Citation
Is the grass always greener? An analysis of park space, reported crimes, and gentrification in the Denver Metro Area

Material Information

Title:
Is the grass always greener? An analysis of park space, reported crimes, and gentrification in the Denver Metro Area
Series Title:
Data to Policy Project
Creator:
Greiving, Jennifer
O'Brien, Shani
Physical Description:
Presentation Poster

Notes

Abstract:
This exploratory study for the Auraria Campus Data to Policy (D2P) Project analyzes potential interactions between park space, reported crimes and the gentrification of neighborhoods in the Denver Metro area. Various techniques, including one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple regression and binary logistic regression were used to investigate the relationships between park space, reported crimes, and three neighborhood classifications (did not gentrify DNG, newly gentrified G, and historically gentrified/not eligible NE).
Acquisition:
Collected for Auraria Institutional Repository by the Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Jennifer Greiving.
Publication Status:
Unpublished

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Source Institution:
Auraria Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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1. Is there a difference in park acreage between three types of already historically gentrified (HG) ( Governing, 2018a). 2. Is park acreage a significant predictor in whether a neighborhood will fall into the Gentrified (G) or Did Not Gentrify (DNG) group? 3. What is the relationship between types of crimes and gentrification status? How is this impacted by controlling for park areas? IS THE GRASS ALWAYS GREENER? AN ANALYSIS OF PARK SPACE, REPORTED CRIMES, AND GENTRIFICATION IN THE DENVER METRO AREA SLP This exploratory study for the Auraria Campus Data to Policy (D2P) Project analyzes potential interactions between park space, reported crimes and the gentrification of neighborhoods in the Denver Metro area. Various techniques, including one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple regression and binary logistic regression were used to investigate the relationships between park space, reported crimes, and three neighborhood classifications (did not gentrify DNG, newly gentrified G, and historically gentrified/not eligible NE). Abstract Auraria Library. (n.d.) Data to Policy Project Overview. Retrieved September 20, 2018, from https://library.auraria.edu/d2pproject Barton, M. S. (2016). Gentrification and violent crime in New York City. Crime & Delinquency , 62 (9), 1180 1202. Barton, M. S., & Gruner, C. P. (2016). A theoretical explanation of the influence of gentrification on neighborhood crime. Deviant Behavior , 37 (1), 30 46. proximity to city parks and major roads on the development of arterial hypertension. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health , (46), 667 674. Denver Parks and Recreation. (2018). Completed Plans. Retrieved November 15, 2018, from https://www.denvergov.org/content/denvergov/en/denver parks and recreation/planning/master plans/completed plans.html Foster, S., Giles Corti, B., & Knuiman, M. (2010). Neighbourhood design and fear of crime: a social ecological examination Health & Place , 16 (6), 1156 1165. Governing. (2018a). Denver Gentrification Maps and Data. Retrieved October 10, 2018, from http://www.governing.com/gov data/denver gentrification maps demographic data.html Governing. (2018b). Gentrification Report Methodology. Retrieved October 10, 2018, from http://www.governing.com/gov data/gentrification report methodology.html Han, B., Cohen, D. A., Derose, K. P., Li, J., & Williamson, S. (2018). Violent crime and park use in low income urban neighborhoods. American Journal of Preventive Medicine , 54 (3), 352 358. Langegger, S. (2013). Viva la raza! A park, a riot and neighbourhood change in North Denver. Urban Studies , 50 (16), 3360 3377. Livy, M. R., & Klaiber, H. A. (2016). Maintaining public goods: The capitalized value of local park renovations. Land Economics , 92 (1), 96 116. Redfin Real Time. (2018). Data Center Redfin Real Time Housing Market Data. Retrieved November 15, 2018, from https://www.redfin.com/blog/data center Literature Review References Directions for Future Research Further work into operationalizing gentrification and developing a standard prediction model Why might crime reports be higher in recently gentrified neighborhoods? Potential explanations of safety, tension between incoming gentrifiers and resident owners/renters. Literature suggests that park maintenance is a significant predictor of feelings of safety and median home value (Foster et al., 2010; Livy & Klaiber, 2018). More research specific to park amenities and renovations and impacts on crime reports. While more crime was reported in recently gentrified neighborhoods, do crime reports tend to decrease more rapidly in these neighborhoods over time? How can we bring together long time residents and newly arrived residents to help reduce crimes in newly gentrified neighborhoods? FINDINGS Park acreage was not significantly correlated with gentrification indicators (Average Household Income, Median Home Value, % of Homes Occupied by Owners, % of Residents Paying More Than 30% of Income on Rent) Park acreage was not significantly different across the three neighborhood groups (DNG, HG, G) Relative to recently gentrified (G) neighborhoods: Park acreage was not a significant predictor of membership in either DNG or G groups Significantly more total crimes reported in G neighborhoods Significantly less public disorder crimes reported in both HG and DNG neighborhoods Significantly less personal crimes in HG neighborhoods Research Questions Construction of new parks does not have a significant effect on median home value (Livy & Klaiber, 2018). Parks provide space for not only social interaction, but informal surveillance of the surrounding area via open lines of sight, which improves feelings of safety (Foster et al., 2010). When adults and seniors use parks more, their likelihood of experiencing a major crime decreases (Han et al., 2018). The ways people use public parks spaces may change in the process of gentrification, but more research is needed (Langegger, 2013). Research on the impact of gentrification on crime rates indicates mixed results operationalizations of gentrification may change results (Barton, 2016). Various sociological/criminological theories used to explain relationship between gentrification/crime: social disorganization, social control, routine activities, broken windows thesis (Barton & Gruner, 2016) Neighborhoods and Total Crime Rates 2016 Gentrified (G) Historically Gent. (HG) Did Not Gentrify (DNG) Baker Berkeley Capitol Hill Chaffee Park Clayton Cole Five Points Highland Jefferson Park Lincoln Park North Capitol Hill Regis Skyland Sunnyside West Colfax Whittier 205.93 62.72 137.67 70.31 100.78 107.72 247.03 118.89 126.14 281.97 227.12 67.70 66.33 72.24 135.59 65.46 Belcaro Cheesman Park Cherry Creek City Park Congress Park Cory Merrill Country Club Hale Hilltop Montclair South Park Hill Washington Park Virginia Village 40.90 111.47 96.44 83.68 39.15 57.66 43.88 59.06 27.49 72.90 42.12 42.78 67.18 Athmar Park Barnum Barnum West College View Elyria Swansea Globeville Harvey Park Mar Lee Northeast Park Hill Overland Ruby Hill Valverde Villa Park Westwood 97.47 96.61 64.99 119.87 122.40 143.17 56.97 58.17 100.14 161.02 65.57 107.73 81.38 80.68 Gentrification models retrieved from Governing.org, all Parks and Crime data retrieved from Denver Metro Open Data. Thank you to Auraria Library, the Data to Policy Project, Dr. Courtney Donovan, Diane Fritz, and Dr. Jorge Chavez Types of Crimes Reported Personal Robbery, Homicide, Sexual Assault, Aggravated Assault, Crimes Against Persons Property Arson, Burglary, Larceny, Theft from Motor Vehicle, Auto Theft Public Disorder Criminal Mischief, Loitering, Harassment, Disturbing the Peace White Collar Crime Forgery, Counterfeiting, Fraud Drug/Alcohol Possession, Manufacturing, Selling Traffic Accident Traffic Accidents, Hit & Run, DUI