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Colorado History Detectives: Teaching Historical Literacy to School-Aged Readers

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Colorado History Detectives: Teaching Historical Literacy to School-Aged Readers
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Colorado and the Nation
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Laugen, Todd
Frisbee, Meg
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Denver, Colorado
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Laugen and Frisbee
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Colorado History Detectives enables school-aged readers to learn Colorado and American West history by doing it.  Laugen and Frisbee guide students though the process of interpreting primary sources by starting with questions rather than answers.  Thematically organized chapters include maps, photographs, newspaper clippings, diary excerpts, and other sources to create multiple opportunities for students to practice and master literacy and inquiry skills.  Students can do history by reconstructing the past from different perspectives than a simple textbook would provide.  Even elementary students can engage with the past by using this book.
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Colorado History Detectives
Colorado History Detectives
Colorado History DetectivesTeaching Historical Literacy to School-Aged ReadersTodd Laugen and Meg FrisbeeDenver, Colorado
Colorado History Detectives by R. Todd Laugen and Meg Frisbee is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.
Publication date March 30, 2019.The resources in this book are intended for non-commercial use by teachers and students in an educational setting.
ContentsIntroductionColorado History DetectivesWhat Stories Can Maps Tell?What Makes a Pioneer?How Did Gold and Silver Change Colorado?What Makes a Cowboy?Sand Creek -- Why Did This Event Happen?What Challenges Did Immigrants Face in Colorado?Who Fought for Equality in Colorado?Can Cartoons Influence People?Water in Colorado: How Did the Environment Shape History?Appendix with StandardsAcknowledgements
1IntroductionThis book will help students learn Colorado history by doing it.  As teachers, we know how challenging it can be to get students interested in history.  We also know that teachers with busy schedules would appreciate a tool to help them to address social studies.  State and national standards for social studies emphasize interpretive and critical thinking skills, even for younger students.  Yet we found few examples of how to guide elementary students as they develop these.  When Todd was teaching high school history, he once got this question from a student: “Where does the history textbook get the official story of America’s past?  Is there a government vault somewhere like Fort Knox where the original version is kept?”  This question sparked a revealing conversation about just what it meant to reconstruct history from different kinds of evidence. Unlike gold reserves to back a currency of old, America’s history, like Colorado’s, reflects the work of communities of scholars and story-tellers who ask similar questions, share common strategies, and follow rules of evidence and interpretation.  Historians and students ask similar questions.  How can I understand an event that happened long before anyone still alive could have witnessed it?  Which witnesses to an event should I trust if they disagreed about what happened?  How might I fill in gaps in the historical record to tell a story that is meaningful and persuasive?  How can I give voice to a group neglected in the histories I read?   All these questions and more guide the detective work of those who write history.  And this book offers even elementary students a chance to participate in asking and answering these exciting questions. This all may sound fine for secondary or college students.  But don’t younger students just need to read a textbook and memorize a few basics?  When did the Pike’s Peak Gold Rush begin? When did Colorado become a state?  Can they list five pioneers?  Aren’t fourth and fifth graders just learning basic literacy?  Reading a few pages in a textbook or a few websites online and then committing some names and dates to memory does not help students get a real sense of Colorado history. Students can easily forget their Colorado facts.  Even more, they would miss out on a chance to begin developing skills they will need for the rest of their lives. What is Historical Literacy? Learning Colorado history with this book will mean starting with questions rather than answers.  Life is full of questions and decision points.  History is too.  Yet often we teachers package history answers neatly and without ambiguity for our students.  Textbooks, as secondary sources, do this quite well.  Their authors read widely from a range of sources and synthesize important details for student readers.  Textbooks tend to explain away or avoid controversy or uncertainty about the past.  This reader is different.  Here students can explore questions that will engage their curiosity and guide them to develop answers based on primary source evidence.  Primary sources are the basic materials needed to reconstruct history.  They include letters, diaries, newspaper stories, photographs, and material artifacts that were created or present in a specific historical moment.  To connect with that moment, historians need to interact with those primary resources.  They allow writers to see or hear or read about an experience from a firsthand participant.  Each chapter in this book begins with an interpretive question that invites student thinking and reflection.  Then students will encounter a range of primary source evidence to help them develop answers to these questions without requiring a lot of additional research. Here is where the excitement of doing history begins.  Students can develop historical literacy strategies that will aid them the rest of their lives.  First, they will practice asking and answering questions about single primary documents through a process called sourcing.  Colorado history includes many different people who left behind many different kinds of original sources about their lives.  The chapters in this book include a range of primary sources from written text to oral histories and images.  Elementary and middle school students can learn to read non-fiction sources like detectives by asking about the creator of the source, its perspective, and reliability.  This sourcing work takes practice but pays enormous benefits.  Given the extensive website reading and video watching that will engage 21st century students, teachers can prepare them as critical readers and viewers with practice doing history. Another historical literacy skill students of this book can develop is an ability to compare different sources of evidence, or corroboration.  History is full of stories from different perspectives: Gold rush prospectors and Cheyenne Indians, men and women, and government officials and homesteaders, for example.  The sources in this collection will engage students with different points of view.  Rather than a simple textbook account which minimizes multiple perspectives and erases debates about interpretation, this book offers students a chance to dive in and reconstruct the past in ways that acknowledge diverse opinions.  How else can students of history make sense of competing voices?  With this book they will learn to consider bias and motives among the different witnesses.  This too will be a skill yielding life-long benefits.  Ultimately, students can practice reconstructing the past by comparing incomplete fragments and multiple perspectives. Once students get practice sourcing evidence and comparing documents, they can begin to create context.  This is a third historical literacy skill.  Context refers to what else was going at the time and place when and where the evidence was created.  The collections in this book are already grouped by theme and an essential question to guide students.  Working through these chapters, students will begin to realize that historical context does not simply exist in a government vault waiting for them to memorize it.  Rather the historical work of reconstructing what happens always involves creating a context.  The final products of elementary-aged or middle school students may be preliminary and incomplete, especially when compared to experienced adult researchers.  But the goal here is to help students learn HOW to do this work.  It involves collecting relevant, reliable primary sources and deciding how to balance competing voices.  To create a context, students must also organize events chronologically to explain change over time.  They will not simply memorize details from a textbook or another secondary source, but begin to create their own secondary sources based on evidence.  They can become authors of historical accounts.For more detailed descriptions of these historical literacy skills see Sam Wineburg, Daisy Martin, and Chauncey Monte-Sano, Reading Like a Historian: Teaching Literacy in Middle and High School History Classrooms (New York: Teachers College Press, 2011) .  Wineburg and his colleagues and students have also created a website with many sample lessons modeling this approach at the “Stanford History Education Group” https://sheg.stanford.edu. The idea of developing historical literacy with elementary or middle school students can at first appear daunting. Yet it is doable.  Some students will be reading below grade level or just learning English as a new language.  Can they too learn Colorado history by doing it?  Yes!  We tried in this book to address these concerns in several ways.  The primary sources in each chapter are short and focused to help students read closely and make connections to the essential question.  We have edited the original text sources to delete extraneous information while still preserving the key aspects.   There is a Word Bank to help with challenging vocabulary.  Students will typically mix visual with written text sources of evidence in order to answer the essential questions.  With these supports, elementary students will be developing non-fiction literacy skills that apply well beyond their social studies lessons. We should note again that this is not another history textbook.  We make no claims to encyclopedic inclusion.  Instead, this collection of primary sources offers a starting point for historical investigation.  A teacher could easily use any Colorado history textbook in conjunction with this reader.  Then students will gradually realize that their textbook is just another secondary source, also based on primary sources and the historical literacy skills noted above.  In fact, students can learn to compare secondary, textbook accounts with the primary sources in this collection.  Some of our chapters specifically guide students in this work.   We hope that students using this book will become young authors of Colorado history, not just passive consumers of other people’s stories. How is this book organized? The chapters in this book are organized both chronologically and thematically.  Each one opens with an essential question:  What stories do maps tell?  How did gold and silver change Colorado?  What makes a cowboy?  Who fought for equality in Colorado?  These kinds of essential questions organize the source collections and typically focus on aspects of Colorado’s past where even experts have disagreed.  There is more possibility here for students to debate or disagree as well, based on their interpretation of primary sources. We then include a background essay for teachers on each subject to help them develop some expertise in case that proves helpful.  Those teachers who have tried doing history with students have quickly recognized that evidence fragments do not, by themselves, tell a satisfying story of the past.  Students will have questions about individual sources and need support from a knowledgeable teacher.  Our background essays are designed to offer the basic information needed.  We also suggest additional resources for those teachers who may have time and interest to dig deeper.  Textbooks obviously offer some help here too.  But we offer a review of basic chronology and key interpretive issues that will enable teachers to guide students in their work with primary sources. Next, we include a range of primary source documents for students.  These are numbered in rough chronological order of their creation.  Before each source, we include some introductory comments for students about each along with a citation.  We provide links to online versions of the maps and images, which will be much easier to study up close than images in a book.  There are impressive map-viewing software tools available at several of these websites.  Finding and collecting these primary sources, we realize, takes much time, and many elementary and secondary teachers just don’t have that kind of time easily available.   We then grouped these document fragments around the essential questions.  Students can first practice exploring them individually with the help of our document questions.  These are just meant as a starting point for the exploration of the sources. Last, each chapter includes suggestions to teachers on how to use the sources.  We realize that elementary and even middle school teachers may not have a regular hour available each day for weeks on end to practice doing Colorado history.  So we offer lesson suggestions ranging from strategies for analyzing just one of the primary sources in the chapter to a longer comparison of different sources.  We even offer guidelines for lessons that might conclude with student-created histories to address the essential questions.  Chapters could be taught in a different sequence than we propose here.  Or a teacher might have time to teach only one or two chapters. In an Appendix we also discuss standards.  Elementary and middle school standards in History focus on developing an understanding of chronology, cause and effect, and comparing points of view.  Learning to interpret primary sources, students can work toward each of these as they build historical context.  Readers can also use this source collection to explore Geography standards which include spatial understanding and seeing connections between places.  Additionally English Language Arts standards play a role here too.  While working as historical detectives, readers will need to make inferences, identify conflict, listen for tone, and re-create setting for the range of past voices they encounter.  Our Appendix aligns the chapter projects with standards for History, Civics, Economic, Geography, and Language Arts. Teachers will also want to model many aspects of this historical literacy work while utilizing these chapters.  The history skills of sourcing, close reading, corroboration, and creating context will need a skilled teacher’s guidance.  One helpful strategy for the close reading of sources, for example, is a Think Aloud.  Teachers might want to begin the chapter work with students by reading aloud one of primary sources we include.  Along with simply reading the text, the teacher can model her thinking and questioning aloud for students.  In this way students can begin to learn the work of Sourcing.  A Think Aloud could sound something like this as a teacher reads aloud from a letter by William Bent in the chapter about Sand Creek: “Here is a letter from a man named William Bent who was an Indian agent for the American government.  I’m guessing that means he was a go-between for the government and tribes.  I see in the note above the source that he had married an Indian woman too, and he was respected by them.  So that means I can likely trust that he offers a view from the Indian perspective, even though he was white.  And let’s see . . . this is 1859.  At that time it sounds like Indians were “pressed upon” by lots of different white settlers and visitors.  The Indians must have felt pressure from so many new whites coming to this area.  He mentions Texans, gold seekers, Kansas settlers all coming in.  Bent says Indians were “compressed into a small circle of territory.”  That probably created frustrations, since I know that Plains Indians were otherwise nomadic and moved around a lot.  He ends by expressing a worry about possible war.  He uses the word “inevitable” which I know means cannot be avoided.  This letter makes me worried and sad about a possible conflict between the Indians and all these white settlers.  I wonder if a war did happen?  And it’s written in 1859, just as the Gold Rush in Colorado is starting.” After learning from teacher modeling like this, students can begin to develop this skill on their own.  We often begin each source collection with an image or map which could be discussed easily by the class with the teacher posing a series of Sourcing questions. Here is short list of sourcing questions that could be used in whole or in part with each primary document in this book: SAMPLE SOURCING QUESTIONS 1. AUTHOR:  What can I learn about the author or creator of the source? 2. DATE and LOCATION:  When was it created?  Where did this source appear? 3. AUDIENCE:  For whom was this source made?  Who might have seen or read it? 4. MAIN IDEA:  What is the basic message or idea?  Where do I find that in the source? 5. BIAS or PERSPECTIVE:  Whose point of view is this? 6. RELIABILITY:  Can I trust this source?  Where could I find other sources to confirm this one? 7. COMPARE:  What other sources are similar to this one? Which sources disagree with this one? We offer many more guiding questions for this work in the chapters ahead. As elementary teacher/scholar Bruce VanSledright has noted, “Children can do history if you show them how.”In his book In Search of America’s Past: Learning to Read History in Elementary School (New York: Teachers College Press, 2002) Bruce VanSledright describes his own challenges and successes while trying to teach historical literacy to diverse fifth graders.  We hope this collection of sources will enable teachers to engage students in the doing of Colorado history.  The collection offers an exciting opportunity to guide students in reconstructing the past as they prepare to move beyond the textbook.
1What Stories Can Maps Tell?Teacher Introduction: Where did the state of Colorado come from?  Its rectangular borders do not align with any significant landscape feature.  Mountains run north and south through the middle of the state and continue in both directions into Wyoming and New Mexico.  Four major rivers all begin in Colorado (South Platte, Arkansas, Colorado, and Rio Grande) but flow outward in different directions without any regard for the state’s straight line borders. What kinds of people have lived in Colorado?  Historically, the state’s mountains, plains, and river valleys have all been home to diverse Native Americans, Hispanic peoples, Euro-American migrants, African Americans, and Asian Americans.   They occupied diverse regions of Colorado and also moved in and out of state territory in both voluntary and forced migrations. One helpful introduction to these historical questions about Colorado’s landscape and demographic diversity is through maps.  This chapter is designed to expose students to a range of map types and help them explore maps for the stories they can tell.  These maps are not meant to provide the final and definite answers to these important historical questions.  Rather, the students will hopefully finish this chapter with new curiosity and questions about Colorado geography and history.  They will begin to see how maps can help recreate the past when students compare them and link them to other kinds of evidence. The historical maps in this lesson also give students a chance to study different kinds of evidence.  There are of course more modern and up-to-date versions of many of these old maps.  We have included examples and links to these as well. But these historical artifacts offer imperfect fragments that students can puzzle over and investigate.  In the process of pondering, students in fact are doing the work of history—learning to tell stories about the past based on incomplete evidence and information. By studying and comparing these different maps, students will begin to learn important aspects of Colorado history and geography.  Ideally, they would encounter these maps again in connection with later lessons.  The subsequent chapters will refer to these maps in order to deepen student understanding and provide new connections. *** Sources For Students: Map  1. Current Map of the United States with major rivers. Thanks to the Arizona Geographic Alliance for this map.  A downloadable, PDF version of this outline map is available on the Alliance website: https://geoalliance.asu.edu/. Questions and Activities: On your copy of this outline map of the United States, find Colorado and label it. What states are neighbors of Colorado? Label those too. If you were traveling from the spot where the Missouri River meets the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains, what states would you move through? Label those. What rivers begin in Colorado? Your teacher can help you add the South Platte River and connect it to the Platte in Nebraska. The Continental Divide runs through a major mountain range. What do we call those mountains? What do you think Continental Divide means? Label your hometown on this map. *** Map 2: Stamp from 1904 In 1904, the city of St. Louis hosted the World’s Fair.  The US Post Office created this stamp to celebrate an event at the fair.  The map on the stamp includes the year “1803” within a region marked in red. 1904 US Postage Stamp [Source: Smithsonian Education.  Available online: http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/migrations/stamps/stamp10.html] Questions: Which states or parts of states are colored red on this map? (You could look back at outline Map 1). The label for that red region is “1803.” How can we find out what happened in 1803? (You may need to search on the internet here for information about the “Louisiana Purchase”). It appears that Colorado is both partly in the red region and partly out of the red region. Why might that be? The Post Office created this source in 1904. Can it still tell us something about 1803 even though that was more than 100 years earlier? How? None of the states inside the red region actually existed in 1803. Why do you think the Post Office included the outlines of those states on this map from 1904? Did Colorado join the United States in 1803? 1904? How could we find out? *** Map 3: Mitchell Map of Texas, Oregon, and California, 1846 Augustus Mitchell created this map in 1846. Colorado was not yet a territory or a state. In fact, you will not see U.S. states on this map.  The pink area actually belonged to Mexico in 1846.  The area in green was claimed both by the state of Texas and Mexico.  Disagreement over these two areas led to a war between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848.   Above the green area was “Indian Territory.”  Native Americans were the main people living in that area. Look for the area that will become Colorado where the pink, green, and tan colors meet. August Mitchell Map of the western United States in 1846. Here is a close-up of this same map, which shows the area that will later become Colorado.  You can see some details listed such as: “Longs Peak,” “South Fork of the Platte R,” (river), and “Arkansas R.” (river). Close-up of the Mitchell Map, 1846 [Source: Augustus Mitchell, “A New Map of Texas, Oregon, and California,” (1846); available from the Library of Congress online at: https://www.loc.gov/item/00561203/] Questions: Look at the close-up map first. The US government created Colorado Territory in 1861.  That was fifteen years after this map was drawn by August Mitchell.  In 1846, what groups claimed the land that would become Colorado? The reddish line between the tan and green areas mostly marks the Arkansas River. The green area below was claimed by both Texas and Mexico.  What two Indian tribes lived mostly above that river in 1846? What other places do you see labeled on the close-up map? Find Pueblo on the map. Why do think we can’t find cities like Denver on this 1846 map?  Now take a look at the first Mitchell Map.  What are the names of the different territories on this map?  Can we tell what belongs to the United States and what doesn’t?  How? What groups or countries claimed the area that would become Colorado? *** Map 4: Hart map Territorial Expansion, 1891 In 1891 Albert Hart created this map that includes Denver but not the outline of Colorado.  It has years printed within specific regions. Albert B. Hart Map of the United States, 1891 [Source: Albert Bushnell Hart, Epoch Maps Illustrating American History, https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hnx69l;view=1up;seq=41] Questions: When did the land we now know as Colorado become part of the United States? (Hint: It could be more than one year.) When did your town become part of the United States? This map tells a similar story to Map 2. What are the differences? How could we find out what happened in those years on the map? Where could we look? When the United States gained control over the area marked “1848” were there already American states there? Or did the states come later?  How could we find out? What could have happened to the different borders on the 1846 Mitchell Map (Map 2)? Do you think people were living in Colorado before 1803?  What kinds of people? *** Map 5: Route to the Colorado Gold Regions, 1864 This map is focused in specific ways people could get to Colorado.  Yet, there are no state borders on this map and “Colorado” appears only in the map title. None of the borders from the previous maps appear on this map either. Route to the Colorado Gold Regions, 1864 [Source: Denver Public Library. Call # CG4312 .P25 1864 .R6.  Link to the Map Online: http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p16079coll39/id/807/rec/1 Questions: If we look at the map title, what’s the reason for creating this map? What details did the map maker include on the map? Why might the map maker include those details? Can you find anything you recognize on the map? Why do you think Colorado’s borders do not appear on this map? Why would so many rivers appear on this map? In 1864, how did people travel on the “routes” that are marked on the map?  How could we find this out? What does “Proposed Route of the Pacific Rail Road” mean? Where did the mapmakers expect people to be coming from? *** Map 6: Native Americans in Early Colorado Before Euro-American fur trappers and miners migrated into the territory that became Colorado, there were many Native Americans already here.  The map below was drawn by Donald Hughes.  Hughes is a historian who drew this map in the 1970s, more than one hundred years after the Mitchell map in this chapter. He read different sources to find out where Native Peoples lived in the 1800s.  Although he is not Native American, he did try to position tribes accurately on this map. [Source: J. Donald Hughes, American Indians in Colorado (Denver: University of Denver, 1977) 75] Questions: Between 1820 and 1846, what different Native American tribes lived on the lands that became Colorado? Look at the right half of the map. Why do you think that four tribes are linked together in groups of two? What tribes lived mainly outside the area that became Colorado in these years? Look at Map 5 alongside this one. When gold seekers came to Colorado, which Indian peoples did they likely encounter on the way?  “Disputed” means that tribes competed with each other to control this area.  That area runs along the Front Range or eastern side of the Rocky Mountains.  How might those high mountains have affected the lives of these tribes? *** Map 7: Indian Reservations Map, 1892 In 1892 an American government agency created this map of Indian Reservations in Colorado and other western states.  Around the time that Colorado became a territory (in 1861), the US government was creating reservations where Plains Indians were supposed to live.  These reservations meant much less space for Plains Indians to roam and hunt buffalo.  The areas marked on the map for Native Americans are orange and gray colored. Map of Indian Reservations, 1892 [Source: Library of Congress, Office of Indian Affairs, “Map Showing Indian Reservations with the Limits of the United States.”  Link to map online:  https://tile.loc.gov/image-services/iiif/service:gmd:gmd370:g3701:g3701g:ct002305/full/pct:6.25/0/default.jpg] Questions: How is this map different from the previous map of Native Americans in Colorado between 1820 and 1846? The previous map listed several Native American tribes in the territory that became Colorado including the Ute, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, Comanche. Where are those tribes on the map from 1892? Something obviously changed between the 1846 Mitchell map and this 1892 map and we’ll explore these changes in chapters ahead.  Any ideas at this point about what might have happened to these Native American peoples? What would happen if you and your extended family had to stay in a smaller area than you were used to? *** Map 8:  1878 Colton Map of Colorado Two years after Colorado became a state, G. Woolworth Colton created this map.  We have focused just on the Northwest corner of Colorado in this map. (It is easier to see detail on this map if you look online using the link below). Colton Map of Colorado, 1878 [Source Denver Public Library, Call # CG4310 1878.C6. Link to this map online: http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p16079coll39/id/45/rec/1] Questions: Why would Colton include different colors on this map? What might those colors represent? The Rocky Mountains would be on the left side of this map.  What rivers can we see on this map? When this map was created, there were few towns in this part of Colorado. What counties besides “Weld” do you find? What other details did Colton include on this map? What might all of those black squares on the map mean? Why don’t Indian areas appear on this map? How to Use These Sources: OPTION 1: Colorado now and then. For the lesson introduction, the teacher might begin announcing: “Imagine that you are trying to learn about the geography and history of a state called Colorado but only have certain incomplete pieces of information.  The historic maps in this lesson offer stories about a place called Colorado, but they do not tell stories all on their own.  They need you to study the colors, details, shapes, and words to make sense of their meaning.   The basic question for this lesson:  What information can old maps tell us about Colorado history and geography?” Then start as a class with Map 1, a basic outline map of Colorado today.  All students should add details to this map with the teacher’s help.  This exercise provides a basic context for the other maps that follow. The series of maps that follow offer different perspectives on the land that became Colorado.  Taken together, they offer an introduction to some key changes in Colorado and the American West between 1803 and 1890.  This chapter is designed to raise questions and not just provide answers.  Students can begin to ask—what peopled lived in the area before Colorado became a state?  What motivated migrants to move to Colorado in the 1800s?  How did Colorado emerge as a state in the United States?  What happened to Native Americans who lived in this part of the American West after statehood?  Subsequent chapters will guide students to explore these questions in more depth  For now, it might be useful to generate questions for later reading. Students could explore a single map (either 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6) in small groups.  Each of these maps provides information about this region before statehood.  Map 7 and 8 include details about Colorado soon after statehood.  Other student groups could study those maps and answer questions.  Then each group could present its map and answer the question—what does this tell us about the region that became Colorado? OPTION 2: Summarizing Maps Graphic Organizer The chart that follows could facilitate a comparison of all the maps in the chapter.  After discussing individual maps in jigsaw groups, students could share findings with the class.  Individuals will need to rely on other groups to tell the story of their maps.  In this way, each group  can bring together a piece of the whole puzzle. OPTION 3: For a final assessment, students could use their notes on the Summarizing Maps chart to create their own individual historical maps of Colorado.  They should start with a legal-sized piece of blank white paper and then draw a neat rectangular border for the state.  They can they take information from the various primary source maps in this chapter to highlight the key details they learned.  This could include: Physical Features:  Rocky Mountains and Four Major Rivers and their watersheds. Historical Boundaries: between countries or between states. Cultural and Demographic Features:  Native American peoples and later reservations; Routes to the Colorado Gold Rush; Spanish and Mexican influences. The teacher could ask students what other kinds of maps would help them learn about Colorado History.
2What Makes a Pioneer?Teacher Introduction: The earliest inhabitants of the mountains and plains that became Colorado were of course Native Americans, such as the Utes.  The Northern Cheyenne and Southern Cheyenne moved west into the area that became Colorado in the early 1800s. When William Bent created his successful trading post in 1833, he relied on a partnership with the Southern Cheyenne. The Santa Fe Trail became a major conduit for trade after Mexico’s independence from Spain in 1821.  Euro-American fur trappers in the north began interacting with native peoples in these decades as well. Colorado became a U.S. territory thirteen years after the U.S.-Mexico War (1846–1848). By 1850 Spanish-speaking settlers ventured into the San Luis Valley. They also moved onto the plains south of the Arkansas River.  There they encountered various Ute bands as well as Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, and Comanche peoples. The establishment of the Overland Trail near the Nebraska and Wyoming borders led to more contact and violence among new settlers and native inhabitants during the 1860s. (Maps of trails can be found online). The Gold Rush of 1858–1859 launched a tremendous wave of Euro-American migration to new mountain settlements as well as Golden and Denver.  African Americans and Asian immigrants also joined this movement into the lands that would become Colorado.  These new settlers increased cultural and racial diversity in the territory. This chapter focuses on that diversity by comparing the experiences of some settlers in Colorado in the 1800s.  When Colorado became a U.S. territory in 1861, there were over 30,000 new residents and thousands of native peoples in the area.  Most of the Euro-Americans moving to Colorado in these years were single, male, white miners.  We explore the miner experience in a separate chapter.  But here students can consider the lives of more diverse early residents to get a sense of the multiple paths that they pursued in attempting to earn a living in this territory and state.  Many who came before the Gold Rush arrived by or had a connection to the Santa Fe Trail or New Mexico.  This chapter invites students to consider a broader range of pioneers in different regions of Colorado. Initially, students can explore the lives of William Bent and his Southern Cheyenne wife, Owl Woman.  Moving from St. Louis, Bent established a fur trading post on the Arkansas River in the 1830s to supply travelers along the Santa Fe Trail.  Owl Woman was part of a prominent Southern Cheyenne family.  Their twelve-year marriage represented a connection between the white world of traders and fur trappers and the Cheyenne world.  Their four children also lived between these two worlds, even as the Colorado Gold Rush and the tens of thousands of white miners and settlers began building cities and roads and farms in the territory.  As conflicts between the Cheyenne and white settlers increased in the 1860s, William Bent attempted to make peace.  He negotiated between the two groups in hopes of avoiding open warfare.  His efforts failed, however, and his children were caught in the violence and forced to choose sides. Next, this chapter includes primary sources on San Luis Valley pioneers.  These 1850s settlers from New Mexico brought important Hispanic traditions to this southern Colorado region.  They organized plazas with farm land stretched out in narrow bands along key waterways in this arid region and dug the first irrigation ditches in the territory.  As Spanish speakers tied to the Catholic culture of Mexico, these people established different settlement patterns from other pioneers. Students will also encounter sources on diverse women pioneers.  An ex-slave from Kentucky, Clara Brown, joined early gold seekers and helped establish Central City.  Her arrival came later than Bents or the San Luis Valley pioneers, but her community established important patterns that recurred in other gold and silver rushes across the mountains.  White women like Emily Hartman and Ella Bailey confronted important challenges and demonstrated significant resilience in their pioneering experiences.  Last, students can read about a ten-year-old child’s perspective on moving into his first Colorado home in 1906.  All of these experiences can help students answer the central question: What did it take to be a pioneer? As Colorado’s recent Pioneer license plate indicates, many people think of pioneers as white families moving west in prairie schooners.  Or the term may evoke an image of the lone, male prospector roaming the Rocky Mountains.  The historical experience did include those people, but Colorado included so much more. With this chapter, students can explore this question about pioneering from multiple perspectives and begin to reconstruct the diverse lives of early settlers.  They also can begin to compare source fragments to reconstruct pioneer life. *** Sources for Students: Doc. 1: William Bent Photograph, 1867 William Bent (1809-1869) was born in St. Louis, Missouri, one of eleven children.  Following his older brother’s example, William moved west along the Santa Fe Trail in 1829 in search of adventure and a chance to make money.  This trail connected St. Louis, Missouri, with Santa Fe and ran through lands that later became Colorado.  Here is a recently created map of that trail. Map of Santa Fe Trail.  [Source: United States National Park Service-Map, Robert McGinnis-illustration – http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/national_parks/santa_fe_trail94.jpg] William Bent developed a friendship with the Southern Cheyenne. In 1833 he built a fort along the Arkansas River.  This fort allowed Bent to supply travelers along the Santa Fe Trail. Cheyenne and Arapaho peoples also traded at the fort. To secure his connection to the Cheyenne, William Bent married the daughter of chief White Thunder in 1835.  Owl Woman, or Mis-stan-sta, and William Bent lived in the fort part time. They also lived with the Cheyenne in their buffalo-hide tipis.  Bent’s connections to the Southern Cheyenne and Southern Arapaho helped make his trading post along the Santa Fe Trail very successful. Here is a photograph of William Bent (with a hat) sitting between Southern Arapaho chief Little Raven and his sons.  Little Raven holds his granddaughter on his lap: William Bent with Arapaho visitors [Source: History Colorado. Available online at: http://www.coloradovirtuallibrary.org/digital-colorado/colorado-histories/beginnings/william-bent-frontiersman/] Questions: How are the clothes of each person alike or different? Why might the clothes be alike or different? Can we tell from the picture if Bent was friends with these other men? Who could the men at the top of the photograph be?  What details make you think so? Why might they be in this picture?  Based on this picture,  what can we learn about William Bent and his relations with the Southern Arapahos? *** Documents 2 and 3 about Bent’s Fort should be paired Doc. 2: Photo of courtyard of Bent’s Fort after its reconstruction in 1976. For sixteen years, Bent’s Fort was the only major Euro-American settlement between Missouri and New Mexico.  Bent built the fort on the north bank of the Arkansas River near the current town of La Junta.  Travelers on the Santa Fe Trail would stop here for supplies.  They met fur trappers and different Native Americans in the fort.  In 1849 Bent’s Fort burned to the ground. The National Park Service rebuilt the fort more than 125 years later.  Builders used paintings and drawings of the original fort along with parts of the fort that were still there.  Here is a photograph of the inside of the rebuilt fort: Bent’s Fort Recreated [Source: Library of Congress photograph: https://www.loc.gov/item/2015632789/] *** Doc. 3:  Visitor to Bent’s Fort in 1839 The next document gives us a description of life in Bent’s Fort from a visitor who met Bent.  Matthew Field was a newspaper reporter. He stopped at Bent’s Fort in 1839.  He described what he saw inside the fort: Two hundred men might [sleep] . . . in the fort, and three or four hundred animals can be shut up in the corral.  Then there are the store rooms, the extensive wagon houses, in which to keep the enormous heavy wagons used twice a year to bring merchandise from [St. Louis], and to carry back the skins of buffalo and the beaver….[The many rooms enclosed in the walls] strike the wanderer…as though an ‘air built castle’ had dropped to earth…in the midst of a vast desert. [Source: John E. Sunder, ed., Matt Field on the Santa Fe Trail (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1960), 144. ] WORD BANK: Corral:  a place to keep large animals Merchandise: items to buy Enclosed: inside Strike: appear to Midst: middle Vast: great big Questions: How many men and how men animals were there at Bent’s Fort when Field visited? How might that smell, at a time before there was indoor plumbing for showers and toilets? According to Matthew Field, how might it feel to stay at this fort? What noises might a visitor to Bent’s fort in 1839 have heard? With these two sources, we can imagine what the inside of the fort might have looked like.  What sort of work or jobs do you think people did in the fort? Why? How did Bent make money to keep this fort going? Find Bent’s Fort (or La Junta) on a map of Colorado. Imagine riding on horseback or walking from St. Louis, Missouri to Taos, New Mexico. This fort was the only settlement along that route.  How long might it take you to reach Bent’s Fort from St. Louis if you traveled miles by horse at 10 miles per hour? How did William Bent succeed as a pioneer? *** San Luis Valley Pioneers: The next two documents are paired together Doc. 4:  Photo of María Eulogia Gallegos, 1860s María Eulogia Gallegos was a pioneer settler in the San Luis Valley.   Here is a photograph of María Eulogia Gallegos from the 1860s: Maria Eulogia Gallegos [Source: Denver Public Library Digital Collection. Call # AUR-2247] She came from Taos, New Mexico and married Dario Gallegos in 1850.  They were two of the founders of the town of San Luis in the early 1850s. They were in Colorado before the Gold Rush.  She and Dario had nine children. Together they started a store that sold merchandise such as groceries and hardware.  At first they supplied the store by sending horse-drawn wagons over the Santa Fe Trail from St. Louis, Missouri.  Those wagons would have passed the site of Bent’s Fort.  They sold to American soldiers at Fort Garland to the north. Ute Indians and San Luis settlers also traded at the store. One of María and Dario’s daughters married the son of another San Luis settler, Arcadio Salazar.  After Dario Gallegos died in 1883, this daughter and son-in-law ran the store.  Their son, Delfino Salazar, continued the tradition.  The store nearly closed in 2017 after more than 150 years in business. Doc. 5: Interview with María Eulogia Gallegos’s son and grandson, 1933 In 1933 the US government paid for writers to interview Colorado pioneers.  Charles Gibson interviewed Gaspar Gallegos and Delphino Salazar. They were the son and grandson of María Eulogia Gallegos and her husband Dario.  The two men told Gibson about the early days of San Luis and their ancestors, Dario and María Eulogia Gallegos: “When Dario died he left a great deal of [farm] property including twenty-six thousand head of sheep, and although Mrs. Gallegos could neither read nor write she became a very able manager.  Gaspar recalled that when he was a small boy his mother raised a great many chickens and he used to go with her to [US Army] Fort Garland, where they were sold to the officers.  She would take only silver, one piece of money for one chicken, either twenty-five cents or ten cents.” “According to [María’s grandson], San Luis, Colorado and Boston, Massachusetts, are the only towns in the United States having a ‘Common,’ especially set aside for the use of the people.  Carlos Beaubien donated the meadow just west of the town to the people . . . .  In this way a convenient pasture was assured [and shared] for the horses and milk cows of the San Luis residents.” [Source: Civil Works Administration Pioneer Interview Collection, volume 349, interview 28, pp. 105–6, recorded by Charles E. Gibson Jr. in 1933 or 1934.  Available online at HistoryColorado.org] WORD BANK: convenient: nearby assured: available for sure Questions on these sources: What do you notice in the photo of María Gallegos? According to María Gallegos’s son Gaspar how did his mother make money? Was it a problem that she could not read or write? The town where María lived, San Luis, had a “common.” What could San Luis residents do with that space?  Why wasn’t that area owned by just one person? Farming and ranching were important to many in San Luis. What kind of work did María, Dario, and their children likely do to keep the farm and ranch healthy and successful? How did María Gallegos succeed as a pioneer? *** Doc. 6: Record of the founding of Guadalupe, CO (1933) In 1933, the US government paid writers to interview Colorado pioneers and their children.  One of these writers was Charles Gibson.  The son of a pioneer settler, Jesus Velasquez, wrote down a short history of the founding of Guadalupe for Gibson.  Velasquez probably heard this story and learned the list of the town founders from his father, Vincente Velasquez.  The story is not complete though.  You will have to help fill in some missing information. Founders of the town of Guadalupe, 1854 Jose Maria Jaquez, leader El Llanito, New Mexico Vincente Velasquez, 15 yrs. Old El Llanito, New Mexico Jesus Velasquez La Cueva, New Mexico Jose Manuel Vigil La Cueva, New Mexico Jose Francisco Lucero La Servilleta, New Mexico Juan Nicolas Martinez La Servilleta, New Mexico Santiago Manchego La Cueva, New Mexico Juan de Dios Martinez La Cueva, New Mexico Antonio Jose Chavez La Servilleta, New Mexico Juan Antonio Chavez Ojo Caliente, New Mexico Ilario Atencio Ojo Caliente, New Mexico Juan de la Cruz Espinoza Ojo Caliente, New Mexico “All of the above named persons came to settle on what is called Conejos River.  They came in August 1854 and stopped about 5 miles west of Guadalupe.  They build a ditch from this point which they called El Cedro Redondo . . . .  They build this Ditch for about 8 to 10 miles long to [a place] they called Sevilleta.  Then they went back to their homes in New Mexico . . . to get ready . . . so that they could stay [in Colorado] when they came back. WORD BANK:  Livestock: animals raised for food or work  Arms: guns “They came back in October 1854.  They stopped at Guadalupe [and] here they built a town.  They built it in a circle with only two openings: one on the south and one on the north. Here they put what livestock they had for fear of the Indians which were in great numbers at that time.  They had come on ox carts and burros [from New Mexico].  They brought with them wheat, corn, flour, beans, cattle, horses, sheep, hogs, and chickens.  “But in March 1855 they had bad luck.  One morning as they drove their livestock to pasture the Indians came from an ambush and [took] all the animals that the people had.  The people had no arms to fight with and the Indians were too many for the people. So the Indians took all of the people’s animals.” [Source: Civil Works Administration Pioneer Interview Collection, volume 349, interview 10, pp.  40–41, recorded by Charles E. Gibson Jr. in 1933 or 1934.  Available online: https://www.historycolorado.org/oral-histories] Questions: We have a story here about the creation of a town called Guadalupe in the San Luis Valley and a list of names. Why are there names of men listed at the beginning?  What might the names of towns to the right of those men mean? What details do we learn about the creation of Guadalupe from this story? Why do you think these settlers spent time digging a ditch before they built the town? How did these San Luis settlers hope to thrive in this new town? What bad luck happened to them? How might it help to create a new farm with a community of people, rather doing it alone or just with one family? The next two sources focus on a pioneer named Clara Brown Doc. 7: Photograph of Clara Brown, about 1875 Clara Brown was born a slave in Virginia around 1800.  Here is a photograph of Clara Brown around 1875: Clara Brown [Source: Denver Public Library Digital Collections.  Call #Z-275] Growing up a slave, Clara Brown was married at eighteen and had four children.  Her family was broken up when her white master sold her husband and children to other white owners.  She spent the rest of her life to trying to find her family. Clara became free when her master, George Brown, died in 1856.  Hearing that one of her daughters had moved West, Brown eventually walked with a covered wagon train to Denver in 1859.  She was one of the first African Americans in Colorado.  Brown opened a laundry service in the gold rush town of Central City. After a few years, she had saved thousands of dollars.  She often helped homeless and sick miners who needed a place to stay.  She was admired by the mostly white population of Colorado Territory for her generosity and kindness. Docs. 8 A and B: Newspaper reports of fire in Central City, 1873 Clara Brown did not leave behind her own story of her life.  She did leave a few sources of information that we can use to understand her life and experience.  One place we can look for information about Clara Brown is the newspapers in the towns where she lived.  Here is a newspaper story about a fire that mentions Clara Brown.  Consider how reading this newspaper can help us find out more about her. Story 8A: “The line of buckets was extended up Lawrence Street while another was brought from a shaft upon the hill and a desperate effort made to save the building which had become ignited from the burning chapel on the west.  This however failed and three small buildings belong to Aunt Clara Brown (colored) were soon wrapped in flames.” [Source: “Our City in Flames!” Daily Register Call, January 28, 1873.] WORD BANK:  Line of buckets was extended up: people in town formed a line to pass buckets of water  Shaft: opening of a mine Story 8B: “The losses, as near as we have been able to [tell], are as follows….Clara Brown, three houses, $1800.” [Source: “The Late Fire in Central,” Daily Colorado Miner, January 29, 1873.] Questions: Look at the photo of Clara Brown. What five words describe her? Does a photo like this help us imagine what Brown was like? Why or why not? What do we learn about Central City in 1873 from these newspaper stories in the Daily Register Call? How many houses did Clara Brown own, at least? Can we tell whether her laundry business had been successful? Why or why not? What might she do after this event in 1873? Might she be discouraged? How could we find out what happened to Clara Brown after this fire? How did Clara Brown succeed as a pioneer? *** Doc: 9: Photograph of Central City in 1875 Central City, Colorado [Source: Denver Public Library, call # X-11588.  Available online at:   http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15330coll22/id/9632/rec/290] Questions: This photograph of Central City was likely taken after the fire. This was the main street. What might it feel like to walk that street in 1875? This was a town that supported gold miners in the surrounding hills. What kinds of stores and businesses might those miners need? Do you see any trees on the hills around the town? How might town settlers use trees in this area? How would you describe this town that Clara Brown lived in? Doc. 10: Interview with Emily Sudbury Hartman, 1934 Emily Sudbury Hartman was born in Utah to Mormon parents in 1859.  Her mother divorced Emily’s father and later married a U.S. Army soldier at Ft. Bridger.  Emily was only seven years old in 1866 when her family moved to Denver.  After she finished school, Emily trained as a nurse.  She later helped run a sanitarium, a kind of hospital, with her husband, Flavius Josephus Hartman.  He was raised in Kansas and came to Colorado to join his father who had come for the Gold Rush. In 1934, Emily sat down with a US government interviewer and told him about their early days in Colorado: “[In 1866 Emily’s family] was just becoming accustomed to the use of kerosene lamps instead of candles.  [Emily’s] mother purchased one of the first hand sewing machines put on the market.  Apples were brought into Denver from Missouri in Prairie Schooners, and sold at very high prices. WORD BANK: Accustomed to: used to, familiar with Prairie Schooners: covered wagons Tallow: animal fat She was married to Flavius Josephus Hartman in 1877, after going [with him] to the San Luis Valley . . . .  [Her husband’s father] had come into Colorado in 1859 with the Pike’s Peak gold rush, leaving his wife and several children on a ranch in Kansas.  One time when the mother had gone to town [for food], a severe blizzard came up and she could not get back for three days.  The three boys that were left behind [stayed alive] by burning the fence and grinding corn in the coffee grinder, making griddle cakes and cooking them in grease from tallow candles.  This little family suffered severe hardships because they were deprived of . . . money sent by the father from Colorado [when a mail clerk stole it] . . . .  At the age of sixteen years [Flavius Josephus] was washing dishes and waiting tables in a restaurant in Denver.  At that time eggs were twenty-five cents apiece and flour was twenty dollars a sack.” WORD BANK: Severe: very hard Hardships: difficult challenges Deprived of: robbed of [Source: CWA Pioneer Interview of Emily Sudbury Hartman by Arthur W. Monroe, (February 3, 1934) v. 357 pages 6-8.  Available online: https://www.historycolorado.org/oral-histories] Questions: How far did apples have to travel by horse-drawn wagon to reach Denver in 1866? Emily describes a big challenge her husband faced when he was a child. What happened to his family? What kinds of skills might her husband have developed as a child in Kansas before he came to Colorado? Who might Emily Sudbury Hartman have met in the San Luis Valley? How might we find out whether the price of eggs or the price of flour was expensive back then? Why do you think this Colorado pioneer story mentioned food so often? *** Doc. 11: Ella Bailey Diary, 1869 Ella Bailey ran a boarding house near Greeley in 1869.  That means she had to cook and clean and wash clothing for men who rented rooms from her.  She kept a diary and recorded these entries about some of her days in the winter of 1869: “Sun. Feb. 7: “[T]he days are 48 hours long in Colorado and Sundays seventy two hours long.” “March 2: Baked fifty one pies. Tired as a beggar. “March 3: Baked twenty three pies and three thousand cookies and ginger snaps. “March 6: If men was company to me like friends at home, I would never get lonesome. “April 8: I can’t help but wish I had never seen Colorado. It is lonesome and desolate. [Source: Ella Bailey Papers (1869) History Colorado, Mini-MSS #28] WORD BANK: Beggar:  A very poor person who begs for change or food Desolate: a place without people. Questions: According to Ella Bailey, how long are the days in Colorado? How long are Sundays? Why would she say something that cannot be true? How much cooking and baking did Ella do on the first two days she wrote about? How did she feel afterward? Does she have much company at the boarding house? Why or why not? Why would Ella stay and keep working at this place? Do you think that she is alone? What did Ella Bailey do to succeed as a pioneer? *** Doc. 12: Ralph Moody, 1950 Ralph Moody moved as a boy from New England to a ranch near Littleton in 1906.   His family of seven hoped to find a working farm when they first arrived.  Here is how Ralph described what they first saw when they reached their new ranch: “We could see our new house from a couple of miles away . . . . [I]t looked like a little dollhouse sitting on the edge of a great big table . . . .  As we came nearer, it looked less like a dollhouse and more like just what it was: a little three-room cottage . . . .  The chimney was broken off at the roof and most of the windows were smashed.  When we turned off the wagon road, a jack rabbit leaped out from under the house and raced away . . . . There wasn’t much to see [inside], except that the floor was covered with broken glass, and plaster that had fallen off the walls and ceiling . . . . WORD BANK:  Cottage: a small home  Plaster: a material spread over walls and ceilings to make a hard cover  Bargain: an item bought at a lower price than expected  Privy: a toilet outside the house “[My father and I] got up before daylight every morning for the next two weeks . . .   First we’d pick up any of the bargains Mother had found for the house, then buy secondhand lumber, plaster, glass, and other things we needed on our way out to the ranch.  And father would never stop working till it was so dark he couldn’t see to drive a nail.  “[After about a week] Father had built a new chimney, patched the places where the plaster had fallen off, put glass in all the windows, and made the front and back steps for the house.  My part of the job was to sweep up all the broken glass and plaster . . . . There was nothing left to build but the privy.” [Source: Ralph Moody, Little Britches (1950) pps. 3-5.] Questions: How did Ralph’s house look when he and his family first arrived there? Why do you think it looked like that? Why do you think his mother and father didn’t just turn around and go home right off? What did Ralph and his father do to help make their home liveable? What kinds of skills might Ralph have learned from watching and working with his father? How would those skills help a pioneer? *** Doc. 13: Pioneer License Plate, 1999 Remembering the experiences of Colorado pioneers has been important for many generations in the state.  To take only a recent example: starting in 1999 the Colorado Department of Motor Vehicles introduced a new license plate to allow residents to celebrate their ancestors who had arrived in the state more than one hundred years earlier. Pioneer License Plate At first, people who wanted this license plate had to prove their family connection to a Colorado resident from at least 100 years ago.  Now anyone can request this license plate if they pay an extra fee. Questions: What images do you see on this license plate? Why do you think the state officials chose those images? What other images of pioneer life could appear on a license plate like this? If this Pioneer license plate included key words to describe pioneers, what would they be? *** How to Use these Sources: OPTION 1:  Comparing Pioneer Communities. Beginning with the William Bent documents, students could compare these first three sources to recreate some key aspects of his pioneer life.  His story can help situate the white pioneer experience in the context of Native Americans.  Students could answer the question:  what kind of community did Bent help create along the Arkansas River in the 1830s?  After reviewing these Bent sources, students could turn to those dealing with the San Luis Valley.  Here students can read and interpret sources about early Hispanic settlers.  After exploring each of these sources individually, students could describe the kind of community that emerged in the San Luis Valley in the 1850s.  They could then compare that to the Bent’s Fort community. Maps from the previous chapter could be used to find these places. OPTION 2: Pioneers after the Gold Rush. The remaining sources describe pioneers who came to Colorado during or after the Gold Rush.  Though many pioneers were single, male, white miners, Clara Brown offers an important alternative experience.  Students can review the sources to begin to understand how this hard-working African American woman became successful in a mining boom town even though she was not a miner.  We have little information directly from Clara Brown, and so must instead look at fragments or pieces of information to reconstruct her life.  Included here are two newspaper stories about a fire that help us understand her real estate holdings and success as a business woman.  The Clara Brown, Emily Hartman, and Ella Bailey sources give us a picture into the lives of other pioneering women in Colorado.  The Ralph Moody source gives a child’s perspective on pioneering, though later than the Gold Rush.  After exploring these individual sources, students could compare them to create a list of hardships and resilient characteristics.  All these pioneers displayed a kind of toughness and determination, but they did so in different ways. OPTION 3:  Pioneer License Plates. After reviewing all the previous sources, students can turn to the pioneer license plate.  They can consider what images help tell the story of a Colorado pioneer.  After reviewing the state of Colorado’s official plate, students could create their own plates to honor one of the pioneers from this chapter or to remember key aspects of the pioneer experience.  Or their individual pioneer license plate could include a list of key characteristics or images to reflect the diversity of these experiences. *** Additional Secondary Sources for Younger Readers There are many short biographies of Colorado pioneers available for elementary-level readers.  Some recent examples include: Cheryl Beckwith, William Bent: Frontiersman (Palmer Lake: Filter Press, 2011) Emerita Romero-Anderson, José Dario Gallegos: Merchant of the Santa Fe Trail (Palmer Lake, CO: Filter Press, 2007) Suzanne Frachetti, Clara Brown: African American Pioneer (Palmer Lake: Filter Press, 2011) The online Colorado Encyclopedia also includes short biographies of many pioneers (http://coloradoencyclopedia.org/).
