.

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152 reduced contribution of the self citations for this indicator Table I Year Total of Citations Factor its own Citations 2014 38 0,368 0,368 0,340 2013 69 0,100 0,100 0,529 2012 41 0,278 0,166 0,479 2011 36 0,263 0,157 2010 48 0,636 0,318 2009 39 0,300 0,200 Lastly, the third great restructuring of CTV occurred already in 2014, ) and started to be edited ). With this access, both by the users and by the authors, thus reinforcing the strong bet on its internationalisation.

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153 Main threats o Tecnologia [FCT Foundation for Science and Technology] due to the alteration Finally, CTVs image has been seriously harmed due to the fact that it has ) there are more

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154 overcome the constraints resulting from the reduced number of researchers and

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Theories, methods and case studies in Science Communication Parte III

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176] 157 Investigation in, about and through 1 Francisco Paiva Publication Covilh, May 21 and 22, 2015

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158 Robert Fludd, Oculus imaginiotinis, Ars Memoria, 1629 The mythical discovery of the codice da Vitruvio [code of Vitruvius] fourteen centuries after it was written, is a founding landmark on the theory of art. The Alberti, Leonardo, Serlio, Francesco di Giorgio, Palladio, Vignola, Giulio Romano created works that, in one way or another, owed something to Vitruvius. version of his equally essential to understand the renovation from 1543.

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159

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160 of the dissections. It is true that one hundred years before, Leonardo da Vinci had studied the body machine in detail however, without disclosing that study started to study the observational methods more carefully and thoroughly By the dissemination of grammar books, norms and models enabled by the sosee things. It is therefore undeniable that the acquisition of knowledge verbally social use of the senses but, above all, it conditioned the way toward abstraction.

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161 from the natural environment toward an exterior way of being. Poetics VII, 13) Normally we think of the 16 Th

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162 and the world, necessary to the conformation of consciousness, to which artistic of the audience that in its bourgeois realism relieves any intellectual effort. Leonardo da Reason. Right at the introduction of CPR,

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163 Today, works such as the Habermas, alluding to this false consciousness caused by the loss of ideals and realpolitische that Investigation and Art Practice More than the mediation between the individual and the world, Palasmaa even in an academic work, in a means other than the artistic one, we can act as cultural heritage, but also has the notion that art is rather a source of insecurity than of absolute certainties. archdaily and dezeen ) unknown, although they are not random, is certainly the main broadcast mode and contact with art, design and architecture nowadays. Some confrontational

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164 channels, and relevance does not go beyond what is considered of good or bad taste, or beyond the aura with which such narratives set the centre and the margins. The medium is the substance of cinematic narrative. The how and who set theoretical attention and the dynamics that leads to the Work of Art, including observation and a certain level of destruction, not disregarding the length, Besides the multiits meaning. and for art, bringing the two last modalities close to the so-called artistic research. Based on Allisons research index, on the lists of the Council for

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165 research goal in art is art itself, the creation, the knowledge or the transmission. in most artistic schools it is the scientism of the so-called sciences of art that historically averse to standardisation and to domestication by the conventional structures. Nevertheless, the inclusion of the old academies within the University by Nikolaus Pevsner sciences. But the Work of Art might not be the result of research in art, it is not

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166 with the extra-academic/mural or with other knowledge areas. Artistic education overcome that resistance. Art Science

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167

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168 status quaestionis an ambiguous understanding of research. The confusion between knowledge whether it is the universities role to train artists. The second arises from the priori correct result, Art in turn is artistic research, is little interested in doing science. of knowledge and culture. But is knowledge chronologically and historically

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169 1. To know if art equates with science or with liberal activities. This is a core issue of modern thinking, in Alberti, Leonardo but also Francisco de Hollanda which, The theoretical instruments available do not always deal well with the universal one? and social agents want us to believe that both education and investigation of a praxis

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170 Analysis of the results and conclusions. Such meaning would establish that the artist-author-researcher encloses a critical many institutions that the investigator cannot have as his/her own work as the need, and it can be consumed without being destroyed, raising an obvious social