3How Did Gold and Silver Change Colorado?Teacher Introduction: Some of Colorado’s earliest visitors and settlers came for the Pike’s Peak Gold Rush.  Starting In late 1858, many men from other states and territories heard that they could find gold in the streams and rivers flowing through the Rocky Mountains.  This was a decade after the first major American gold rush to California.  Some Colorado prospectors were in fact frustrated ‘49ers looking for a second chance. The Colorado prospectors helped found the first major mining district in the area that would later become Central City.  Prior to being used for mining, these high altitude zones were familiar and important places for Ute Indian bands along with elk, antelope, moose, and marmots.  After 1859 these districts began to fill quickly with crowds of men hoping for a lucky strike.  Colorado gold rush pioneers soon found that most gold was in fact not easily scooped up from the water or picked up off the ground.  The abundant gold and silver in the Rocky Mountains was locked deep underground and tightly bound to other rocks and minerals.  Many frustrated prospectors decided to leave.  Some stayed, but they had to make important changes.  The new miners had to dig much deeper than the prospectors.  They needed to borrow huge sums of money to buy expensive digging and refining and transportation equipment.  The miners soon needed railroads to move gold ore, and smelters to separate gold from other minerals that had less value.  Eventually, companies supplanted individual miners. Subsequent silver mining booms followed this pattern as well. As miners and owners created cities near the mines, often high up in the Rocky Mountains, new challenges arose.  Native Americans were displaced, often as a result of violent pressure and treaty negotiations.  Trees were quickly stripped from the nearby hillsides and demands for supplies and food drove prices higher and higher.  Mines several hundred feet deep posed greater dangers to life and limb than surface prospecting.  Smelters featured furnaces that heated gold or silver ore as high as 800 degrees Fahrenheit.  Individual miners and collectives could not compete with corporate-run industrial mining.  Coloradans had to adapt in new ways to these changes. Eventually four major mining districts emerged in the state: Central City, Leadville, the San Juans, and Cripple Creek.  In this roughly sixty-year time period gold and silver mining generated more than $1.1 billion in revenue.Duane Smith, The Trail of Gold and Silver (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2009) 259.  Not all of that wealth stayed in Colorado, as eastern and even European investors sought to profit from Colorado resources.  This tremendous mining wealth did help create early millionaires in the state, such as Horace Tabor and Nathaniel Hill.  Given the wealth accruing to a privileged few,  mine workers at times contested their working conditions and wages in bitter strikes and protests.  The industrial system developing around mining would have a profound impact on the state through World War One.  After 1930 mining would never again produce such amazing wealth nor employ so many workers in Colorado.  Many bustling mining towns became ghost towns leaving crumbling frames and foundations across the mountains of Colorado.  But the legacy of mining endures in many ways in the state. As students will quickly learn from reviewing these sources, mining created most early white settlements in Colorado.  Without gold and silver booms, the state would likely have developed more slowly and with far less industry.  Ute bands along the western slope and southern Cheyenne and Arapaho could perhaps have remained and coexisted with more gradual white farm settlements along the plains.  Instead, desire for the gold and silver deposits in the state created instant cities in Colorado mountains: Central City, Leadville, the San Juan area, and Cripple Creek.  Settlement in Colorado did not proceed in a slow, western path along a frontier band from the Kansas border across to Utah.  Precious metal and coal mining drew tens of thousands of Euro-American and later Mexican American migrants, along with immigrants from abroad, into the territory and then state.  Rapidly swelling mining districts in the mountains in turn drove economic growth and railroad expansion across the state.  Mining riches helped to build cities along the foothills such as Boulder, Denver, Colorado Springs, and Pueblo in turn.  Colorado government also emerged at the same time as many mining communities.  State leaders were regularly called upon to address various mining conflicts and create rules to guide those who built fortunes in these industries.  Colorado School of Mines, one of the territory’s first institutions of higher learning, was founded in Golden in 1874. Industrial mining also altered the Colorado environment dramatically.  Mountains sides were stripped of forests; rock debris piled up around mine sites; smelters left behind pools of toxic chemicals and mounds of contaminated gravel.  As recently as 2015, the abandoned Gold King Mine in the San Juan mountains leaked waste water containing lead, arsenic, cadmium and other pollutants into the Animas River.  The cost of cleaning up mine waste was never factored into the profit/loss balance sheets of nineteenth-century mining and smelter businesses.  Those costs are born by Coloradans and the nation today. *** Sources For Students: Doc. 1:  Colorado State Seal, 1876 Before getting into more specifics, it might help to remember how important mining was to early Colorado settlers.  Here is the state’s official seal, created when Colorado became a state in 1876. Colorado State Seal This official seal includes some interesting symbols.  There are tools on the seal representing only one job though: the pick and hammer of an early miner.  The mountains above these tools help situate the location for this job as well. Questions: Why would the founders of Colorado include these images on the seal? Why not include symbols from other jobs on the state seal? What other kinds of tools do you think miners in the 1800s used? “Nil sine Numine” is a Latin phrase meaning: “Nothing is possible without divine help.” Divine refers to God or gods. What might the founders have meant with that phrase?  Did it have anything to do with mining? If our Colorado government leaders wanted to change this seal, what work or play symbols could they include today? What do you think the most important job or business is in Colorado today? *** Doc. 2: Michigan Newspaper Report on Pike’s Peak Gold Rush, February 1859 News of gold discoveries in the Rocky Mountain area spread fast after the summer of 1858.  By 1859 the Pike’s Pike Gold Rush was on.  Here’s how a man who went to Colorado described what he saw. There is just gold enough to excite a certain class of excitable persons to leave their homes and that is all. There are plenty of speculators laying out towns all through the territory, who sell shares to anyone they can at enormous profits. . . . When you hear persons talking of going to Pike’s Peak just tell them to stay at home, if they can make an honest living. [Source: Hillsdale Standard (Michigan), February 15, 1859, p. 2] WORD BANK: Excite: motivate, get moving Speculator: a person who guesses what might happen Laying out towns: creating and mapping new streets Shares: stocks in a company Enormous: very large Profits: money made from a sale Questions: In 1859 why did Pike’s Peak matter to newspaper readers in Michigan? What sort of person did the author think would go to Colorado? Did the author think that people could get rich in Colorado? Did the author think that gold mining was a good way to make a living? *** Doc. 3: Horace Greeley described Central City, June 1859 As the Colorado Gold Rush began, several New Yorkers went west to see it for themselves.  One newspaper owner, Horace Greeley, visited the area that would later become Central City.  He wrote details of what he saw. Greeley, Colorado is named after him. [T]he entire population of the valley—which cannot number less than four thousand including five white women and seven [Indian women] WORD BANK: Entire: all Diggings: place where miners dig for gold Restricted: limited Staples: just the basics Regarded: thought of living with white men—sleep in tents . . . cooking and eating in the open air.  I doubt that there is as yet a table or chair in these diggings. . . . The food, like that of the plains, is restricted to a few staples—pork, hot bread, beans and coffee. . . . [L]ess than half of the four or five thousand people now in this [valley] have been here a week;  he who has been here three weeks is regarded as quite an old settler. [Source: Horace Greeley, An Overland Journey from New York to San Francisco in the Summer of 1859 (New York: C. M. Saxton, Barker, and Co., 1860), 122, 123]  Questions: How did Greeley give us a sense that men especially were rushing into this mountain valley? Why didn’t the newcomers stop to build houses and stores and schools? What do you imagine would happen to folks in the area when winter starts? As an eye witness, Horace Greeley makes good primary source.  Why? *** Doc. 4: George White drawing of the area that became Central City, 1867. Albert Richardson was a newspaperman like Horace Greeley [Doc. 3].  He too published an account of his trip to the Central City area that summer of 1859.  Years later Richardson asked New York artist George White to create this picture based on what Richardson remembered from his visit to Colorado. George White Engraving of Central City, Colorado [Source: George White print made from a wood engraving that appeared in Albert D. Richardson, Beyond the Mississippi (Hartford: American Publishing, 1867). Questions: The wooden slides in the picture were called sluices. How might those help prospectors find gold in streams or waterways? This image shows a scene similar to that Greeley wrote about in document 3. What differences do you notice between Greeley’s description and this image? There appears to be one woman in the picture.  How many men? What would a community be like if it were mostly men but only a few women and children? This picture was drawn by an artist who didn’t actually visit Colorado.  Can we trust that the artist pictured exactly how the gold rush looked?  Why or why not? *** Doc 5: Traveler Bayard Taylor described Central City in 1866 Bayard Taylor visited Colorado about seven years after the gold rush started.  In his description below, he focused on different changes to the Rocky Mountains: [Trees have] been wholly cut away….The great, awkwardly rounded mountains are cut up and down by the lines of paying“lodes,” and are pitted all over by the holes and heaps of rocks made either by prospectors or to secure claims.  Nature seems to be suffering from an attack of…smallpox.  My experience in California taught me that gold-mining utterly ruins the appearance of a county….[This] hideous slashing, tearing, and turning upside down is the surest indication of mineral wealth. [Source: Bayard Taylor, Colorado: A Summer Trip (New York: Putnam and Son, 1867), 56.] WORD BANK: Wholly: fully Lode: a collection of metal in the earth Secure claims: make sure that a miner owns a specific spot Smallpox: a nasty sickness like chicken pox that leaves scars behind Hideous: horrible and ugly Indication: sign Mineral: a natural substance in the earth Questions: Taylor talks about changes to the land or the environment. What examples did you find of these changes? Smallpox was a nasty disease that created painful, red sores all over human bodies. Why would Taylor say that the land looked like it had smallpox? How did Taylor connect “slashing” and “tearing” to “wealth” or money? Was anyone fixing the land (replanting trees, filling holes, cleaning streams) during the Gold Rush?  Why or why not? *** Doc. 6: Photograph of Central City, 1864 The camping scenes described by Greeley and Richardson (Docs. 3 and 4) had disappeared when this photo of Central City was taken in 1864.  This was where Clara Brown (in Chapter 2) lived. Central City, Colorado [Source: Denver Public Library, “Central City, 1864,” Call # L-609 http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15330coll22/id/75009/rec/17] Questions: What kinds of changes do you notice between the drawing in document 4 from 1859 to this photo, taken five years later? Before the gold rush, this Central City valley was densely wooded with pine trees, some eighty-feet tall. Where did those trees go? Why do all the stores and houses face each other? Why not spread out over the valley? If all these building were made of wood, what could happen if a fire started?  Remember what happened to Clara Brown? (Hint: check the previous chapter). *** Doc. 7: Photograph of six miners in Central City, 1889. By the 1870s, mines were dug deeper and deeper into the Rocky Mountains of Colorado.  Prospectors could not pan for gold successfully anymore.  Instead, miners worked for large businesses that build mechanical hoists like the one in the picture below.  A hoist was a kind of elevator, powered by a coal furnace and steam engine.  These men were about to descend for work below.  The hoist operator who controlled the miners’ cage is in the background to the left. Central City Miners, 1889 [Source: Denver Public Library, “Saratoga Mines, Central City,” Call # X-61094. http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15330coll22/id/37944/rec/1 Questions: Here six men are going deep underground into tunnels to dig for gold.  How is that different from the drawing in document 4?  What has changed? At the bottom of the picture, you can see small metal rails. What might those be used for? The hoist or elevator was powered by coal, but there was not much coal in the ground around this mine. How might mine owners move coal from mines south of Pueblo to Central City? These miners were paid about $3 per day to work for 9 or 10 hours underground.  They also faced the danger of mine cave-ins or explosions in tunnels.  It was very unlikely they would become millionaires.  Why would they do this work anyway? *** Doc. 8:  Photograph of the smelting process, 1900 Much of the gold and silver dug out of the mountains in Colorado was stuck inside rock called ore.  Miners had to separate the gold and silver from the ore. Basically they would crush the ore, heat it to high temperatures, and add chemicals like mercury to release the gold and silver.  This work was done inside stamp mills and smelters. Here is picture of the inside of a smelter used to separate copper from surrounding minerals in rock: An example of the smelting process [Source: Denver Public Library, “Converters,”  Call # X-60601: http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15330coll22/id/35535/rec/155] Questions: The men in the picture are also involved in mining work, though they’re obviously not in an underground tunnel. They are heating metal ore in order to separate copper from the other minerals.  Check online to find the melting point (temperature) of copper, silver, and gold. What dangers might this kind of work have? Railroad cars likely shipped the ore to this smelter.  Coal powered steam engines moved those cars.  What moves the cart on rails in the picture? Smelter workers like these men received about $1.80 to $2.50 per day for ten hours of work in 1900.  Why were they paid less than the miners underground, do you think? *** Doc. 9:  Brunot Agreement, 1873 White prospectors discovered gold the San Juan mountain area in southwestern Colorado in the 1860s and early 1870s.  Ute Indian bands, however, lived in this area.  The U.S. government had earlier made two treaties with Ute leaders that recognized Ute control San Juan Mountains.  But pressure from Euro-American miners and settlers led the U.S. government to make new treaties with the Utes in 1873.  U.S. agent Felix Brunot made this agreement with Ute leader Chief Ouray.  Soon afterward a silver and gold mining boom began in the San Juan Mountains. [T]he Ute Nation hereby relinquish to the United States all . . . claim . . . to the following [parts] of the [existing Ute] reservation: [land that later became the Colorado counties of Dolores, La Plata, Hinsdale, Ouray, San Juan, Montezuma, and San Miguel] WORD BANK: Hereby: with this agreement Relinquish: give up or surrender Permit:  allow Negotiator: someone who helps make a deal between two different sides or groups The United States shall permit the Ute Indians to hunt upon [these] lands so long as . . . the Indians are at peace with the white people.  The United States agrees [to pay] twenty-five thousand dollars [each year] . . . for the benefit of the Ute Indians . . . forever. Ouray, head-chief of the Ute Nation, he shall receive a salary of one thousand dollars [per year] for the term of ten years [for his help as negotiator]. [Source: United States Congress, Acts of the Forty-Third Congress—First Session, Chapter 136 (1874).  Available online at: http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol1/html_files/ses0151.html] Questions: Find the counties from Part One on a Colorado map.  Is this a big or small area that the Utes relinquished with this treat? What rights did Ute Indians have on these lands, once they were relinquished? In Part Three, the U.S. government gave the Ute Indians about $1.25 per acre of land. Did that seem a fair price? How could we find out what $1.25 could buy in 1870? Why do you think this treaty did not use the word “sell” or “sale” of land? Would other Ute leaders possibly be jealous or resentful of Ouray, since only he received $1,000 per year? How might those Ute Indians who disliked this treaty respond to all the new white miners moving into their lands? *** Doc. 10: Newspaper list of Colorado Millionaires, 1892 Mining in Colorado between 1859 and 1929 created over $1 billion in wealth.  By 1892, an Aspen newspaper reported that there were thirty-nine millionaires in Colorado.  Many of these men had made their fortunes through mining or by supporting the development of mining in the state.  Note that this list does not include those millionaires who later benefited from the Cripple Creek gold boom of the 1890s. The average mine worker earned $3.00 per day in 1892: There are few who have any idea of the number of millionaires in Denver and in Colorado.  One would hardly believe that there are thirty-three . . . in this city. . . . Besides there are six millionaires in the state outside of Denver. . . . [Horace] Tabor heads the list with several millions, all made in mining.  Then comes [Nathaniel] Hill, whose money was made in the mining [and smelter] business. . . . David Moffatt accumulated his money in WORD BANK: Accumulate: earned or made Manner: way the banking and railroad business. . . . Henry Wolcott has dealt in mines. . . . Dennis Sullivan was a miner. . . . [James] Grant was a miner. . . E. Eildy is another mining and smelting man.  Charles Kountze…is in mining. . . . William James accumulated his wealth in the same business.  John Reithmann . . . is also in the mining business.  Walter Cheesman made his money in mining. . . . Samuel Morgan was a miner. . . . Jerome Chaffee was . . . in the mining business. . . . Outside of Denver, J.J. Hagerman accumulated over a million in mining; [Nicholas] Creede…got his money in the same manner; H.M. Griffin of Georgetown was also a miner.” [Source: Aspen Evening Chronicle (October 5, 1892)] Questions: How many names on the list of millionaires above made their money in mining? If there were 39 millionaires in Colorado in 1892, what percentage were mining related? Can we assume from this list that all miners became millionaires?  Why or why not? A millionaire mine owner might have hundreds of miners working for him. What kinds of skills did mine owners need to manage that many workers? Many of these mine owners chose to live in Denver or Colorado Springs rather than close to the mines. What kinds of houses might they build in those cities?  How might mine worker houses look different? Some of these millionaires made their fortunes in the San Juan Mountains, where Ute Indians formerly controlled the land. Remember document 9?  Why didn’t Ute leaders dig mines and refine gold in that area instead of white miners? Have you heard of any names on this list?  How are those names connected to buildings or places today? *** Doc. 11: Modern Map of Historic Gold and Silver Districts in Colorado In recent years geographers have created maps that tell history stories.  Here is a recent map from the Colorado Geological Survey that includes historical and modern information. Recently Created Map Mining Districts in CO [Source: Colorado Geological Survey: http://coloradogeologicalsurvey.org/mineral-resources/historic-mining-districts/] Questions: Look at the different colored areas on this map. The reddish-orange areas were mining districts in the past.  In addition to having that common feature, in what other ways are these districts similar? The tan counties had gold or silver mining histories. The blue counties did not.  How else are the blue counties similar to each other? The red lines on the map mark interstate highways like I-70 or I-25 or I-76. Those highways were built in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s.  Were they somehow used to transport gold or silver in the 1800s?  Why might the mapmaker include them here? If this modern map included railroads, which did exist in the 1800s, what places would those railroads likely connect? *** How to Use These Sources: Option 1:  A short lesson could involve first a quick discussion of the state seal.  It suggests the importance of mining for Colorado founders.  Then students might examine the recent map of gold and silver mining districts (Doc. 11) to get a sense of a basic geographic difference between the mountain counties and those on the plains.  Students could also brainstorm what other industries or symbols might have been appropriate for the state seal in 1876.  Then students could begin tracing the developing and impact of mining in the state by comparing Documents 2–4.  Documents 2, 3, and 4 provide some detail about the early gold camps, but they don’t always line up neatly together.  The newspaper story (Doc. 2) suggests the dangers of gold fever. Document 3 features an eyewitness description of the Central City area.  Document 4 was a drawing created years after a visit to Colorado’s gold camps by an artist who did not make the trip.  This should raise some questions for students about reliability. Students could also review the map from Chapter One titled “Route to the Colorado Gold Regions.”  This can allow students to get a sense of how prospectors moved into Colorado in an age before paved roads or even railroads.  All of these sources can help students describe the early days of the gold rush and the changes in made in Colorado’s Mountains.  Students could create an early Colorado map in answer to this question:  How might someone who was not a miner draw a map of the state? Option 2: After completing the initial review of sources 1–4 in Option 1, students might begin to explore the changes from prospecting to industrial mining.  Sources 5 and 6 can offer students a chance to consider the environmental changes that mining created in the Central City district.  The photograph in Document 6 reveals what historians have called an “instant city.” They could discuss how few city services would exist and how remote this urban outpost was before railroad links arrived in the 1870s.  Documents 7 and 8 feature different aspects of industrial mining and highlight how different mining work had become since the early prospecting days. Option 3:  Building on the previous options, students could explore some of the consequences mining had on Native Americans in Colorado as well as the economic changes to the state.  Pressure from white settlers in Colorado led to Ute removal after 1879, which enabled miners to move in to the San Juan Mountains.  Document 9 includes some key provisions of the Brunot Treaty that the U.S. Government negotiated with Ute Chief Ouray.  He was only one of several chiefs, however, and other Ute leaders bitterly resented the loss of Ute lands under the terms of these treaty.  They were not fairly consulted by the U.S. government.  Even Ouray himself was likely trying to make the best of a bad situation by agreeing to these treaty terms.  History Colorado features a collection of documents about the Ute bands in Colorado that could connect with this chapter on Mining. The newspaper story on millionaires (Doc. 10) can allow students to explore the links between mining and other industrial developments like railroad construction and coal mining.  The historical map (Doc. 11) will require some careful study online to find the gold and silver districts and trace their links to Front Range urban centers like Denver or Colorado Springs.  Mining did not affect every county in the Colorado, but rather chiefly mountain ones.  This mean early population concentrations in remote high altitude communities emerged before most farming towns in the state.  Settlement was uneven in the first decades of Colorado history.
4What Makes a Cowboy?Teacher Introduction: Like other western states, Colorado offered a home to ranchers who raised their cattle and sheep on the grassy, flat plains and valleys.  With the cows and sheep came the cowboys and shepherds who played an important part in the state’s history and the economic success of this business.  From the time the Spanish introduced cattle and sheep in North America in the 1500s, the cowboy’s skills and equipment for handling these animals have a long history in the American West. Today, Colorado has become a capital for the ranching industry. Many communities all over the state have operated ranches, and Denver hosts the National Western Stock Show.  This event provides an opportunity for modern cowboys to demonstrate these skills in rodeos and other popular events. Yet cowboys have also become popular in Colorado and American history for reasons that aren’t always easy to understand.  The daily work of a cowboy could be boring, lonely, and intermittently dangerous. A stampede of hundreds of cattle could endanger both man and beasts. The weather was scorching in the summer and bitterly cold in the winter.  Cowboys moving herds often slept outside, sometimes without tents, and struggled to find decent food to eat.  They received little pay for their hard, physical work.  Why then have many Americans fantasized about being cowboys?  Why have so many Americans idolized the cowboy as a hero of the Wild West? Why less interest in shepherds? These cultural history questions can engage students as they learn not just about the economics of ranching but the meanings we give to these hero-workers of the American West. Cowboys were typically young men, roughly 16 to 25 in age. They often did not have much education or skills that would have helped them find other types of work. They came from diverse cultural backgrounds. Many of these young men were Hispanic, African-American, Native American, and white American or European. Sometimes they were veterans of the Civil War who did not want to return home or even have a home to return to. One thing that they all had in common was the challenging experience of being a cowboy. Cattle trails were an important aspect of the western economy during the heights of the open-range era of cattle ranching. That period lasted from roughly the 1860s to the 1880s.  Stockmen first moved into Colorado to feed the burgeoning mining districts. They would use the federal Homestead Act to claim land. Then, ranchers from places such as Texas directed their cattle hands to move animals north either to pasture or to railheads, such as Cheyenne, to get their cattle to markets in the East. These cattle drives are part of the iconic experience and image of the cowboy.  After the open range era came to a close, many ranchers continued to operate spreads in Colorado.  The sources in this chapter can guide students to explore what qualities made a cowboy and the ranching business successful. Today, many aspects of ranching and ranch work are part of Colorado culture. Dude ranches cater to tourists who want to try their hands at riding and roping. Great fortunes like those amassed by rancher John Wesley Iliff have contributed to educational and social institutions in the state. Many communities have annual rodeos. Even school mascots have been influenced by Colorado’s ranching history. Ranching has long been an important economic activity for Colorado residents.  And cowboys have always been a key ingredient in the success of ranching.  Students might begin to learn about ranching by reading descriptions of the economics of the business or by reviewing maps of the state which highlight areas where ranching flourished.  They might also think about what sort of resources would be needed for ranching. The sources below also give students the opportunity to compare text and pictures or to use their math skills to calculate ranching costs and profits. *** Sources for Students: ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­Doc. 1: Ralph Moody, Little Britches (1950) Ralph Moody moved as a boy from New England to a ranch outside Littleton in 1906.  His family of seven struggled to earn a living from the land, both farming and doing ranch work.  Here he describes his experience with becoming a cowboy at about age 10.  He was asked to keep track of dairy cows during the day as they roamed on a nearby farm. By the end of May, school had pretty well petered out. . . . The day after it closed, Mrs. Corcoran came to see mother about getting me to work WORD BANK: Petered out: slowly finished up Quarter Section: land about the size of a football field Switch: a small whip Spry: active and energetic for them.  They had about thirty milk cows, and used to take cream to Ft. Logan every day.  In the summer they pastured the cows on the quarter section south of us.  Because there weren’t any fences, somebody had to herd them to keep them from getting into Mr. Aultland’s and Carl Henry’s grain fields.  She said she would pay me twenty-five cents a day and I would only have to work from seven in the morning until six at night. . . . [I] was all excited about being a cowboy.  My biggest worry was that I didn’t have a ten-gallon felt hat, instead of a straw one from the grocery store in Ft. Logan. [The next morning] Mr. Corcoran brought out an old work-harness bridle . . . and put it on the horse.  Then he boosted me up and gave me a switch. “Old Ned ain’t too spry, but you give him a cut with that switch and he’ll get a move on.” I wasn’t too happy with Ned but at least he was a horse. [Source: Ralph Moody, Little Britches, (1950) pgs. 57-62] Questions: What kind of work did Ralph Moody do after school ended? Would the work described by Ralph Moody appeal to young people today? Why or why not? Moody was about 60 years old when he wrote down his memories about being a cowboy when he was 10. How much time had passed between his experience and writing about? Could his memories have changed over that much time? Is this the kind of source that can tell us what a real cowboy did around 1900? Why or why not? What is the same or different about being a cowboy according to Ralph Moody than what you expected? *** Doc. 2: Photograph of a “Round up on the Cimarron,” Colorado (1898) Here is a colored photograph of a roundup in Colorado just before 1900.  It was taken near Cimarron.  The roundup was a meeting of cowboys who brought together herds of cattle to be sorted, traded, and/or branded by their owners. Round Up on the Cimarron [Source: Library of Congress photograph, “Colorado. Round up on the Cimarron,” 1898.  Online link for close-ups: https://www.loc.gov/item/2008678198/] Questions: What parts of the landscape can you see in this picture? What things did cowboys have to build for a roundup? Based on this picture, what do cattle need to live? How many horses do you see? How many cowboys? How would cowboys do the roundup if they did not have horses? Does this image help make the life of a cowboy appealing?  Why or why not? *** Docs. 3 and 4: Cattle Brands (1885) Brands are labels on cattle. They let everyone know to whom an animal belonged. Branding was done by burning a symbol into the cow’s hide with a hot iron.  This was an important cowboy task.  These two documents are from a book that showed what four ranchers’ brand looked like. [Source: Brand book, Containing the Brands of the Bent County Cattle and Horse Growers’ Association for the Year of 1885 (Las Animas, Co.: Bent County Cattle and Horse Growers’ Association, 1885)] Questions: Why would ranchers want to brand their cattle? Where on the animal might you find the brand? Crop means to cut. Where else did cowboys mark cattle? What are some of the differences between these cattle? What other kinds of animals might people brand?  What would your brand look like, if you were to design one to mark the stuff you own? *** Doc. 5: Louis L’Amour on the life of a cowboy (1981) Louis L’Amour was born in 1908. He worked as a young man with cowboys, miners, and loggers in the West.  He became famous for writing many popular Western stories about cowboys and their adventures.  Late in his life, he wrote about the real lives of cowboys: [A cowboy] had to know horses and cattle, and he needed skill with a rope.  His average working day during the early years of the range [1860s-1880s] was fourteen hours, from can see to can’t see. . . . His work consisted of rounding up and branding cattle, gathering strays, riding WORD BANK: Bog: A deep muddy area Hardy: tough Breed: A type of animal fence, pulling cattle out of bogs, treating cuts…building and repairing fences, cleaning out watering holes, or whatever needed doing. . . . Stories of the West are said, by those who do not read them, to be about cowboys and Indians.  Actually, that is rarely the case. . . . When a cowboy is the [hero] he is usually a drifter and very rarely is shown at work, doing what has to be done on the ranch. Usually cowboys were between fifteen and twenty-five years of age, although some were as young as twelve or as old as eighty.  By and large they were a hardy breed.  Their work was hard, brutal, and demanding. [Source: Louis L’Amour, “The Cowboy: Reflections of a Western Writer,” in Steve Grinstead and Ben Fogelberg, eds., Western Voices: 125 years of Colorado Writing (Golden: Fulcrum Publishing, 2004), 151–52.] Questions: What skills did cowboys need to be successful? How old were cowboys? According to L’Amour, what kinds of things were cowboys NOT doing in most western stories? Does L’Amour make cowboy life or ranch work sound like something you would want to do?  Why or why not? L’Amour both worked as a cowboy and loved to write fiction stories about cowboys.  Does his description of cowboy life sound like fact or fiction? Why would L’Amour use the word “breed” to describe a cowboy? *** Doc. 6: Photograph of the Second Guard (1905) Taking care of cattle could be a 24-hour job. Sometimes, cowboys worked in shifts to make sure that the animals were always watched. One group would sleep while another crew stayed alert. “Second Guard” [Source: F. M. Steele, “Second Guard,” Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-36143. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2016651903/] Questions: What time of day do you think this picture was taken? How can you tell? How old do you think the men in the picture are? Would cowboy life appeal to the young or the old? Why? Can you find anything that all the cowboys have in common? What do you think the wagon is for? What kind of clothes and equipment did you need to be a cowboy? What might these men lack while camping that you might like to have? *** Doc. 7: John Iliff on ranching (1870) John Wesley Iliff was an early rancher in northeastern Colorado.  He hired many cowboys to manage the thousands of cows that he raised from his ranches near Greeley, Colorado and Cheyenne, Wyoming.  Here he wrote in a Denver newspaper about the ranching business: I have been engaged in the [ranching] business in Colorado and Wyoming for the last eight years [since 1862].  During all that time I have WORD BANK: Engage: participate in Shelter: protect Graze: eat grass Head of: number of grazed [cows] in nearly all the valleys of these territories, both summer and winter.  The cost of both…is simply the cost of herding, as no feeding or sheltering is required.  I consider the summer…grasses of these plains and the valleys as superior to hay…During this time I have owned 20,000 head of cattle. [Source: Rocky Mountain News (August 3, 1870)] Questions: John Iliff became a very successful rancher in the early days of Colorado history. What key resource did Colorado offer his cows? What doesn’t Iliff have to pay for? What might “the cost of herding” mean in this passage? How were cowboys involved in herding?  Iliff doesn’t mention paying cowboys for their work.  Where might we look to we find out how much he paid them? *** Doc. 8: Historian Agnes Spring on the business of ranching Agnes Spring did research in the 1950s on rancher John Iliff (Doc. 7 above) and found out how much money he made in the ranching business.  He raised cows on the grasses in northeastern Colorado and had to pay cowboys to help him manage his cattle: For a good many years Iliff bought from 10,000 to 15,000 Texas cattle each season.  They weighed from 600 to 800 pounds and cost him from $10 to $15 per head [each].  After he had fattened them on grass for a year or two and they had reached 1,000 pounds he sold them from $30 to $37 a head….About forty men were employed on the ranches…during the summer and about a dozen remained for the year around.  Wages varied from $25 to $30 per month for [each cowboy]. [Source: Agnes Spring, “John W. Iliff—Cattleman,” in Carl Ubbelhohde, ed.,  A Colorado Reader, (Boulder: Pruett Press, 1962) 202-203. Questions: This secondary source gives us a chance to do some math about profit. That’s the amount of money a successful business earns.  Let’s focus on just one year.  Assume that Iliff bought 10,000 cows.  If each cow cost $10, how much money did he spend on new cattle? Then let’s add the cost of paying his cowboys.  That was $25 per month for each cowboy.  How much is that for the year?  Add that to the cost from question #1. Now, let’s figure out how much money Iliff could earn if he sold those 10,000 cows the next year for $30 per head or per cow. How much money is that? Last, subtract your answer to question #3 from the answer to question #2. How much money did rancher John Iliff make in an average year? The cowboys who did work on his ranch obviously earned much less.  What might it take for one of those cowboys to start making money like John Iliff? Documents 9, 10, and 11: Shepherds and wool wagons People who herd sheep are called shepherds.  They had some of the same challenges as cowboys. These sheep ranchers were especially important in southern Colorado—the San Luis Valley and on ranches south of the Arkansas River.  The photographs below feature sheep and cattle ranchers in the San Luis Valley.  Francisco Gallegos of San Luis appears in the first image in front of his family home (behind him and to the right) around 1885.  The second photograph shows freight wagons loaded with sacks of wool at Fort Garland, Colorado.  The drivers of these wagons were awaiting the arrival of the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad so they could load the wool onto the train. The third photograph shows a Hopi boy who lived in New Mexico. He took care of sheep and horses. Doc. 9 Francisco Gallegos of San Luis Francisco Gallegos of San Luis, Colorado, 1885 [Source: Denver Public Library Latinos/Hispanics in Colorado Collection: http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15330coll14/id/638/rec/1 scanned from Colorado Society of Hispanic Genealogy, Hispanic Pioneers in Colorado and New Mexico, (Denver, 2006) 14-15] Doc. 10: Getting the wool to market, around 1900 Getting the wool to market [Source: Denver Public Library Latinos/Hispanics in Colorado Collection: http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15330coll14/id/636/rec/1 scanned from Colorado Society of Hispanic Genealogy, Hispanic Pioneers in Colorado and New Mexico, (Denver, 2006) 208-209] * Doc. 11. Hopi boy herding horses and sheep across sand dunes, New Mexico (1905) Hopi boy herding horses and sheep, 1905 [Source: Library of Congress Curtis (Edward S.) Collection, “The end of day, Hopi boy  herding horses and sheep across sand dunes, New Mexico,” http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3c06759] Questions for Doc. 9, Doc. 10, and Doc. 11: These sheep herders would shear or cut off the sheep’s wool in the spring before summer grazing. What kinds of skills would that require? Sheep and cattle both liked to wander as they grazed on grass and other plants. How might a horse help the shepherd or cowboy to gather and corral their animals? How might the lives of cowboys and shepherds in southern Colorado be different from those in other parts of the state? You might think about things like the land and the weather. How might different cultures do this work differently? The men with the wagons in Document 10 were waiting for a train to arrive. How did could the train help them with their business? What would be some challenges to being the boy in document 11? How might his life be the same or different from a cowboy’s life? *** Docs. 12 and 13: Rodeo Skills The skills that cowboys use at work are also used to compete at rodeos. Rodeo is a Spanish word that describes a roundup. Rodeos became events were cowboys could win prizes for their skills. Doc. 12: Bonnie McCarrol thrown from Silver (1915) Bonnie McCarrol Thrown from Silver, 1915 [Source: Denver Public Library, Photographs-Western History, http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15330coll22/id/10771/rec/116] * Doc. 13: Bill Baker Bulldogging, Colorado State Fair, Pueblo, around 1920 Bill Baker Bulldogging at the Colorado State Fair, around 1920 [Source: Denver Public Library, Photographs-Western History, http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15330coll22/id/41398/rec/2] Questions for Doc. 12 and Doc. 13 What is different about the person in Document 12 than the people in all the other pictures? What does that difference tell you about who was a cowboy? What’s happening to Bonnie McCarrol in that photo?  What was she doing before the picture was taken? How do you think what Bonnie McCarrol is doing is related to being a cowboy? Bill Baker is “bulldogging” a steer.  What do you think “bulldogging” means? What kind of skills do you think each person is demonstrating? Why would they need those skills to be a cowboy? Does it look like the cowboys wear different clothes at the rodeo than they would on a ranch? Why would people being interested in watching the cowboys? What kind of people do you think they are? Why? Does it look dangerous to be in a rodeo? *** How to Use These Sources: Setting the Stage: Ask students what they think a cowboy’s life was like in the late 1800s and early 1900s. They might think about ideas such as clothes, food, dangers, and rewards. OPTION 1: Students might also use computers to look up images of popular cowboy entertainers and actors such as Tom Mix, Gene Autry, Roy Rogers, and John Wayne. They could talk about what might be real or unrealistic about the way these men played cowboys. They could also think about the type of people who are not depicted as cowboys in movies. Looking at pictures of movie cowboys offers an accessible start to the topic. Students could brainstorm as class the ways that the movie cowboys might be different from a working cowboy with the teacher facilitating the discussion. OPTION 2: Most of the remaining sources are about a paragraph in length, except for the Ralph Moody excerpt which is much longer.  That Moody source might be read aloud by the teacher who could then think aloud for students as she/he reads along. What kinds of cowboy work was Moody doing?   Ask students to consider Document 11 too.   Moody was about the same age as the boy in document 11.  What makes those two boys different?  Were they both doing the work of cowboys?  Why or why not?  These questions could help generate interest in the essential question, tap prior knowledge, and begin a list of key skills or elements that people who work with herd animals must have. OPTION 3: Then students could review the remaining documents in jigsaw groups. Group 1: read documents one and six to develop a list of key skills that cowboys needed.  This could build on the list already started from the Ralph Moody reading. Group 2:  Documents seven and eight offer a view of ranching as a business.  Students working on these two sources could perform the needed math to determine the potential profit in big ranching and contrast that with the money earned by the typical cowboy.  These sources help focus students on the economics of ranching. Group 3: Documents seven, nine, ten, eleven, and twelve often do not show cows.  Still, there are figures that are showing the skills of cowboys. Students might return to the original thinking question with these documents in mind. How do these primary sources change their answer to question: what makes a cowboy? Assessment Idea:  After groups have worked through sources and presented their findings to the class, students could return again to the essential question:  What makes a cowboy?  They might answer that with a presentation or a short written response.  Their response might include thoughts about who could be a cowboy.  If the Colorado state seal included symbols of cowboy life, what would they be?