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171 the doubt about a. b. c. d. e. irreconcilable worlds to which he or she does not belong entirely, whether in the research about art, as a creator and as a creator that does research. Research may alternatively or additionally be understood as a requirement,

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172 One-dimensional Man a priori any of the situations its irrelevance. of investigation has to analyse the skills used and those that are excluded by work, as an atelier par excellence where Such alternative requires commitment and critical analysis, aiming at the There must be a critical reason that manages to resist to the growing and

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173 If research knowledge

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174 status. curators, triggering a convergence of discourses and reacting to the hegemony established in the classic circuits of galleries and museums. The logic of In the context of Reas in Design | New Media at UCLA, George Legrady, Marcos Novak, and a mobilising effect among the young digital natives. The universities themselves are agents and instances of legitimacy in these created in 1969 and now available at the Leonardo Electronic Almanac. The Normosis has caused the sinking of creative thinking and initiative in our

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175 An Art that, rather than seeking to free itself from the law, establishing its own References Belas Artes.

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176 College of Arts. In Cincia & 2012. Ur. com/21808540 Afrontamento. Hybrid Discourse Art Electronic Media. intuituiva y sensible a la racionalidad lgica. A doena da normalidade na Universidade In Lia,

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202] 177 diagrammatic modeling in the communication of science Irene Machado Introduction the [ Arte retrica logos word and its acclimatisation in the writing environment, and of the context of

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178 rationale in the form of diagrams. down its written constitution. science semiotic universes, every effort is a very extensive undertaking. Thus, we can

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179 of science in its broad sense. By undertaking the commitment to include themes that its communicative action is also formative and educational, in other words, cultural discourses that do not necessarily circulate in the routine of social life. the Pesquisa FAPESP and funding to research, sustained by the government of the State of So Paulo in Pesquisa FAPESP Pesquisa FAPESP formulations and so many other visual forms are not mere illustrations, syntheses according to which an image is worth a thousand words and had to face the

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180 at the service of the communication of knowledge. Pesquisa FAPESP

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181 Pesquisa FAPESP to understand the occurrence of language in systems that do not use the verbal signs. The notion of model arises from the dynamics that accredits the condition of language outside the idiom. language that uses the different cultural forms in order to create language. language of the Pesquisa FAPESP and cognitive activity While the sentence is guided by the analysis, the visual knowledge. Hence, the enunciation both communicates and educates the reading intellect.

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182 Pesquisa FAPESP 1

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183 in the following images. Pesquisa FAPESP Pesquisa FAPESP

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184 Pesquisa FAPESP

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185 the researches regarding Parkinsons. Pesquisa FAPESP technological, socio-cultural and artistic environments. By getting in touch with the modeling of the language, with the way of thinking which is a direct legacy in the most varied forms of manifestation. The iconic character of the arguments

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186 ... thinking has to render its conclusion evident. Consequently, it should insight it more like a hybrid of words, numbers and images, than as a single visual articulation in semiotically manifested reasoning. And those are the fundamental its constitution.

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187 Pesquisa FAPESP 2 atomico/

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188 Pesquisa FAPESP the electrons, whereas the nucleus would be a kind of tranquility island, other Reality could not be more different. move and interact unceasingly In that continuous agitation there are chaotic topoi of

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189 of intellect in contact with emotions what Ch. S. Peirces semiotics understands The argumentation conceived in this way follows, not the dispositio of that is claimed to lead the nuclei of the atoms. we are not construction of the argument. It is in this topoi

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190 Pesquisa FAPESP therefore, working as the effects that, in turn, are constructed by the bias of

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191 functions according to relations of similarity and summons, not syllogism but Pesquisa FAPESP to the notion of black box, a mysterious archive of registers.

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192 Pesquisa FAPESP 3 Undoubtedly, the idea of brain as black box does not cease to constitute relational traits with different degrees of analogy Aware of such variations in hypo designates

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193 the assembly created by the American National Academy of Science, the icon is

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194 evolution and history of life. an advertisement about notion seems to him as inadequate as erroneous when considered in the context biologists of the 19 th

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195 He thereby concludes that, the false equation between evolution and the word does not say, thus formulating alternatives unforeseen in theory but, transformatrion of ideas in science [and even for the quite legitimate notion of the language of theory, but also to the ulterior life of science. Through the The DNA double helix model formulated by Watson & Crieg is another term.

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196 Pesquisa FAPESP 4

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197 in lieu of Pesquisa FAPESP in 2007. This essay is about a research on hip-hop in the outskirts of town, neither as the

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198 Pesquisa FAPESP n 142, December 2007, p. 80. 5 hip hop

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199 the means of communication or the changing environment of quantity into Closing remarks Given that framework, the statement according to which language is by nature, and even sound reverberations are manifested, it is time to examine closely the founded on elocutio dispositio and gives way to the metalanguage

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200 On the basis of the results obtained through the analysis of the Pesquisa FAPESP of reference for the study of the communication of science, in that which it hesitate in modeling the visuality of the lenses and canvases that nowadays are logos since it arises from the mental discussion and dialogue.

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201 References Pesquisa FAPESP Arte retrica e arte potica Sociedade vol. 25, n. 89. A dialtica da natureza A estrutura do texto artstico New

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236] 203 science and technology studies and communication studies meet? 1 Introduction that are gaining relevance in the social sciences identify different scholarly 2 the authors exchanges with members of the research team of the Mdialabthemselves.

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204 associated with the use of digital media in their work. On the other hand, the 3 members of the research team based at Mdialab. Its format was based on a Methodology

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205 information from websites crucial for digital social research returned 203 from our indexing list. 4 5 6 7

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206 the tools with results obtained in traditional research, in looking for consistency and authorities ) and at making further dimensions of analysis visible).

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207 Results of the tool-based analysis

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208

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209 have been a central focus until now

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210 show that digital methods are reaching beyond the initial, more technical

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211 rather than in its use in wider social sciences research. An analysis of a set of

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212 Core of Digital Methods and Digital Humanities

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213 of digital technologies and visualisation. Indeed, what is striking in this data

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214 than the digital methods core set. This may in fact be a result of the clearer

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215

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216 8 of AU and DE, which has been elaborated 9 and that takes into account only authors because force-vector algorithms assure that the distance among nodes is roughly The calculation of the modularity 10 nodes).

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217 Mike Thelwall, Han Woo Park, Isidro Aguillo and Jos Luis Ortega as central keywords of the cluster

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218 several scholars that have collaborated with him and also thematically, with

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219 the more recent emergence of these keywords in digital research in the social out as other relevant keywords of the cluster, while there are no authors clearly this cluster

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220 outdegree measures 11 of ties directed to the node and outdegree is the number of ties that the node directs to others, see

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221 but are mostly connected to the semantic word of the other two main clusters

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222 Discussion

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223 1. Digital Methods seems to be located between three distinct areas/ and c) Media Studies. 2. A cluster emerges around other methodologies to study the web such as wider area and with strong internal interconnections in terms of keywords 3. centers and scholars. In less than one decade, several initiatives and research 12 Among them, it is Richard Rogers, an American Professor of New Media and Digital Culture based

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224 every year in Amsterdam). collaborated with Latour and led the research activities of the center Joining a extending Innovation, by Latour, Callon, and others. Controversies on Science for Politics, an EU-funded collaborative research centers focused on Digital Methods is Density Design which also has a strong Finally, a fourth hub considered is the Goldsmiths College, from the

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225 community of Digital Methods. As Latour often made clear in his works, the the Web constitutes an event for social science because the social link becomes traceable in this medium. Thus, social relations are established in a tangible form as a material network connection.