5Sand Creek -- Why Did This Event Happen?Teacher Introduction: By the 1860s, many people of European descent had moved into Colorado. Sometimes they moved into lands seasonally occupied by various native groups, including the Arapaho and the Cheyenne. On other occasions, traditional native lands were outright taken over. The increased population also put a strain on natural resources. Tensions were running high by 1864. The Civil War in the East was a battle for the future of America, but so too were the contemporaneous violent encounters on the Plains known as the Indian Wars. One of the goals of the Indian Wars for the U.S. government was to move native people onto reservations. Native people wanted to protect their land use and resist both white settlement and reservations. The Sand Creek Massacre was a part of this series of attacks and battles between whites moving into the West and the native people who already lived there. The U.S. government policy for dealing with native people had varied over time. Some officials wanted to kill native people; others discussed placing them on restricted lands or reservations. Some white people in Colorado attacked Indians, while others such a trader William Bent acted as intermediaries between native people and the federal government. Several meetings convened by the federal government attempted to address these issues. Frequently, resulting treaties outlined an exchange of native land for goods and annuities provided by the government. The Fort Laramie (1851) and Fort Wise (1861) treaties are examples. Sadly, the government did not consistently meet the terms of these agreements. Colorado and federal officials called for a meeting at Camp Weld near Denver in September 1864, which resulted in the Camp Weld agreement. Some U.S. government officials thought that the problems were now settled. However, several major native leaders did not attend the meeting and did not sign the agreement. The many bands of Cheyenne and Arapaho also did not have a consistent policy for dealing with white people. Black Kettle led a band of Southern Cheyenne and was a committed peace chief. A band of Southern Arapaho, led by Left Hand (Niwot) was also for peace and sought the protection of the federal government. Other bands, and especially young warriors, wanted to fight for their lands. An order of warriors known as the Dog Soldiers exemplified native people who wanted to fight. Tall Bull was a chief of the Cheyenne Dog Soldiers. Often these warriors were young men and they became the core of resistance to white incursion. In the summer of 1864, members of several of these opposition groups committed raids and degradations that inflamed white anger and panic. Most famously, the Hungate family, who lived about twenty-five miles south of Denver, was discovered murdered in June 1864. Their mutilated bodies were paraded through Denver. The identities of the killers were unknown, but people were quick to blame Cheyenne or Arapaho men. The fall of 1864 was a dangerous time on the Plains. After the Camp Weld conference, Black Kettle and White Antelope removed their people to Fort Lyon, which became a gathering place for people seeking protection. Major Edward “Ned” Wynkoop commanded Fort Lyon and allowed the group to camp close by. In September, Wynkoop had successfully negotiated the return of four white captives from a Cheyenne camp and led several chiefs to the Camp Weld conference. He did not have orders to execute either of these acts. At Fort Lyon, he acted as though he believed that the people encamped there had been guaranteed safety. He also issued rations to them. Wynkoop was called away in late 1864 and reprimanded for acting beyond his authority. His replacement, Major Scott Anthony, did not feel that he could continue to provide rations and permit trade. He ordered that the encampment move to a place about forty miles away where they could better provide for themselves but still be protected by the troops at Fort Lyon. The Cheyenne under Black Kettle were already there and had been assured by Anthony of their safety. So the camp left for Sand Creek in October 1864. In Denver, state governor John Evans felt pressure to do something about the situation with native people in the territory. Raiding parties now disrupted mail service and cargo shipments. Evans proclaimed in August that all Colorado citizens could kill “all hostile Indians.” Evans suggested that “friendly” Indians should seek protection, such as near U.S. military posts. Although the Camp Weld meeting would occur in September, for Evans, the time for peace had already passed. He asked for and received permission to raise a regiment for one hundred days of service. These volunteers wanted to prove themselves against the native people and end what they saw only as malicious attacks committed by all native people rather than just a few. Colonel John M. Chivington commanded the Third Colorado Cavalry. Chivington was already well known for his heroics during the Civil War battle of Glorieta Pass in 1862. The men of the Third did not have the best reputation around Denver and had not seen any action by the time the hundred days was nearly up in November. Chivington and his men departed Fort Lyon for Sand Creek in late November. In the early morning of November 29, 1864, nearly seven hundred U.S. soldiers attacked the village of roughly eight hundred people at Sand Creek. Many of the men of the village were away hunting. A native leader raised both a U.S. flag and a white flag to signal that his camp was friendly. First cannon shot and gunfire rained down, and then the soldiers tore through the camp. U.S. captain Silas Soule held back his company from the melee but many others attacked with abandon. They slaughtered and mutilated roughly one hundred fifty of the Indians, most of whom were reported to be defenseless. The massacre of Southern Arapaho and Southern Cheyenne peoples at Sand Creek in 1864 has left a tragic and bitter memory in Colorado and the nation.  It was one of the most devastating events in Colorado history and would trigger warfare throughout the Plains. Today, Evans and Chivington are divisive, even notorious figures in Colorado history. Sand Creek remains an important place and site for memorials to many of the tribal groups in the state. Sand Creek is in southeastern Colorado. The closest modern town is Eads. *** Sources for Students: Doc. 1: Map of Fort Laramie Treaty and Fort Wise Treaty As Euro American pioneers began moving west across lands that became Nebraska, Kansas, Wyoming, and Colorado that ran into different Plains Indian peoples.  The two tribes in the corner where Colorado would later meet Nebraska were the Cheyenne and Arapaho nations.  These tribes often lived and moved together in pursuit of buffalo (bison).  At times, the Indians and white pioneers fought over resources like cattle or horses. To help avoid these conflicts, the US Army negotiated a treaty with these Indians at Fort Laramie in 1851.  On the map below you can see the area reserved under the treaty for the Cheyenne and Arapaho.  The army hoped that pioneers could travel freely through this 44 million acre territory but not settle.  The Indians hoped they could still hunt buffalo and receive supplies from the US government if they did not bother white migrants. The Colorado Gold Rush of 1858-1859 changed this situation suddenly.  Gold seekers raced to Denver and the mountains to the west in search of this precious metal.  In 1859 some 50,000 Euro Americans came into this region and established new towns.  Conflicts between whites and Indians increased though many Cheyenne and Arapaho leaders promoted peace between the two groups. In 1861, the US Army negotiated a new treaty with some Indian leaders from these tribes at Ft. Wise along the Arkansas River.  Under this second treaty, the Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes were to hunt buffalo in a much smaller area, only 4 million acres, between the two trails noted on the map. Map of Indian Treaties: Ft. Laramie and Ft. Wise [Source: Eric Sainio, Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site.  https://www.nps.gov/sand/index.htm] Questions: How did the land reserved for Indians change from the Treaty of Ft. Laramie in 1851 to the Treaty of Ft. Wise? What likely motivated American leaders to change this space available to Indians? How might the Cheyenne and Arapaho people have responded to the Treaty of Ft. Wise? Do you think the Ft. Wise treaty would tend to promote peace or increase tensions between whites and Indians? Why or why not? The Oregon Trail was a popular route for white settlers heading toward the Pacific Ocean in the 1840s and 1850s.  How might the Colorado Gold Rush change the movement of whites in this area? Compare this map with map 5 in Chapter One.  What do you notice? *** Doc. 2: William Bent Report, 1859 Pioneer William Bent (in Chapter One) described life for the southern Arapaho and Cheyenne people at the time of the gold rush.  Bent was white, but had married Owl Woman, a Southern Cheyenne woman. Native people in southern Colorado respected him.  He also worked at that time for the U.S. government as an Indian agent.  An Indian agent spoke for the U.S. government. WORD BANK:  Pressed upon: pushed in Compressed: squeezed  Desperate: nearly hopeless  Imminent: very soon  Inevitable: can’t be avoided  Prompt: right away “[The southern Arapahos and Cheyennes], pressed upon all around by the Texans, by the settlers of the gold region, by the advancing people of Kansas, and from the Platte, are already compressed into a small circle of territory.  A desperate war of starvation and extinction is therefore imminent and inevitable, unless prompt measures shall prevent [it].” [Source: William Bent in, Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1859, (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1860), 130] Questions: According to William Bent, what conditions did native people face in 1859? What brought those changes to Indian life? Does Bent seem concerned for native people? These tribes depended on buffalo hunting.  How might that change, given the new migrations that Bent described? Why didn’t Indians join in the Gold Rush and try to get rich? *** Doc. 3: Rocky Mountain News Report, 1860 On June 27, 1860 the Rocky Mountain News, a Denver newspaper, reported: WORD BANK: Petty: minor, no big deal War Party: group attacking or raiding Driving: forcing an animal to move Compel: force  Eluded: escape from Skirmishing: minor fighting “Daily we hear of petty [attacks] by the Indians. . . . A little over a week ago . . . [an Indian] war party on return from fighting Utes robbed several houses in Plum Creek settlement. . . . On Thursday evening a man was driving a cow from the Hermitage ranch into [Denver when] he was surrounded by a party of Indians who tried to compel him to give up the cow. . . . Being on a pony he easily eluded them. . . . [After] a little skirmishing the man escaped with his cow. Questions: How might white settlers respond to this story? Were different groups of Indians living in this area? Does it seem like many people lived at Plum Creek? How could stealing a cow help the Indians and hurt the man with the cow? Why wouldn’t the Indians just leave the cow alone and go hunt buffalo? *** Document 4: Arapaho chief Little Raven and Rocky Mountain News editor, 1861 About a year after the previous newspaper report, the Rocky Mountain News editor described a visit to his office by Arapaho Indian chiefs Little Raven and Left Hand.  (There is a picture of Arapaho Chief Little Raven in Chapter Two. He is sitting with William Bent.)  The editor wrote that chief Little Raven told him: WORD BANK: Impoverished: made poor Game: animals hunted for food Scarce: hard to find Compelled: forced “The settlement of this region by the whites had . . . impoverished the Indians—their game had become scarce, and they were compelled at times to ask for food from the whites.  [Little Raven] remembered the advice and the promises of [the US President], and he expected his people would one day receive pay for the land now occupied by whites.  He knew that the whites were taking large sums of gold from the mountains.” [Source: Rocky Mountain News, April 30, 1861] Questions: In what ways did white settlement changed life for Arapaho people? What did Little Raven hope the US government would do? What were some ways that Little Raven thought about about white people? Do you think the newspaper editor was white? Compare this interview with the previous Rocky Mountain News report.  How does each one show a different point? *** Doc. 5: US Army Report, Summer 1864 By the summer of 1864, several U.S. army leaders in Colorado and Kansas began to worry about an open war between white settlers and Indians.  In this letter, U.S. Army Major T.I. McKenney wrote his commanding officer in Kansas about the situation in Colorado: WORD BANK: Caution: care Exercised: used Conciliate: make peace with Scouting: Looking for Parties: groups But:  Only a “In regard to these Indian difficulties, I think if great caution is not exercised on our part, there will be a bloody war.  It should be our policy to try and conciliate [the Indians], guard our mails and trains to prevent theft, and stop these [white] scouting parties that are roaming over the country who do not know one tribe from another, and who will kill anything in the shape of an Indian.  It will require but few murders on the part of our troops to unite all these warlike tribes of the plains, who have been at peace for years and intermarried amongst one another.” [Source: T.I. McKenney Report to Maj. C. S. Charlot,  (June 15, 1864) in War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume XXXIV, Part IV, Correspondence (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office)] Questions: This US army officer suggests that soldiers should be cautious and careful. Why? He refers to “scouting parties that are roaming over the country.” Who might be in those scouting parties? How might scouting parties end up starting a war between Indians and whites? Does McKenney think that the army could help keep peace? How? *** Document. 6:  Colorado Governor John Evans Announcement (August, 1864) By the summer of 1864, Colorado’s governor John Evans gave up on efforts to make peace between whites and Indians.  He made this proclamation or official announcement in August: WORD BANK: Parties: groups Pursuit: hunting for Scrupulously: carefully Rendezvous: meet Point: place Indicate: show “[M]ost of the Indian tribes of the plains are at war and hostile to whites. . . .  Now . . . I, John Evans, governor of Colorado Territory, [give permission to] all citizens of Colorado, either individually or in such parties as they may organize, to go in pursuit of all hostile Indians on the plains, scrupulously avoiding those who have responded to my call to rendezvous at the points indicated; also to kill and destroy as enemies of the country . . . all such hostile Indians.” [Source: Governor John Evans Proclamation in Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for the year 1864 (Washington, DC, 1965), 230–31.] Questions: What did the governor allow whites to do to “hostile Indians”? Why might the leader of Colorado say this? In this statement, Gov. Evans seems to disagree with the previous army officer, Major McKenney. How do they disagree? How might white settlers feel after reading this invitation by the Colorado governor? How might native people feel? What chances for peace between whites and Indians were left after this? *** Doc. 7: John Chivington’s view of what happened at Sand Creek on November 29, 1864 Governor John Evans told John Chivington to organize and lead a group of volunteer soldiers from among the white settlers of Colorado.  These formed the Third Calvary.   These men were not trained soldiers of the U.S. Army, but volunteers.  On November 29, 1864 Col. Chivington ordered an attack on Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians camped along Sand Creek in southeast Colorado.  He had earlier commanded a victorious group of Union soldiers at the Battle of Glorieta Pass in the Civil War. Five months after the events at Sand Creek, a US government committee asked Chivington about what happened at Sand Creek.  You’ll see below two questions posed to Chivington and then his responses. 4th question: [Tell]…the number of Indians that were in the village or camp at the time the attack was made; how many of them were warriors; how many of them were old men, how many of them were women, and how many of them were children? Chivington’s Answer: From the best and most reliable information I could obtain, there were in the Indian camp, at the time of the attack, about eleven (11) or twelve (12) hundred Indians: of these about seven hundred were warriors, and the remainder were women and children. I am not aware that there were any old men among them. There was an unusual number of males among them, for the reason that the war chiefs of both nations were assembled there evidently for some special purpose. WORD BANK: Obtain: get Remainder: rest Assembled: grouped together 7th question: What number of Indians were killed; and what number of the killed were women, and what number were children? Chivington’s Answer: From the best information I could obtain, I judge there were five hundred or six hundred Indians killed; I cannot state positively the number killed, nor can I state positively the number of women and children killed. Officers who passed over the field, by my orders, after the battle, for the purpose of [finding out] the number of Indians killed, report that they saw but few women or children dead, no more than would certainly fall in an attack upon a camp in which they were. I myself passed over some portions of the field after the fight, and I saw but one woman who had been killed, and one who had hanged herself; I saw no dead children. From all I could learn, I arrived at the conclusion that but few women or children had been slain. I am of the opinion that when the attack was made on the Indian camp the greater number of squaws and children made their escape, while the warriors remained to fight my troops. [Source: Chivington’s Deposition in Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, Massacre of Cheyenne Indians, 38th Congress, 2nd Session (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1865), 101–8] WORD BANK: Passed over: road by horseback over Fall: falling down because of injury Portions: parts Conclusion: decision Slain: killed Squaws: Indian women (not a friendly word to use) Questions: According to Chivington, how many Indians warriors were in this camp along Sand Creek? How many women and children were in the Indian camp? Chivington is asked about how many different Indians were killed in the attack. How many warriors did he say were killed by Colorado soldiers?  How many women and children did he say were killed? If we could ask Chivington how dangerous he thought Indians were in 1864, would he sound more like Major McKenney (Doc. 5) or Gov. Evans (Doc. 6)? *** Doc. 8: John M. Smith’s Testimony (March 14, 1865) John Smith was a white government agent who was sent to Sand Creek to check out the Cheyenne Indian camp along Sand Creek before the attack.  He was present during the attack and had married an Indian woman.  He had previously acted as an interpreter and Indian agent.  Like Chivington, Smith was also asked afterward about what happened on November 29, 1864.  Below are the questions he was asked followed by Smith’s answers.  This is a conversation written down for us to read. Question: How many Indians were there there? Smith’s Answer: There were 100 families of Cheyennes, and some six or eight lodges of Arapahoes. Question: How many persons in all, should you say? Smith’s Answer:  About 500 we estimate them at five to a lodge. Question:  500 men, women and children? Smith’s Answer: Yes, sir. Question: Do you know the reason for that attack on the Indians?  Do you know whether or not Colonel Chivington knew the friendly character of these Indians before he made the attack on them? Smith’s Answer: It is my opinion that he did. Question: Were the women and children slaughtered indiscriminately, or only so far as they were with warriors? WORD BANK: Character: a person’s way of thinking and acting Slaughter: kill violently Indiscriminately: randomly the balance: the rest Parties: groups Smith’s Answer: Indiscriminately. Question: Can you state how many Indians were killed – how many women and how many children? Smith’s Answer: Perhaps one-half were men, and the balance were women and children. I do not think that I saw more than 70 lying dead then, as far as I went. But I saw parties of men scattered in every direction, pursuing little bands of Indians. Question: What time of day or night was this attack made? Smith’s Answer: The attack commenced about sunrise, and lasted until between 10 and 11 o’clock. Question: How large a body of [army] troops? Smith’s Answer: From about 800 to 1,000 men. Question: What amount of resistance did the Indian [warriors] make? Smith’s Answer. I think that probably there may have been about 60 or 70 warriors who were armed and stood their ground and fought. Those that were unarmed got out of the way as they best could. [Source: Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, Massacre of Cheyenne Indians, 38th Congress, 2nd Session (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1865) 6-9] WORD BANK: Commence: started Resistance: fighting back Questions: How many men, women and children did Smith find camped along Sand Creek? Did he have a different number than Chivington? How many Indian warriors fought back? Against how many white army soldiers? The word “indiscriminately” means at random.  Why is that word important in these questions and answers. Chivington insisted that he and his men fought a battle against Indian men. Does Smith describe a fair battle or something else? Why might Smith and Chivington have different versions of the events on November 29, 1864? How can we fit these two versions together?  Should we believe one version more than another?  Why? *** How to Use These Sources: Why did the Sand Creek massacre happen?   The documents here will help students reconstruct events that led up to the attack on November 29, 1864.  Soon afterward, there was even a debate about just what had occurred at Sand Creek. The last two sources can help students see the contours of that debate. Option 1:  The first lesson option would be to focus on documents 1, 7, and 8.  The first document offers a map of the area and a chance to consider southern Arapaho and southern Cheyenne lands between 1850 and 1864.  Students can compare the differences between the treaties on the map. They then answer the questions about the change in boundaries for this Indian territory. Then students could work in groups to study either the Chivington or the Smith deposition.  They could first identify “what” happened, according to their source.  This would include how many Indians were present at Sand Creek; how many men; how many women and children; how many of each group were killed.  The Chivington source depicts Sand Creek as a battle between hostile men—the Colorado 3rd volunteers and the warriors of the two tribes.  The Smith source suggests that a massacre of mainly women and children occurred. After working in groups on individual sources, the class might compare the two to identify the key differences.  Students should be able to identify the two different perspectives. Students should notice which areas of the descriptions agree. Even though documents have different perspectives, the facts they agree on can be seen as being more trustworthy than those that differ. You might ask students why the accounts are so different. Neither account voices the native perspective. After this work, students could still begin to answer the question: “Why did this happen?” Answers would likely depend on whether students were relying on Chivington or Smith. Option 2:  More advanced readers could consider all the documents in turn and then compare them.  The first document offers some important background.  The map illustrates the change in Indian territory from the Treaty of Ft. Laramie in 1851 to the Treaty of Ft. Wise in 1861.  These are key years for the migration of Euro Americans into Colorado. Then students might then consider documents Two through Six in order to develop a rough timeline of increasing suspicion and hostilities.  Some whites and some Indians sought or thought about peace.  Others reported only on violence and seemed to stoke fear.  These sources could be grouped by students into those two categories: “War is unavoidable” or “Peace is Possible.” Last, student could turn to the Chivington and Smith sources again.  Students should be able to identify the two different perspectives. Students should notice which areas of the descriptions agree. These two sources also align with either the “war was inevitable” perspective or the “peace is possible” view from the earlier sources. After this work, students could still begin to answer the question: “Why did this event happen?” Option 3: Have student start this project by reading a Colorado history textbook account of Sand Creek.  Then compare that account with the information in these sources.  What source information above did the textbook include?  What information above was not included in the textbook?  How might a textbook version of Sand Creek collect these different perspectives?  Advanced students could even try to rewrite the textbook, based on these source accounts.
6What Challenges Did Immigrants Face in Colorado?Teacher Introduction: From its earliest days as a territory, Colorado was home to communities of migrants.  Native peoples like the Ute, Cheyenne, and Arapaho also led nomadic lives in and out of this region of North America.  This chapter particularly examines the experiences of immigrants after the gold and silver rushes of the nineteenth century.  What kinds of immigrants came to make Colorado home in the twentieth century?  What motivated the decision to come?  What challenges did they face? Immigrants move because of push and pull factors.  Some important push factors for Colorado immigrants included economic hardship at home, religious and political persecution, and distressed environments.  Pull factors included job opportunities in Colorado, relative safety, and freedoms from abuse or violence.  Many migrants celebrated the civil liberties and educational opportunities that they found in the state.  The documents in this chapter allow students the chance to explore these push and pull factors. From 1880 through 1924 more than 25 million immigrants moved to the United States.  Encouraged by employers offering higher paying jobs than they could find at home, many immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe or Mexico in these years.  This chapter considers initially the experiences of Italian, Mexican, and Russian-German peoples.  Typically, immigrants in these years came to work in agriculture, food processing, or mining.  The range of immigrants can help students see the diversity of the cultures and languages in Colorado’s history. At times immigrants to Colorado confronted prejudice and suspicion.  We include a few important examples here.  World War I found German immigrants as special targets of suspicion.  They maintained their language in schools and in churches in farming communities near Greeley in the north and around Rocky Ford in the south.  When the United States joined World War I, the American government encouraged suspicions of German immigrants with the Espionage and Sedition Acts of 1917 and 1918.  Colorado residents who had previously coexisted peacefully with German-speaking immigrants suddenly felt threatened in 1918.  This led to an important test of civil liberties. World War II again generated suspicions in the minds of native-born Euro Americans.  In this conflict it was Japanese Americans and Japanese immigrants who bore the brunt of these fears.  Beginning in 1942 the US government mandated the relocation of 110,000 Japanese immigrants and Japanese Americans and Japanese immigrants from California, Oregon, and Washington to places away from the Pacific Coast.  About 7,000 of these residents were imprisoned for the duration of the war at the Amache camp near Granada in eastern Colorado.  At this camp, Japanese immigrants and Japanese Americans were denied basic civil liberties.  During their internment these forced immigrants to Colorado maintained some semblance of their normal lives, even organizing schools and sporting events for young people.  Just how these forced migrants to Colorado would adjust and interact with existing residents was uncertain. Last, this chapter includes examples of more recent efforts to resettle refugees in the state.  Since the 1965 federal revision to immigration law, Colorado has welcomed a number of immigrants fleeing persecution or natural disaster in their homelands.  The Cold War created new conditions for immigrants who sought refuge from communist countries.  Many U.S. leaders were eager to welcome these refugees.  The shift in immigration can allow students a chance to consider broad changes over the twentieth century.  Again, the immigrant experience, with various push and pull factors, can organize students as they consider what a move to Colorado meant for refugees.  They will likely encounter the children of these refugees if not refugees themselves in their classrooms. Over the twentieth century many immigrants have moved into the Centennial State.  Students in today’s classrooms will typically experience this first hand or will be immigrants or the children of immigrants themselves.  What motivates immigrants to move to Colorado?  How do they benefit existing communities in the state?  How should native-born Coloradans respond?  The reception that immigrants have received in the past raises important questions about how we might respond to immigration today.  The sources in this chapter allow students to begin addressing these questions. *** Sources for Students: Document 1: Photograph of Italian Immigrants in New York, 1905 Around 1905 photographer Lewis Hine took this photo of Italian immigrants outside Ellis Island in New York.  They had just arrived on a steamship from Europe and may have been heading to Colorado to work.  Between 1880 and 1924 there were more than 25 million immigrants who moved to the United States.  Hundreds of thousands of them migrated to Colorado and other states in the American West. The majority started from Eastern Europe (Poland, Russia, Germany) or countries like Italy in southern Europe. Lewis Hine Photo of Italian Immigrants, 1905 [Source: Lewis Hine photograph, about 1905.  Available at the George Eastman House Still Photograph Archive. Online image:  http://www.geh.org/fm/lwhprints/htmlsrc/index.html] Questions: What do you notice about the clothing and hats these men are wearing? Why might they wear ties or dress-up coats?  What can their facial expressions tell us? Imagine they were planning to stay in the United States for many months if not years to work new jobs. What might they bring in those suitcases and bags? Do they look rich or poor to you? Why? What kind of work might these men be able to do in the United States?  How could we find this out? The photographer, Lewis Hine, didn’t tell us what he was thinking when he took this picture.  Why do you think he decided to photograph these men? *** Document 2: Emilio Ferraro Interview, 1978 Emilie Ferraro traveled from his home in Gremaldi in southern Italy to Trinidad, Colorado in 1910.  He crossed the Atlantic from Naples to New York in a steamship and then took the train straight to Colorado where he met three uncles.  He immediately began looking for a job in Trinidad.  This was his memory of that first day, told to an interviewer in 1978: WORD BANK:  Trade: a skilled job  Pull ovens: a job working at a hot furnace to prepare coal for steel factories “when I came to Trinidad, I was looking for some shoe factory . . . because my trade was shoemaker. . . . I stopped at the shoemaker . . . [who] was an Italian fellow from Sicily.  I said to him,” you give me work?” “ Oh sure, I’ll give you work, [he said].” “How much [will] you pay me?” “ One dollar a day, [he said].” How could I make a living?  My uncle told me, no, no, no. . .. You come with me [to] Starkville. I [will] get you a job making two dollars a day. . . . And then if you learn how to pull ovens, you get 98¢ more. . . .And I started at Starkville working.” [Source: Emilio and Gertrude Ferraro Interview, 1978. Colorado Coal Project Collection, University of Colorado Digital Collections: http://cudl.colorado.edu/luna/servlet/UCBOULDERCB1~76~76] Questions: Why did Emilio Ferraro come to Trinidad. What did he hope to do there? Starkville was the site of a big coal mining operation just south of Trinidad. Why did Ferraro decide to take up coal mining work What was the difference in pay between a Trinidad shoemaker and someone who “pulled ovens” in Starkville? Look again the picture in Document 1. We don’t know the names of any of those men.  Could one of them be Emilio Ferraro?  Why or why not? Emilio Ferraro told this story about 68 years after it happened.  How might that long period of time have affected his memory of that first day? *** Document 3: “Pulling the oven” at Starkville, Colorado, about 1910 Here is a photograph of a man “pulling the oven” to heat coal up to a very high temperature.  The end result of this process was the creation of “coke” which was a concentrated form of coal used to heat the blast furnaces in Pueblo that made steel. Pulling the Ovens in southern Colorado [Source: unknown photographer around 1910.  Keystone-Mast Collection, UCR/California Museum of Photography, University of California at Riverside.  Available online: http://oac.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/kt8n39p9t0/?order=2&brand=oac4] Questions: This picture is from a coke oven in Starkville, Colorado. We don’t know the name of the man in the picture.  Could it be the Italian immigrant from document 2?  Why or why not? Why might the man need such a long pole to move coal around inside this oven? How might this work be dangerous? The previous document mentioned how much this work could pay.  What was that amount? Why might an immigrant like Ferraro travel all the way across the Atlantic Ocean and the across most of the United States to take a job like this? Why do think the photographer decided to take this picture?  What might have motivated him or her? *** Document 4: Historian Thomas Andrews on wages for coal miners, 2008 Historians study primary sources to write about what happened in the past. Thomas Andrews carefully researched coal mining in southern Colorado and wrote about the money immigrants could earn doing that work: WORD BANK: Rates and wages: a regular amount of money paid for a day’s work Prosperous: successful [Coal] companies often hired men with little or no experience underground.  And unlike [many other businesses] coal corporations paid ‘Mexicans,’ Asians, and other nonwhites the same rates and wages as were paid to British Americans, an average of around…$15 a week by the 1910s. . . . [This was] at a time when . . . prosperous peasant families in Italy earned [between $50 and $100] per year. [Source: Killing for Coal: America’s Deadliest Labor War (Harvard Univ. Press, 2008), pp. 105–6] Questions: This source gives two different amounts that people could earn about 1910. How much could coal miners earn in Colorado per week?  How much in a day, if they worked 6 days per week? How much could Italian peasants earn in a year? How can we compare those amounts to find out which was a better deal–coal miner or peasant? This reading tells us about a “Pull” factor, or a reason immigrants were drawn to Colorado.  What kind of pull factor is this? Coal mining was dangerous work, with threats of tunnels collapsing and fires underground.  How much money would you want to be paid to take on such a risk working underground? What kind of sources could Thomas Andrews have looked at to figure out these numbers? *** Document 5: Interview with Alejandro Gonzales, 1987 In addition to mining, many immigrants came to Colorado around 1910 to work in the fields growing and harvesting sugar beets.  These are plants like giant white carrots that can produce a sweet syrup.  That syrup can dry to taste like table sugar.  Growing and harvesting sugar beets was hard work, especially under the hot summer sun.  Alejandro Gonzales was a sugar beet worker.  The son of immigrants from Jalisco in Mexico, he came with his parents to Colorado in 1918.  He eventually settled in Longmont with his wife and raised a family.  His parents lived in Longmont also.  Here is how he described his early life in Colorado to an interviewer in 1987: “We came here in 1918 . . . to work in the fields picking [sugar] beets.  We worked on various farms.  In 1924 I got married.  A year later I started to work in the [coal] mines [of Boulder County].  In 1929 I quit working in the mines for a while and went to work for the sugar company [in Longmont], but in the summers I worked in the fields still. . . . Back then you might have worked a day a week or so and earned three or four dollars, but that was enough to support yourself for a whole week.  Nowadays you need a lot of money for everything.  If you go grocery shopping today a bag of food will cost you $100, so nobody can live with one day’s work a week anymore.” [Source: Boulder County Latino History Project, Alex Gonzales Oral history interview; Oli Duncan, interviewer, c. 1987. In Duncan, ed., We, Too, Came to Stay, pp. 31–34.  Available online at: http://bocolatinohistory.colorado.edu/document/oral-history-alex-gonzales-pt-1] Questions: When did Alex Gonzales come to Colorado? What kinds of jobs did he do? Why do you think he changed jobs like that? How much did Alex Gonzales earn in comparison to Emilio Ferraro in document 2? What did he think about the cost of living (buying groceries, for example), in 1987 compared with earlier in his life? Alex Gonzales told this story in 1987. How many years later was that from his arrival in Colorado?  Could this time lag affect his memory of the early years? *** Document 6: Story about Marciano Aguayo, sugar beet worker (betabelero) from Mexico, 1998 Marciano Aguayo left a poor farming community in Aguascalientes, Mexico and migrated to the sugar beet fields along the South Platte River in Merino, Colorado in 1921.  Relatives described Aguayo as “muy trabajador”—a very hard worker. After a year’s work in 1929, he had earned $482.  Marciano’s son, José, reported in 1998 that he heard his father tell this story about his earlier life: WORD BANK: Accustomed: used to Furrows: small ditches between rows of a plant on a farm Carbide lamp: A light powered by a chemical compound Mounted: placed on Cap: a soft hat I was accustomed to waking up at 3 am every morning.  I walked to the fields, arriving by first light when one was just able to see the individual beet plants.  I would walk in the furrows between the rows, thinning and hoeing two at a time.  I continued this pace until well past dark, lighting my way with a carbide lamp mounted on a miner’s cap.  I was home by 10 pm every night to catch a few short hours of sleep before repeating the routine all over again. [Source: Quoted in José Aguyo, “Los Betabeleros (The Beetworkers),” in Vince C. de Baca, La Gente: Hispano History and Life in Colorado (Denver: Colorado Historical Society, 1998), 113] Questions: How many hours a day did Aguayo work in the fields? What kind of work did he do? Does this work sound difficult? He could have chosen to return to his native Mexico. What did you think he stayed and raised a family in Colorado instead? Aguayo’s son reported that his father received certificates from his employers praising his hard work. How might that affect his decision to stay? What do you think was needed to own your own farm in Colorado in the 1920s?  Why do you think Aguayo didn’t become the boss on his own farm? *** Document 7:  Judge Magazine Cartoon, 1903 Artist Louis Dalrymple drew this cartoon about Italian immigrants coming to America in 1903 for Judge Magazine.  At this time, the magazine published about 100,000 copies of each issue. [Source: Louis Dalrymple, “Unrestricted Dumping Ground,” Judge, vol. 4-45, 1903; https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Unrestricted_Dumping-Ground._Louis_Dalrymple.jpg] Questions: The tall man next to flag pole was called “Uncle Sam.” How was he dressed?  Who might he represent? Next to the boat in the harbor is a box that looks like an old-fashioned rat trap. What is written on the box?  What caption is written at the bottom of the cartoon? How did the artist Dalrymple draw Italian immigrants? Why did he draw them that way, do you think? What worries did Dalrymple have about these Italian immigrants? Use a dictionary to look up words, if you need to. If this cartoon represents the attitude of some Americans toward Italian immigrants at this time, what challenges did those immigrants face? Extra Credit:  the figure to the left of Uncle Sam was probably President William McKinley.  Check out how he died online.  Why might the artist draw him in that puff of smoke from Uncle Sam’s cigar? *** Document 8:  Letter to Colorado Governor about anti-German threats, 1918 Some immigrants faced discrimination when they came to the United States.  During World War I, many Coloradans worried about the German-speaking immigrants who worked in the sugar beet fields along the eastern Plains.  Germany was the enemy of the United States during that war.  Below is a letter from a pastor of a German Lutheran church (St. Paul’s) in Sugar City, Colorado to the Governor.  Sugar City is east of Pueblo and near Rocky Ford and La Junta.  This pastor typically conducted Sunday school and church services in German, since church members spoke German as their first language. WORD BANK: Demand: forceful request Discontinue: stop Complying: agreeing Engaged in: busy working at Sentiment: feeling Free exercise of: freedom to practice [On August 25, 1918] a demand was made upon us by a number of citizens of [Sugar City] to discontinue all use of the German language . . . . [And]giving us the alternative of complying with the demand or having our church property burned down. . . . Nearly all members of our church are German Russians mostly engaged in [sugar] beet raising.  They have bought bonds, war savings stamps, given toward the Red Cross, YMCA, Soldiers and Sailors Aid, etc . . . .We are aware of the sentiment against the use of the German language, however, we are also aware that under the constitution of our country we have the right of free exercise of our religion. [Source: K.F. Weltner letter to Gov. Julius Gunther, August 27, 1918, Colorado State Archives; reprinted in William Virden and Mary Borg, Go to the Source: Discovering 20th Century US History Through Colorado Documents (Fort Collins, Colorado: Cottonwood Press, 2000), 36]. Questions: Why did some people in Sugar City threaten to burn down this immigrant church? According to the pastor, how did the church members show their patriotism during a time of war with Germany? Why did some residents of Sugar City feel the German-speaking workers didn’t belong? What might the governor of Colorado have done to deal with this problem? What would be fair, given this was wartime and Germany was an enemy? How can the president or governor best promote patriotism among immigrants where there is war happening? *** Document 9: Japanese American Student Letter from Amache, 1944 During World War II, the United States fought against Germany and Japan.  The US Government ordered that people of Japanese heritage living in California, Oregon, and Washington move to prison camps in other states during the war.  One of these camps was located in Colorado.  About 7,000 Japanese immigrants and Japanese Americans lived in this camp, called Amache.  While in this prison, young Japanese Americans were allowed to go to school and sometimes compete in sports against other local schools.  In November 1944, however, white parents at nearby Wiley High School refused to let their boys play football against the Japanese American team from Amache.  One Amache student wrote a letter to complain: WORD BANK: Permit: allow Engaging in: taking part in, playing Rather than feeling disappointed over the waste of our many practices, I am rather more disappointed in the 5 boys’ parents who would not permit their sons to play against us because we are Japanese Americans. . . . I hope that in the near future we can get to a better understanding with them and be able to go about engaging in athletic activities without having anyone opposing because of race or color. [Source: Ken Nakatagama letter, 1944, History Colorado collection.  Quoted in Christian Heimburger, “Japanese Imprisonment at Amache,” Primary Resource Set available at History Colorado: https://www.historycolorado.org/sites/default/files/media/documents/2017/amache_primary_resource_set.pdf] Questions: Find Granada on a map of Colorado. Why do you think the US Government would choose to locate a prison camp for Japanese immigrants and Japanese Americans there? Why do you think that some white parents at nearby Wiley High School did not allow their sons to play football against the team from Amache? Was there a good reason? The author of this letter, Ken Nakatagama, was disappointed about the cancelled football game. Why? What did Nakatagama hope would happen? How can a football or baseball or basketball game between different kinds of people help ease suspicions or build friendships? *** Document 10: Hart-Celler Act, 1965 In 1965 the U.S. Congress and President Lyndon Johnson changed the rules for immigration into the United States.  This new law, the Hart-Celler Act, affected the kinds of immigrants who could move to Colorado.  The section of the 1965 immigration law below described a special situation for refugees from other countries.  These are generally people fleeing their home countries because of violence or serious dangers.  Some refugees to the United States wanted to escape from communism in their home countries.  Communist countries drastically limited freedom and often imprisoned people who disagreed openly with the government. WORD BANK: Persecution: abuse on account of: because of Uprooted: displaced or forced to move Calamity: disaster [Immigration officials can allow special entry to the United States to immigrants who] because of persecution or fear of persecution on account of race, religion, or political opinion . . . have fled from any Communist or Communist-dominated country or from any country within the general area of the Middle East and are unable or unwilling to return to [that] country . . . on account of race, religion, or political opinion. [Immigration officials can also allow into the United States those immigrants who] are uprooted by catastrophic natural calamity. [Source: Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965, Public Law 89-236,  U.S. Statutes at Large, 79 (1965): 913.  Available online: https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/STATUTE-79/pdf/STATUTE-79-Pg911.pdf] Questions: This new immigration law seems to give a special opportunity to those who are persecuted or fear persecution. What are some reasons in the document that people fear persecution? What might have motivated Congress and President Johnson to create this new immigration law? What parts of the world were people coming from? Why might these immigrant refugees want to come to Colorado? Do you have any guesses about where refugees to Colorado come from today? *** Document 11: Table Listing Refugees in Colorado, 1980 – 2017 Since 1980, Colorado has welcomed a wide range of refugees from other countries.  These are generally people fleeing their home countries because of violence or serious dangers.  Once the American government grants these refugees permission to enter the United States legally, they get help from specific states like Colorado to resettle.  The Colorado state government, in fact, has created a program to help refugees adjust.  This refugee assistance program counted the following numbers of refugees from different parts of the world: East Asian Countries Original Country of Refugees How many Came to Colorado between 1980 and 2017? Vietnam 10,788 Burma 5,314 Laos and Hmong 4,774 Bhutan 3,684 Cambodia 2,269 Other East Asian countries 559 Total Refugees from East Asia 27,388 African Countries Original Country of Refugees How many Came to Colorado between 1980 and 2017? Somalia 4,646 Ethiopia 2,596 Congo 1,656 Sudan 1,204 Other African Counties 2,962 Total Refugees from Africa 13,064         European and Central Asian Countries Original Country of Refugees How many Came to Colorado between 1980 and 2017? Soviet Union or Russia 6,083 Bosnia and Herzegovina 2,131 Other European Counties 2,832 Total Refugees from Europe and Central Asia 11,046 Middle East and South Asia Original Country of Refugees How many Came to Colorado between 1980 and 2017? Iraq 3,765 Afghanistan 1,853 Iran 762 Syria 270 Other Middle East and South Asian countries 146 Total Refugees from the Middle East and South Asia 6,796 Latin America Original Country of Refugees How many Came to Colorado between 1980 and 2017? Cuba 1165 Columbia 125 Mexico 31 Other Latin American Counties 211 Total Refugees from Latin America 1,532 Total Refugees to Colorado, 1980 – 2017 59,910 [Source: Colorado Refugee Services Program Online Data, 2017: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1_jdz6ky4pADOBzRxF_HjslaiAF0RBkDJ/view] Questions: What five countries of the world have sent the most refugees to Colorado? Which of the regions listed above (East Asia, Africa, Europe, etc) sent the fewest refugees? What kinds of events might push refugees from their home countries? Why might refugees want to come to Colorado today? What does the state offer them? What challenges will refugees in Colorado face today? Compared to earlier sources, does this source show a more inclusive or exclusive side to Colorado?  How? *** How to Use These Sources: These sources allow students to explore some important aspects of immigration to Colorado in the twentieth century.  There are opportunities to consider push and pull factors that motivated immigrants as well as reception by native-born Coloradans.  Students can begin to consider anti-immigrant prejudice at key moments in Colorado history and how that has changed over time.  Students might create a T-chart to list “Push” and “Pull” factors as they read the different documents.  Ultimately, they might organize short quotes or phrases from these sources into a Found Poem on immigration to Colorado.  To make a Found Poem, students can pull words or phrases from different documents and group them in a new poem.  For more ideas about Found Poems, please see this Library of Congress guide: http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/primarysourcesets/poetry/pdf/teacher_guide.pdf Option 1: The first four documents offer both visual and written sources on Italian immigration and the promise of mining work.  Document 1, the photograph by Lewis Hine, pictures Italian immigrants at Ellis Island.  It suggests some typical challenges for historians:  we don’t know the names or stories of the men pictures, only that they are immigrants, starting a new life phase in America.  Document 2 gives us an oral history of one Italian immigrant who came through Ellis Island and ended up working coke ovens near Trinidad.  Could the immigrant in that oral history be pictured in the photograph?  How might we decide?  Even if the dates of the photo and Ferraro’s arrival in New York don’t match up exactly, could we use that photo to help us picture what Ferraro might have looked like?  When reconstructing the lives of ordinary people, and not just presidents, we often rely on incomplete evidence and have to fill in some gaps with some evidence-based imagination. Students could consider all four of these first four documents to consider push and pull factors for Italian immigrants.  They could also begin to make a list of the kinds of work these new immigrants were doing. Option 2:  Adding documents 5 and 6 to student projects will introduce another immigrant group—Mexicans. These two oral histories can help students explore the experience of sugar beet workers.  These immigrants contributed to the agricultural development in the state.  How were their experiences similar?  How might the work of Mexican sugar-beet workers differ from an Italian mine worker near Trinidad?  What would it be like to engage in both occupations each year? Option 3:  Documents 7, 8, and 9 address discrimination and challenges.  There is a visual source (cartoon) and two stories from immigrants who resisted prejudice.  Students could study the cartoon (Doc 7) before comparing that message with the picture of Italian immigrants they have from the first few sources.  The Lewis Hine photograph is more sympathetic while the Dalrymple political cartoon is obviously hostile toward immigrants.  Why were they so different in their view of immigrants? Wartime contexts seem to create new challenges for immigrants.  Document 8 on German-speaking sugar-beet workers and Doc. 9 on Japanese and Japanese American internment both show this in different ways.  What challenges did each immigrant group face during wartime?  Both were considered potential enemies.  How did each respond?  Students could consider the question: what could Coloradans have done differently about these immigrants during wartime? The last sources address the changes in immigration policy in the United States since the 1960s.  The Hart-Celler Act in Document 10 helps create the opportunity for refugee migration into Colorado that is the topic of Document 11.  Students can get a sense of the range of countries of origin for recent immigrants and refugees in that latter source. The table in Document 11 will require some math skills to interpret.  After considering the cause and effect link between these documents, students might speculate about the change in reception.  Why have Coloradans been more welcoming of refugees in the last thirty-five years?  How about today?