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226 asking how the social/collective emerges from the sum of the individuals, the research community around the Mdialab seems to conceive of digital methods a la Digital Methods is the one

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227 13 the digital suggest that in relation to digital devices, then, we need to get our hands dirty and qualities it is useful to consider, in a historical register, how digital devices digital sociology offers a way of engaging with this 14 of methods among a diverse set of agents, acknowledging the contributions of 14) See Marres N.,

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228 and Weltevrede, 2013) become not merely instrumental tools, but analytic and initiator of the Digital Methods research agenda. Rogers focuses on the the web and aims at taking advantage of them for social research. He suggests sociality and then thinking along with those devices and treatments so as to to move Internet research beyond the study of online culture and beyond Web. In order to question the divide between the virtual and the real, scholars a number of scholars have moved from the study of the Internet as the study of

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229 The issue no longer is how much of society and culture is online, but rather how to diagnose cultural change and societal conditions by means of the Internet. its dynamics, and makes grounded claims about cultural and societal change digital data instead of digitized data At the same time, Rogers and other scholars of the community of Digital Big Data. In a way, Digital Methods could be seen as an emerging research agenda looking for an alternative way of doing social research in the age of Wired 15 practice data and analysis cannot be distinguished in any easy or straightforward way, 16 In other

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230 words, instead of advocating for a data-driven social sciences, digital methods is mostly concerned with online data and devices. size or the amount of data suggesting for Digital Methods in our tool-based analyses, see track 1) and for extension storytelling in order to make room for new collaborative forms of thinking and making knowledge.

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231 Conclusion digital traces led us to question whether Digital Methods could thus be an area where Science and Technology Studies and Communication Studies meet. bibliometric studies of science and technology, and information science. to our reading of Digital Methods. The analysis of authors and keywords methodological keywords. Interestingly, these readings do suggest that Digital

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232 The work of Latour, Venturini, Rogers, Marres and colleagues suggest that not only Communication Studies and STS that might connect through digital References Wired Magazine, at Translated by William G. Berg. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1983. Bollier, David, & Firestone, Charles M. Program, 2010.

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233 Press, 2010. 2013. Jacomy Mathieu, Venturini, Tommaso, Heymann, Sebastien & Bastian PLoS ONE 2014. Seminar on Network Theories, February 2010, International Journal of 5, 2011, 796-810. Latour, Bruno, Jensen, Pablo, Venturini, Tommaso, Grauwin, Sebastian & Digital Test of Gabriel Tardes Monads. British Journal of Sociology York, Princeton Architectural Press, 2011. Information, New York, Princeton Architectural Press, 2011, 11. social research.

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234 social research, broadly conceived. 139-165. Oxford, Berg, 2000. 8, 2003. A sian Journal of Social Science, 66, 2002, 339-353. Rogers, Richard. Proceedings of Future En Seine 2010. Society

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235 Venturini, Tommaso, Jacomy, Mathieu & De Carvalho Pereira, Deborah. digital methods. P actor-network theory 273.

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248] 237 In need of a better communication Manuel Pereira Antnio Jos de Oliveira Machiavelo, Introduction and, although there is not much literature investigating why, authors such as 1 by some hostility 1) According to this author, the is due to the fact that many mathematical

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238 As a tool, mathematical information is frequently associated with the are Allen Paulos, who wrote 1954) also focus on the misuse of mathematics, but in a wider context of daily his work established an orientation for future investigations. Later, Blankenburg for the errors, dividing them into and errors. are omissions of information that are required to fully understand the news content, as well as

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239 mathematical errors than the one used by Maier, dividing them into wrong numbers Another work worth mentioning is the one Robert Brand carried out because it is an extension of the study of mathematical errors outside the American Research design 2 Jornal de Notcias Correio da Manh Expresso and Sol during a three-month st to the 31 st of March, 2013). This set includes both daily Jornal de Notcias Correio da Manh Expresso and Sol ) and Expresso Jornal de Notcias Correio da Manh and Sol referring to the last two months of 2012.