7Who Fought for Equality in Colorado?Teacher Introduction During the twentieth century different social groups in Colorado at times faced unequal treatment and discrimination.  The dominant population of white Euro-Americans did not always welcome people of color or those immigrants who brought linguistic or religious diversity to the state.  The question “Who fought for equality in Colorado?” recurs over the decades as different groups of Colorado residents insisted on civil rights and fair opportunities at key moments in history. This chapter allows students to explore some important answers to that question about equality.  Earlier chapters have highlighted the nineteenth-century struggles of Native Americans to maintain their homeland and way of live in the state.  Here, students can focus on civil rights challenges among different immigrants and people of color in Colorado in the twentieth century.  Many elementary students have begun to learn that Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks inspired a broad Civil Rights movement from the American South.  Few know about similar struggles in and around the Rocky Mountains. In 1895, Colorado legislators approved an important Civil Rights law that promised equal treatment of people in the state regardless of color or race. This law was meant to reinforce the Fourteen Amendment to the Constitution, which Congress approved in 1868.  These legal protections of civil rights sadly would prove hollow in the American South as Jim Crow restrictions and legally mandated segregation became entrenched by 1900. Racial and ethnic diversity in the Rocky Mountain West was different than in the South.  Mexican Americans, Native Americans, African Americans, and Italian immigrants and their descendants were among groups that experienced who struggled to secure their rights.  Although Colorado’s legal framework banned some forms of discrimination, the social reality for people of color did not always match the legal ideal. During the 1920s Colorado witnessed the unexpected reawakening of the Ku Klux Klan.  Some 35,000 native-born Protestant Euro Americans joined this nationwide social movement in that decade.  Denver was the Klan capitol.  In an unusual twist of its post-Civil War roots, this revived Klan broadened its targets to include not only African Americans but Catholic and Jewish immigrants as well.  Religion became contested terrain as some bigoted Protestants insisted that theirs was the only patriotic religion in Colorado.  Catholic and Jewish immigrants and native-born people of color resisted this narrow vision of public life in Colorado.  Sometimes historians study racist groups like the Klan to try to understand them and their influence.  This does not imply that historians approve or support their racism. World War II marked an important shift.  The loyal military service of people of color and the racist dictatorship of Nazi Germany offered new opportunities for civil rights activists to press the causes.  Colorado witnessed a remarkable coalition of people of color who joined with white activists to press for civil rights.  These struggles secured some important legal protections during the Cold War that followed.  In 1957, Colorado legislators passed a cluster of important civil rights measures including a law to ban employment discrimination, a repeal of the ban on interracial marriage, and new enforcement provisions for the Public Accommodations law from 1895.  Two years later, a Fair Housing Law was also approved.  Historian Dani Newsum noted that by the late 1950s conditions for legal change were ripe at the state legislature: “[T]he war service of men and women of color, combined with a stew of Cold War pressures, revulsion at the savagery of southern white supremacy, outside political pressure, and the insistent public education . . . of a sophisticated coalition of civil rights advocates had helped to transform most [Colorado] lawmakers perceptions of the government’s regulation of employment, marital, and consumer relationships.”Dani Newsum, “Cold War Colorado: Civil Rights Liberals and the Movement for Legislative Equality,” (MA Thesis: University of Colorado, 2012),  n p. 171 Yet housing and school segregation continued into the 1960s. Those issues became the main battleground for civil rights activists. For Mexican Americans and Mexican immigrants, their civil rights struggle was not only about housing and educational opportunities. The descendants of the San Luis valley pioneers faced unfair treatment in schools and state government.  Recent Mexican immigrant farm workers along the plains had to struggle as well to secure equal treatment in public accommodations.  By the 1960s an influential Chicano movement had mobilized many in the Mexican American community in support of civil rights.  Corky Gonzales was one of the movement’s leaders who affirmed a powerful Chicano identity for Colorado as well as other southwestern states.  Combining Spanish Catholic traditions with indigenous Meso-American roots, the Chicana/o insisted upon belonging: “I am still here!” wrote Gonzales on behalf of this group.  Chicana/o activists were quick to point out that their ancestors lived in Colorado long before statehood. The sources in the chapter deal directly with inclusion and exclusion.  Who was welcomed in Colorado?  Who was not?  How did those who faced exclusion or discrimination fight back?  These are some of the questions that arise when students begin to confront the basic question—who fought for equality? These sources do not, of course, tell the comprehensive story of exclusion, discrimination, and civil rights struggles in Colorado or the United States.  They do offer a useful launching point for these issues and could easily stimulate additional research or investigation.  At very least, they serve to introduce students to some key challenges of exclusion and struggles for inclusion in Colorado over the twentieth century.  Additionally, Chapter Six on Immigration to Colorado confronts similar issues for other people of color. We organized the sources in this chapter to reflect the idea of a K-W-L strategy.  The first sources on Martin Luther King hopefully build on what students already know about Civil Rights Movement history and generate questions.  Then sources will lead students to consider the Colorado context to find answers to their more regional history questions about Civil Rights. *** Sources for Students: Document 1: Statue of Dr. Martin Luther King and a new holiday, 1984 On January 20, 1986 Coloradans began observing a holiday in honor of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.  Here is a photograph of a statue of Martin Luther King atop a pedestal in City Park in Denver.  The statue was created by artist Ed Dwight. Martin Luther King Statue, Denver City Park [Source: http://www.denver.org/things-to-do/denver-holiday-events/denver-mlk-day/] Along with Rosa Parks, King is one of the most famous Americans in history.  As a Civil Rights leader, Martin Luther King did not spend much time in Colorado.  Still, our state government approved an official holiday to remember Dr. King.  Below is an excerpt from that MLK holiday law: WORD BANK: Reflect upon the principles: think carefully about the goals Espoused: promoted, talked about Appropriate: proper Observance: respectful celebration Commemoration: remembering positively This holiday should serve as a time for Americans to reflect upon the principles of racial equality and nonviolent social change espoused by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.; and… [T]he Colorado General Assembly [will] coordinate efforts with cities, towns, counties, school districts…and with private organizations within Colorado in the first observance of the…legal holiday honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.  [T]he Colorado General Assembly hereby encourages appropriate observances, ceremonies and activities . . . to ensure the . . . commemoration of the . . . holiday honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., throughout all the cities, towns counties, school districts and local governments within Colorado. [Source: Colorado General Assembly, House Joint Resolution No. 1031 (1984)] Questions: What do you know so far about Martin Luther King, Jr.? According to the law creating the Martin Luther King holiday, what goals did Colorado law makers have for this day? What kinds of groups did the legislators hope would work together on this holiday? What kinds of events do you think would help Coloradans think about racial equality? As far as you know at this point, did African Americans or Mexican Americans in Colorado have to fight for their rights? Or did they always feel welcome in Colorado? You can find many other pictures of the Martin Luther King memorial in City Park in Denver online.  Find the best one you can if you can’t visit City Park in person.  Does that statue help people reflect on racial equality?  Why or why not? Do you know of other civil rights leaders who have statues in Colorado or in your local community? *** Document 2: Colorado Civil Rights Law, 1895 In 1895 an African American lawyer representing Arapaho County in the Colorado legislature, Joseph Stuart, successfully promoted the idea of civil rights for all Coloradans.  Civil rights include the idea that people should be treated equally in public places and free from discrimination because of their race or skin color.  Here is an excerpt from the Civil Rights law that Stuart initially sponsored:  WORD BANK: Shall be entitled to equal enjoyment: will be able to make use of Accommodations and facilities of: spaces available in Regardless: without any talk about All persons within [Colorado] shall be entitled to…equal enjoyment of the accommodations [and] facilities of inns, restaurants, eating houses, barbershops, public [transportation], theaters, and all other places of public accommodation and amusement…regardless of color or race. [Source: Colorado Session Laws, Tenth Session, 1895, Ch. 61. Civil Rights, p. 139.] Questions: “Equal enjoyment of the accommodations” means equal opportunity to use and get into public places. If this law applies, can a white restaurant owner refuse to serve African Americans?  Why or why not? Why do you think a law like this was necessary? What problems was it hoping to fix? The punishment for breaking this law was for the person guilty of discrimination to pay a fine of somewhere between $50 and $500 to the victim. How much should people who discriminate today have to pay such victims, in your view? Under this Civil Rights law local police were in charge of enforcing it. What might happen if the police did not investigate complaints of discrimination? What might someone do if they felt this law was not enforced and they faced discrimination anyway? Document 3: Denver Star Report of Discrimination, 1913 Denver’s small African American community supported local newspapers in the early twentieth century including The Denver Star.  The paper reported on successes and challenges faced by African Americans as they too hoped to realize the promise of life in this relatively new western state.  While states like Mississippi and Alabama had passed laws that required segregation or separation of white and black people in restaurants, theaters, and schools, Colorado officially still had the Civil Rights law of 1895.  Yet the Denver Star editor wrote in 1913: WORD BANK: Cater to: do business with or serve Colored Trade: business with people of color Discrimination: unfair treatment Today along our public street these signs are printed and…displayed: “We cater to white people only,” at the Colonial Theatre, “Colored trade not wanted,” at the Paris theatre, a block apart on Curtis Street; around the corner on 18th street below Champa street, “White People’s Restaurant,”….All this discrimination within a radius of two blocks along the [main streets] of our city.  What are we going to do about it? [Source: “Denver Needs a Vigilance Committee: A Call to Arms,” Denver Star (September 30, 1913)] Questions: What problems did African Americans face when they wanted to dine out or attend a show at a Denver theater? Why would white restaurant and theater owners put up signs like these?  What would motivate them? These signs seem to contradict the 1895 civil rights law from document. What might African Americans in Denver do about that? Does it still matter if Colorado had a law against discrimination if discrimination happened anyway? Can the law help later on in some way? *** Document 4: Photograph of women of Ku Klux Klan parade in Arvada, 1925 The Ku Klux Klan grew in popularity in Colorado and especially in Denver in the 1920s.  By 1924, there were about 35,000 members in Colorado.  Male and female members insisted that this was just a patriotic group, celebrating America.  The often included flags in photos.  But Klan leaders also threatened Catholic and Jewish immigrants as well as African Americans in Colorado.   They tried to repeal the 1895 Civil Rights law. Their hooded costumes symbolized white racism from the American South after the Civil War. Ku Klux Klan Parade in Arvada, Colorado (1925) [Source: Denver Public Library, Call # X-21548.  Ku Klux Klan Ladies Auxiliary, 1925] Questions: What kinds of people do you see in this photograph?  Do they look dangerous? The hoods are lifted so that we can see their faces.  Why do you think they didn’t cover their faces with hoods or masks? What else do you see besides these people in Klan robes and hats? What might those other symbols and people in the photograph mean? Who do you think the men in the back are supposed to be? What are they saying about the Klan? What might an African American leader do to protest the Klan in Arvada? *** Document 5: Photograph of Whittier Elementary School Students, 1927 By the 1920s about ninety percent of Denver’s African American population lived in the neighborhoods called Five Points and Whittier, northeast of downtown.  While this area included the homes, offices, and stores of doctors, dentists, lawyers, and many small businessmen, the residents of Five Points were limited by discrimination.  African Americans were not able to buy houses in other neighborhoods.  That meant that schools in Five Points and Whittier had large numbers of African American students.  Here is a photograph of students at an elementary school in the Whittier neighborhood from 1927.  These students would likely be headed for Manual High School which served this same neighborhood. Whittier Elementary School in Denver, 1927 [Source: Denver Public Library Collection: https://history.denverlibrary.org/five-points-whittier-neighborhood-history] Questions: How many African American students do you count in this picture? How many white students?  Could there be Mexican American students here too? In Denver there were no laws that required black and white students to attend separate schools. Yet schools in neighborhoods like Five Points and Whittier had mostly black students and few whites.  Why do you think that happened? Some African American parents in these neighborhoods wanted to move to different parts of Denver because they hoped for better school opportunities for their children. What might keep them from moving into mostly white neighborhoods? If they could not move into white neighborhoods, what might African American parents do to help their kids in poor schools? How do you think KKK Members from the previous document would feel about this photograph? *** Document 6: Park Hill Neighborhood Flyer, 1932 Park Hill was just to the east of the Five Points and Whittier Neighborhoods in Denver.  People moved to Park Hill around 1900 to get away from the noisy city center of Denver.  Homeowners and realtors (who help sell and buy houses) made agreements not to sell existing homes to African Americans.  African American families could not buy houses in Park Hill in the 1920s because no white family or white realtor would sell to them.  The flyer below appear about 1932. A Handout from the Park Hill Neighborhood in Denver about 1932 [Source: Denver Public Library, “Great Danger Ahead” Flyer, call # C917.8883 R312 1932;  “History of the Park Hill Neighborhood”: https://history.denverlibrary.org/park-hill-neighborhood-history] WORD BANK: Residing: living Matters of vital importance: really important issues Relative to: related to Questions: This flyer was given out to Denver residents living the in Park Hill neighborhood. Where is that?  Which Denver neighborhoods are to the west of Park Hill? Who is invited to the meeting? Why those people? A man named Warren E. Davis created this flyer to alert his neighbors in Park Hill to a “great danger ahead.” It’s not until we read the last paragraph that we can find the danger. What was it? Davis ends this flyer by suggesting that neighbors get together to “protect” themselves. Why would he use a word like “protect”? In what ways might white homeowners try to prevent black buyers from moving into their neighborhood? What makes this an example of discrimination? What might African American home buyers in Denver do about this? *** Document 7: “No Mexicans” Signs Removed, Greeley, 1926 In 1901 the Great Western Sugar Company began growing and refining sugar beets near Greeley in northern Colorado.  Mexican and Mexican Americans gradually began working in sugar beet fields.  Many of the Hispanic workers moved into communities in and around Greeley.  Here they faced discrimination and reminders that they were not thought of as equal to the white residents.  “No Mexicans” signs in restaurants were an obvious example.  The chamber of commerce was a group of business leaders asked to talk about these signs. Here is a newspaper story about those signs from 1926: WORD BANK: Chamber of commerce: a group of business leaders in town Displayed: placed in a window Discriminatory: unfair [After] friendly discussions with the businessmen [of Greeley] the chamber of commerce has secured the removal of “No Mexicans” signs from practically all of the . . local business places which displayed them.  The Spanish speaking people are very resentful of such discriminatory signs. [Source: Greeley Tribune, (November 1, 1926).  Quoted in Jody L. Lopez and Gabriel A. Lopez, White Gold Laborers: The Story of Greeley’s Spanish Colony (2007) 215.] Questions: This newspaper story describes a change in Greeley. What were Greeley businesses doing before the change? Why do you think this change happened? What led business owners to take them down? This story appeared the same year as the Ku Klux Klan march pictured in document 4 above. From this story, could we make an assumption about whether the Klan was active in Greeley?  Why or why not? Is this newspaper story enough for us to claim that Mexican immigrants and Mexican Americans no longer faced any discrimination in Greeley after 1926? Why or why not? How could we find out if this was a temporary change for the better or a long-last one for Mexican Americans in Greeley? Document 8: Corky Gonzales, “I am Joaquín,” 1967 By the 1960s, Mexican Americans protested discrimination and the lack of opportunities for their community.  Mexican America parents and students did not accept racism in the public schools.  The police at times harassed and even killed young Mexican Americans who were not dangerous.  Activists were also inspired by the black civil rights movement led by people like Martin Luther King, Jr.  In the poem below, Denver activist Rodolfo “Corky” Gonzales expresses frustration and hope for Mexican Americans: I am Joaquín Lost in a world of confusion, Caught up in a whirl of a gringo society. Confused by the rules, Scorned by attitudes . . . My fathers have lost the economic battle and won the struggle of cultural survival . . . Here I stand, Poor in money, arrogant with pride, Bold with machismo, Rich in courage And wealthy in spirit and faith. My knees are caked with mud. My hands calloused from the hoe. I have made the Anglo rich, yet Equality is but a word…. I have endured in the rugged mountains of our country I have survived the toils and slavery of the fields. WORD BANK: whirl: spinning gringo: a person who is not Hispanic or Latino scorned: feeling worthless economic battle: struggle to make enough money for success cultural: having to do with a group’s language, religion, and traditions survival: staying alive machismo: male toughness calloused: hardened skin patches from hard work Anglo: Mexican American word for white Americans rugged: uneven and rocky toils:  very hard work I have existed             In the barrios of the city             In the suburbs of bigotry…             In the prisons of dejection….. I am the masses of my people and I refuse to be absorbed I am Joaquín…. I WILL ENDURE! WORD BANK: barrios: neighborhoods where Mexican Americans live bigotry: intolerance for someone different dejection: feeling sad and depressed Questions: What words or phrases did the poet use to describe Joaquín? What kind of work did Joaquín do? Joaquín is obviously a boy’s or man’s name. But the poet here seems to use that name to represent other people. What people?  How does he use the name Joaquín to mean other people? “Endure” and “survive” appear in the poem more than once. Why? How did Gonzales write about hope? In what ways did Joaquín feel excluded in this poem? What could change to help Joaquín feel like he belonged in Colorado? *** How to Use These Sources This collection of sources offer students a chance to approach civil rights by considering exclusion and inclusion.  When in Colorado history did different groups face exclusion?  How did those excluded groups respond and fight to belong?  These are of course broad questions, but students can begin to address them here to create a context for the twentieth century history of civil rights. Option 1: Students could start with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and document 1.  This will likely be familiar territory for many students and can help build a context for exploring civil rights.  How best should we today celebrate and honor the legacy of Dr. King?  Don’t worry if students do not yet know about specific national details like the Montgomery Bus Boycott or the Little Rock Nine or Selma.  The Colorado connection to Dr. King can be useful as a starting point for thinking about discrimination and civil rights. Then students could begin to create a context for the civil rights struggle in Colorado.  What are civil rights?  The teacher might start an on-going list. The Civil Rights Law of 1895 offers a promise and a kind of test for later generations.  Keeping in mind the main question of equality, students could discuss how this law expressed a hope that different Colorado residents belonged in public places.  Civil rights are not easily understood by students, even though they quickly learn that Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks were civil rights heroes.  Over the course of the lesson, students could expand their list of civil rights and freedoms as they find them in the documents. Following those initial documents, students in groups could consider cases that tested the first promise of equal treatment in that 1895 law.  Documents on restaurant and theater discrimination as well as the housing restrictions in Denver suggest the limits of that 1895 promise of inclusion.  The contract between law and reality on the streets of Denver is painful but important for students to understand.  America has always been a country of great promise.  What happens when the reality falls short for people of color?   Here student can expand on their list of civil rights.  Mexican American discrimination in Greeley, and the poem “I am Joaquín” provide additional examples of exclusion.  In each case, certain groups wanted to challenge exclusion and insist that they belonged in Colorado.  Students could answer the questions on each source in small groups and then discuss as a class what it meant to belong in each case.  How did these excluded groups want to belong?  How did they protest or push for inclusion? Option 2: After completing the work in Option 1, students could turn to the issue of change over time.  How did Colorado get from exclusions and discrimination that we see in these documents to a holiday and statues honoring Dr. Martin Luther King?  This is not to suggest that racism no longer exists in Colorado or the United States.  But students could consider if there have been improvements and a larger movement toward fairness over time.  Of course, they will not be prepared at this point to provide a detailed explanation of that change over the twentieth century.  But they will have valuable ideas about how this happened.  This lesson could provide though a helpful introduction to questions of exclusion, inclusion and civil rights.  What caused this change over time? Option 3: Write a poem about identity in light of this historical story.  What makes who you are?  Has your family faced challenges or exclusions that shaped who you are?  How are your family’s challenges similar to or different from those in this chapter? Additional Resources: Denver Public Library, “Five Points-Whittier Neighborhood History,” at: https://history.denverlibrary.org/five-points-whittier-neighborhood-history Great Lives in Colorado History Biographies.  This elementary-level biography series includes bi-lingual English/Spanish titles on Justina Ford, Corky Gonzales, Chin Lin Sou, Barney Ford, and Clara Brown. Dani Newsum, “Lincoln Hills and Civil Rights in Colorado,” Primary Source Set available at HistoryColorado.org.
8Can Cartoons Influence People?Teacher Introduction: “A picture is worth a thousand words,” goes the famous saying.  Political cartoonists certainly hope so.  For centuries, American cartoonists have drawn political leaders to capture some essential idea or message in a few symbols.  Starting around 1900 Colorado was lucky to have a pioneering cartoonist develop a rich tradition of work.  Denver Post illustrator Wilbur Steele began to draw a daily cartoon featuring city, state, and national leaders who had misused their influence and authority.  He, like so many other cartoonists, hoped that his pictures could help fight evil and corruption.  Steele also used his single-framed images to celebrate successes and express hopes for positive change.  This chapter allows students a chance to develop their visual literacy skills by interpreting a range of cartoons from American and Colorado history. Artist Wilbur Steele spent many years drawing one of Denver’s most famous mayors, Robert Speer.  Known today for promoting the Civic Center, applying the City Beautiful ideal, and overseeing construction of the boulevard that bears his name, Robert Speer left an enduring legacy in Denver.  Less well known is the intense criticism he drew for his sneaky and illegal electioneering strategies.  His political party, the Democrats, had organized a network of loyal supporters, especially in what is today Lower Downtown or LoDo.  These supporters were experienced in manipulating elections by “repeating” or voting as often as they could.  They registered dead people; disguised themselves and assumed other people’s names; and bribed and intimidated other voters to choose the Democrats.  The chief of police at the time, Michael Delaney, promised these Democratic loyalists protection from prosecution.  The Republicans had a similar network, or machine, that operated in other parts of the city and state.For a good example of ballot frauds by both parties in 1904, see Marjorie Hornbein, “Three Governors in a Day,” in Steve Grinstead and Ben Fogelberg, Western Voices: 125 Years of Colorado Writing (Golden: Fulcrum Publishing, 2004) 116-133 or Todd Laugen, Gospel of Progressivism: Moral Reform and Labor War in Colorado  (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2010), Chapter 1. But Robert Speer was the leader of the Democratic Party machine.  Denver Post cartoonist Wilbur Steele began drawing cartoons of candidate Speer called attention to his key role in this network.  In fact, Steele seemed to want to warn the voters of Denver that Speer was dangerous, encouraging violence against voters who disagreed with him.  Steele was especially focused on that Democratic party machine with “Boss” Speer at the head of it. Steele captured the positive and negative aspects of Speer’s public record with his front-page cartoons.  Steele was at times a fierce critic and at others a loyal supporter.  By reviewing a range of Steele’s cartoons, students can get a sense of Speer’s legacy one of Denver’s greatest mayors. Though consistently innovative in his 28-year run at the Post, Steele also tapped a growing tradition of cartooning in America when he started in 1897.   Some of the earliest and most successful American political cartoons that inspired Steele were drawn by German-speaking immigrants in the late nineteenth century.  Thomas Nast and Joseph Keppler were born in Europe but drew popular cartoons for early magazines in New York.  After the Civil War, they often drew political leaders, highlighting political corruption and abuses of power.  Before interpreting Steele’s work, students will benefit from examining some of the symbols and images developed by Nast and Keppler. These men contributed to the boom in newspaper and magazine circulation that shaped public life in America around 1900.  Most major cities had dozens of daily or weekly newspapers.  Denver had more than ten.  In an era before the internet and television and even before radio, print media were central for sharing and debating information.  Though relying heavily on text, these early newspapers also embraced cartoon images along with photography.  Reproducing them was not cheap or easy, but cartoons offered a quick way to hook a reader.  The Denver Post, for example, featured Wilbur Steel cartoons on the front page, above the fold in the paper.  They were typically the first thing readers saw in the paper. As a visual source, cartoons offer many opportunities for students.  They are immediately accessible and simple in ways that written text often is not, especially for new and young readers.  The basic question “What do you see in this cartoon?” can start a classroom discussion, even for students with little background knowledge. And then the fun begins.  After an initial conversation about basic elements within a frame, students can develop new skills in thinking symbolically.  What might this donkey or that elephant represent?  Did this artist capture only his own, idiosyncratic worldview, or did she or he somehow describe a feeling that many people had and could embrace?  Asking these more abstract questions of political cartoons can be challenging, particularly because students do lack much background knowledge of the time or era.  But with support from teachers, they can begin to build that background and learn to view images more critically. Thomas Nast and Wilbur Steele offer students a chance to think symbolically in many ways.  The political controversies of New York in the 1870s or Denver in the 1900s can appear at first remote and confusing.  Yet these cartoonists distill key problems in issues in visual representations that are powerfully meaningful.  The feeling the cartoons evoke about politics and government can be more immediately discerned from the cartoons that from a lengthy description of procedures or events.  Even young students can begin to build a framework for understanding what happens when leaders are corrupt or fair. Last, political cartoons do possess more power than many students will at first realize.  The sad fate of Charlie Hebdo cartoonists in 2015 suggests that cartoons can move people to violent retaliation.  Some cartoons matter dearly.  Yet in America, there has historically existed a public space for sharing even controversial images and symbols critical of government leaders without harassment or imprisonment.  Studying cartoons like these gives one an appreciation for the First Amendment right to freedom of symbolic speech in Colorado and our nation as a whole. *** Sources for Students: Documents 1, 2, and 3:  Thomas Nast and his Cartoons Thomas Nast was a German immigrant who drew pictures for American magazines in the 1800s.  His images helped create certain traditions or patterns that other cartoonists would follow.  As you look at these first few cartoons, think about the symbols and patterns that appear.  Some possibilities to keep in mind: bags of money, ballot boxes, and tigers.  For this artist, bags of money and tigers came to represent ideas as well as real items you could touch. Start to create a list of symbols that you find in the cartoons and make a note about what they might mean. Document 1:  Thomas Nast cartoon, The ‘Brains’, (1871) Document 2: Photograph of “Boss” William Tweed, Leader of the Democratic Party in New York City, 1870. [Source: Harper’s Weekly (10/21/1871) & 1870 Napoleon Sarony photograph of William Tweed.  Photograph online: https://blog.mcny.org/2015/04/28/napoleon-sarony-celebrity-photographer/] Questions: What do you see in the cartoon on the left? Thomas Nast wanted to make a comment in that cartoon about a political leader in New York City named Boss Tweed.  Why is the man’s body shaped in this way? What might the “$” sign on his face mean? A photograph of Boss Tweed appears on the right.  He was the boss of a political party, the Democrats.  Do you think that Nast just couldn’t draw very well and so messed up his cartoon on the left?  Why or why not? Tweed was very popular with many voters in New York City.  Was it dangerous for Nast to draw Tweed in this way?  Was he being disrespectful of Tweed? What might Tweed have done to deserve a picture of him as a bag of money? *** Doc. 3 Thomas Nast, “In Counting There is Strength” (1871) In this cartoon, Thomas Nast again drew Boss Tweed of New York City: “In Counting There is Strength” [Source: Harper’s Weekly (October 7, 1871)] Questions: Here is another Nast drawing of Boss Tweed. This time, he’s leaning next to a Ballot Box marked “The Ballot.”  That was used to collect votes on election day in the 1870s.  What might the words under the ballot box mean: “In counting there is strength?” If you were planning to vote on election day and had to walk up to Tweed standing like this next to the ballot box, would you be worried? Does he look scary or intimidating?  Why or why not? How did Nast suggest that Tweed was corrupt or unfair when it came to votes? If Boss Tweed got to count all the votes himself, how often to you think his party would win?  Why? Remember in the first Nast cartoon, Tweed looks like a bag of money.  How might money be used unfairly during an election? *** Doc. 4 Joseph Keppler, Bosses of the Senate (1889) Another famous cartoonist was Joseph Keppler.  He was born in Austria and moved to the United States in 1867. Also a European immigrant, Keppler drew cartoons around the same time that Thomas Nast did.  Like with the cartoons of Thomas Nast, notice the symbols here.  He seems to use the idea of a bag of money as a symbol. “Bosses of the Senate” [Source: Puck magazine (January 23, 1889)] Questions: Here is a cartoon picture of the U.S. Senate in Washington, DC. The men in the desks are senators from different states.  The men along the back wall appear much different from the senators.  How? Again, a cartoonist drew people as bags of money. Why might he do this? The word “trust” can mean monopoly.   You might picture what happens in the game Monopoly, when a player owns a whole row of properties and pays for hotels on all those properties.  How much money does that player collect when an opponent lands on those hotels?  Similarly, if someone bought sugar from the “Sugar Trust” or oil from the “Standard Oil Trust,” would they likely pay more for those products?  Why or why not? Why did this cartoonist put monopolies or trusts in the US Senate? Did they help make laws somehow? Did Americans worry if very wealthy men unfairly influence their government leaders?  If they bribe their leaders? *** Doc. 5 Thomas Nast, “Tammany Tiger Loose” (1871) Here Nast uses different symbols from before.  Even the main person on the ground in the picture could also be a symbol. Thomas Nast, “Tammany Tiger Loose–What are you going to do about it?” [Source: Harper’s Weekly (Nov. 11, 1871)] Questions: Here is another Nast cartoon, this time featuring a tiger on top of a woman. Should that woman be worried?  Why? If you look carefully above and behind the tiger, you can see Nast’s picture of Boss Tweed again. Is he worried about the woman on the ground? The caption at the bottom of the cartoon says “The Tammany Tiger Loose.” Tammany was a nickname for Boss Tweed’s political party, the Democrats.  By drawing the Democrats as a tiger, Nast wanted to give some kind of warning.  What kind? If that woman under the tiger were a symbol, what might she represent? Nast suggests here that Boss Tweed and his Democratic party were somehow dangerous or even violent. How does the cartoon work to give you that feeling? Like the other Nast cartoons of Boss Tweed, this one is critical of Tweed.  Does this make the cartoon itself dangerous?  Would you expect that Tweed might want to get revenge against Nast?  Why or why not? Should cartoonists be able to draw political leaders in ways that are not friendly or flattering to make a point about fairness? Why or why not? *** Document 6: Wilbur Steele cartoon of Speer and the “Honest” Voter (1904) Wilbur Steele began drawing cartoons for the Denver Post in 1897.  Raised partly in Denver, he had attended Colorado State University and taught school briefly before he took up cartooning.  He drew cartoons several times each week for the Post until his death in 1925.  Below is one of his most famous cartoons.  This cartoon appeared on the front page of the Denver Post just two days for the election for Denver mayor.  Bob Speer was the leading candidate for mayor at that time. Wilbur Steele,” 1904 Election Cartoon [Source: Denver Post, May 15, 1904] Questions: In the cartoon above, Wilbur Steele drew candidate Bob Speer in a checkered suit standing over a woman with his foot on top of her. What does the ribbon or banner on the woman say? Speer’s buddies on the left and the right hold smoking guns. These were drawings of private detectives who worked with the police at times.  Frank Adams, next to Speer, was a police commissioner, the boss of the police.  How does the gun help suggest some kind of violence happened? Is the cartoon image of Speer worried about violence? Or is he somehow guilty in this cartoon? If you think about this cartoon symbolically, what might it mean that Speer is stepping on “honest elections”? What would a dishonest election look like? Speer was also a leader of the Democratic Party in Denver, and the men pictured with him here were active in the Democratic Party. Was that party somehow guilty of a crime, according to this cartoonist? In cartoon 5 above, Thomas Nast pictured the Democratic Party as a tiger standing on a woman.  How is this Steele cartoon similar?  How different? How might this cartoon have influenced voters before the cast their ballots? *** Document 7: Photograph of Mayor Speer in a derby hat around 1910. In May 1904, Robert Speer won the election to become Denver’s mayor.  Steele’s cartoons apparently did not convince enough voters to vote against him.  He was the leader of the Democratic Party in the city and worked on a number of projects as mayor.  These included the Civic Center next to the State Capitol and the street along Cherry Creek later named for him, Speer Boulevard. Denver Mayor Robert Speer [Source: Colorado Virtual Library: http://www.coloradovirtuallibrary.org/digital-colorado/colorado-histories/20th-century/robert-speer-denvers-city-beautiful-mayor/] Questions: How would you describe the expression on the face of Mayor Speer in this photograph? Does Speer look dangerous or threatening? What might he be pointing at? How does the car in the background help us identify when this photo was taken? Why might cartoonist Steele have drawn Speer in the previous cartoon to look like a thug or bully? How can this photo and the previous Steele cartoon together tell us something about Mayor Speer? *** Doc. 8 Steele cartoon of Speer driving “Greater Denver” (1908) Wilbur Steele drew this cartoon of Robert Speer when he was running for mayor a second time in 1908.  The artist seems to have different ideas about Mayor Speer now. Wilbur Steele Cartoon, 1908 [Source: Denver Post, April 28, 1908] Questions: Here Steele has Mayor Speer behind the wheel of a car. It was considered a fancy car in 1908.  What words appear on the front of the car?  What might the car represent? Mayor Speer has two passengers. What do they look like?  The caption at the bottom of the cartoon refers to “Miss Denver.”   Who might that be?   Can a person represent a whole city? The woman in the backseat asks Mayor Speer: “Do you suppose he could run it, Robert?” Remember that Speer’s first name was Robert.  She seems to asking if the other passenger can run or drive the car.  But what did the car represent? In the election for mayor in 1908, Speer was running against a man named Horace Phelps. Artist Steele included Phelps in this cartoon.  Which one is he?  Why did Steele draw Phelps that way?  What did Steele want us to think about Phelps? Steele here drew Mayor Speer very differently from that first cartoon in 1904.  How?  Why might Steele have changed his mind about Speer? How might this cartoon influence voters just before the election? *** Doc. 9: Steele cartoon of Speer Slicing a Pie, 1908 Here is another Steele cartoon of Mayor Robert Speer.  Notice the animals in the cartoon. Wilbur Steele Cartoon [Source: Denver Post (May 28, 1908)] Questions: This cartoon appeared after Speer was elected mayor of Denver. Next to Speer are cartoon images of a tiger and an elephant.  Each of those animals seems to represent a political party.  Can you tell which ones? Mayor Speer is just starting to cut into a pie. What’s written on the pie? What might that mean? Do the tiger and elephant look scary in this cartoon? What kind of expressions do they have on their faces? In earlier cartoons, the tigers appeared quite dangerous.  Why not in this one? What might the cartoonist want us to think about Mayor Speer and the two political parties? Does the cartoonist suggest in this cartoon that Speer is somehow violent or dangerous?  Or does the artist Steele want us to think something else about Speer?  What? *** Doc. 10:  Postcard Photograph of Denver’s Civic Center While Mayor of Denver, Robert Speer oversaw the creation of the Civic Center in front of the state Capitol building.  Here is a photograph of the theater created as part of the Civic Center project while Speer was Mayor of Denver. [Source: “Penny Postcards from Colorado,” online at: http://www.usgwarchives.net/co/denver/postcards/ppcs-denver.html] Questions: What was this theater made of?  Was it cheap or expensive to build? This theater was designed for plays or concerts outdoors. What kind of music do you imagine people playing and listening to in this space? Mayor Speer is mainly remembered today for spaces in Denver like this one or Speer Boulevard. Have people today forgotten about the cartoons of Speer who stepped on “honest elections”?” Why or why not? If Speer made deals with bullies who cheated to win an election, does this Civic Center project help us feel better about him?  Why or why not? *** How to Use these Sources: Option 1:  This set of sources allows students to interpret images without many words to begin understanding the power of symbols.  They might start with a discussion of a contemporary example of a symbol, maybe the school or sports team mascot.  What does that symbol mean?  Why did school leaders or students choose that image?  Then students could turn to the Nast and Keppler cartoons of political leaders.  Their main task here is to discuss why a cartoonist would draw a political or business leader in these symbolic ways?  What message did that give? After Nast and Keppler, two famous nineteenth-century cartoonists, students can consider the Colorado context.  When Robert Speer first ran for the office of mayor of Denver in 1904, he made a few enemies.  How did Wilbur Steele’s cartoon attempt to influence voters?  What was Steele worried about with candidate Robert Speer? Assessment Option 1: students might create their own political cartoons in answer to the question: how can cartoons influence people?  First, the class could agree on a set of symbols that students might utilize to represent problems or concerns in their community or our current day.  The historical symbols from these cartoons are of course options too!  Then when individual students share a personal cartoon, the class could consider whether it captures a feeling that students share or just one that reflects an individual perspective.  Is the picture worth a thousand words?  If not, how many? Option 2:  Continue to cartoon interpretations with those from Wilbur Steele in Colorado.  The cartoons included here suggest that Steele changed his mind about Speer.  Why might he draw Speer so differently when he ran again for mayor in 1908 than when he first ran in 1904? For this part of the lesson, students can apply some of their visual literacy skills from the Nast and Keppler cartoons.  Symbols reappear in similar ways.  Again, students can examine each cartoon source on its own before a discussion that compares them.  The comparison can highlight how Steele’s views shifted and how differently a “friendly” cartoon of a leader appears from a more critical one. Option 3: Students could compare these Steele cartoons with a twelve-page biography of Mayor Speer. Stacy Turnbull, Robert Speer: Denver’s Building Mayor (Great Lives in Colorado History Series, 2011). Questions for the biography and the Steele cartoons: The Speer biography has a chapter called “Life in Politics.” Here the author describes some of the ways that elections in Denver were connected to saloons and gambling. “Some people thought Speer’s ways of gaining power and influence were unfair,” wrote the author (4).  What examples of this do you find in the book? What did the cartoon, “We do things to the Honest Voter,” suggest about Speer being unfair? In the biography chapter called “Mayor Speer,” the author describes many successes or accomplishments. Give three examples. Does it take away from all the good things Speer did as mayor to remember the sneaky tactics he used to get elected?  Why or why not? *** Additional Resources: The internet offers a fantastic range of political cartoons from different political eras.  Thomas Nast’s work is among the most accessible on the web.  Harpweek.com features a wide and searchable selection of Nast cartoons that span his career.  Thomasnastcartoons.com also offers comment on his famous cartoons.  A recent biography, Thomas Nast: the Father of Modern Political Cartoons by Fiona Deans Halloran, provides much helpful background on this illustrator.  The cartoons of Joseph Keppler, and other cartoonists who drew for his magazine, Puck, can be found at the Library of Congress (loc.gov) in the Prints and Photographs collection.  For a biography of Joseph Keppler see: Richard Samuel West, Satire on Stone: The Political Cartoons of Joseph Keppler.  Wilbur Steele lacks a biography, and his cartoons are harder to find.  They appeared on the front page of the Denver Post from 1897 through 1925.  They can be accessed via microfilm.
9Water in Colorado: How Did the Environment Shape History?Teacher Introduction: Most western states struggle to balance demand for with water with its limited availability. Except for some coastal areas, much of the West is an arid region. Colorado is no exception. Colorado has places, such as the Rockies, that receive much more precipitation than the rest of the state. Spots in the Rockies may receive up to 60 inches of precipitation per year. Much of Colorado, however, is plains territory, where the average annual precipitation may be only in the mid-teens. The Rockies create a rain shadow effect, meaning that the moisture is wrung from the atmosphere as air crosses the mountains from west to east. The ways in which water is dispersed throughout that state has affected how people have lived and worked in Colorado throughout its history. Several major rivers are important to Colorado’s water story. The Arkansas and South Platte rivers run through eastern Colorado and flow onto the Plains. These bodies of water have acted as trails for humans and animals to follow. They are also essential to the agriculture of eastern and northern Colorado. In the West, the Colorado, Gunnison, and Uncompahgre rivers are among the many that support diverse agricultural endeavors. In the south, the Rio Grande, Animas, San Juan, and Dolores rivers supply water to farming and ranching enterprises. The tributaries of each of these rivers, such the Purgatoire, which joins the Arkansas, are also important to the land an economy. Humans have rerouted or diverted existing waterways to suit their needs. The western side of Colorado has abundant access to water compared to the eastern side, yet the majority of the population lives east of the Rockies. Water diversion schemes have moved water from west to east to feed demand. The Colorado-Big Thompson Project is an example. A 13.1-mile tunnel diverts water from the Colorado River to the Big Thompson River, which serves northern communities on the eastern slope and Plains. Similarly, the Fryingpan-Arkansas Project diverts water from west to east. These ventures also are part of state-wide hydroelectric power projects. Sometimes communities from the western slope disagree with the redistribution of water to other places in the state as it reduces their own water supplies. Colorado has been the center of controversies over water that has had far-reaching consequences for all water usage in the West. Water use in Colorado is defined by a law that supports prior appropriation. Basically, the first person to use a water source for something beneficial has a right to that water source. If several people claim the water, then the first person with the claim has the strongest stake. You don’t have to live near the water to be the claimant.  Many rivers that feed other states originate or pass through Colorado. The state of Kansas once sued the state of Colorado over the amount of water Coloradans were taking from the Arkansas River. The Colorado River Compact is an agreement between seven western states and Mexico that outlines how Colorado River water will be allocated. Water does not recognize state borders; so Colorado has to work with other states and the federal government as it considers its water usage. Water has also influenced Colorado history beyond its presence farming, ranching, and keeping people alive. Leisure pursuits such as skiing depend on the availability of water. The precipitation that falls in the form of snow during the winter melts to feed the rivers, lakes, and reservoirs that support boating and fishing in the summer. Blue Mesa Reservoir near Gunnison is the state’s largest body of water and a popular destination for people from inside and outside Colorado.  Water is essential for life. Sometimes we forget that the environment can shape history and change.  The diversity in the availability of water and the way it is used in Colorado can be a way to think about history without focusing on particular people. Rather, place and resources are more important. Water also helps students think about how their use of resources might play a role in history. The sources included in this chapter will help students explore the importance of water in Colorado’s history.  Students might also begin to wonder about where water in our houses and schools comes from. Sources for Students: Document 1:  Outline Map of the American Southwest with Rivers [Source: Arizona Geographic Alliance.  http://geoalliance.asu.edu/sites/default/files/maps/SWPHYS4.pdf] Questions: Similar to the  first map in Chapter 1, this outline map shows major rivers in Colorado and the Southwest. Take a moment to label Colorado’s major rivers on your map. The shading on this map will help you find the Rocky Mountains on this map. How does the Rocky Mountain range affect river flow? Place a star on your location on this map. What is the nearest major river? Does the drinking water in your school or home come from that river?  How could we find out? *** Document 2. Precipitation map of Colorado This map shows how much rain and snow fall in Colorado during a year. The areas with cool colors have more precipitation and the areas with warm colors have less. [Source: PRISM Climate Group: http://www.prism.oregonstate.edu/projects/gallery_view.php?state=CO] Questions: Check the Legend to review what the colors mean. Which parts of the state are dry and which are wet? What is the average precipitation in inches where you live? Why do you think some parts of the Colorado get more water than other parts? Which places have the most snow and rain, and which ones had the least? What kind of jobs do people need a lot of water to do? *** Document 3: Cherry Creek Flood Memory On August 3, 1933, the Castlewood dam broke. Dams hold back water. Heavy rain caused the dam to burst. The water rushed into downtown Denver and caused heavy damage. “In 1933, there was no TV so you either read the newspaper or listened to the radio.  We heard the news and the warning of a ‘wall of water’ coming down Cherry Creek. We went to West 7th Avenue and Speer Boulevard to watch the flood. It actually looked like a wall of water. Trees, branches, bushes, a dead cow and a dead dog floated by. The smell was unique to a flood and if you ever smell it you will never forget it. Awful! I was 10 years old and was very impressed.” [Source: Leota H. Bostrom quoted in The Night the Dam Gave Way: A Diary of Personal Accounts. Castlewood Canyon State Park. p. 22.] Questions: What could the person never forget? How did people learn about news and events in 1933? What did the person see in the water? Where did the person go to see the flood? How might places prepare for floods? *** Document 4 & 5: Gold King Mine Spill Miners use water to help them. Sometimes mines have material in them that are a danger to humans, animals, and plants. Water can move that unsafe material into streams and rivers. In 2015, toxic water from the Gold King Mine spilled into a creek. That creek flowed into the Las Animas river near Durango. The San Juan river was also polluted. Photos of the Las Animas River Doc. 4 Photo before the spill Doc. 5 Photo after the spill [Source: Photo at right by Josh Stephenson, Durango Herald. Available at: http://www.kunm.org/post/new-mexico-sue-epa-over-gold-king-mine-spill] Questions: What’s different about these two photos of the same river? How might the fish and other aquatic life be affected by that new color? How can we clean up a river like the one on the right? Why, do you think, didn’t the mining company clean up poisonous chemicals before they spilled into the river? *** Document 6: Irrigation In the southern part of Colorado, water from a system of acequias or irrigation ditches has been used by farm communities. Sometimes, people in southern Colorado share water instead of having one person or a few people own it. “San Luis Creek, heading in the Sangre de Christo range of mountains, has a length of thirty miles. Into it a dozen or more tiny creeks empty. There is one canal . . . six feet wide and seven miles long. On this creek and its tributaries, fifty-five farmers own sixteen thousand eight hundred acres, their area in no single instance being smaller than a section of six hundred forty acres, while three own over one thousand acres each, and one has three thousand seven hundred acres under fence as meadow and pasture land.” [Source: Pabor, W. E.  Colorado as an Agricultural State. Its Farms, Fields, and Garden Lands. (New York: Orange Judd, 1883). p. 128] Questions: How long is San Luis Creek? How big is the canal that the farmers take water from? How many farmers are there on the creek and tributaries? How small is the smallest piece of land owned by a farmer? How large is the largest piece of land owned by a farmer? How might the farmers decide to share the water? *** Document 7: Powell Map of the Arid Regions of the West, 1879 In 1869, John Wesley Powell led an expedition to explore the Green and Colorado Rivers which both begin in Colorado. Ten years after his exploration, Powell created this interesting map: [Link to map online: http://www.mappingthenation.com/blog/a-radically-different-kind-o:-west/] Questions: Find Colorado on this Map.  (It might help to view an online version). Then notice the six different colored areas that Powell drew within the boundaries of Colorado. What might those colored areas refer to? (Remember that Powell was focused on water). How might life for farmers and ranchers have been different if Colorado (and other westerns states) had been created along these lines drawn by Powell? Most land in Colorado receives very little rain in the summer months. Where do Coloradans in August get water? Why do you think that new settlers in Colorado mostly ignored this map of Powell’s? *** Document 8. Fishing Lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and streams are all places where people fish in Colorado. Sometimes a government will put extra fish in these bodies of water so more people can fish.  “Special to the Press, Delta, April 30––It is reported that Tongue Creek, in Delta county, will be stocked into a fishing preserve. Tongue creek is stream where trout would do well, as it is free from reservoir waste waters and other disadvantages which would injure fish.” [Source: “Tongue Creek Will Be Made Fishing Preserve is Report,” Montrose Daily Press (April 30, 1910), p. 3] Questions: What is going to happen to Tongue Creek? Do you think this news is important to the people? Why or why not? Why would Tongue Creek be a good place for trout? How is a stream turned into a fishing preserve? What human activities could threaten the trout in Tongue Creek? *** Document 9: Snow A newspaper in Boulder county reported on this snowfall in 1926: “BOULDER. March 26 —Silver Lake. 28 miles west of here, and source of Boulder’s water supply, had the heaviest fall of snow in Colorado this year, according to government statistics revealed here today. Twenty-one feet of snow has fallen during the past winter, the latest fall last night adding the final ten inches necessary to establish the record.” [Source: “Lake Near Boulder Holds Snowfall Record,” Daily Times (Longmont), March 26, 1926, p. 1.] Questions: Where does Boulder get its water? Where is Silver Lake? How much snow was needed in total to break the record for snowfall? What would be the total amount of snow for the record? During what time of year did the heaviest snowfall come? *** How to Use These Sources: Several of these sources present data that can be interpreted in more ways than the questions offered. OPTION 1: The teacher  might start by asking the students the ways they use water in their lives. Then they can talk about how water might be important to Colorado. Finally,  ask them if they know where their water comes from. Students can also label rivers any places that are mentioned in the sources.  That map can also help students identify the nearest major river. OPTION 2: Documents Two through Nine can help students explore some important ways that water matters.  Students could start with that question – “How does water affect peoples’ lives in Colorado?” These sources offer some important reasons.  The Cherry Creek memory selection might provide the opportunity for students to ask older friends and relatives if they have any memories of severe weather events. OPTION 3: There are additional maps that help students begin to consider how Coloradans have tried to manage aridity in the state.  Map Two is a good starting point here.  Students might find a map of major population centers in Colorado.  Then they could contrast that with Map Two.  There are many possible issues to discuss here.  Why did Coloradans settle on the eastern side of the Rockies and not the West?  Remember the Gold Rush Map from Chapter One?  When do settlers consider water availability?  How might western slope residents (or those down river in other states) feel about water diversions from the Colorado River, for example, to the city of Denver? The John Powell Map, Document 7, highlights another aspect of Colorado history.  Students might consider why settlements did not follow Powell’s suggestion.  What would life in Colorado be like if communities were organized around river basins?
1Appendix with StandardsTeaching the Standards Through Primary Sources Students can demonstrate their understanding of many different standards as they work through projects in these chapters.  The tables below are intended as a general guide for identifying the key standards addressed in chapters and the book overall. Colorado Academic Standards for Social Studies All of the chapters in this book address the first Graduate Competency under the Colorado Academic Standard for History.  Students will consistently explore how people view, construct, and interpret history.  Given our focus on Colorado history, we have of course included a range of sources to help students understand this particular state experience.  Yet, many of the chapters will help students extend outward to the American West as a region as well as United States as a whole. In the chart below, we note briefly how specific chapters address Grade Level Expectations (GLE) within each disciplinary standard for Social Studies.  While we hope to make these source projects accessible for elementary-aged readers, we also include appropriate middle-school expectations. Chapter Colorado Academic Standards for Social Studies 1. What Stories Do Maps Tell? GEOGRAPHY: GLE 1 for 4th grade: Using geo-tools to answers questions about Colorado geography GLE 1 for 5th grade: Using geo-tools to answers questions about US geography GLE 2 for 5th grade: Causes and consequences of movement. HISTORY: GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History. GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History. GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere. GLE 1 for 8th grade: Investigate and evaluate primary and secondary sources about U.S. history from the American Revolution through Reconstruction to formulate and defend a point of view with textual evidence. GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence. CIVICS: GLE 1 for 4th Grade: Identify, Investigate, and analyze multiple perspectives on civics issues. 2. What Makes a Pioneer? HISTORY:  GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History. GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History. GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere. GLE 1 for 8th grade: Investigate and evaluate primary and secondary sources about U.S. history from the American Revolution through Reconstruction to formulate and defend a point of view with textual evidence. GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence. GEOGRAPHY: GLE 1 for 4th grade: Using geo-tools to answers questions about Colorado geography. ECONOMICS: GLE 1 for 4th Grade: People respond to positive and negative incentives. GLE 1 for High School: Productive resources are scarce; therefore, choices are made about how individuals, businesses, governments, and nonprofits allocate these resources. 3. How did Gold and Silver Change Colorado? HISTORY:  GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History. GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History. GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere. GLE 1 for 8th grade: Investigate and evaluate primary and secondary sources about US history from the American Revolution through Reconstruction to formulate and defend a point of view with textual evidence. GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence. ECONOMICS: GLE 1 for 4th Grade: People respond to positive and negative incentives. GLE 1 for High School: Productive resources are scarce; therefore, choices are made about how individuals, businesses, governments, and nonprofits allocate these resources. 4. What Makes a Cowboy? HISTORY:  GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History. GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History. GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere. GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence. 5. Sand Creek–Why Did This Event Happen? HISTORY:  GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History. GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History. GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere. GLE 1 for 8th grade: Investigate and evaluate primary and secondary sources about U.S. history from the American Revolution through Reconstruction to formulate and defend a point of view with textual evidence. GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence. CIVICS: GLE 1 for 4th Grade: Identify, Investigate, and analyze multiple perspectives on civics issues. GLE 3 for High School: Evaluate the impact of political institutions that link the people to the government. 6. What Challenges Did Immigrants Face in Colorado? HISTORY:  GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History. GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History. GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere. GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence. ECONOMICS: GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Determine the opportunity cost when making a choice (PFL). CIVICS: GLE 1 for 4th Grade: Identify, Investigate, and analyze multiple perspectives on civics issues. GLE 3 for High School: Evaluate the impact of political institutions that link the people to the government.   7. Who Fought for Equality in Colorado? HISTORY:  GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History. GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History. GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere. CIVICS: GLE 1 for 4th Grade: Identify, Investigate, and analyze multiple perspectives on civics issues. GLE 1 for 8th Grade: Construct an understanding of the changing definition of citizenship and the expansion of rights of citizens in the U.S. GLE 3 for High School: Evaluate the impact of political institutions that link the people to the government. 8. Can Cartoons Influence People? HISTORY:  GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History. GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History. GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere. GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence. CIVICS: GLE 1 for 4th Grade: Identify, Investigate, and analyze multiple perspectives on civics issues. GLE 3 for High School: Evaluate the impact of political institutions that link the people to the government. 9. Water in Colorado: How Did the Environment Shape History? GEOGRAPHY: GLE 1 for 4th grade: Using geo-tools to answers questions about Colorado geography GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Examine the characteristics of places and regions, and the changing nature among geographic and human interactions. GLE 1 for 8th grade: Use geographic tools to research and analyze patterns in human and physical systems in the U.S. GLE 2 for High School: Geographic variables influence interactions of people, places, and environments. HISTORY:  GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History. GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History. GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere. GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence. Common Core English Language Arts: Reading Informational Text, History/Social Studies, and Writing Standards Teachers addressing the Common Core English Language Arts standards can also find much in this volume to help students with these goals.   The chapters consistently support these Common Core standards: GRADE 4 Common Core LA Standards READING: Key Ideas and Details: 4.1  Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from text. 4.2  Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details. 4.3  Explain events, procedures, ideas or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text. Craft and Structure: 4.6  Compare and contrast a firsthand and second-hand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas: 4.9  Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. WRITING: 4.1  Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. 4.3  Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details and clear event sequences. 4.7  Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. GRADE 5 Common Core LA Standards READING: Key Ideas and Details: 5.1 Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly. Craft and Structure: 5.6 Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas: 5.9 Integration of information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. WRITING: 5.1 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. 5.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details and clear event sequences. 5.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. MIDDLE SCHOOL Common Core LA Standards ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS: HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES Key Ideas and Details:  6-8.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. 6-8.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. Craft and Structure: 6-8.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies. 6-8.5: Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally). 6-8.6: Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts). Integration of Knowledge and Ideas:  6-8.7: Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts. 6-8.8: Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text. 6-8.9: Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic. WRITING: 6-8.1: Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. 6-8.1A: Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically. 6-8.1B Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources. 6-8.2: Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. 6-8.9: Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
2AcknowledgementsWe wish to thank the many colleagues who have offered helpful suggestions and comments on drafts of this work.  These include Metro Un-Published Papers and Extended Theses Seminar (MUPPETS) members; Jim Drake; Brian Weiser; Matt Maher; Kim Klimek; Andrea Maestrejuan; Shelby Balik; and Laresh Jayasanker.  Corey Sell offered valuable insights into what makes a good source collection for elementary-aged readers.  We also benefitted from the Primary Source Set Work Group organized by Colorado Department of Education Social Studies expert, Stephanie Hartman.  Other members who patiently reviewed early drafts and improved our work included Kristin Fong, Amanda Gould, Steve Jennings, Leigh Jeremias, April Legg, Jenny Petit, Rebecca Theobald.   That group produced a wonderful series of primary source sets for elementary-aged readers available on the Colorado Department Education website.   Teaching with Primary Sources gurus Kile Clabaugh and Keith Patterson showed us the way on this project, and they continue to maintain a valuable network in partnership with the Library of Congress.  Bob and Marilyn Laugen saved us from some embarrassing typos.  Zoe Cochran kept hope alive for Todd.




Colorado History Detectives
Colorado History Detectives
Colorado History Detectives
Teaching Historical Literacy to School-Aged Readers
Todd Laugen
Meg Frisbee
Denver, Colorado
Colorado History Detectives
Colorado History Detectives by R. Todd Laugen and Meg Frisbee is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.
Publication date March 30, 2019.
The resources in this book are intended for non-commercial use by teachers and students in an educational setting.
Contents
Introduction
Colorado History Detectives
What Stories Can Maps Tell?
What Makes a Pioneer?
How Did Gold and Silver Change Colorado?
What Makes a Cowboy?
Sand Creek -- Why Did This Event Happen?
What Challenges Did Immigrants Face in Colorado?
Who Fought for Equality in Colorado?
Can Cartoons Influence People?
Water in Colorado: How Did the Environment Shape History?
Appendix with Standards
Acknowledgements
Introduction
1
This book will help students learn Colorado history by doing it.  As teachers, we know how challenging it can be to get students interested in history.  We also know that teachers with busy schedules would appreciate a tool to help them to address social studies.  State and national standards for social studies emphasize interpretive and critical thinking skills, even for younger students.  Yet we found few examples of how to guide elementary students as they develop these.  When Todd was teaching high school history, he once got this question from a student: “Where does the history textbook get the official story of America’s past?  Is there a government vault somewhere like Fort Knox where the original version is kept?”  This question sparked a revealing conversation about just what it meant to reconstruct history from different kinds of evidence.
Unlike gold reserves to back a currency of old, America’s history, like Colorado’s, reflects the work of communities of scholars and story-tellers who ask similar questions, share common strategies, and follow rules of evidence and interpretation.  Historians and students ask similar questions.  How can I understand an event that happened long before anyone still alive could have witnessed it?  Which witnesses to an event should I trust if they disagreed about what happened?  How might I fill in gaps in the historical record to tell a story that is meaningful and persuasive?  How can I give voice to a group neglected in the histories I read?   All these questions and more guide the detective work of those who write history.  And this book offers even elementary students a chance to participate in asking and answering these exciting questions.
This all may sound fine for secondary or college students.  But don’t younger students just need to read a textbook and memorize a few basics?  When did the Pike’s Peak Gold Rush begin? When did Colorado become a state?  Can they list five pioneers?  Aren’t fourth and fifth graders just learning basic literacy?  Reading a few pages in a textbook or a few websites online and then committing some names and dates to memory does not help students get a real sense of Colorado history. Students can easily forget their Colorado facts.  Even more, they would miss out on a chance to begin developing skills they will need for the rest of their lives.
What is Historical Literacy?
Learning Colorado history with this book will mean starting with questions rather than answers.  Life is full of questions and decision points.  History is too.  Yet often we teachers package history answers neatly and without ambiguity for our students.  Textbooks, as secondary sources, do this quite well.  Their authors read widely from a range of sources and synthesize important details for student readers.  Textbooks tend to explain away or avoid controversy or uncertainty about the past.  This reader is different.  Here students can explore questions that will engage their curiosity and guide them to develop answers based on primary source evidence.  Primary sources are the basic materials needed to reconstruct history.  They include letters, diaries, newspaper stories, photographs, and material artifacts that were created or present in a specific historical moment.  To connect with that moment, historians need to interact with those primary resources.  They allow writers to see or hear or read about an experience from a firsthand participant.  Each chapter in this book begins with an interpretive question that invites student thinking and reflection.  Then students will encounter a range of primary source evidence to help them develop answers to these questions without requiring a lot of additional research.
Here is where the excitement of doing history begins.  Students can develop historical literacy strategies that will aid them the rest of their lives.  First, they will practice asking and answering questions about single primary documents through a process called sourcing.  Colorado history includes many different people who left behind many different kinds of original sources about their lives.  The chapters in this book include a range of primary sources from written text to oral histories and images.  Elementary and middle school students can learn to read non-fiction sources like detectives by asking about the creator of the source, its perspective, and reliability.  This sourcing work takes practice but pays enormous benefits.  Given the extensive website reading and video watching that will engage 21st century students, teachers can prepare them as critical readers and viewers with practice doing history.
Another historical literacy skill students of this book can develop is an ability to compare different sources of evidence, or corroboration.  History is full of stories from different perspectives: Gold rush prospectors and Cheyenne Indians, men and women, and government officials and homesteaders, for example.  The sources in this collection will engage students with different points of view.  Rather than a simple textbook account which minimizes multiple perspectives and erases debates about interpretation, this book offers students a chance to dive in and reconstruct the past in ways that acknowledge diverse opinions.  How else can students of history make sense of competing voices?  With this book they will learn to consider bias and motives among the different witnesses.  This too will be a skill yielding life-long benefits.  Ultimately, students can practice reconstructing the past by comparing incomplete fragments and multiple perspectives.
Once students get practice sourcing evidence and comparing documents, they can begin to create context.  This is a third historical literacy skill.  Context refers to what else was going at the time and place when and where the evidence was created.  The collections in this book are already grouped by theme and an essential question to guide students.  Working through these chapters, students will begin to realize that historical context does not simply exist in a government vault waiting for them to memorize it.  Rather the historical work of reconstructing what happens always involves creating a context.  The final products of elementary-aged or middle school students may be preliminary and incomplete, especially when compared to experienced adult researchers.  But the goal here is to help students learn HOW to do this work.  It involves collecting relevant, reliable primary sources and deciding how to balance competing voices.  To create a context, students must also organize events chronologically to explain change over time.  They will not simply memorize details from a textbook or another secondary source, but begin to create their own secondary sources based on evidence.  They can become authors of historical accounts.For more detailed descriptions of these historical literacy skills see Sam Wineburg, Daisy Martin, and Chauncey Monte-Sano, Reading Like a Historian: Teaching Literacy in Middle and High School History Classrooms (New York: Teachers College Press, 2011) .  Wineburg and his colleagues and students have also created a website with many sample lessons modeling this approach at the “Stanford History Education Group” https://sheg.stanford.edu.
The idea of developing historical literacy with elementary or middle school students can at first appear daunting. Yet it is doable.  Some students will be reading below grade level or just learning English as a new language.  Can they too learn Colorado history by doing it?  Yes!  We tried in this book to address these concerns in several ways.  The primary sources in each chapter are short and focused to help students read closely and make connections to the essential question.  We have edited the original text sources to delete extraneous information while still preserving the key aspects.   There is a Word Bank to help with challenging vocabulary.  Students will typically mix visual with written text sources of evidence in order to answer the essential questions.  With these supports, elementary students will be developing non-fiction literacy skills that apply well beyond their social studies lessons.
We should note again that this is not another history textbook.  We make no claims to encyclopedic inclusion.  Instead, this collection of primary sources offers a starting point for historical investigation.  A teacher could easily use any Colorado history textbook in conjunction with this reader.  Then students will gradually realize that their textbook is just another secondary source, also based on primary sources and the historical literacy skills noted above.  In fact, students can learn to compare secondary, textbook accounts with the primary sources in this collection.  Some of our chapters specifically guide students in this work.   We hope that students using this book will become young authors of Colorado history, not just passive consumers of other people’s stories.
How is this book organized?
The chapters in this book are organized both chronologically and thematically.  Each one opens with an essential question:  What stories do maps tell?  How did gold and silver change Colorado?  What makes a cowboy?  Who fought for equality in Colorado?  These kinds of essential questions organize the source collections and typically focus on aspects of Colorado’s past where even experts have disagreed.  There is more possibility here for students to debate or disagree as well, based on their interpretation of primary sources.
We then include a background essay for teachers on each subject to help them develop some expertise in case that proves helpful.  Those teachers who have tried doing history with students have quickly recognized that evidence fragments do not, by themselves, tell a satisfying story of the past.  Students will have questions about individual sources and need support from a knowledgeable teacher.  Our background essays are designed to offer the basic information needed.  We also suggest additional resources for those teachers who may have time and interest to dig deeper.  Textbooks obviously offer some help here too.  But we offer a review of basic chronology and key interpretive issues that will enable teachers to guide students in their work with primary sources.
Next, we include a range of primary source documents for students.  These are numbered in rough chronological order of their creation.  Before each source, we include some introductory comments for students about each along with a citation.  We provide links to online versions of the maps and images, which will be much easier to study up close than images in a book.  There are impressive map-viewing software tools available at several of these websites.  Finding and collecting these primary sources, we realize, takes much time, and many elementary and secondary teachers just don’t have that kind of time easily available.   We then grouped these document fragments around the essential questions.  Students can first practice exploring them individually with the help of our document questions.  These are just meant as a starting point for the exploration of the sources.
Last, each chapter includes suggestions to teachers on how to use the sources.  We realize that elementary and even middle school teachers may not have a regular hour available each day for weeks on end to practice doing Colorado history.  So we offer lesson suggestions ranging from strategies for analyzing just one of the primary sources in the chapter to a longer comparison of different sources.  We even offer guidelines for lessons that might conclude with student-created histories to address the essential questions.  Chapters could be taught in a different sequence than we propose here.  Or a teacher might have time to teach only one or two chapters.
In an Appendix we also discuss standards.  Elementary and middle school standards in History focus on developing an understanding of chronology, cause and effect, and comparing points of view.  Learning to interpret primary sources, students can work toward each of these as they build historical context.  Readers can also use this source collection to explore Geography standards which include spatial understanding and seeing connections between places.  Additionally English Language Arts standards play a role here too.  While working as historical detectives, readers will need to make inferences, identify conflict, listen for tone, and re-create setting for the range of past voices they encounter.  Our Appendix aligns the chapter projects with standards for History, Civics, Economic, Geography, and Language Arts.
Teachers will also want to model many aspects of this historical literacy work while utilizing these chapters.  The history skills of sourcing, close reading, corroboration, and creating context will need a skilled teacher’s guidance.  One helpful strategy for the close reading of sources, for example, is a Think Aloud.  Teachers might want to begin the chapter work with students by reading aloud one of primary sources we include.  Along with simply reading the text, the teacher can model her thinking and questioning aloud for students.  In this way students can begin to learn the work of Sourcing.  A Think Aloud could sound something like this as a teacher reads aloud from a letter by William Bent in the chapter about Sand Creek:
“Here is a letter from a man named William Bent who was an Indian agent for the American government.  I’m guessing that means he was a go-between for the government and tribes.  I see in the note above the source that he had married an Indian woman too, and he was respected by them.  So that means I can likely trust that he offers a view from the Indian perspective, even though he was white.  And let’s see . . . this is 1859.  At that time it sounds like Indians were “pressed upon” by lots of different white settlers and visitors.  The Indians must have felt pressure from so many new whites coming to this area.  He mentions Texans, gold seekers, Kansas settlers all coming in.  Bent says Indians were “compressed into a small circle of territory.”  That probably created frustrations, since I know that Plains Indians were otherwise nomadic and moved around a lot.  He ends by expressing a worry about possible war.  He uses the word “inevitable” which I know means cannot be avoided.  This letter makes me worried and sad about a possible conflict between the Indians and all these white settlers.  I wonder if a war did happen?  And it’s written in 1859, just as the Gold Rush in Colorado is starting.”
After learning from teacher modeling like this, students can begin to develop this skill on their own.  We often begin each source collection with an image or map which could be discussed easily by the class with the teacher posing a series of Sourcing questions.
Here is short list of sourcing questions that could be used in whole or in part with each primary document in this book:
SAMPLE SOURCING QUESTIONS
1. AUTHOR:  What can I learn about the author or creator of the source?
2. DATE and LOCATION:  When was it created?  Where did this source appear?
3. AUDIENCE:  For whom was this source made?  Who might have seen or read it?
4. MAIN IDEA:  What is the basic message or idea?  Where do I find that in the source?
5. BIAS or PERSPECTIVE:  Whose point of view is this?
6. RELIABILITY:  Can I trust this source?  Where could I find other sources to confirm this one?
7. COMPARE:  What other sources are similar to this one? Which sources disagree with this one?
We offer many more guiding questions for this work in the chapters ahead.
As elementary teacher/scholar Bruce VanSledright has noted, “Children can do history if you show them how.”In his book In Search of America’s Past: Learning to Read History in Elementary School (New York: Teachers College Press, 2002) Bruce VanSledright describes his own challenges and successes while trying to teach historical literacy to diverse fifth graders.  We hope this collection of sources will enable teachers to engage students in the doing of Colorado history.  The collection offers an exciting opportunity to guide students in reconstructing the past as they prepare to move beyond the textbook.
What Stories Can Maps Tell?
1
Teacher Introduction:
Where did the state of Colorado come from?  Its rectangular borders do not align with any significant landscape feature.  Mountains run north and south through the middle of the state and continue in both directions into Wyoming and New Mexico.  Four major rivers all begin in Colorado (South Platte, Arkansas, Colorado, and Rio Grande) but flow outward in different directions without any regard for the state’s straight line borders.
What kinds of people have lived in Colorado?  Historically, the state’s mountains, plains, and river valleys have all been home to diverse Native Americans, Hispanic peoples, Euro-American migrants, African Americans, and Asian Americans.   They occupied diverse regions of Colorado and also moved in and out of state territory in both voluntary and forced migrations.
One helpful introduction to these historical questions about Colorado’s landscape and demographic diversity is through maps.  This chapter is designed to expose students to a range of map types and help them explore maps for the stories they can tell.  These maps are not meant to provide the final and definite answers to these important historical questions.  Rather, the students will hopefully finish this chapter with new curiosity and questions about Colorado geography and history.  They will begin to see how maps can help recreate the past when students compare them and link them to other kinds of evidence.
The historical maps in this lesson also give students a chance to study different kinds of evidence.  There are of course more modern and up-to-date versions of many of these old maps.  We have included examples and links to these as well. But these historical artifacts offer imperfect fragments that students can puzzle over and investigate.  In the process of pondering, students in fact are doing the work of history—learning to tell stories about the past based on incomplete evidence and information.
By studying and comparing these different maps, students will begin to learn important aspects of Colorado history and geography.  Ideally, they would encounter these maps again in connection with later lessons.  The subsequent chapters will refer to these maps in order to deepen student understanding and provide new connections.
***
Sources For Students:
Map  1. Current Map of the United States with major rivers.
Thanks to the Arizona Geographic Alliance for this map.  A downloadable, PDF version of this outline map is available on the Alliance website: https://geoalliance.asu.edu/.
Questions and Activities:
On your copy of this outline map of the United States, find Colorado and label it. What states are neighbors of Colorado? Label those too.
If you were traveling from the spot where the Missouri River meets the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains, what states would you move through? Label those.
What rivers begin in Colorado? Your teacher can help you add the South Platte River and connect it to the Platte in Nebraska.
The Continental Divide runs through a major mountain range. What do we call those mountains? What do you think Continental Divide means?
Label your hometown on this map.
***
Map 2: Stamp from 1904
In 1904, the city of St. Louis hosted the World’s Fair.  The US Post Office created this stamp to celebrate an event at the fair.  The map on the stamp includes the year “1803” within a region marked in red.
1904 US Postage Stamp
[Source: Smithsonian Education.  Available online: http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/migrations/stamps/stamp10.html]
Questions:
Which states or parts of states are colored red on this map? (You could look back at outline Map 1).
The label for that red region is “1803.” How can we find out what happened in 1803? (You may need to search on the internet here for information about the “Louisiana Purchase”).
It appears that Colorado is both partly in the red region and partly out of the red region. Why might that be?
The Post Office created this source in 1904. Can it still tell us something about 1803 even though that was more than 100 years earlier? How?
None of the states inside the red region actually existed in 1803. Why do you think the Post Office included the outlines of those states on this map from 1904?
Did Colorado join the United States in 1803? 1904? How could we find out?
***
Map 3: Mitchell Map of Texas, Oregon, and California, 1846
Augustus Mitchell created this map in 1846. Colorado was not yet a territory or a state. In fact, you will not see U.S. states on this map.  The pink area actually belonged to Mexico in 1846.  The area in green was claimed both by the state of Texas and Mexico.  Disagreement over these two areas led to a war between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848.   Above the green area was “Indian Territory.”  Native Americans were the main people living in that area.
Look for the area that will become Colorado where the pink, green, and tan colors meet.
August Mitchell Map of the western United States in 1846.
Here is a close-up of this same map, which shows the area that will later become Colorado.  You can see some details listed such as: “Longs Peak,” “South Fork of the Platte R,” (river), and “Arkansas R.” (river).
Close-up of the Mitchell Map, 1846
[Source: Augustus Mitchell, “A New Map of Texas, Oregon, and California,” (1846); available from the Library of Congress online at: https://www.loc.gov/item/00561203/]
Questions:
Look at the close-up map first. The US government created Colorado Territory in 1861.  That was fifteen years after this map was drawn by August Mitchell.  In 1846, what groups claimed the land that would become Colorado?
The reddish line between the tan and green areas mostly marks the Arkansas River. The green area below was claimed by both Texas and Mexico.  What two Indian tribes lived mostly above that river in 1846?
What other places do you see labeled on the close-up map?
Find Pueblo on the map. Why do think we can’t find cities like Denver on this 1846 map?
Now take a look at the first Mitchell Map.  What are the names of the different territories on this map?  Can we tell what belongs to the United States and what doesn’t?  How?
What groups or countries claimed the area that would become Colorado?
***
Map 4: Hart map Territorial Expansion, 1891
In 1891 Albert Hart created this map that includes Denver but not the outline of Colorado.  It has years printed within specific regions.
Albert B. Hart Map of the United States, 1891
[Source: Albert Bushnell Hart, Epoch Maps Illustrating American History, https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hnx69l;view=1up;seq=41]
Questions:
When did the land we now know as Colorado become part of the United States? (Hint: It could be more than one year.) When did your town become part of the United States?
This map tells a similar story to Map 2. What are the differences?
How could we find out what happened in those years on the map? Where could we look?
When the United States gained control over the area marked “1848” were there already American states there? Or did the states come later?  How could we find out?
What could have happened to the different borders on the 1846 Mitchell Map (Map 2)?
Do you think people were living in Colorado before 1803?  What kinds of people?
***
Map 5: Route to the Colorado Gold Regions, 1864
This map is focused in specific ways people could get to Colorado.  Yet, there are no state borders on this map and “Colorado” appears only in the map title. None of the borders from the previous maps appear on this map either.
Route to the Colorado Gold Regions, 1864
[Source: Denver Public Library. Call # CG4312 .P25 1864 .R6.  Link to the Map Online: http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p16079coll39/id/807/rec/1
Questions:
If we look at the map title, what’s the reason for creating this map?
What details did the map maker include on the map?
Why might the map maker include those details?
Can you find anything you recognize on the map?
Why do you think Colorado’s borders do not appear on this map?
Why would so many rivers appear on this map? In 1864, how did people travel on the “routes” that are marked on the map?  How could we find this out?
What does “Proposed Route of the Pacific Rail Road” mean?
Where did the mapmakers expect people to be coming from?
***
Map 6: Native Americans in Early Colorado
Before Euro-American fur trappers and miners migrated into the territory that became Colorado, there were many Native Americans already here.  The map below was drawn by Donald Hughes.  Hughes is a historian who drew this map in the 1970s, more than one hundred years after the Mitchell map in this chapter. He read different sources to find out where Native Peoples lived in the 1800s.  Although he is not Native American, he did try to position tribes accurately on this map.
[Source: J. Donald Hughes, American Indians in Colorado (Denver: University of Denver, 1977) 75]
Questions:
Between 1820 and 1846, what different Native American tribes lived on the lands that became Colorado?
Look at the right half of the map. Why do you think that four tribes are linked together in groups of two?
What tribes lived mainly outside the area that became Colorado in these years?
Look at Map 5 alongside this one. When gold seekers came to Colorado, which Indian peoples did they likely encounter on the way?
“Disputed” means that tribes competed with each other to control this area.  That area runs along the Front Range or eastern side of the Rocky Mountains.  How might those high mountains have affected the lives of these tribes?
***
Map 7: Indian Reservations Map, 1892
In 1892 an American government agency created this map of Indian Reservations in Colorado and other western states.  Around the time that Colorado became a territory (in 1861), the US government was creating reservations where Plains Indians were supposed to live.  These reservations meant much less space for Plains Indians to roam and hunt buffalo.  The areas marked on the map for Native Americans are orange and gray colored.
Map of Indian Reservations, 1892
[Source: Library of Congress, Office of Indian Affairs, “Map Showing Indian Reservations with the Limits of the United States.”  Link to map online:  https://tile.loc.gov/image-services/iiif/service:gmd:gmd370:g3701:g3701g:ct002305/full/pct:6.25/0/default.jpg]
Questions:
How is this map different from the previous map of Native Americans in Colorado between 1820 and 1846?
The previous map listed several Native American tribes in the territory that became Colorado including the Ute, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, Comanche. Where are those tribes on the map from 1892?
Something obviously changed between the 1846 Mitchell map and this 1892 map and we’ll explore these changes in chapters ahead.  Any ideas at this point about what might have happened to these Native American peoples?
What would happen if you and your extended family had to stay in a smaller area than you were used to?
***
Map 8:  1878 Colton Map of Colorado
Two years after Colorado became a state, G. Woolworth Colton created this map.  We have focused just on the Northwest corner of Colorado in this map. (It is easier to see detail on this map if you look online using the link below).
Colton Map of Colorado, 1878
[Source Denver Public Library, Call # CG4310 1878.C6. Link to this map online:
http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p16079coll39/id/45/rec/1]
Questions:
Why would Colton include different colors on this map? What might those colors represent?