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240 entertainment, ads, obituaries and gastronomy were excluded. 1998). With regard to 3 categories. News were coded regarding the form, content, and mathematical similarly to the works of Berry, Blankenburg and Maier and were also statistical graphical and logical Numerical errors are inaccuracies in measurements, units). Finally, logical errors are inaccuracies in argument claims or reasoning fallacies. Results

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241 mathematical information. This suggests that the difference of time available Expresso and ) use mathematical Correio da Manh Jornal de Notcias and Sol section of Correio da Manh. The fact that in almost all the Concerning the existence of mathematical errors in the news, the results JN CM Pblico Total Sol Total No. News with errors 39 108 101 248 91 39 130 17,9* 45,4 35,3 33,4** 35,8 35,1 35,6***

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242 Jornal de Notcias of errors in Correio da Manh Expresso and Sol ). Correio da Manh Expresso and Sol ). In Jornal de Notcias Omission Omission of Omission of errors were lack of uniformity or oportionality in scales, whether linear scales or areas (in graphs). JN CM Pblico Total Sol Total News with 21 39 34 94 38 12 50 News with 20 95 71 186 60 30 90

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243 content, data show that statistical errors are the most common in the daily JN CM Pblico Total Sol Total News with statistical errors 15 85 37 137 24 25 49 News with 11 28 28 67 10 4 14 News with numerical errors 15 19 42 76 62 15 77 News with logical errors 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 news with errors). Sol

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244 Jornal de Notcias and Correio da Manh ) where all the statistical errors are which is not necessarily due to the lack of technical or mathematical knowledge of information. where the number of are mainly due to the omission of Correio da Manh In Jornal de Notcias and

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245 Discussion and conclusions Results indicate that there is a scarce use of mathematics as a tool of communication story, which somehow obscures the information. Low numeracy levels may also investigation is needed to understand with which extent each of them really is Errors. 375-386.

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246 Science in Society Science, 12 7-24. Press. University Press.

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247 Learning of Books. Poynter.org. math-matters/ Cambridge University Press.

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254] 249 Notes on the authors Jeffrey Beall Jeffrey Beall is an Associate Professor and Scholarly Communications Librarian Colorado Denver An academic librarian for 25 years, Bealls research and writing have been featured in the Cataloging and Nature His blog, http://scholarlyoa.com ethics, and author misconduct. Allen Wilhite USA.He has a PhD in Economics by the University of Illinois and his research Joo Costa Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal de Cincias Sociais e Humanas of Universidade Nova de Lisboa. His research Foundation is carrying through.

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250 of Porto, and works in information management at the Library of the Portuguese Catholic University, in its Regional Center of Porto. Antnio Marques of Industrial Engineering and Management. Since 2002 he is member of the 1999 to June 2014. He was co-founder of the Portuguese Association of

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251 Paula Pechincha Isabel Paula Romo Pechincha was born in Lisbon in 1971, and graduated in Anabela Gradim earned a PhD in Communication Sciences by University of Beira Interior with the thesis The communicative dimension of Peirces semiotics. Presently, she teaches Journalism and Semiotics at the Faculty of Arts and Letters of UBI, and is a researcher at Labcom Online Communication Lab since its foundation. Anabela Gradim has authored three books and numerous articles and book Pedro Prncipe documentation technician, and web content manager at the University of Aveiro.

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252 Joo Gonalves Master in Communication Sciences by the University of Minho, the author is Jos Silvestre Jos Manuel Couto Silvestre has a BA in Agronomic Engineering, a MA in Vegetal Agronomia of Universidade Tcnica de Lisboa. He is an Auxiliary Researcher Internacional da Vinha e do Vinho). Professor at Universidade da Beira Interior, where he directs the BA in Multimedia articles and communications on Art, Design, Architecture and Urban Policy He Research. Irene Machado Irene Machado is a Free Professor in Communication Sciences by ECA She teaches in the area of Media and Audiovisual Communication at the working in Communication Theory and Semiotics of Culture. She directs

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253 Chiara Carrozza theoretical and methodological terms. Tiago Santos Pereira Tiago Santos Pereira is a Research Fellow at the Centre for Social Studies and Technology Policy Studies, from SPRU, University of Sussex, his research Susana Pereira University of Coimbra, and holds a PhD in Education and Dissemination of

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254 Antnio Machiavelo Antonio Machiavelo holds a degree in Pure Mathematics and of the Math Center at the University of Porto. He is interested in Mathematics Association Attractor Jos Azevedo Studies/Sociology of University of Porto, Director of the PhD in Digital Media. He has been a Fulbright Scholar at University of Texas and Visiting Scholar