The Rocky Mountains would be on the left side of this map.  What rivers can we see on this map?
When this map was created, there were few towns in this part of Colorado. What counties besides “Weld” do you find?
What other details did Colton include on this map?
What might all of those black squares on the map mean?
Why don’t Indian areas appear on this map?
How to Use These Sources:
OPTION 1: Colorado now and then.
For the lesson introduction, the teacher might begin announcing:
“Imagine that you are trying to learn about the geography and history of a state called Colorado but only have certain incomplete pieces of information.  The historic maps in this lesson offer stories about a place called Colorado, but they do not tell stories all on their own.  They need you to study the colors, details, shapes, and words to make sense of their meaning.   The basic question for this lesson:  What information can old maps tell us about Colorado history and geography?”
Then start as a class with Map 1, a basic outline map of Colorado today.  All students should add details to this map with the teacher’s help.  This exercise provides a basic context for the other maps that follow.
The series of maps that follow offer different perspectives on the land that became Colorado.  Taken together, they offer an introduction to some key changes in Colorado and the American West between 1803 and 1890.  This chapter is designed to raise questions and not just provide answers.  Students can begin to ask—what peopled lived in the area before Colorado became a state?  What motivated migrants to move to Colorado in the 1800s?  How did Colorado emerge as a state in the United States?  What happened to Native Americans who lived in this part of the American West after statehood?  Subsequent chapters will guide students to explore these questions in more depth  For now, it might be useful to generate questions for later reading.
Students could explore a single map (either 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6) in small groups.  Each of these maps provides information about this region before statehood.  Map 7 and 8 include details about Colorado soon after statehood.  Other student groups could study those maps and answer questions.  Then each group could present its map and answer the question—what does this tell us about the region that became Colorado?
OPTION 2: Summarizing Maps Graphic Organizer
The chart that follows could facilitate a comparison of all the maps in the chapter.  After discussing individual maps in jigsaw groups, students could share findings with the class.  Individuals will need to rely on other groups to tell the story of their maps.  In this way, each group  can bring together a piece of the whole puzzle.
OPTION 3: For a final assessment, students could use their notes on the Summarizing Maps chart to create their own individual historical maps of Colorado.  They should start with a legal-sized piece of blank white paper and then draw a neat rectangular border for the state.  They can they take information from the various primary source maps in this chapter to highlight the key details they learned.  This could include:
Physical Features:  Rocky Mountains and Four Major Rivers and their watersheds.
Historical Boundaries: between countries or between states.
Cultural and Demographic Features:  Native American peoples and later reservations; Routes to the Colorado Gold Rush; Spanish and Mexican influences.
The teacher could ask students what other kinds of maps would help them learn about Colorado History.
What Makes a Pioneer?
2
Teacher Introduction:
The earliest inhabitants of the mountains and plains that became Colorado were of course Native Americans, such as the Utes.  The Northern Cheyenne and Southern Cheyenne moved west into the area that became Colorado in the early 1800s. When William Bent created his successful trading post in 1833, he relied on a partnership with the Southern Cheyenne. The Santa Fe Trail became a major conduit for trade after Mexico’s independence from Spain in 1821.  Euro-American fur trappers in the north began interacting with native peoples in these decades as well. Colorado became a U.S. territory thirteen years after the U.S.-Mexico War (1846–1848). By 1850 Spanish-speaking settlers ventured into the San Luis Valley. They also moved onto the plains south of the Arkansas River.  There they encountered various Ute bands as well as Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, and Comanche peoples. The establishment of the Overland Trail near the Nebraska and Wyoming borders led to more contact and violence among new settlers and native inhabitants during the 1860s. (Maps of trails can be found online). The Gold Rush of 1858–1859 launched a tremendous wave of Euro-American migration to new mountain settlements as well as Golden and Denver.  African Americans and Asian immigrants also joined this movement into the lands that would become Colorado.  These new settlers increased cultural and racial diversity in the territory.
This chapter focuses on that diversity by comparing the experiences of some settlers in Colorado in the 1800s.  When Colorado became a U.S. territory in 1861, there were over 30,000 new residents and thousands of native peoples in the area.  Most of the Euro-Americans moving to Colorado in these years were single, male, white miners.  We explore the miner experience in a separate chapter.  But here students can consider the lives of more diverse early residents to get a sense of the multiple paths that they pursued in attempting to earn a living in this territory and state.  Many who came before the Gold Rush arrived by or had a connection to the Santa Fe Trail or New Mexico.  This chapter invites students to consider a broader range of pioneers in different regions of Colorado.
Initially, students can explore the lives of William Bent and his Southern Cheyenne wife, Owl Woman.  Moving from St. Louis, Bent established a fur trading post on the Arkansas River in the 1830s to supply travelers along the Santa Fe Trail.  Owl Woman was part of a prominent Southern Cheyenne family.  Their twelve-year marriage represented a connection between the white world of traders and fur trappers and the Cheyenne world.  Their four children also lived between these two worlds, even as the Colorado Gold Rush and the tens of thousands of white miners and settlers began building cities and roads and farms in the territory.  As conflicts between the Cheyenne and white settlers increased in the 1860s, William Bent attempted to make peace.  He negotiated between the two groups in hopes of avoiding open warfare.  His efforts failed, however, and his children were caught in the violence and forced to choose sides.
Next, this chapter includes primary sources on San Luis Valley pioneers.  These 1850s settlers from New Mexico brought important Hispanic traditions to this southern Colorado region.  They organized plazas with farm land stretched out in narrow bands along key waterways in this arid region and dug the first irrigation ditches in the territory.  As Spanish speakers tied to the Catholic culture of Mexico, these people established different settlement patterns from other pioneers.
Students will also encounter sources on diverse women pioneers.  An ex-slave from Kentucky, Clara Brown, joined early gold seekers and helped establish Central City.  Her arrival came later than Bents or the San Luis Valley pioneers, but her community established important patterns that recurred in other gold and silver rushes across the mountains.  White women like Emily Hartman and Ella Bailey confronted important challenges and demonstrated significant resilience in their pioneering experiences.  Last, students can read about a ten-year-old child’s perspective on moving into his first Colorado home in 1906.  All of these experiences can help students answer the central question: What did it take to be a pioneer?
As Colorado’s recent Pioneer license plate indicates, many people think of pioneers as white families moving west in prairie schooners.  Or the term may evoke an image of the lone, male prospector roaming the Rocky Mountains.  The historical experience did include those people, but Colorado included so much more. With this chapter, students can explore this question about pioneering from multiple perspectives and begin to reconstruct the diverse lives of early settlers.  They also can begin to compare source fragments to reconstruct pioneer life.
***
Sources for Students:
Doc. 1: William Bent Photograph, 1867
William Bent (1809-1869) was born in St. Louis, Missouri, one of eleven children.  Following his older brother’s example, William moved west along the Santa Fe Trail in 1829 in search of adventure and a chance to make money.  This trail connected St. Louis, Missouri, with Santa Fe and ran through lands that later became Colorado.  Here is a recently created map of that trail.
Map of Santa Fe Trail.  [Source: United States National Park Service-Map, Robert McGinnis-illustration – http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/national_parks/santa_fe_trail94.jpg]
William Bent developed a friendship with the Southern Cheyenne. In 1833 he built a fort along the Arkansas River.  This fort allowed Bent to supply travelers along the Santa Fe Trail. Cheyenne and Arapaho peoples also traded at the fort.
To secure his connection to the Cheyenne, William Bent married the daughter of chief White Thunder in 1835.  Owl Woman, or Mis-stan-sta, and William Bent lived in the fort part time. They also lived with the Cheyenne in their buffalo-hide tipis.  Bent’s connections to the Southern Cheyenne and Southern Arapaho helped make his trading post along the Santa Fe Trail very successful.
Here is a photograph of William Bent (with a hat) sitting between Southern Arapaho chief Little Raven and his sons.  Little Raven holds his granddaughter on his lap:
William Bent with Arapaho visitors
[Source: History Colorado. Available online at: http://www.coloradovirtuallibrary.org/digital-colorado/colorado-histories/beginnings/william-bent-frontiersman/]
Questions:
How are the clothes of each person alike or different? Why might the clothes be alike or different?
Can we tell from the picture if Bent was friends with these other men?
Who could the men at the top of the photograph be?  What details make you think so? Why might they be in this picture?
Based on this picture,  what can we learn about William Bent and his relations with the Southern Arapahos?
***
Documents 2 and 3 about Bent’s Fort should be paired
Doc. 2: Photo of courtyard of Bent’s Fort after its reconstruction in 1976.
For sixteen years, Bent’s Fort was the only major Euro-American settlement between Missouri and New Mexico.  Bent built the fort on the north bank of the Arkansas River near the current town of La Junta.  Travelers on the Santa Fe Trail would stop here for supplies.  They met fur trappers and different Native Americans in the fort.  In 1849 Bent’s Fort burned to the ground. The National Park Service rebuilt the fort more than 125 years later.  Builders used paintings and drawings of the original fort along with parts of the fort that were still there.  Here is a photograph of the inside of the rebuilt fort:
Bent’s Fort Recreated
[Source: Library of Congress photograph: https://www.loc.gov/item/2015632789/]
***
Doc. 3:  Visitor to Bent’s Fort in 1839
The next document gives us a description of life in Bent’s Fort from a visitor who met Bent.  Matthew Field was a newspaper reporter. He stopped at Bent’s Fort in 1839.  He described what he saw inside the fort:
Two hundred men might [sleep] . . . in the fort, and three or four hundred animals can be shut up in the corral.  Then there are the store rooms, the extensive wagon houses, in which to keep the enormous heavy wagons used twice a year to bring merchandise from [St. Louis], and to carry back the skins of buffalo and the beaver….[The many rooms enclosed in the walls] strike the wanderer…as though an ‘air built castle’ had dropped to earth…in the midst of a vast desert.
[Source: John E. Sunder, ed., Matt Field on the Santa Fe Trail (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1960), 144. ]
WORD BANK:
Corral:  a place to keep large animals
Merchandise: items to buy
Enclosed: inside
Strike: appear to
Midst: middle
Vast: great big
Questions:
How many men and how men animals were there at Bent’s Fort when Field visited? How might that smell, at a time before there was indoor plumbing for showers and toilets?
According to Matthew Field, how might it feel to stay at this fort?
What noises might a visitor to Bent’s fort in 1839 have heard?
With these two sources, we can imagine what the inside of the fort might have looked like.  What sort of work or jobs do you think people did in the fort? Why?
How did Bent make money to keep this fort going?
Find Bent’s Fort (or La Junta) on a map of Colorado. Imagine riding on horseback or walking from St. Louis, Missouri to Taos, New Mexico. This fort was the only settlement along that route.  How long might it take you to reach Bent’s Fort from St. Louis if you traveled miles by horse at 10 miles per hour?
How did William Bent succeed as a pioneer?
***
San Luis Valley Pioneers: The next two documents are paired together
Doc. 4:  Photo of María Eulogia Gallegos, 1860s
María Eulogia Gallegos was a pioneer settler in the San Luis Valley.   Here is a photograph of María Eulogia Gallegos from the 1860s:
Maria Eulogia Gallegos
[Source: Denver Public Library Digital Collection. Call # AUR-2247]
She came from Taos, New Mexico and married Dario Gallegos in 1850.  They were two of the founders of the town of San Luis in the early 1850s. They were in Colorado before the Gold Rush.  She and Dario had nine children.
Together they started a store that sold merchandise such as groceries and hardware.  At first they supplied the store by sending horse-drawn wagons over the Santa Fe Trail from St. Louis, Missouri.  Those wagons would have passed the site of Bent’s Fort.  They sold to American soldiers at Fort Garland to the north. Ute Indians and San Luis settlers also traded at the store.
One of María and Dario’s daughters married the son of another San Luis settler, Arcadio Salazar.  After Dario Gallegos died in 1883, this daughter and son-in-law ran the store.  Their son, Delfino Salazar, continued the tradition.  The store nearly closed in 2017 after more than 150 years in business.
Doc. 5: Interview with María Eulogia Gallegos’s son and grandson, 1933
In 1933 the US government paid for writers to interview Colorado pioneers.  Charles Gibson interviewed Gaspar Gallegos and Delphino Salazar. They were the son and grandson of María Eulogia Gallegos and her husband Dario.  The two men told Gibson about the early days of San Luis and their ancestors, Dario and María Eulogia Gallegos:
“When Dario died he left a great deal of [farm] property including twenty-six thousand head of sheep, and although Mrs. Gallegos could neither read nor write she became a very able manager.  Gaspar recalled that when he was a small boy his mother raised a great many chickens and he used to go with her to [US Army] Fort Garland, where they were sold to the officers.  She would take only silver, one piece of money for one chicken, either twenty-five cents or ten cents.”
“According to [María’s grandson], San Luis, Colorado and Boston, Massachusetts, are the only towns in the United States having a ‘Common,’ especially set aside for the use of the people.  Carlos Beaubien donated the meadow just west of the town to the people . . . .  In this way a convenient pasture was assured [and shared] for the horses and milk cows of the San Luis residents.”
[Source: Civil Works Administration Pioneer Interview Collection, volume 349, interview 28, pp. 105–6, recorded by Charles E. Gibson Jr. in 1933 or 1934.  Available online at HistoryColorado.org]
WORD BANK:
convenient: nearby
assured: available for sure
Questions on these sources:
What do you notice in the photo of María Gallegos?
According to María Gallegos’s son Gaspar how did his mother make money? Was it a problem that she could not read or write?
The town where María lived, San Luis, had a “common.” What could San Luis residents do with that space?  Why wasn’t that area owned by just one person?
Farming and ranching were important to many in San Luis. What kind of work did María, Dario, and their children likely do to keep the farm and ranch healthy and successful?
How did María Gallegos succeed as a pioneer?
***
Doc. 6: Record of the founding of Guadalupe, CO (1933)
In 1933, the US government paid writers to interview Colorado pioneers and their children.  One of these writers was Charles Gibson.  The son of a pioneer settler, Jesus Velasquez, wrote down a short history of the founding of Guadalupe for Gibson.  Velasquez probably heard this story and learned the list of the town founders from his father, Vincente Velasquez.  The story is not complete though.  You will have to help fill in some missing information.
Founders of the town of Guadalupe, 1854
Jose Maria Jaquez, leader
El Llanito, New Mexico
Vincente Velasquez, 15 yrs. Old
El Llanito, New Mexico
Jesus Velasquez
La Cueva, New Mexico
Jose Manuel Vigil
La Cueva, New Mexico
Jose Francisco Lucero
La Servilleta, New Mexico
Juan Nicolas Martinez
La Servilleta, New Mexico
Santiago Manchego
La Cueva, New Mexico
Juan de Dios Martinez
La Cueva, New Mexico
Antonio Jose Chavez
La Servilleta, New Mexico
Juan Antonio Chavez
Ojo Caliente, New Mexico
Ilario Atencio
Ojo Caliente, New Mexico
Juan de la Cruz Espinoza
Ojo Caliente, New Mexico
“All of the above named persons came to settle on what is called Conejos River.  They came in August 1854 and stopped about 5 miles west of Guadalupe.  They build a ditch from this point which they called El Cedro Redondo . . . .  They build this Ditch for about 8 to 10 miles long to [a place] they called Sevilleta.  Then they went back to their homes in New Mexico . . . to get ready . . . so that they could stay [in Colorado] when they came back.
WORD BANK:
Livestock: animals raised for food or work
Arms: guns
“They came back in October 1854.  They stopped at Guadalupe [and] here they built a town.  They built it in a circle with only two openings: one on the south and one on the north. Here they put what livestock they had for fear of the Indians which were in great numbers at that time.  They had come on ox carts and burros [from New Mexico].  They brought with them wheat, corn, flour, beans, cattle, horses, sheep, hogs, and chickens.
“But in March 1855 they had bad luck.  One morning as they drove their livestock to pasture the Indians came from an ambush and [took] all the animals that the people had.  The people had no arms to fight with and the Indians were too many for the people. So the Indians took all of the people’s animals.”
[Source: Civil Works Administration Pioneer Interview Collection, volume 349, interview 10, pp.  40–41, recorded by Charles E. Gibson Jr. in 1933 or 1934.  Available online: https://www.historycolorado.org/oral-histories]
Questions:
We have a story here about the creation of a town called Guadalupe in the San Luis Valley and a list of names. Why are there names of men listed at the beginning?  What might the names of towns to the right of those men mean?
What details do we learn about the creation of Guadalupe from this story?
Why do you think these settlers spent time digging a ditch before they built the town?
How did these San Luis settlers hope to thrive in this new town?
What bad luck happened to them?
How might it help to create a new farm with a community of people, rather doing it alone or just with one family?
The next two sources focus on a pioneer named Clara Brown
Doc. 7: Photograph of Clara Brown, about 1875
Clara Brown was born a slave in Virginia around 1800.  Here is a photograph of Clara Brown around 1875:
Clara Brown
[Source: Denver Public Library Digital Collections.  Call #Z-275]
Growing up a slave, Clara Brown was married at eighteen and had four children.  Her family was broken up when her white master sold her husband and children to other white owners.  She spent the rest of her life to trying to find her family.
Clara became free when her master, George Brown, died in 1856.  Hearing that one of her daughters had moved West, Brown eventually walked with a covered wagon train to Denver in 1859.  She was one of the first African Americans in Colorado.  Brown opened a laundry service in the gold rush town of Central City. After a few years, she had saved thousands of dollars.  She often helped homeless and sick miners who needed a place to stay.  She was admired by the mostly white population of Colorado Territory for her generosity and kindness.
Docs. 8 A and B: Newspaper reports of fire in Central City, 1873
Clara Brown did not leave behind her own story of her life.  She did leave a few sources of information that we can use to understand her life and experience.  One place we can look for information about Clara Brown is the newspapers in the towns where she lived.  Here is a newspaper story about a fire that mentions Clara Brown.  Consider how reading this newspaper can help us find out more about her.
Story 8A: “The line of buckets was extended up Lawrence Street while another was brought from a shaft upon the hill and a desperate effort made to save the building which had become ignited from the burning chapel on the west.  This however failed and three small buildings belong to Aunt Clara Brown (colored) were soon wrapped in flames.”
[Source: “Our City in Flames!” Daily Register Call, January 28, 1873.]
WORD BANK:
Line of buckets was extended up: people in town formed a line to pass buckets of water
Shaft: opening of a mine
Story 8B: “The losses, as near as we have been able to [tell], are as follows….Clara Brown, three houses, $1800.”
[Source: “The Late Fire in Central,” Daily Colorado Miner, January 29, 1873.]
Questions:
Look at the photo of Clara Brown. What five words describe her?
Does a photo like this help us imagine what Brown was like? Why or why not?
What do we learn about Central City in 1873 from these newspaper stories in the Daily Register Call?
How many houses did Clara Brown own, at least?
Can we tell whether her laundry business had been successful? Why or why not?
What might she do after this event in 1873? Might she be discouraged?
How could we find out what happened to Clara Brown after this fire?
How did Clara Brown succeed as a pioneer?
***
Doc: 9: Photograph of Central City in 1875
Central City, Colorado
[Source: Denver Public Library, call # X-11588.  Available online at:   http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15330coll22/id/9632/rec/290]
Questions:
This photograph of Central City was likely taken after the fire. This was the main street. What might it feel like to walk that street in 1875?
This was a town that supported gold miners in the surrounding hills. What kinds of stores and businesses might those miners need?
Do you see any trees on the hills around the town? How might town settlers use trees in this area?
How would you describe this town that Clara Brown lived in?
Doc. 10: Interview with Emily Sudbury Hartman, 1934
Emily Sudbury Hartman was born in Utah to Mormon parents in 1859.  Her mother divorced Emily’s father and later married a U.S. Army soldier at Ft. Bridger.  Emily was only seven years old in 1866 when her family moved to Denver.  After she finished school, Emily trained as a nurse.  She later helped run a sanitarium, a kind of hospital, with her husband, Flavius Josephus Hartman.  He was raised in Kansas and came to Colorado to join his father who had come for the Gold Rush.
In 1934, Emily sat down with a US government interviewer and told him about their early days in Colorado:
“[In 1866 Emily’s family] was just becoming accustomed to the use of kerosene lamps instead of candles.  [Emily’s] mother purchased one of the first hand sewing machines put on the market.  Apples were brought into Denver from Missouri in Prairie Schooners, and sold at very high prices.
WORD BANK:
Accustomed to: used to, familiar with
Prairie Schooners: covered wagons
Tallow: animal fat
She was married to Flavius Josephus Hartman in 1877, after going [with him] to the San Luis Valley . . . .  [Her husband’s father] had come into Colorado in 1859 with the Pike’s Peak gold rush, leaving his wife and several children on a ranch in Kansas.  One time when the mother had gone to town [for food], a severe blizzard came up and she could not get back for three days.  The three boys that were left behind [stayed alive] by burning the fence and grinding corn in the coffee grinder, making griddle cakes and cooking them in grease from tallow candles.
This little family suffered severe hardships because they were deprived of . . . money sent by the father from Colorado [when a mail clerk stole it] . . . .  At the age of sixteen years [Flavius Josephus] was washing dishes and waiting tables in a restaurant in Denver.  At that time eggs were twenty-five cents apiece and flour was twenty dollars a sack.”
WORD BANK:
Severe: very hard
Hardships: difficult challenges
Deprived of: robbed of
[Source: CWA Pioneer Interview of Emily Sudbury Hartman by Arthur W. Monroe, (February 3, 1934) v. 357 pages 6-8.  Available online: https://www.historycolorado.org/oral-histories]
Questions:
How far did apples have to travel by horse-drawn wagon to reach Denver in 1866?
Emily describes a big challenge her husband faced when he was a child. What happened to his family?
What kinds of skills might her husband have developed as a child in Kansas before he came to Colorado?
Who might Emily Sudbury Hartman have met in the San Luis Valley?
How might we find out whether the price of eggs or the price of flour was expensive back then?
Why do you think this Colorado pioneer story mentioned food so often?
***
Doc. 11: Ella Bailey Diary, 1869
Ella Bailey ran a boarding house near Greeley in 1869.  That means she had to cook and clean and wash clothing for men who rented rooms from her.  She kept a diary and recorded these entries about some of her days in the winter of 1869:
“Sun. Feb. 7: “[T]he days are 48 hours long in Colorado and Sundays seventy two hours long.”
“March 2: Baked fifty one pies. Tired as a beggar.
“March 3: Baked twenty three pies and three thousand cookies and ginger snaps.
“March 6: If men was company to me like friends at home, I would never get lonesome.
“April 8: I can’t help but wish I had never seen Colorado. It is lonesome and desolate.
[Source: Ella Bailey Papers (1869) History Colorado, Mini-MSS #28]
WORD BANK:
Beggar:  A very poor person who begs for change or food
Desolate: a place without people.
Questions:
According to Ella Bailey, how long are the days in Colorado? How long are Sundays? Why would she say something that cannot be true?
How much cooking and baking did Ella do on the first two days she wrote about? How did she feel afterward?
Does she have much company at the boarding house? Why or why not?
Why would Ella stay and keep working at this place? Do you think that she is alone?
What did Ella Bailey do to succeed as a pioneer?
***
Doc. 12: Ralph Moody, 1950
Ralph Moody moved as a boy from New England to a ranch near Littleton in 1906.   His family of seven hoped to find a working farm when they first arrived.  Here is how Ralph described what they first saw when they reached their new ranch:
“We could see our new house from a couple of miles away . . . . [I]t looked like a little dollhouse sitting on the edge of a great big table . . . .  As we came nearer, it looked less like a dollhouse and more like just what it was: a little three-room cottage . . . .  The chimney was broken off at the roof and most of the windows were smashed.  When we turned off the wagon road, a jack rabbit leaped out from under the house and raced away . . . . There wasn’t much to see [inside], except that the floor was covered with broken glass, and plaster that had fallen off the walls and ceiling . . . .
WORD BANK:
Cottage: a small home
Plaster: a material spread over walls and ceilings to make a hard cover
Bargain: an item bought at a lower price than expected
Privy: a toilet outside the house
“[My father and I] got up before daylight every morning for the next two weeks . . .   First we’d pick up any of the bargains Mother had found for the house, then buy secondhand lumber, plaster, glass, and other things we needed on our way out to the ranch.  And father would never stop working till it was so dark he couldn’t see to drive a nail.
“[After about a week] Father had built a new chimney, patched the places where the plaster had fallen off, put glass in all the windows, and made the front and back steps for the house.  My part of the job was to sweep up all the broken glass and plaster . . . . There was nothing left to build but the privy.”
[Source: Ralph Moody, Little Britches (1950) pps. 3-5.]
Questions:
How did Ralph’s house look when he and his family first arrived there?
Why do you think it looked like that?
Why do you think his mother and father didn’t just turn around and go home right off?
What did Ralph and his father do to help make their home liveable?
What kinds of skills might Ralph have learned from watching and working with his father?
How would those skills help a pioneer?
***
Doc. 13: Pioneer License Plate, 1999
Remembering the experiences of Colorado pioneers has been important for many generations in the state.  To take only a recent example: starting in 1999 the Colorado Department of Motor Vehicles introduced a new license plate to allow residents to celebrate their ancestors who had arrived in the state more than one hundred years earlier.
Pioneer License Plate
At first, people who wanted this license plate had to prove their family connection to a Colorado resident from at least 100 years ago.  Now anyone can request this license plate if they pay an extra fee.
Questions:
What images do you see on this license plate?
Why do you think the state officials chose those images?
What other images of pioneer life could appear on a license plate like this?
If this Pioneer license plate included key words to describe pioneers, what would they be?
***
How to Use these Sources:
OPTION 1:  Comparing Pioneer Communities.
Beginning with the William Bent documents, students could compare these first three sources to recreate some key aspects of his pioneer life.  His story can help situate the white pioneer experience in the context of Native Americans.  Students could answer the question:  what kind of community did Bent help create along the Arkansas River in the 1830s?  After reviewing these Bent sources, students could turn to those dealing with the San Luis Valley.  Here students can read and interpret sources about early Hispanic settlers.  After exploring each of these sources individually, students could describe the kind of community that emerged in the San Luis Valley in the 1850s.  They could then compare that to the Bent’s Fort community. Maps from the previous chapter could be used to find these places.
OPTION 2: Pioneers after the Gold Rush.
The remaining sources describe pioneers who came to Colorado during or after the Gold Rush.  Though many pioneers were single, male, white miners, Clara Brown offers an important alternative experience.  Students can review the sources to begin to understand how this hard-working African American woman became successful in a mining boom town even though she was not a miner.  We have little information directly from Clara Brown, and so must instead look at fragments or pieces of information to reconstruct her life.  Included here are two newspaper stories about a fire that help us understand her real estate holdings and success as a business woman.  The Clara Brown, Emily Hartman, and Ella Bailey sources give us a picture into the lives of other pioneering women in Colorado.  The Ralph Moody source gives a child’s perspective on pioneering, though later than the Gold Rush.  After exploring these individual sources, students could compare them to create a list of hardships and resilient characteristics.  All these pioneers displayed a kind of toughness and determination, but they did so in different ways.
OPTION 3:  Pioneer License Plates.
After reviewing all the previous sources, students can turn to the pioneer license plate.  They can consider what images help tell the story of a Colorado pioneer.  After reviewing the state of Colorado’s official plate, students could create their own plates to honor one of the pioneers from this chapter or to remember key aspects of the pioneer experience.  Or their individual pioneer license plate could include a list of key characteristics or images to reflect the diversity of these experiences.
***
Additional Secondary Sources for Younger Readers
There are many short biographies of Colorado pioneers available for elementary-level readers.  Some recent examples include:
Cheryl Beckwith, William Bent: Frontiersman (Palmer Lake: Filter Press, 2011)
Emerita Romero-Anderson, José Dario Gallegos: Merchant of the Santa Fe Trail (Palmer Lake, CO: Filter Press, 2007)
Suzanne Frachetti, Clara Brown: African American Pioneer (Palmer Lake: Filter Press, 2011)
The online Colorado Encyclopedia also includes short biographies of many pioneers (http://coloradoencyclopedia.org/).
How Did Gold and Silver Change Colorado?
3
Teacher Introduction:
Some of Colorado’s earliest visitors and settlers came for the Pike’s Peak Gold Rush.  Starting In late 1858, many men from other states and territories heard that they could find gold in the streams and rivers flowing through the Rocky Mountains.  This was a decade after the first major American gold rush to California.  Some Colorado prospectors were in fact frustrated ‘49ers looking for a second chance. The Colorado prospectors helped found the first major mining district in the area that would later become Central City.  Prior to being used for mining, these high altitude zones were familiar and important places for Ute Indian bands along with elk, antelope, moose, and marmots.  After 1859 these districts began to fill quickly with crowds of men hoping for a lucky strike.  Colorado gold rush pioneers soon found that most gold was in fact not easily scooped up from the water or picked up off the ground.  The abundant gold and silver in the Rocky Mountains was locked deep underground and tightly bound to other rocks and minerals.  Many frustrated prospectors decided to leave.  Some stayed, but they had to make important changes.  The new miners had to dig much deeper than the prospectors.  They needed to borrow huge sums of money to buy expensive digging and refining and transportation equipment.  The miners soon needed railroads to move gold ore, and smelters to separate gold from other minerals that had less value.  Eventually, companies supplanted individual miners. Subsequent silver mining booms followed this pattern as well.
As miners and owners created cities near the mines, often high up in the Rocky Mountains, new challenges arose.  Native Americans were displaced, often as a result of violent pressure and treaty negotiations.  Trees were quickly stripped from the nearby hillsides and demands for supplies and food drove prices higher and higher.  Mines several hundred feet deep posed greater dangers to life and limb than surface prospecting.  Smelters featured furnaces that heated gold or silver ore as high as 800 degrees Fahrenheit.  Individual miners and collectives could not compete with corporate-run industrial mining.  Coloradans had to adapt in new ways to these changes.
Eventually four major mining districts emerged in the state: Central City, Leadville, the San Juans, and Cripple Creek.  In this roughly sixty-year time period gold and silver mining generated more than $1.1 billion in revenue.Duane Smith, The Trail of Gold and Silver (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2009) 259.  Not all of that wealth stayed in Colorado, as eastern and even European investors sought to profit from Colorado resources.  This tremendous mining wealth did help create early millionaires in the state, such as Horace Tabor and Nathaniel Hill.  Given the wealth accruing to a privileged few,  mine workers at times contested their working conditions and wages in bitter strikes and protests.  The industrial system developing around mining would have a profound impact on the state through World War One.  After 1930 mining would never again produce such amazing wealth nor employ so many workers in Colorado.  Many bustling mining towns became ghost towns leaving crumbling frames and foundations across the mountains of Colorado.  But the legacy of mining endures in many ways in the state.
As students will quickly learn from reviewing these sources, mining created most early white settlements in Colorado.  Without gold and silver booms, the state would likely have developed more slowly and with far less industry.  Ute bands along the western slope and southern Cheyenne and Arapaho could perhaps have remained and coexisted with more gradual white farm settlements along the plains.  Instead, desire for the gold and silver deposits in the state created instant cities in Colorado mountains: Central City, Leadville, the San Juan area, and Cripple Creek.  Settlement in Colorado did not proceed in a slow, western path along a frontier band from the Kansas border across to Utah.  Precious metal and coal mining drew tens of thousands of Euro-American and later Mexican American migrants, along with immigrants from abroad, into the territory and then state.  Rapidly swelling mining districts in the mountains in turn drove economic growth and railroad expansion across the state.  Mining riches helped to build cities along the foothills such as Boulder, Denver, Colorado Springs, and Pueblo in turn.  Colorado government also emerged at the same time as many mining communities.  State leaders were regularly called upon to address various mining conflicts and create rules to guide those who built fortunes in these industries.  Colorado School of Mines, one of the territory’s first institutions of higher learning, was founded in Golden in 1874.
Industrial mining also altered the Colorado environment dramatically.  Mountains sides were stripped of forests; rock debris piled up around mine sites; smelters left behind pools of toxic chemicals and mounds of contaminated gravel.  As recently as 2015, the abandoned Gold King Mine in the San Juan mountains leaked waste water containing lead, arsenic, cadmium and other pollutants into the Animas River.  The cost of cleaning up mine waste was never factored into the profit/loss balance sheets of nineteenth-century mining and smelter businesses.  Those costs are born by Coloradans and the nation today.
***
Sources For Students:
Doc. 1:  Colorado State Seal, 1876
Before getting into more specifics, it might help to remember how important mining was to early Colorado settlers.  Here is the state’s official seal, created when Colorado became a state in 1876.
Colorado State Seal
This official seal includes some interesting symbols.  There are tools on the seal representing only one job though: the pick and hammer of an early miner.  The mountains above these tools help situate the location for this job as well.
Questions:
Why would the founders of Colorado include these images on the seal?
Why not include symbols from other jobs on the state seal?
What other kinds of tools do you think miners in the 1800s used?
“Nil sine Numine” is a Latin phrase meaning: “Nothing is possible without divine help.” Divine refers to God or gods. What might the founders have meant with that phrase?  Did it have anything to do with mining?
If our Colorado government leaders wanted to change this seal, what work or play symbols could they include today? What do you think the most important job or business is in Colorado today?
***
Doc. 2: Michigan Newspaper Report on Pike’s Peak Gold Rush, February 1859
News of gold discoveries in the Rocky Mountain area spread fast after the summer of 1858.  By 1859 the Pike’s Pike Gold Rush was on.  Here’s how a man who went to Colorado described what he saw.
There is just gold enough to excite a certain class of excitable persons to leave their homes and that is all. There are plenty of speculators laying out towns all through the territory, who sell shares to anyone they can at enormous profits. . . . When you hear persons talking of going to Pike’s Peak just tell them to stay at home, if they can make an honest living.
[Source: Hillsdale Standard (Michigan), February 15, 1859, p. 2]
WORD BANK:
Excite: motivate, get moving
Speculator: a person who guesses what might happen
Laying out towns: creating and mapping new streets
Shares: stocks in a company
Enormous: very large
Profits: money made from a sale
Questions:
In 1859 why did Pike’s Peak matter to newspaper readers in Michigan?
What sort of person did the author think would go to Colorado?
Did the author think that people could get rich in Colorado?
Did the author think that gold mining was a good way to make a living?
***
Doc. 3: Horace Greeley described Central City, June 1859
As the Colorado Gold Rush began, several New Yorkers went west to see it for themselves.  One newspaper owner, Horace Greeley, visited the area that would later become Central City.  He wrote details of what he saw. Greeley, Colorado is named after him.
[T]he entire population of the valley—which cannot number less than four thousand including five white women and seven [Indian women]
WORD BANK:
Entire: all
Diggings: place where miners dig for gold
Restricted: limited
Staples: just the basics
Regarded: thought of
living with white men—sleep in tents . . . cooking and eating in the open air.  I doubt that there is as yet a table or chair in these diggings. . . . The food, like that of the plains, is restricted to a few staples—pork, hot bread, beans and coffee. . . . [L]ess than half of the four or five thousand people now in this [valley] have been here a week;  he who has been here three weeks is regarded as quite an old settler.
[Source: Horace Greeley, An Overland Journey from New York to San Francisco in the Summer of 1859 (New York: C. M. Saxton, Barker, and Co., 1860), 122, 123]
Questions:
How did Greeley give us a sense that men especially were rushing into this mountain valley?
Why didn’t the newcomers stop to build houses and stores and schools?
What do you imagine would happen to folks in the area when winter starts?
As an eye witness, Horace Greeley makes good primary source.  Why?
***
Doc. 4: George White drawing of the area that became Central City, 1867.
Albert Richardson was a newspaperman like Horace Greeley [Doc. 3].  He too published an account of his trip to the Central City area that summer of 1859.  Years later Richardson asked New York artist George White to create this picture based on what Richardson remembered from his visit to Colorado.
George White Engraving of Central City, Colorado
[Source: George White print made from a wood engraving that appeared in Albert D. Richardson, Beyond the Mississippi (Hartford: American Publishing, 1867).
Questions:
The wooden slides in the picture were called sluices. How might those help prospectors find gold in streams or waterways?
This image shows a scene similar to that Greeley wrote about in document 3. What differences do you notice between Greeley’s description and this image?
There appears to be one woman in the picture.  How many men?
What would a community be like if it were mostly men but only a few women and children?
This picture was drawn by an artist who didn’t actually visit Colorado.  Can we trust that the artist pictured exactly how the gold rush looked?  Why or why not?
***
Doc 5: Traveler Bayard Taylor described Central City in 1866
Bayard Taylor visited Colorado about seven years after the gold rush started.  In his description below, he focused on different changes to the Rocky Mountains:
[Trees have] been wholly cut away….The great, awkwardly rounded mountains are cut up and down by the lines of paying“lodes,” and are pitted all over by the holes and heaps of rocks made either by prospectors or to secure claims.  Nature seems to be suffering from an attack of…smallpox.  My experience in California taught me that gold-mining utterly ruins the appearance of a county….[This] hideous slashing, tearing, and turning upside down is the surest indication of mineral wealth.
[Source: Bayard Taylor, Colorado: A Summer Trip (New York: Putnam and Son, 1867), 56.]
WORD BANK:
Wholly: fully
Lode: a collection of metal in the earth
Secure claims: make sure that a miner owns a specific spot
Smallpox: a nasty sickness like chicken pox that leaves scars behind
Hideous: horrible and ugly
Indication: sign
Mineral: a natural substance in the earth
Questions:
Taylor talks about changes to the land or the environment. What examples did you find of these changes?
Smallpox was a nasty disease that created painful, red sores all over human bodies. Why would Taylor say that the land looked like it had smallpox?
How did Taylor connect “slashing” and “tearing” to “wealth” or money?
Was anyone fixing the land (replanting trees, filling holes, cleaning streams) during the Gold Rush?  Why or why not?
***
Doc. 6: Photograph of Central City, 1864
The camping scenes described by Greeley and Richardson (Docs. 3 and 4) had disappeared when this photo of Central City was taken in 1864.  This was where Clara Brown (in Chapter 2) lived.
Central City, Colorado
[Source: Denver Public Library, “Central City, 1864,” Call # L-609 http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15330coll22/id/75009/rec/17]
Questions:
What kinds of changes do you notice between the drawing in document 4 from 1859 to this photo, taken five years later?
Before the gold rush, this Central City valley was densely wooded with pine trees, some eighty-feet tall. Where did those trees go?
Why do all the stores and houses face each other? Why not spread out over the valley?
If all these building were made of wood, what could happen if a fire started?  Remember what happened to Clara Brown? (Hint: check the previous chapter).
***
Doc. 7: Photograph of six miners in Central City, 1889.
By the 1870s, mines were dug deeper and deeper into the Rocky Mountains of Colorado.  Prospectors could not pan for gold successfully anymore.  Instead, miners worked for large businesses that build mechanical hoists like the one in the picture below.  A hoist was a kind of elevator, powered by a coal furnace and steam engine.  These men were about to descend for work below.  The hoist operator who controlled the miners’ cage is in the background to the left.
Central City Miners, 1889
[Source: Denver Public Library, “Saratoga Mines, Central City,” Call # X-61094. http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15330coll22/id/37944/rec/1
Questions:
Here six men are going deep underground into tunnels to dig for gold.  How is that different from the drawing in document 4?  What has changed?
At the bottom of the picture, you can see small metal rails. What might those be used for?
The hoist or elevator was powered by coal, but there was not much coal in the ground around this mine. How might mine owners move coal from mines south of Pueblo to Central City?
These miners were paid about $3 per day to work for 9 or 10 hours underground.  They also faced the danger of mine cave-ins or explosions in tunnels.  It was very unlikely they would become millionaires.  Why would they do this work anyway?
***
Doc. 8:  Photograph of the smelting process, 1900
Much of the gold and silver dug out of the mountains in Colorado was stuck inside rock called ore.  Miners had to separate the gold and silver from the ore. Basically they would crush the ore, heat it to high temperatures, and add chemicals like mercury to release the gold and silver.  This work was done inside stamp mills and smelters. Here is picture of the inside of a smelter used to separate copper from surrounding minerals in rock:
An example of the smelting process
[Source: Denver Public Library, “Converters,”  Call # X-60601: http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15330coll22/id/35535/rec/155]
Questions:
The men in the picture are also involved in mining work, though they’re obviously not in an underground tunnel. They are heating metal ore in order to separate copper from the other minerals.  Check online to find the melting point (temperature) of copper, silver, and gold.
What dangers might this kind of work have?
Railroad cars likely shipped the ore to this smelter.  Coal powered steam engines moved those cars.  What moves the cart on rails in the picture?
Smelter workers like these men received about $1.80 to $2.50 per day for ten hours of work in 1900.  Why were they paid less than the miners underground, do you think?
***
Doc. 9:  Brunot Agreement, 1873
White prospectors discovered gold the San Juan mountain area in southwestern Colorado in the 1860s and early 1870s.  Ute Indian bands, however, lived in this area.  The U.S. government had earlier made two treaties with Ute leaders that recognized Ute control San Juan Mountains.  But pressure from Euro-American miners and settlers led the U.S. government to make new treaties with the Utes in 1873.  U.S. agent Felix Brunot made this agreement with Ute leader Chief Ouray.  Soon afterward a silver and gold mining boom began in the San Juan Mountains.
[T]he Ute Nation hereby relinquish to the United States all . . . claim . . . to the following [parts] of the [existing Ute] reservation: [land that later became the Colorado counties of Dolores, La Plata, Hinsdale, Ouray, San Juan, Montezuma, and San Miguel]
WORD BANK:
Hereby: with this agreement
Relinquish: give up or surrender
Permit:  allow
Negotiator: someone who helps make a deal between two different sides or groups
The United States shall permit the Ute Indians to hunt upon [these] lands so long as . . . the Indians are at peace with the white people.
The United States agrees [to pay] twenty-five thousand dollars [each year] . . . for the benefit of the Ute Indians . . . forever.
Ouray, head-chief of the Ute Nation, he shall receive a salary of one thousand dollars [per year] for the term of ten years [for his help as negotiator].
[Source: United States Congress, Acts of the Forty-Third Congress—First Session, Chapter 136 (1874).  Available online at: http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol1/html_files/ses0151.html]
Questions:
Find the counties from Part One on a Colorado map.  Is this a big or small area that the Utes relinquished with this treat?
What rights did Ute Indians have on these lands, once they were relinquished?
In Part Three, the U.S. government gave the Ute Indians about $1.25 per acre of land. Did that seem a fair price? How could we find out what $1.25 could buy in 1870?
Why do you think this treaty did not use the word “sell” or “sale” of land?
Would other Ute leaders possibly be jealous or resentful of Ouray, since only he received $1,000 per year?
How might those Ute Indians who disliked this treaty respond to all the new white miners moving into their lands?
***
Doc. 10: Newspaper list of Colorado Millionaires, 1892
Mining in Colorado between 1859 and 1929 created over $1 billion in wealth.  By 1892, an Aspen newspaper reported that there were thirty-nine millionaires in Colorado.  Many of these men had made their fortunes through mining or by supporting the development of mining in the state.  Note that this list does not include those millionaires who later benefited from the Cripple Creek gold boom of the 1890s. The average mine worker earned $3.00 per day in 1892:
There are few who have any idea of the number of millionaires in Denver and in Colorado.  One would hardly believe that there are thirty-three . . . in this city. . . . Besides there are six millionaires in the state outside of Denver. . . . [Horace] Tabor heads the list with several millions, all made in mining.  Then comes [Nathaniel] Hill, whose money was made in the mining [and smelter] business. . . . David Moffatt accumulated his money in
WORD BANK:
Accumulate: earned or made
Manner: way
the banking and railroad business. . . . Henry Wolcott has dealt in mines. . . . Dennis Sullivan was a miner. . . . [James] Grant was a miner. . . E. Eildy is another mining and smelting man.  Charles Kountze…is in mining. . . . William James accumulated his wealth in the same business.  John Reithmann . . . is also in the mining business.  Walter Cheesman made his money in mining. . . . Samuel Morgan was a miner. . . . Jerome Chaffee was . . . in the mining business. . . . Outside of Denver, J.J. Hagerman accumulated over a million in mining; [Nicholas] Creede…got his money in the same manner; H.M. Griffin of Georgetown was also a miner.”
[Source: Aspen Evening Chronicle (October 5, 1892)]
Questions:
How many names on the list of millionaires above made their money in mining? If there were 39 millionaires in Colorado in 1892, what percentage were mining related?
Can we assume from this list that all miners became millionaires?  Why or why not?
A millionaire mine owner might have hundreds of miners working for him. What kinds of skills did mine owners need to manage that many workers?
Many of these mine owners chose to live in Denver or Colorado Springs rather than close to the mines. What kinds of houses might they build in those cities?  How might mine worker houses look different?
Some of these millionaires made their fortunes in the San Juan Mountains, where Ute Indians formerly controlled the land. Remember document 9?  Why didn’t Ute leaders dig mines and refine gold in that area instead of white miners?
Have you heard of any names on this list?  How are those names connected to buildings or places today?
***
Doc. 11: Modern Map of Historic Gold and Silver Districts in Colorado
In recent years geographers have created maps that tell history stories.  Here is a recent map from the Colorado Geological Survey that includes historical and modern information.
Recently Created Map Mining Districts in CO
[Source: Colorado Geological Survey: http://coloradogeologicalsurvey.org/mineral-resources/historic-mining-districts/]
Questions:
Look at the different colored areas on this map. The reddish-orange areas were mining districts in the past.  In addition to having that common feature, in what other ways are these districts similar?
The tan counties had gold or silver mining histories. The blue counties did not.  How else are the blue counties similar to each other?
The red lines on the map mark interstate highways like I-70 or I-25 or I-76. Those highways were built in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s.  Were they somehow used to transport gold or silver in the 1800s?  Why might the mapmaker include them here?
If this modern map included railroads, which did exist in the 1800s, what places would those railroads likely connect?
***
How to Use These Sources:
Option 1:  A short lesson could involve first a quick discussion of the state seal.  It suggests the importance of mining for Colorado founders.  Then students might examine the recent map of gold and silver mining districts (Doc. 11) to get a sense of a basic geographic difference between the mountain counties and those on the plains.  Students could also brainstorm what other industries or symbols might have been appropriate for the state seal in 1876.
Then students could begin tracing the developing and impact of mining in the state by comparing Documents 2–4.  Documents 2, 3, and 4 provide some detail about the early gold camps, but they don’t always line up neatly together.  The newspaper story (Doc. 2) suggests the dangers of gold fever. Document 3 features an eyewitness description of the Central City area.  Document 4 was a drawing created years after a visit to Colorado’s gold camps by an artist who did not make the trip.  This should raise some questions for students about reliability.
Students could also review the map from Chapter One titled “Route to the Colorado Gold Regions.”  This can allow students to get a sense of how prospectors moved into Colorado in an age before paved roads or even railroads.  All of these sources can help students describe the early days of the gold rush and the changes in made in Colorado’s Mountains.  Students could create an early Colorado map in answer to this question:  How might someone who was not a miner draw a map of the state?
Option 2: After completing the initial review of sources 1–4 in Option 1, students might begin to explore the changes from prospecting to industrial mining.  Sources 5 and 6 can offer students a chance to consider the environmental changes that mining created in the Central City district.  The photograph in Document 6 reveals what historians have called an “instant city.” They could discuss how few city services would exist and how remote this urban outpost was before railroad links arrived in the 1870s.  Documents 7 and 8 feature different aspects of industrial mining and highlight how different mining work had become since the early prospecting days.
Option 3:  Building on the previous options, students could explore some of the consequences mining had on Native Americans in Colorado as well as the economic changes to the state.  Pressure from white settlers in Colorado led to Ute removal after 1879, which enabled miners to move in to the San Juan Mountains.  Document 9 includes some key provisions of the Brunot Treaty that the U.S. Government negotiated with Ute Chief Ouray.  He was only one of several chiefs, however, and other Ute leaders bitterly resented the loss of Ute lands under the terms of these treaty.  They were not fairly consulted by the U.S. government.  Even Ouray himself was likely trying to make the best of a bad situation by agreeing to these treaty terms.  History Colorado features a collection of documents about the Ute bands in Colorado that could connect with this chapter on Mining.
The newspaper story on millionaires (Doc. 10) can allow students to explore the links between mining and other industrial developments like railroad construction and coal mining.  The historical map (Doc. 11) will require some careful study online to find the gold and silver districts and trace their links to Front Range urban centers like Denver or Colorado Springs.  Mining did not affect every county in the Colorado, but rather chiefly mountain ones.  This mean early population concentrations in remote high altitude communities emerged before most farming towns in the state.  Settlement was uneven in the first decades of Colorado history.
What Makes a Cowboy?
4
Teacher Introduction:
Like other western states, Colorado offered a home to ranchers who raised their cattle and sheep on the grassy, flat plains and valleys.  With the cows and sheep came the cowboys and shepherds who played an important part in the state’s history and the economic success of this business.  From the time the Spanish introduced cattle and sheep in North America in the 1500s, the cowboy’s skills and equipment for handling these animals have a long history in the American West. Today, Colorado has become a capital for the ranching industry. Many communities all over the state have operated ranches, and Denver hosts the National Western Stock Show.  This event provides an opportunity for modern cowboys to demonstrate these skills in rodeos and other popular events.
Yet cowboys have also become popular in Colorado and American history for reasons that aren’t always easy to understand.  The daily work of a cowboy could be boring, lonely, and intermittently dangerous. A stampede of hundreds of cattle could endanger both man and beasts. The weather was scorching in the summer and bitterly cold in the winter.  Cowboys moving herds often slept outside, sometimes without tents, and struggled to find decent food to eat.  They received little pay for their hard, physical work.  Why then have many Americans fantasized about being cowboys?  Why have so many Americans idolized the cowboy as a hero of the Wild West? Why less interest in shepherds? These cultural history questions can engage students as they learn not just about the economics of ranching but the meanings we give to these hero-workers of the American West.
Cowboys were typically young men, roughly 16 to 25 in age. They often did not have much education or skills that would have helped them find other types of work. They came from diverse cultural backgrounds. Many of these young men were Hispanic, African-American, Native American, and white American or European. Sometimes they were veterans of the Civil War who did not want to return home or even have a home to return to. One thing that they all had in common was the challenging experience of being a cowboy.
Cattle trails were an important aspect of the western economy during the heights of the open-range era of cattle ranching. That period lasted from roughly the 1860s to the 1880s.  Stockmen first moved into Colorado to feed the burgeoning mining districts. They would use the federal Homestead Act to claim land. Then, ranchers from places such as Texas directed their cattle hands to move animals north either to pasture or to railheads, such as Cheyenne, to get their cattle to markets in the East. These cattle drives are part of the iconic experience and image of the cowboy.  After the open range era came to a close, many ranchers continued to operate spreads in Colorado.  The sources in this chapter can guide students to explore what qualities made a cowboy and the ranching business successful.
Today, many aspects of ranching and ranch work are part of Colorado culture. Dude ranches cater to tourists who want to try their hands at riding and roping. Great fortunes like those amassed by rancher John Wesley Iliff have contributed to educational and social institutions in the state. Many communities have annual rodeos. Even school mascots have been influenced by Colorado’s ranching history.
Ranching has long been an important economic activity for Colorado residents.  And cowboys have always been a key ingredient in the success of ranching.  Students might begin to learn about ranching by reading descriptions of the economics of the business or by reviewing maps of the state which highlight areas where ranching flourished.  They might also think about what sort of resources would be needed for ranching. The sources below also give students the opportunity to compare text and pictures or to use their math skills to calculate ranching costs and profits.
***
Sources for Students:
­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­Doc. 1: Ralph Moody, Little Britches (1950)
Ralph Moody moved as a boy from New England to a ranch outside Littleton in 1906.  His family of seven struggled to earn a living from the land, both farming and doing ranch work.  Here he describes his experience with becoming a cowboy at about age 10.  He was asked to keep track of dairy cows during the day as they roamed on a nearby farm.
By the end of May, school had pretty well petered out. . . . The day after it closed, Mrs. Corcoran came to see mother about getting me to work
WORD BANK:
Petered out: slowly finished up
Quarter Section: land about the size of a football field
Switch: a small whip
Spry: active and energetic
for them.  They had about thirty milk cows, and used to take cream to Ft. Logan every day.  In the summer they pastured the cows on the quarter section south of us.  Because there weren’t any fences, somebody had to herd them to keep them from getting into Mr. Aultland’s and Carl Henry’s grain fields.  She said she would pay me twenty-five cents a day and I would only have to work from seven in the morning until six at night. . . . [I] was all excited about being a cowboy.  My biggest worry was that I didn’t have a ten-gallon felt hat, instead of a straw one from the grocery store in Ft. Logan.
[The next morning] Mr. Corcoran brought out an old work-harness bridle . . . and put it on the horse.  Then he boosted me up and gave me a switch. “Old Ned ain’t too spry, but you give him a cut with that switch and he’ll get a move on.” I wasn’t too happy with Ned but at least he was a horse.
[Source: Ralph Moody, Little Britches, (1950) pgs. 57-62]
Questions:
What kind of work did Ralph Moody do after school ended?
Would the work described by Ralph Moody appeal to young people today? Why or why not?
Moody was about 60 years old when he wrote down his memories about being a cowboy when he was 10. How much time had passed between his experience and writing about? Could his memories have changed over that much time?
Is this the kind of source that can tell us what a real cowboy did around 1900? Why or why not?
What is the same or different about being a cowboy according to Ralph Moody than what you expected?
***
Doc. 2: Photograph of a “Round up on the Cimarron,” Colorado (1898)
Here is a colored photograph of a roundup in Colorado just before 1900.  It was taken near Cimarron.  The roundup was a meeting of cowboys who brought together herds of cattle to be sorted, traded, and/or branded by their owners.
Round Up on the Cimarron
[Source: Library of Congress photograph, “Colorado. Round up on the Cimarron,” 1898.  Online link for close-ups: https://www.loc.gov/item/2008678198/]
Questions:
What parts of the landscape can you see in this picture?
What things did cowboys have to build for a roundup?
Based on this picture, what do cattle need to live?
How many horses do you see? How many cowboys? How would cowboys do the roundup if they did not have horses?
Does this image help make the life of a cowboy appealing?  Why or why not?
***
Docs. 3 and 4: Cattle Brands (1885)
Brands are labels on cattle. They let everyone know to whom an animal belonged. Branding was done by burning a symbol into the cow’s hide with a hot iron.  This was an important cowboy task.  These two documents are from a book that showed what four ranchers’ brand looked like.
[Source: Brand book, Containing the Brands of the Bent County Cattle and Horse Growers’ Association for the Year of 1885 (Las Animas, Co.: Bent County Cattle and Horse Growers’ Association, 1885)]
Questions:
Why would ranchers want to brand their cattle?
Where on the animal might you find the brand?
Crop means to cut. Where else did cowboys mark cattle?
What are some of the differences between these cattle?
What other kinds of animals might people brand?
What would your brand look like, if you were to design one to mark the stuff you own?
***
Doc. 5: Louis L’Amour on the life of a cowboy (1981)
Louis L’Amour was born in 1908. He worked as a young man with cowboys, miners, and loggers in the West.  He became famous for writing many popular Western stories about cowboys and their adventures.  Late in his life, he wrote about the real lives of cowboys:
[A cowboy] had to know horses and cattle, and he needed skill with a rope.  His average working day during the early years of the range [1860s-1880s] was fourteen hours, from can see to can’t see. . . . His work consisted of rounding up and branding cattle, gathering strays, riding
WORD BANK:
Bog: A deep muddy area
Hardy: tough
Breed: A type of animal
fence, pulling cattle out of bogs, treating cuts…building and repairing fences, cleaning out watering holes, or whatever needed doing. . . .
Stories of the West are said, by those who do not read them, to be about cowboys and Indians.  Actually, that is rarely the case. . . . When a cowboy is the [hero] he is usually a drifter and very rarely is shown at work, doing what has to be done on the ranch.
Usually cowboys were between fifteen and twenty-five years of age, although some were as young as twelve or as old as eighty.  By and large they were a hardy breed.  Their work was hard, brutal, and demanding.
[Source: Louis L’Amour, “The Cowboy: Reflections of a Western Writer,” in Steve Grinstead and Ben Fogelberg, eds., Western Voices: 125 years of Colorado Writing (Golden: Fulcrum Publishing, 2004), 151–52.]
Questions:
What skills did cowboys need to be successful?
How old were cowboys?
According to L’Amour, what kinds of things were cowboys NOT doing in most western stories?
Does L’Amour make cowboy life or ranch work sound like something you would want to do?  Why or why not?
L’Amour both worked as a cowboy and loved to write fiction stories about cowboys.  Does his description of cowboy life sound like fact or fiction?
Why would L’Amour use the word “breed” to describe a cowboy?
***
Doc. 6: Photograph of the Second Guard (1905)
Taking care of cattle could be a 24-hour job. Sometimes, cowboys worked in shifts to make sure that the animals were always watched. One group would sleep while another crew stayed alert.
“Second Guard”
[Source: F. M. Steele, “Second Guard,” Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-36143. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2016651903/]
Questions:
What time of day do you think this picture was taken? How can you tell?
How old do you think the men in the picture are?
Would cowboy life appeal to the young or the old? Why?
Can you find anything that all the cowboys have in common?
What do you think the wagon is for?
What kind of clothes and equipment did you need to be a cowboy?
What might these men lack while camping that you might like to have?
***
Doc. 7: John Iliff on ranching (1870)
John Wesley Iliff was an early rancher in northeastern Colorado.  He hired many cowboys to manage the thousands of cows that he raised from his ranches near Greeley, Colorado and Cheyenne, Wyoming.  Here he wrote in a Denver newspaper about the ranching business:
I have been engaged in the [ranching] business in Colorado and Wyoming for the last eight years [since 1862].  During all that time I have
WORD BANK:
Engage: participate in
Shelter: protect
Graze: eat grass
Head of: number of
grazed [cows] in nearly all the valleys of these territories, both summer and winter.  The cost of both…is simply the cost of herding, as no feeding or sheltering is required.  I consider the summer…grasses of these plains and the valleys as superior to hay…During this time I have owned 20,000 head of cattle.
[Source: Rocky Mountain News (August 3, 1870)]
Questions:
John Iliff became a very successful rancher in the early days of Colorado history. What key resource did Colorado offer his cows?
What doesn’t Iliff have to pay for?
What might “the cost of herding” mean in this passage?
How were cowboys involved in herding?  Iliff doesn’t mention paying cowboys for their work.  Where might we look to we find out how much he paid them?
***
Doc. 8: Historian Agnes Spring on the business of ranching
Agnes Spring did research in the 1950s on rancher John Iliff (Doc. 7 above) and found out how much money he made in the ranching business.  He raised cows on the grasses in northeastern Colorado and had to pay cowboys to help him manage his cattle:
For a good many years Iliff bought from 10,000 to 15,000 Texas cattle each season.  They weighed from 600 to 800 pounds and cost him from $10 to $15 per head [each].  After he had fattened them on grass for a year or two and they had reached 1,000 pounds he sold them from $30 to $37 a head….About forty men were employed on the ranches…during the summer and about a dozen remained for the year around.  Wages varied from $25 to $30 per month for [each cowboy].
[Source: Agnes Spring, “John W. Iliff—Cattleman,” in Carl Ubbelhohde, ed.,  A Colorado Reader, (Boulder: Pruett Press, 1962) 202-203.
Questions:
This secondary source gives us a chance to do some math about profit. That’s the amount of money a successful business earns.  Let’s focus on just one year.  Assume that Iliff bought 10,000 cows.  If each cow cost $10, how much money did he spend on new cattle?
Then let’s add the cost of paying his cowboys.  That was $25 per month for each cowboy.  How much is that for the year?  Add that to the cost from question #1.
Now, let’s figure out how much money Iliff could earn if he sold those 10,000 cows the next year for $30 per head or per cow. How much money is that?
Last, subtract your answer to question #3 from the answer to question #2. How much money did rancher John Iliff make in an average year?
The cowboys who did work on his ranch obviously earned much less.  What might it take for one of those cowboys to start making money like John Iliff?
Documents 9, 10, and 11: Shepherds and wool wagons
People who herd sheep are called shepherds.  They had some of the same challenges as cowboys. These sheep ranchers were especially important in southern Colorado—the San Luis Valley and on ranches south of the Arkansas River.  The photographs below feature sheep and cattle ranchers in the San Luis Valley.  Francisco Gallegos of San Luis appears in the first image in front of his family home (behind him and to the right) around 1885.  The second photograph shows freight wagons loaded with sacks of wool at Fort Garland, Colorado.  The drivers of these wagons were awaiting the arrival of the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad so they could load the wool onto the train. The third photograph shows a Hopi boy who lived in New Mexico. He took care of sheep and horses.
Doc. 9 Francisco Gallegos of San Luis
Francisco Gallegos of San Luis, Colorado, 1885
[Source: Denver Public Library Latinos/Hispanics in Colorado Collection: http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15330coll14/id/638/rec/1 scanned from Colorado Society of Hispanic Genealogy, Hispanic Pioneers in Colorado and New Mexico, (Denver, 2006) 14-15]
Doc. 10: Getting the wool to market, around 1900
Getting the wool to market
[Source: Denver Public Library Latinos/Hispanics in Colorado Collection: http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15330coll14/id/636/rec/1 scanned from Colorado Society of Hispanic Genealogy, Hispanic Pioneers in Colorado and New Mexico, (Denver, 2006) 208-209]
*
Doc. 11. Hopi boy herding horses and sheep across sand dunes, New Mexico (1905)
Hopi boy herding horses and sheep, 1905
[Source: Library of Congress Curtis (Edward S.) Collection, “The end of day, Hopi boy  herding horses and sheep across sand dunes, New Mexico,” http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3c06759]
Questions for Doc. 9, Doc. 10, and Doc. 11:
These sheep herders would shear or cut off the sheep’s wool in the spring before summer grazing. What kinds of skills would that require?
Sheep and cattle both liked to wander as they grazed on grass and other plants. How might a horse help the shepherd or cowboy to gather and corral their animals?
How might the lives of cowboys and shepherds in southern Colorado be different from those in other parts of the state? You might think about things like the land and the weather. How might different cultures do this work differently?
The men with the wagons in Document 10 were waiting for a train to arrive. How did could the train help them with their business?
What would be some challenges to being the boy in document 11? How might his life be the same or different from a cowboy’s life?
***
Docs. 12 and 13: Rodeo Skills
The skills that cowboys use at work are also used to compete at rodeos. Rodeo is a Spanish word that describes a roundup. Rodeos became events were cowboys could win prizes for their skills.
Doc. 12: Bonnie McCarrol thrown from Silver (1915)
Bonnie McCarrol Thrown from Silver, 1915
[Source: Denver Public Library, Photographs-Western History, http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15330coll22/id/10771/rec/116]
*
Doc. 13: Bill Baker Bulldogging, Colorado State Fair, Pueblo, around 1920
Bill Baker Bulldogging at the Colorado State Fair, around 1920
[Source: Denver Public Library, Photographs-Western History, http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15330coll22/id/41398/rec/2]
Questions for Doc. 12 and Doc. 13
What is different about the person in Document 12 than the people in all the other pictures? What does that difference tell you about who was a cowboy?
What’s happening to Bonnie McCarrol in that photo?  What was she doing before the picture was taken?
How do you think what Bonnie McCarrol is doing is related to being a cowboy?
Bill Baker is “bulldogging” a steer.  What do you think “bulldogging” means?
What kind of skills do you think each person is demonstrating? Why would they need those skills to be a cowboy?
Does it look like the cowboys wear different clothes at the rodeo than they would on a ranch?
Why would people being interested in watching the cowboys? What kind of people do you think they are? Why?
Does it look dangerous to be in a rodeo?
***
How to Use These Sources:
Setting the Stage: Ask students what they think a cowboy’s life was like in the late 1800s and early 1900s. They might think about ideas such as clothes, food, dangers, and rewards.
OPTION 1: Students might also use computers to look up images of popular cowboy entertainers and actors such as Tom Mix, Gene Autry, Roy Rogers, and John Wayne. They could talk about what might be real or unrealistic about the way these men played cowboys. They could also think about the type of people who are not depicted as cowboys in movies.
Looking at pictures of movie cowboys offers an accessible start to the topic. Students could brainstorm as class the ways that the movie cowboys might be different from a working cowboy with the teacher facilitating the discussion.
OPTION 2: Most of the remaining sources are about a paragraph in length, except for the Ralph Moody excerpt which is much longer.  That Moody source might be read aloud by the teacher who could then think aloud for students as she/he reads along. What kinds of cowboy work was Moody doing?   Ask students to consider Document 11 too.   Moody was about the same age as the boy in document 11.  What makes those two boys different?  Were they both doing the work of cowboys?  Why or why not?  These questions could help generate interest in the essential question, tap prior knowledge, and begin a list of key skills or elements that people who work with herd animals must have.
OPTION 3: Then students could review the remaining documents in jigsaw groups.
Group 1: read documents one and six to develop a list of key skills that cowboys needed.  This could build on the list already started from the Ralph Moody reading.
Group 2:  Documents seven and eight offer a view of ranching as a business.  Students working on these two sources could perform the needed math to determine the potential profit in big ranching and contrast that with the money earned by the typical cowboy.  These sources help focus students on the economics of ranching.
Group 3: Documents seven, nine, ten, eleven, and twelve often do not show cows.  Still, there are figures that are showing the skills of cowboys. Students might return to the original thinking question with these documents in mind. How do these primary sources change their answer to question: what makes a cowboy?
Assessment Idea:  After groups have worked through sources and presented their findings to the class, students could return again to the essential question:  What makes a cowboy?  They might answer that with a presentation or a short written response.  Their response might include thoughts about who could be a cowboy.  If the Colorado state seal included symbols of cowboy life, what would they be?
Sand Creek -- Why Did This Event Happen?
5
Teacher Introduction:
By the 1860s, many people of European descent had moved into Colorado. Sometimes they moved into lands seasonally occupied by various native groups, including the Arapaho and the Cheyenne. On other occasions, traditional native lands were outright taken over. The increased population also put a strain on natural resources. Tensions were running high by 1864. The Civil War in the East was a battle for the future of America, but so too were the contemporaneous violent encounters on the Plains known as the Indian Wars. One of the goals of the Indian Wars for the U.S. government was to move native people onto reservations. Native people wanted to protect their land use and resist both white settlement and reservations. The Sand Creek Massacre was a part of this series of attacks and battles between whites moving into the West and the native people who already lived there.
The U.S. government policy for dealing with native people had varied over time. Some officials wanted to kill native people; others discussed placing them on restricted lands or reservations. Some white people in Colorado attacked Indians, while others such a trader William Bent acted as intermediaries between native people and the federal government. Several meetings convened by the federal government attempted to address these issues. Frequently, resulting treaties outlined an exchange of native land for goods and annuities provided by the government. The Fort Laramie (1851) and Fort Wise (1861) treaties are examples. Sadly, the government did not consistently meet the terms of these agreements. Colorado and federal officials called for a meeting at Camp Weld near Denver in September 1864, which resulted in the Camp Weld agreement. Some U.S. government officials thought that the problems were now settled. However, several major native leaders did not attend the meeting and did not sign the agreement.
The many bands of Cheyenne and Arapaho also did not have a consistent policy for dealing with white people. Black Kettle led a band of Southern Cheyenne and was a committed peace chief. A band of Southern Arapaho, led by Left Hand (Niwot) was also for peace and sought the protection of the federal government. Other bands, and especially young warriors, wanted to fight for their lands. An order of warriors known as the Dog Soldiers exemplified native people who wanted to fight. Tall Bull was a chief of the Cheyenne Dog Soldiers. Often these warriors were young men and they became the core of resistance to white incursion. In the summer of 1864, members of several of these opposition groups committed raids and degradations that inflamed white anger and panic. Most famously, the Hungate family, who lived about twenty-five miles south of Denver, was discovered murdered in June 1864. Their mutilated bodies were paraded through Denver. The identities of the killers were unknown, but people were quick to blame Cheyenne or Arapaho men. The fall of 1864 was a dangerous time on the Plains.
After the Camp Weld conference, Black Kettle and White Antelope removed their people to Fort Lyon, which became a gathering place for people seeking protection. Major Edward “Ned” Wynkoop commanded Fort Lyon and allowed the group to camp close by. In September, Wynkoop had successfully negotiated the return of four white captives from a Cheyenne camp and led several chiefs to the Camp Weld conference. He did not have orders to execute either of these acts. At Fort Lyon, he acted as though he believed that the people encamped there had been guaranteed safety. He also issued rations to them. Wynkoop was called away in late 1864 and reprimanded for acting beyond his authority. His replacement, Major Scott Anthony, did not feel that he could continue to provide rations and permit trade. He ordered that the encampment move to a place about forty miles away where they could better provide for themselves but still be protected by the troops at Fort Lyon. The Cheyenne under Black Kettle were already there and had been assured by Anthony of their safety. So the camp left for Sand Creek in October 1864.
In Denver, state governor John Evans felt pressure to do something about the situation with native people in the territory. Raiding parties now disrupted mail service and cargo shipments. Evans proclaimed in August that all Colorado citizens could kill “all hostile Indians.” Evans suggested that “friendly” Indians should seek protection, such as near U.S. military posts. Although the Camp Weld meeting would occur in September, for Evans, the time for peace had already passed. He asked for and received permission to raise a regiment for one hundred days of service. These volunteers wanted to prove themselves against the native people and end what they saw only as malicious attacks committed by all native people rather than just a few.
Colonel John M. Chivington commanded the Third Colorado Cavalry. Chivington was already well known for his heroics during the Civil War battle of Glorieta Pass in 1862. The men of the Third did not have the best reputation around Denver and had not seen any action by the time the hundred days was nearly up in November. Chivington and his men departed Fort Lyon for Sand Creek in late November.
In the early morning of November 29, 1864, nearly seven hundred U.S. soldiers attacked the village of roughly eight hundred people at Sand Creek. Many of the men of the village were away hunting. A native leader raised both a U.S. flag and a white flag to signal that his camp was friendly. First cannon shot and gunfire rained down, and then the soldiers tore through the camp. U.S. captain Silas Soule held back his company from the melee but many others attacked with abandon. They slaughtered and mutilated roughly one hundred fifty of the Indians, most of whom were reported to be defenseless.
The massacre of Southern Arapaho and Southern Cheyenne peoples at Sand Creek in 1864 has left a tragic and bitter memory in Colorado and the nation.  It was one of the most devastating events in Colorado history and would trigger warfare throughout the Plains. Today, Evans and Chivington are divisive, even notorious figures in Colorado history. Sand Creek remains an important place and site for memorials to many of the tribal groups in the state.
Sand Creek is in southeastern Colorado. The closest modern town is Eads.
***
Sources for Students:
Doc. 1: Map of Fort Laramie Treaty and Fort Wise Treaty
As Euro American pioneers began moving west across lands that became Nebraska, Kansas, Wyoming, and Colorado that ran into different Plains Indian peoples.  The two tribes in the corner where Colorado would later meet Nebraska were the Cheyenne and Arapaho nations.  These tribes often lived and moved together in pursuit of buffalo (bison).  At times, the Indians and white pioneers fought over resources like cattle or horses.
To help avoid these conflicts, the US Army negotiated a treaty with these Indians at Fort Laramie in 1851.  On the map below you can see the area reserved under the treaty for the Cheyenne and Arapaho.  The army hoped that pioneers could travel freely through this 44 million acre territory but not settle.  The Indians hoped they could still hunt buffalo and receive supplies from the US government if they did not bother white migrants.
The Colorado Gold Rush of 1858-1859 changed this situation suddenly.  Gold seekers raced to Denver and the mountains to the west in search of this precious metal.  In 1859 some 50,000 Euro Americans came into this region and established new towns.  Conflicts between whites and Indians increased though many Cheyenne and Arapaho leaders promoted peace between the two groups.
In 1861, the US Army negotiated a new treaty with some Indian leaders from these tribes at Ft. Wise along the Arkansas River.  Under this second treaty, the Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes were to hunt buffalo in a much smaller area, only 4 million acres, between the two trails noted on the map.
Map of Indian Treaties: Ft. Laramie and Ft. Wise
[Source: Eric Sainio, Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site.  https://www.nps.gov/sand/index.htm]
Questions:
How did the land reserved for Indians change from the Treaty of Ft. Laramie in 1851 to the Treaty of Ft. Wise?
What likely motivated American leaders to change this space available to Indians?
How might the Cheyenne and Arapaho people have responded to the Treaty of Ft. Wise?
Do you think the Ft. Wise treaty would tend to promote peace or increase tensions between whites and Indians? Why or why not?
The Oregon Trail was a popular route for white settlers heading toward the Pacific Ocean in the 1840s and 1850s.  How might the Colorado Gold Rush change the movement of whites in this area?
Compare this map with map 5 in Chapter One.  What do you notice?
***
Doc. 2: William Bent Report, 1859
Pioneer William Bent (in Chapter One) described life for the southern Arapaho and Cheyenne people at the time of the gold rush.  Bent was white, but had married Owl Woman, a Southern Cheyenne woman. Native people in southern Colorado respected him.  He also worked at that time for the U.S. government as an Indian agent.  An Indian agent spoke for the U.S. government.
WORD BANK:
Pressed upon: pushed in
Compressed: squeezed
Desperate: nearly hopeless
Imminent: very soon
Inevitable: can’t be avoided
Prompt: right away
“[The southern Arapahos and Cheyennes], pressed upon all around by the Texans, by the settlers of the gold region, by the advancing people of Kansas, and from the Platte, are already compressed into a small circle of territory.  A desperate war of starvation and extinction is therefore imminent and inevitable, unless prompt measures shall prevent [it].”
[Source: William Bent in, Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1859, (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1860), 130]
Questions:
According to William Bent, what conditions did native people face in 1859?
What brought those changes to Indian life?
Does Bent seem concerned for native people?
These tribes depended on buffalo hunting.  How might that change, given the new migrations that Bent described?
Why didn’t Indians join in the Gold Rush and try to get rich?
***
Doc. 3: Rocky Mountain News Report, 1860
On June 27, 1860 the Rocky Mountain News, a Denver newspaper, reported:
WORD BANK:
Petty: minor, no big deal
War Party: group attacking or raiding
Driving: forcing an animal to move
Compel: force
Eluded: escape from
Skirmishing: minor fighting
“Daily we hear of petty [attacks] by the Indians. . . . A little over a week ago . . . [an Indian] war party on return from fighting Utes robbed several houses in Plum Creek settlement. . . . On Thursday evening a man was driving a cow from the Hermitage ranch into [Denver when] he was surrounded by a party of Indians who tried to compel him to give up the cow. . . . Being on a pony he easily eluded them. . . . [After] a little skirmishing the man escaped with his cow.
Questions:
How might white settlers respond to this story?
Were different groups of Indians living in this area?
Does it seem like many people lived at Plum Creek?
How could stealing a cow help the Indians and hurt the man with the cow?
Why wouldn’t the Indians just leave the cow alone and go hunt buffalo?
***
Document 4: Arapaho chief Little Raven and Rocky Mountain News editor, 1861
About a year after the previous newspaper report, the Rocky Mountain News editor described a visit to his office by Arapaho Indian chiefs Little Raven and Left Hand.  (There is a picture of Arapaho Chief Little Raven in Chapter Two. He is sitting with William Bent.)  The editor wrote that chief Little Raven told him:
WORD BANK:
Impoverished: made poor
Game: animals hunted for food
Scarce: hard to find
Compelled: forced
“The settlement of this region by the whites had . . . impoverished the Indians—their game had become scarce, and they were compelled at times to ask for food from the whites.  [Little Raven] remembered the advice and the promises of [the US President], and he expected his people would one day receive pay for the land now occupied by whites.  He knew that the whites were taking large sums of gold from the mountains.”
[Source: Rocky Mountain News, April 30, 1861]
Questions:
In what ways did white settlement changed life for Arapaho people?
What did Little Raven hope the US government would do?
What were some ways that Little Raven thought about about white people? Do you think the newspaper editor was white?
Compare this interview with the previous Rocky Mountain News report.  How does each one show a different point?
***
Doc. 5: US Army Report, Summer 1864
By the summer of 1864, several U.S. army leaders in Colorado and Kansas began to worry about an open war between white settlers and Indians.  In this letter, U.S. Army Major T.I. McKenney wrote his commanding officer in Kansas about the situation in Colorado:
WORD BANK:
Caution: care
Exercised: used
Conciliate: make peace with
Scouting: Looking for
Parties: groups
But:  Only a
“In regard to these Indian difficulties, I think if great caution is not exercised on our part, there will be a bloody war.  It should be our policy to try and conciliate [the Indians], guard our mails and trains to prevent theft, and stop these [white] scouting parties that are roaming over the country who do not know one tribe from another, and who will kill anything in the shape of an Indian.  It will require but few murders on the part of our troops to unite all these warlike tribes of the plains, who have been at peace for years and intermarried amongst one another.”
[Source: T.I. McKenney Report to Maj. C. S. Charlot,  (June 15, 1864) in War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume XXXIV, Part IV, Correspondence (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office)]
Questions:
This US army officer suggests that soldiers should be cautious and careful. Why?
He refers to “scouting parties that are roaming over the country.” Who might be in those scouting parties?
How might scouting parties end up starting a war between Indians and whites?
Does McKenney think that the army could help keep peace? How?
***
Document. 6:  Colorado Governor John Evans Announcement (August, 1864)
By the summer of 1864, Colorado’s governor John Evans gave up on efforts to make peace between whites and Indians.  He made this proclamation or official announcement in August:
WORD BANK:
Parties: groups
Pursuit: hunting for
Scrupulously: carefully
Rendezvous: meet
Point: place
Indicate: show
“[M]ost of the Indian tribes of the plains are at war and hostile to whites. . . .  Now . . . I, John Evans, governor of Colorado Territory, [give permission to] all citizens of Colorado, either individually or in such parties as they may organize, to go in pursuit of all hostile Indians on the plains, scrupulously avoiding those who have responded to my call to rendezvous at the points indicated; also to kill and destroy as enemies of the country . . . all such hostile Indians.”
[Source: Governor John Evans Proclamation in Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for the year 1864 (Washington, DC, 1965), 230–31.]
Questions:
What did the governor allow whites to do to “hostile Indians”?
Why might the leader of Colorado say this?
In this statement, Gov. Evans seems to disagree with the previous army officer, Major McKenney. How do they disagree?
How might white settlers feel after reading this invitation by the Colorado governor? How might native people feel?
What chances for peace between whites and Indians were left after this?
***
Doc. 7: John Chivington’s view of what happened at Sand Creek on November 29, 1864
Governor John Evans told John Chivington to organize and lead a group of volunteer soldiers from among the white settlers of Colorado.  These formed the Third Calvary.   These men were not trained soldiers of the U.S. Army, but volunteers.  On November 29, 1864 Col. Chivington ordered an attack on Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians camped along Sand Creek in southeast Colorado.  He had earlier commanded a victorious group of Union soldiers at the Battle of Glorieta Pass in the Civil War.
Five months after the events at Sand Creek, a US government committee asked Chivington about what happened at Sand Creek.  You’ll see below two questions posed to Chivington and then his responses.
4th question: [Tell]…the number of Indians that were in the village or camp at the time the attack was made; how many of them were warriors; how many of them were old men, how many of them were women, and how many of them were children?
Chivington’s Answer: From the best and most reliable information I could obtain, there were in the Indian camp, at the time of the attack, about eleven (11) or twelve (12) hundred Indians: of these about seven hundred were warriors, and the remainder were women and children. I am not aware that there were any old men among them. There was an unusual number of males among them, for the reason that the war chiefs of both nations were assembled there evidently for some special purpose.
WORD BANK:
Obtain: get
Remainder: rest
Assembled: grouped together
7th question: What number of Indians were killed; and what number of the killed were women, and what number were children?
Chivington’s Answer: From the best information I could obtain, I judge there were five hundred or six hundred Indians killed; I cannot state positively the number killed, nor can I state positively the number of women and children killed. Officers who passed over the field, by my orders, after the battle, for the purpose of [finding out] the number of Indians killed, report that they saw but few women or children dead, no more than would certainly fall in an attack upon a camp in which they were. I myself passed over some portions of the field after the fight, and I saw but one woman who had been killed, and one who had hanged herself; I saw no dead children. From all I could learn, I arrived at the conclusion that but few women or children had been slain. I am of the opinion that when the attack was made on the Indian camp the greater number of squaws and children made their escape, while the warriors remained to fight my troops.
[Source: Chivington’s Deposition in Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, Massacre of Cheyenne Indians, 38th Congress, 2nd Session (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1865), 101–8]
WORD BANK:
Passed over: road by horseback over
Fall: falling down because of injury
Portions: parts
Conclusion: decision
Slain: killed
Squaws: Indian women (not a friendly word to use)
Questions:
According to Chivington, how many Indians warriors were in this camp along Sand Creek?
How many women and children were in the Indian camp?
Chivington is asked about how many different Indians were killed in the attack. How many warriors did he say were killed by Colorado soldiers?  How many women and children did he say were killed?
If we could ask Chivington how dangerous he thought Indians were in 1864, would he sound more like Major McKenney (Doc. 5) or Gov. Evans (Doc. 6)?
***
Doc. 8: John M. Smith’s Testimony (March 14, 1865)
John Smith was a white government agent who was sent to Sand Creek to check out the Cheyenne Indian camp along Sand Creek before the attack.  He was present during the attack and had married an Indian woman.  He had previously acted as an interpreter and Indian agent.  Like Chivington, Smith was also asked afterward about what happened on November 29, 1864.  Below are the questions he was asked followed by Smith’s answers.  This is a conversation written down for us to read.
Question: How many Indians were there there?
Smith’s Answer: There were 100 families of Cheyennes, and some six or eight lodges of Arapahoes.
Question: How many persons in all, should you say?
Smith’s Answer:  About 500 we estimate them at five to a lodge.
Question:  500 men, women and children?
Smith’s Answer: Yes, sir.
Question: Do you know the reason for that attack on the Indians?  Do you know whether or not Colonel Chivington knew the friendly character of these Indians before he made the attack on them?
Smith’s Answer: It is my opinion that he did.
Question: Were the women and children slaughtered indiscriminately, or only so far as they were with warriors?
WORD BANK:
Character: a person’s way of thinking and acting
Slaughter: kill violently
Indiscriminately: randomly
the balance: the rest
Parties: groups
Smith’s Answer: Indiscriminately.
Question: Can you state how many Indians were killed – how many women and how many children?
Smith’s Answer: Perhaps one-half were men, and the balance were women and children. I do not think that I saw more than 70 lying dead then, as far as I went. But I saw parties of men scattered in every direction, pursuing little bands of Indians.
Question: What time of day or night was this attack made?
Smith’s Answer: The attack commenced about sunrise, and lasted until between 10 and 11 o’clock.
Question: How large a body of [army] troops?
Smith’s Answer: From about 800 to 1,000 men.
Question: What amount of resistance did the Indian [warriors] make?
Smith’s Answer. I think that probably there may have been about 60 or 70 warriors who were armed and stood their ground and fought. Those that were unarmed got out of the way as they best could.
[Source: Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, Massacre of Cheyenne Indians, 38th Congress, 2nd Session (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1865) 6-9]
WORD BANK:
Commence: started
Resistance: fighting back
Questions:
How many men, women and children did Smith find camped along Sand Creek? Did he have a different number than Chivington?
How many Indian warriors fought back? Against how many white army soldiers?
The word “indiscriminately” means at random.  Why is that word important in these questions and answers.
Chivington insisted that he and his men fought a battle against Indian men. Does Smith describe a fair battle or something else?
Why might Smith and Chivington have different versions of the events on November 29, 1864?
How can we fit these two versions together?  Should we believe one version more than another?  Why?
***
How to Use These Sources:
Why did the Sand Creek massacre happen?   The documents here will help students reconstruct events that led up to the attack on November 29, 1864.  Soon afterward, there was even a debate about just what had occurred at Sand Creek. The last two sources can help students see the contours of that debate.
Option 1:  The first lesson option would be to focus on documents 1, 7, and 8.  The first document offers a map of the area and a chance to consider southern Arapaho and southern Cheyenne lands between 1850 and 1864.  Students can compare the differences between the treaties on the map. They then answer the questions about the change in boundaries for this Indian territory.
Then students could work in groups to study either the Chivington or the Smith deposition.  They could first identify “what” happened, according to their source.  This would include how many Indians were present at Sand Creek; how many men; how many women and children; how many of each group were killed.  The Chivington source depicts Sand Creek as a battle between hostile men—the Colorado 3rd volunteers and the warriors of the two tribes.  The Smith source suggests that a massacre of mainly women and children occurred. After working in groups on individual sources, the class might compare the two to identify the key differences.  Students should be able to identify the two different perspectives. Students should notice which areas of the descriptions agree. Even though documents have different perspectives, the facts they agree on can be seen as being more trustworthy than those that differ. You might ask students why the accounts are so different. Neither account voices the native perspective.
After this work, students could still begin to answer the question: “Why did this happen?” Answers would likely depend on whether students were relying on Chivington or Smith.
Option 2:  More advanced readers could consider all the documents in turn and then compare them.  The first document offers some important background.  The map illustrates the change in Indian territory from the Treaty of Ft. Laramie in 1851 to the Treaty of Ft. Wise in 1861.  These are key years for the migration of Euro Americans into Colorado.
Then students might then consider documents Two through Six in order to develop a rough timeline of increasing suspicion and hostilities.  Some whites and some Indians sought or thought about peace.  Others reported only on violence and seemed to stoke fear.  These sources could be grouped by students into those two categories: “War is unavoidable” or “Peace is Possible.”
Last, student could turn to the Chivington and Smith sources again.  Students should be able to identify the two different perspectives. Students should notice which areas of the descriptions agree. These two sources also align with either the “war was inevitable” perspective or the “peace is possible” view from the earlier sources.
After this work, students could still begin to answer the question: “Why did this event happen?”
Option 3: Have student start this project by reading a Colorado history textbook account of Sand Creek.  Then compare that account with the information in these sources.  What source information above did the textbook include?  What information above was not included in the textbook?  How might a textbook version of Sand Creek collect these different perspectives?  Advanced students could even try to rewrite the textbook, based on these source accounts.
What Challenges Did Immigrants Face in Colorado?
6
Teacher Introduction:
From its earliest days as a territory, Colorado was home to communities of migrants.  Native peoples like the Ute, Cheyenne, and Arapaho also led nomadic lives in and out of this region of North America.  This chapter particularly examines the experiences of immigrants after the gold and silver rushes of the nineteenth century.  What kinds of immigrants came to make Colorado home in the twentieth century?  What motivated the decision to come?  What challenges did they face?
Immigrants move because of push and pull factors.  Some important push factors for Colorado immigrants included economic hardship at home, religious and political persecution, and distressed environments.  Pull factors included job opportunities in Colorado, relative safety, and freedoms from abuse or violence.  Many migrants celebrated the civil liberties and educational opportunities that they found in the state.  The documents in this chapter allow students the chance to explore these push and pull factors.
From 1880 through 1924 more than 25 million immigrants moved to the United States.  Encouraged by employers offering higher paying jobs than they could find at home, many immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe or Mexico in these years.  This chapter considers initially the experiences of Italian, Mexican, and Russian-German peoples.  Typically, immigrants in these years came to work in agriculture, food processing, or mining.  The range of immigrants can help students see the diversity of the cultures and languages in Colorado’s history.
At times immigrants to Colorado confronted prejudice and suspicion.  We include a few important examples here.  World War I found German immigrants as special targets of suspicion.  They maintained their language in schools and in churches in farming communities near Greeley in the north and around Rocky Ford in the south.  When the United States joined World War I, the American government encouraged suspicions of German immigrants with the Espionage and Sedition Acts of 1917 and 1918.  Colorado residents who had previously coexisted peacefully with German-speaking immigrants suddenly felt threatened in 1918.  This led to an important test of civil liberties.
World War II again generated suspicions in the minds of native-born Euro Americans.  In this conflict it was Japanese Americans and Japanese immigrants who bore the brunt of these fears.  Beginning in 1942 the US government mandated the relocation of 110,000 Japanese immigrants and Japanese Americans and Japanese immigrants from California, Oregon, and Washington to places away from the Pacific Coast.  About 7,000 of these residents were imprisoned for the duration of the war at the Amache camp near Granada in eastern Colorado.  At this camp, Japanese immigrants and Japanese Americans were denied basic civil liberties.  During their internment these forced immigrants to Colorado maintained some semblance of their normal lives, even organizing schools and sporting events for young people.  Just how these forced migrants to Colorado would adjust and interact with existing residents was uncertain.
Last, this chapter includes examples of more recent efforts to resettle refugees in the state.  Since the 1965 federal revision to immigration law, Colorado has welcomed a number of immigrants fleeing persecution or natural disaster in their homelands.  The Cold War created new conditions for immigrants who sought refuge from communist countries.  Many U.S. leaders were eager to welcome these refugees.  The shift in immigration can allow students a chance to consider broad changes over the twentieth century.  Again, the immigrant experience, with various push and pull factors, can organize students as they consider what a move to Colorado meant for refugees.  They will likely encounter the children of these refugees if not refugees themselves in their classrooms.
Over the twentieth century many immigrants have moved into the Centennial State.  Students in today’s classrooms will typically experience this first hand or will be immigrants or the children of immigrants themselves.  What motivates immigrants to move to Colorado?  How do they benefit existing communities in the state?  How should native-born Coloradans respond?  The reception that immigrants have received in the past raises important questions about how we might respond to immigration today.  The sources in this chapter allow students to begin addressing these questions.
***
Sources for Students:
Document 1: Photograph of Italian Immigrants in New York, 1905
Around 1905 photographer Lewis Hine took this photo of Italian immigrants outside Ellis Island in New York.  They had just arrived on a steamship from Europe and may have been heading to Colorado to work.  Between 1880 and 1924 there were more than 25 million immigrants who moved to the United States.  Hundreds of thousands of them migrated to Colorado and other states in the American West. The majority started from Eastern Europe (Poland, Russia, Germany) or countries like Italy in southern Europe.
Lewis Hine Photo of Italian Immigrants, 1905
[Source: Lewis Hine photograph, about 1905.  Available at the George Eastman House Still Photograph Archive. Online image:  http://www.geh.org/fm/lwhprints/htmlsrc/index.html]
Questions:
What do you notice about the clothing and hats these men are wearing? Why might they wear ties or dress-up coats?  What can their facial expressions tell us?
Imagine they were planning to stay in the United States for many months if not years to work new jobs. What might they bring in those suitcases and bags?
Do they look rich or poor to you? Why?
What kind of work might these men be able to do in the United States?  How could we find this out?
The photographer, Lewis Hine, didn’t tell us what he was thinking when he took this picture.  Why do you think he decided to photograph these men?
***
Document 2: Emilio Ferraro Interview, 1978
Emilie Ferraro traveled from his home in Gremaldi in southern Italy to Trinidad, Colorado in 1910.  He crossed the Atlantic from Naples to New York in a steamship and then took the train straight to Colorado where he met three uncles.  He immediately began looking for a job in Trinidad.  This was his memory of that first day, told to an interviewer in 1978:
WORD BANK:
Trade: a skilled job
Pull ovens: a job working at a hot furnace to prepare coal for steel factories
“when I came to Trinidad, I was looking for some shoe factory . . . because my trade was shoemaker. . . . I stopped at the shoemaker . . . [who] was an Italian fellow from Sicily.  I said to him,” you give me work?”
“ Oh sure, I’ll give you work, [he said].”
“How much [will] you pay me?”
“ One dollar a day, [he said].”
How could I make a living?  My uncle told me, no, no, no. . .. You come with me [to] Starkville. I [will] get you a job making two dollars a day. . . . And then if you learn how to pull ovens, you get 98¢ more. . . .And I started at Starkville working.”
[Source: Emilio and Gertrude Ferraro Interview, 1978. Colorado Coal Project Collection, University of Colorado Digital Collections: http://cudl.colorado.edu/luna/servlet/UCBOULDERCB1~76~76]
Questions:
Why did Emilio Ferraro come to Trinidad. What did he hope to do there?
Starkville was the site of a big coal mining operation just south of Trinidad. Why did Ferraro decide to take up coal mining work
What was the difference in pay between a Trinidad shoemaker and someone who “pulled ovens” in Starkville?
Look again the picture in Document 1. We don’t know the names of any of those men.  Could one of them be Emilio Ferraro?  Why or why not?
Emilio Ferraro told this story about 68 years after it happened.  How might that long period of time have affected his memory of that first day?
***
Document 3: “Pulling the oven” at Starkville, Colorado, about 1910
Here is a photograph of a man “pulling the oven” to heat coal up to a very high temperature.  The end result of this process was the creation of “coke” which was a concentrated form of coal used to heat the blast furnaces in Pueblo that made steel.
Pulling the Ovens in southern Colorado
[Source: unknown photographer around 1910.  Keystone-Mast Collection, UCR/California Museum of Photography, University of California at Riverside.  Available online: http://oac.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/kt8n39p9t0/?order=2&brand=oac4]
Questions:
This picture is from a coke oven in Starkville, Colorado. We don’t know the name of the man in the picture.  Could it be the Italian immigrant from document 2?  Why or why not?
Why might the man need such a long pole to move coal around inside this oven?
How might this work be dangerous?
The previous document mentioned how much this work could pay.  What was that amount?
Why might an immigrant like Ferraro travel all the way across the Atlantic Ocean and the across most of the United States to take a job like this?
Why do think the photographer decided to take this picture?  What might have motivated him or her?
***
Document 4: Historian Thomas Andrews on wages for coal miners, 2008
Historians study primary sources to write about what happened in the past. Thomas Andrews carefully researched coal mining in southern Colorado and wrote about the money immigrants could earn doing that work:
WORD BANK:
Rates and wages: a regular amount of money paid for a day’s work
Prosperous: successful
[Coal] companies often hired men with little or no experience underground.  And unlike [many other businesses] coal corporations paid ‘Mexicans,’ Asians, and other nonwhites the same rates and wages as were paid to British Americans, an average of around…$15 a week by the 1910s. . . . [This was] at a time when . . . prosperous peasant families in Italy earned [between $50 and $100] per year.
[Source: Killing for Coal: America’s Deadliest Labor War (Harvard Univ. Press, 2008), pp. 105–6]
Questions:
This source gives two different amounts that people could earn about 1910. How much could coal miners earn in Colorado per week?  How much in a day, if they worked 6 days per week? How much could Italian peasants earn in a year?
How can we compare those amounts to find out which was a better deal–coal miner or peasant?
This reading tells us about a “Pull” factor, or a reason immigrants were drawn to Colorado.  What kind of pull factor is this?
Coal mining was dangerous work, with threats of tunnels collapsing and fires underground.  How much money would you want to be paid to take on such a risk working underground?
What kind of sources could Thomas Andrews have looked at to figure out these numbers?
***
Document 5: Interview with Alejandro Gonzales, 1987
In addition to mining, many immigrants came to Colorado around 1910 to work in the fields growing and harvesting sugar beets.  These are plants like giant white carrots that can produce a sweet syrup.  That syrup can dry to taste like table sugar.  Growing and harvesting sugar beets was hard work, especially under the hot summer sun.  Alejandro Gonzales was a sugar beet worker.  The son of immigrants from Jalisco in Mexico, he came with his parents to Colorado in 1918.  He eventually settled in Longmont with his wife and raised a family.  His parents lived in Longmont also.  Here is how he described his early life in Colorado to an interviewer in 1987:
“We came here in 1918 . . . to work in the fields picking [sugar] beets.  We worked on various farms.  In 1924 I got married.  A year later I started to work in the [coal] mines [of Boulder County].  In 1929 I quit working in the mines for a while and went to work for the sugar company [in Longmont], but in the summers I worked in the fields still. . . . Back then you might have worked a day a week or so and earned three or four dollars, but that was enough to support yourself for a whole week.  Nowadays you need a lot of money for everything.  If you go grocery shopping today a bag of food will cost you $100, so nobody can live with one day’s work a week anymore.”
[Source: Boulder County Latino History Project, Alex Gonzales Oral history interview; Oli Duncan, interviewer, c. 1987. In Duncan, ed., We, Too, Came to Stay, pp. 31–34.  Available online at: http://bocolatinohistory.colorado.edu/document/oral-history-alex-gonzales-pt-1]
Questions:
When did Alex Gonzales come to Colorado?
What kinds of jobs did he do? Why do you think he changed jobs like that?
How much did Alex Gonzales earn in comparison to Emilio Ferraro in document 2?
What did he think about the cost of living (buying groceries, for example), in 1987 compared with earlier in his life?
Alex Gonzales told this story in 1987. How many years later was that from his arrival in Colorado?  Could this time lag affect his memory of the early years?
***
Document 6: Story about Marciano Aguayo, sugar beet worker (betabelero) from Mexico, 1998
Marciano Aguayo left a poor farming community in Aguascalientes, Mexico and migrated to the sugar beet fields along the South Platte River in Merino, Colorado in 1921.  Relatives described Aguayo as “muy trabajador”—a very hard worker. After a year’s work in 1929, he had earned $482.  Marciano’s son, José, reported in 1998 that he heard his father tell this story about his earlier life:
WORD BANK:
Accustomed: used to
Furrows: small ditches between rows of a plant on a farm
Carbide lamp: A light powered by a chemical compound
Mounted: placed on
Cap: a soft hat
I was accustomed to waking up at 3 am every morning.  I walked to the fields, arriving by first light when one was just able to see the individual beet plants.  I would walk in the furrows between the rows, thinning and hoeing two at a time.  I continued this pace until well past dark, lighting my way with a carbide lamp mounted on a miner’s cap.  I was home by 10 pm every night to catch a few short hours of sleep before repeating the routine all over again.
[Source: Quoted in José Aguyo, “Los Betabeleros (The Beetworkers),” in Vince C. de Baca, La Gente: Hispano History and Life in Colorado (Denver: Colorado Historical Society, 1998), 113]
Questions:
How many hours a day did Aguayo work in the fields?
What kind of work did he do?
Does this work sound difficult?
He could have chosen to return to his native Mexico. What did you think he stayed and raised a family in Colorado instead?
Aguayo’s son reported that his father received certificates from his employers praising his hard work. How might that affect his decision to stay?
What do you think was needed to own your own farm in Colorado in the 1920s?  Why do you think Aguayo didn’t become the boss on his own farm?
***
Document 7:  Judge Magazine Cartoon, 1903
Artist Louis Dalrymple drew this cartoon about Italian immigrants coming to America in 1903 for Judge Magazine.  At this time, the magazine published about 100,000 copies of each issue.
[Source: Louis Dalrymple, “Unrestricted Dumping Ground,” Judge, vol. 4-45, 1903; https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Unrestricted_Dumping-Ground._Louis_Dalrymple.jpg]
Questions:
The tall man next to flag pole was called “Uncle Sam.” How was he dressed?  Who might he represent?
Next to the boat in the harbor is a box that looks like an old-fashioned rat trap. What is written on the box?  What caption is written at the bottom of the cartoon?
How did the artist Dalrymple draw Italian immigrants? Why did he draw them that way, do you think?
What worries did Dalrymple have about these Italian immigrants? Use a dictionary to look up words, if you need to.
If this cartoon represents the attitude of some Americans toward Italian immigrants at this time, what challenges did those immigrants face?
Extra Credit:  the figure to the left of Uncle Sam was probably President William McKinley.  Check out how he died online.  Why might the artist draw him in that puff of smoke from Uncle Sam’s cigar?
***
Document 8:  Letter to Colorado Governor about anti-German threats, 1918
Some immigrants faced discrimination when they came to the United States.  During World War I, many Coloradans worried about the German-speaking immigrants who worked in the sugar beet fields along the eastern Plains.  Germany was the enemy of the United States during that war.  Below is a letter from a pastor of a German Lutheran church (St. Paul’s) in Sugar City, Colorado to the Governor.  Sugar City is east of Pueblo and near Rocky Ford and La Junta.  This pastor typically conducted Sunday school and church services in German, since church members spoke German as their first language.
WORD BANK:
Demand: forceful request
Discontinue: stop
Complying: agreeing
Engaged in: busy working at
Sentiment: feeling
Free exercise of: freedom to practice
[On August 25, 1918] a demand was made upon us by a number of citizens of [Sugar City] to discontinue all use of the German language . . . . [And]giving us the alternative of complying with the demand or having our church property burned down. . . . Nearly all members of our church are German Russians mostly engaged in [sugar] beet raising.  They have bought bonds, war savings stamps, given toward the Red Cross, YMCA, Soldiers and Sailors Aid, etc . . . .We are aware of the sentiment against the use of the German language, however, we are also aware that under the constitution of our country we have the right of free exercise of our religion.
[Source: K.F. Weltner letter to Gov. Julius Gunther, August 27, 1918, Colorado State Archives; reprinted in William Virden and Mary Borg, Go to the Source: Discovering 20th Century US History Through Colorado Documents (Fort Collins, Colorado: Cottonwood Press, 2000), 36].
Questions:
Why did some people in Sugar City threaten to burn down this immigrant church?
According to the pastor, how did the church members show their patriotism during a time of war with Germany?
Why did some residents of Sugar City feel the German-speaking workers didn’t belong?
What might the governor of Colorado have done to deal with this problem? What would be fair, given this was wartime and Germany was an enemy?
How can the president or governor best promote patriotism among immigrants where there is war happening?
***
Document 9: Japanese American Student Letter from Amache, 1944
During World War II, the United States fought against Germany and Japan.  The US Government ordered that people of Japanese heritage living in California, Oregon, and Washington move to prison camps in other states during the war.  One of these camps was located in Colorado.  About 7,000 Japanese immigrants and Japanese Americans lived in this camp, called Amache.  While in this prison, young Japanese Americans were allowed to go to school and sometimes compete in sports against other local schools.  In November 1944, however, white parents at nearby Wiley High School refused to let their boys play football against the Japanese American team from Amache.  One Amache student wrote a letter to complain:
WORD BANK:
Permit: allow
Engaging in: taking part in, playing
Rather than feeling disappointed over the waste of our many practices, I am rather more disappointed in the 5 boys’ parents who would not permit their sons to play against us because we are Japanese Americans. . . . I hope that in the near future we can get to a better understanding with them and be able to go about engaging in athletic activities without having anyone opposing because of race or color.
[Source: Ken Nakatagama letter, 1944, History Colorado collection.  Quoted in Christian Heimburger, “Japanese Imprisonment at Amache,” Primary Resource Set available at History Colorado: https://www.historycolorado.org/sites/default/files/media/documents/2017/amache_primary_resource_set.pdf]
Questions:
Find Granada on a map of Colorado. Why do you think the US Government would choose to locate a prison camp for Japanese immigrants and Japanese Americans there?
Why do you think that some white parents at nearby Wiley High School did not allow their sons to play football against the team from Amache? Was there a good reason?
The author of this letter, Ken Nakatagama, was disappointed about the cancelled football game. Why?
What did Nakatagama hope would happen?
How can a football or baseball or basketball game between different kinds of people help ease suspicions or build friendships?
***
Document 10: Hart-Celler Act, 1965
In 1965 the U.S. Congress and President Lyndon Johnson changed the rules for immigration into the United States.  This new law, the Hart-Celler Act, affected the kinds of immigrants who could move to Colorado.  The section of the 1965 immigration law below described a special situation for refugees from other countries.  These are generally people fleeing their home countries because of violence or serious dangers.  Some refugees to the United States wanted to escape from communism in their home countries.  Communist countries drastically limited freedom and often imprisoned people who disagreed openly with the government.
WORD BANK:
Persecution: abuse
on account of: because of
Uprooted: displaced or forced to move
Calamity: disaster
[Immigration officials can allow special entry to the United States to immigrants who] because of persecution or fear of persecution on account of race, religion, or political opinion . . . have fled from any Communist or Communist-dominated country or from any country within the general area of the Middle East and are unable or unwilling to return to [that] country . . . on account of race, religion, or political opinion.
[Immigration officials can also allow into the United States those immigrants who] are uprooted by catastrophic natural calamity.
[Source: Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965, Public Law 89-236,  U.S. Statutes at Large, 79 (1965): 913.  Available online: https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/STATUTE-79/pdf/STATUTE-79-Pg911.pdf]
Questions:
This new immigration law seems to give a special opportunity to those who are persecuted or fear persecution. What are some reasons in the document that people fear persecution?
What might have motivated Congress and President Johnson to create this new immigration law?
What parts of the world were people coming from?
Why might these immigrant refugees want to come to Colorado?
Do you have any guesses about where refugees to Colorado come from today?
***
Document 11: Table Listing Refugees in Colorado, 1980 – 2017
Since 1980, Colorado has welcomed a wide range of refugees from other countries.  These are generally people fleeing their home countries because of violence or serious dangers.  Once the American government grants these refugees permission to enter the United States legally, they get help from specific states like Colorado to resettle.  The Colorado state government, in fact, has created a program to help refugees adjust.  This refugee assistance program counted the following numbers of refugees from different parts of the world:
East Asian Countries
Original Country of Refugees
How many Came to Colorado between 1980 and 2017?
Vietnam
10,788
Burma
5,314
Laos and Hmong
4,774
Bhutan
3,684
Cambodia
2,269
Other East Asian countries
559
Total Refugees from East Asia
27,388
African Countries
Original Country of Refugees
How many Came to Colorado between 1980 and 2017?
Somalia
4,646
Ethiopia
2,596
Congo
1,656
Sudan
1,204
Other African Counties
2,962
Total Refugees from Africa
13,064
European and Central Asian Countries
Original Country of Refugees
How many Came to Colorado between 1980 and 2017?
Soviet Union or Russia
6,083
Bosnia and Herzegovina
2,131
Other European Counties
2,832
Total Refugees from Europe and Central Asia
11,046
Middle East and South Asia
Original Country of Refugees
How many Came to Colorado between 1980 and 2017?
Iraq
3,765
Afghanistan
1,853
Iran
762
Syria
270
Other Middle East and South Asian countries
146
Total Refugees from the Middle East and South Asia
6,796
Latin America
Original Country of Refugees
How many Came to Colorado between 1980 and 2017?
Cuba
1165
Columbia
125
Mexico
31
Other Latin American Counties
211
Total Refugees from Latin America
1,532
Total Refugees to Colorado, 1980 – 2017
59,910
[Source: Colorado Refugee Services Program Online Data, 2017: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1_jdz6ky4pADOBzRxF_HjslaiAF0RBkDJ/view]
Questions:
What five countries of the world have sent the most refugees to Colorado?
Which of the regions listed above (East Asia, Africa, Europe, etc) sent the fewest refugees?
What kinds of events might push refugees from their home countries?
Why might refugees want to come to Colorado today? What does the state offer them?
What challenges will refugees in Colorado face today?
Compared to earlier sources, does this source show a more inclusive or exclusive side to Colorado?  How?
***
How to Use These Sources:
These sources allow students to explore some important aspects of immigration to Colorado in the twentieth century.  There are opportunities to consider push and pull factors that motivated immigrants as well as reception by native-born Coloradans.  Students can begin to consider anti-immigrant prejudice at key moments in Colorado history and how that has changed over time.  Students might create a T-chart to list “Push” and “Pull” factors as they read the different documents.  Ultimately, they might organize short quotes or phrases from these sources into a Found Poem on immigration to Colorado.  To make a Found Poem, students can pull words or phrases from different documents and group them in a new poem.  For more ideas about Found Poems, please see this Library of Congress guide: http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/primarysourcesets/poetry/pdf/teacher_guide.pdf
Option 1: The first four documents offer both visual and written sources on Italian immigration and the promise of mining work.  Document 1, the photograph by Lewis Hine, pictures Italian immigrants at Ellis Island.  It suggests some typical challenges for historians:  we don’t know the names or stories of the men pictures, only that they are immigrants, starting a new life phase in America.  Document 2 gives us an oral history of one Italian immigrant who came through Ellis Island and ended up working coke ovens near Trinidad.  Could the immigrant in that oral history be pictured in the photograph?  How might we decide?  Even if the dates of the photo and Ferraro’s arrival in New York don’t match up exactly, could we use that photo to help us picture what Ferraro might have looked like?  When reconstructing the lives of ordinary people, and not just presidents, we often rely on incomplete evidence and have to fill in some gaps with some evidence-based imagination.
Students could consider all four of these first four documents to consider push and pull factors for Italian immigrants.  They could also begin to make a list of the kinds of work these new immigrants were doing.
Option 2:  Adding documents 5 and 6 to student projects will introduce another immigrant group—Mexicans. These two oral histories can help students explore the experience of sugar beet workers.  These immigrants contributed to the agricultural development in the state.  How were their experiences similar?  How might the work of Mexican sugar-beet workers differ from an Italian mine worker near Trinidad?  What would it be like to engage in both occupations each year?
Option 3:  Documents 7, 8, and 9 address discrimination and challenges.  There is a visual source (cartoon) and two stories from immigrants who resisted prejudice.  Students could study the cartoon (Doc 7) before comparing that message with the picture of Italian immigrants they have from the first few sources.  The Lewis Hine photograph is more sympathetic while the Dalrymple political cartoon is obviously hostile toward immigrants.  Why were they so different in their view of immigrants?
Wartime contexts seem to create new challenges for immigrants.  Document 8 on German-speaking sugar-beet workers and Doc. 9 on Japanese and Japanese American internment both show this in different ways.  What challenges did each immigrant group face during wartime?  Both were considered potential enemies.  How did each respond?  Students could consider the question: what could Coloradans have done differently about these immigrants during wartime?
The last sources address the changes in immigration policy in the United States since the 1960s.  The Hart-Celler Act in Document 10 helps create the opportunity for refugee migration into Colorado that is the topic of Document 11.  Students can get a sense of the range of countries of origin for recent immigrants and refugees in that latter source. The table in Document 11 will require some math skills to interpret.  After considering the cause and effect link between these documents, students might speculate about the change in reception.  Why have Coloradans been more welcoming of refugees in the last thirty-five years?  How about today?
Who Fought for Equality in Colorado?
7
Teacher Introduction
During the twentieth century different social groups in Colorado at times faced unequal treatment and discrimination.  The dominant population of white Euro-Americans did not always welcome people of color or those immigrants who brought linguistic or religious diversity to the state.  The question “Who fought for equality in Colorado?” recurs over the decades as different groups of Colorado residents insisted on civil rights and fair opportunities at key moments in history.
This chapter allows students to explore some important answers to that question about equality.  Earlier chapters have highlighted the nineteenth-century struggles of Native Americans to maintain their homeland and way of live in the state.  Here, students can focus on civil rights challenges among different immigrants and people of color in Colorado in the twentieth century.  Many elementary students have begun to learn that Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks inspired a broad Civil Rights movement from the American South.  Few know about similar struggles in and around the Rocky Mountains.
In 1895, Colorado legislators approved an important Civil Rights law that promised equal treatment of people in the state regardless of color or race. This law was meant to reinforce the Fourteen Amendment to the Constitution, which Congress approved in 1868.  These legal protections of civil rights sadly would prove hollow in the American South as Jim Crow restrictions and legally mandated segregation became entrenched by 1900.
Racial and ethnic diversity in the Rocky Mountain West was different than in the South.  Mexican Americans, Native Americans, African Americans, and Italian immigrants and their descendants were among groups that experienced who struggled to secure their rights.  Although Colorado’s legal framework banned some forms of discrimination, the social reality for people of color did not always match the legal ideal.
During the 1920s Colorado witnessed the unexpected reawakening of the Ku Klux Klan.  Some 35,000 native-born Protestant Euro Americans joined this nationwide social movement in that decade.  Denver was the Klan capitol.  In an unusual twist of its post-Civil War roots, this revived Klan broadened its targets to include not only African Americans but Catholic and Jewish immigrants as well.  Religion became contested terrain as some bigoted Protestants insisted that theirs was the only patriotic religion in Colorado.  Catholic and Jewish immigrants and native-born people of color resisted this narrow vision of public life in Colorado.  Sometimes historians study racist groups like the Klan to try to understand them and their influence.  This does not imply that historians approve or support their racism.
World War II marked an important shift.  The loyal military service of people of color and the racist dictatorship of Nazi Germany offered new opportunities for civil rights activists to press the causes.  Colorado witnessed a remarkable coalition of people of color who joined with white activists to press for civil rights.  These struggles secured some important legal protections during the Cold War that followed.  In 1957, Colorado legislators passed a cluster of important civil rights measures including a law to ban employment discrimination, a repeal of the ban on interracial marriage, and new enforcement provisions for the Public Accommodations law from 1895.  Two years later, a Fair Housing Law was also approved.  Historian Dani Newsum noted that by the late 1950s conditions for legal change were ripe at the state legislature:
“[T]he war service of men and women of color, combined with a stew of Cold War pressures, revulsion at the savagery of southern white supremacy, outside political pressure, and the insistent public education . . . of a sophisticated coalition of civil rights advocates had helped to transform most [Colorado] lawmakers perceptions of the government’s regulation of employment, marital, and consumer relationships.”Dani Newsum, “Cold War Colorado: Civil Rights Liberals and the Movement for Legislative Equality,” (MA Thesis: University of Colorado, 2012),  n p. 171
Yet housing and school segregation continued into the 1960s. Those issues became the main battleground for civil rights activists.
For Mexican Americans and Mexican immigrants, their civil rights struggle was not only about housing and educational opportunities. The descendants of the San Luis valley pioneers faced unfair treatment in schools and state government.  Recent Mexican immigrant farm workers along the plains had to struggle as well to secure equal treatment in public accommodations.  By the 1960s an influential Chicano movement had mobilized many in the Mexican American community in support of civil rights.  Corky Gonzales was one of the movement’s leaders who affirmed a powerful Chicano identity for Colorado as well as other southwestern states.  Combining Spanish Catholic traditions with indigenous Meso-American roots, the Chicana/o insisted upon belonging: “I am still here!” wrote Gonzales on behalf of this group.  Chicana/o activists were quick to point out that their ancestors lived in Colorado long before statehood.
The sources in the chapter deal directly with inclusion and exclusion.  Who was welcomed in Colorado?  Who was not?  How did those who faced exclusion or discrimination fight back?  These are some of the questions that arise when students begin to confront the basic question—who fought for equality?
These sources do not, of course, tell the comprehensive story of exclusion, discrimination, and civil rights struggles in Colorado or the United States.  They do offer a useful launching point for these issues and could easily stimulate additional research or investigation.  At very least, they serve to introduce students to some key challenges of exclusion and struggles for inclusion in Colorado over the twentieth century.  Additionally, Chapter Six on Immigration to Colorado confronts similar issues for other people of color.
We organized the sources in this chapter to reflect the idea of a K-W-L strategy.  The first sources on Martin Luther King hopefully build on what students already know about Civil Rights Movement history and generate questions.  Then sources will lead students to consider the Colorado context to find answers to their more regional history questions about Civil Rights.
***
Sources for Students:
Document 1: Statue of Dr. Martin Luther King and a new holiday, 1984
On January 20, 1986 Coloradans began observing a holiday in honor of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.  Here is a photograph of a statue of Martin Luther King atop a pedestal in City Park in Denver.  The statue was created by artist Ed Dwight.
Martin Luther King Statue, Denver City Park
[Source: http://www.denver.org/things-to-do/denver-holiday-events/denver-mlk-day/]
Along with Rosa Parks, King is one of the most famous Americans in history.  As a Civil Rights leader, Martin Luther King did not spend much time in Colorado.  Still, our state government approved an official holiday to remember Dr. King.  Below is an excerpt from that MLK holiday law:
WORD BANK:
Reflect upon the principles: think carefully about the goals
Espoused: promoted, talked about
Appropriate: proper
Observance: respectful celebration
Commemoration: remembering positively
This holiday should serve as a time for Americans to reflect upon the principles of racial equality and nonviolent social change espoused by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.; and…
[T]he Colorado General Assembly [will] coordinate efforts with cities, towns, counties, school districts…and with private organizations within Colorado in the first observance of the…legal holiday honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
[T]he Colorado General Assembly hereby encourages appropriate observances, ceremonies and activities . . . to ensure the . . . commemoration of the . . . holiday honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., throughout all the cities, towns counties, school districts and local governments within Colorado.
[Source: Colorado General Assembly, House Joint Resolution No. 1031 (1984)]
Questions:
What do you know so far about Martin Luther King, Jr.?
According to the law creating the Martin Luther King holiday, what goals did Colorado law makers have for this day?
What kinds of groups did the legislators hope would work together on this holiday?
What kinds of events do you think would help Coloradans think about racial equality?
As far as you know at this point, did African Americans or Mexican Americans in Colorado have to fight for their rights? Or did they always feel welcome in Colorado?
You can find many other pictures of the Martin Luther King memorial in City Park in Denver online.  Find the best one you can if you can’t visit City Park in person.  Does that statue help people reflect on racial equality?  Why or why not?
Do you know of other civil rights leaders who have statues in Colorado or in your local community?
***
Document 2: Colorado Civil Rights Law, 1895
In 1895 an African American lawyer representing Arapaho County in the Colorado legislature, Joseph Stuart, successfully promoted the idea of civil rights for all Coloradans.  Civil rights include the idea that people should be treated equally in public places and free from discrimination because of their race or skin color.  Here is an excerpt from the Civil Rights law that Stuart initially sponsored:
WORD BANK:
Shall be entitled to equal enjoyment: will be able to make use of
Accommodations and facilities of: spaces available in
Regardless: without any talk about
All persons within [Colorado] shall be entitled to…equal enjoyment of the accommodations [and] facilities of inns, restaurants, eating houses, barbershops, public [transportation], theaters, and all other places of public accommodation and amusement…regardless of color or race.
[Source: Colorado Session Laws, Tenth Session, 1895, Ch. 61. Civil Rights, p. 139.]
Questions:
“Equal enjoyment of the accommodations” means equal opportunity to use and get into public places. If this law applies, can a white restaurant owner refuse to serve African Americans?  Why or why not?
Why do you think a law like this was necessary? What problems was it hoping to fix?
The punishment for breaking this law was for the person guilty of discrimination to pay a fine of somewhere between $50 and $500 to the victim. How much should people who discriminate today have to pay such victims, in your view?
Under this Civil Rights law local police were in charge of enforcing it. What might happen if the police did not investigate complaints of discrimination?
What might someone do if they felt this law was not enforced and they faced discrimination anyway?
Document 3: Denver Star Report of Discrimination, 1913
Denver’s small African American community supported local newspapers in the early twentieth century including The Denver Star.  The paper reported on successes and challenges faced by African Americans as they too hoped to realize the promise of life in this relatively new western state.  While states like Mississippi and Alabama had passed laws that required segregation or separation of white and black people in restaurants, theaters, and schools, Colorado officially still had the Civil Rights law of 1895.  Yet the Denver Star editor wrote in 1913:
WORD BANK:
Cater to: do business with or serve
Colored Trade: business with people of color
Discrimination: unfair treatment
Today along our public street these signs are printed and…displayed: “We cater to white people only,” at the Colonial Theatre, “Colored trade not wanted,” at the Paris theatre, a block apart on Curtis Street; around the corner on 18th street below Champa street, “White People’s Restaurant,”….All this discrimination within a radius of two blocks along the [main streets] of our city.  What are we going to do about it?
[Source: “Denver Needs a Vigilance Committee: A Call to Arms,” Denver Star (September 30, 1913)]
Questions:
What problems did African Americans face when they wanted to dine out or attend a show at a Denver theater?
Why would white restaurant and theater owners put up signs like these?  What would motivate them?
These signs seem to contradict the 1895 civil rights law from document. What might African Americans in Denver do about that?
Does it still matter if Colorado had a law against discrimination if discrimination happened anyway?
Can the law help later on in some way?
***
Document 4: Photograph of women of Ku Klux Klan parade in Arvada, 1925
The Ku Klux Klan grew in popularity in Colorado and especially in Denver in the 1920s.  By 1924, there were about 35,000 members in Colorado.  Male and female members insisted that this was just a patriotic group, celebrating America.  The often included flags in photos.  But Klan leaders also threatened Catholic and Jewish immigrants as well as African Americans in Colorado.   They tried to repeal the 1895 Civil Rights law. Their hooded costumes symbolized white racism from the American South after the Civil War.
Ku Klux Klan Parade in Arvada, Colorado (1925)
[Source: Denver Public Library, Call # X-21548.  Ku Klux Klan Ladies Auxiliary, 1925]
Questions:
What kinds of people do you see in this photograph?  Do they look dangerous?
The hoods are lifted so that we can see their faces.  Why do you think they didn’t cover their faces with hoods or masks?
What else do you see besides these people in Klan robes and hats?
What might those other symbols and people in the photograph mean?
Who do you think the men in the back are supposed to be? What are they saying about the Klan?
What might an African American leader do to protest the Klan in Arvada?
***
Document 5: Photograph of Whittier Elementary School Students, 1927
By the 1920s about ninety percent of Denver’s African American population lived in the neighborhoods called Five Points and Whittier, northeast of downtown.  While this area included the homes, offices, and stores of doctors, dentists, lawyers, and many small businessmen, the residents of Five Points were limited by discrimination.  African Americans were not able to buy houses in other neighborhoods.  That meant that schools in Five Points and Whittier had large numbers of African American students.  Here is a photograph of students at an elementary school in the Whittier neighborhood from 1927.  These students would likely be headed for Manual High School which served this same neighborhood.
Whittier Elementary School in Denver, 1927
[Source: Denver Public Library Collection: https://history.denverlibrary.org/five-points-whittier-neighborhood-history]
Questions:
How many African American students do you count in this picture? How many white students?  Could there be Mexican American students here too?
In Denver there were no laws that required black and white students to attend separate schools. Yet schools in neighborhoods like Five Points and Whittier had mostly black students and few whites.  Why do you think that happened?
Some African American parents in these neighborhoods wanted to move to different parts of Denver because they hoped for better school opportunities for their children. What might keep them from moving into mostly white neighborhoods?
If they could not move into white neighborhoods, what might African American parents do to help their kids in poor schools?
How do you think KKK Members from the previous document would feel about this photograph?
***
Document 6: Park Hill Neighborhood Flyer, 1932
Park Hill was just to the east of the Five Points and Whittier Neighborhoods in Denver.  People moved to Park Hill around 1900 to get away from the noisy city center of Denver.  Homeowners and realtors (who help sell and buy houses) made agreements not to sell existing homes to African Americans.  African American families could not buy houses in Park Hill in the 1920s because no white family or white realtor would sell to them.  The flyer below appear about 1932.
A Handout from the Park Hill Neighborhood in Denver about 1932
[Source: Denver Public Library, “Great Danger Ahead” Flyer, call # C917.8883 R312 1932;  “History of the Park Hill Neighborhood”: https://history.denverlibrary.org/park-hill-neighborhood-history]
WORD BANK:
Residing: living
Matters of vital importance: really important issues
Relative to: related to
Questions:
This flyer was given out to Denver residents living the in Park Hill neighborhood. Where is that?  Which Denver neighborhoods are to the west of Park Hill?
Who is invited to the meeting? Why those people?
A man named Warren E. Davis created this flyer to alert his neighbors in Park Hill to a “great danger ahead.” It’s not until we read the last paragraph that we can find the danger. What was it?
Davis ends this flyer by suggesting that neighbors get together to “protect” themselves. Why would he use a word like “protect”?
In what ways might white homeowners try to prevent black buyers from moving into their neighborhood?
What makes this an example of discrimination?
What might African American home buyers in Denver do about this?
***
Document 7: “No Mexicans” Signs Removed, Greeley, 1926
In 1901 the Great Western Sugar Company began growing and refining sugar beets near Greeley in northern Colorado.  Mexican and Mexican Americans gradually began working in sugar beet fields.  Many of the Hispanic workers moved into communities in and around Greeley.  Here they faced discrimination and reminders that they were not thought of as equal to the white residents.  “No Mexicans” signs in restaurants were an obvious example.  The chamber of commerce was a group of business leaders asked to talk about these signs. Here is a newspaper story about those signs from 1926:
WORD BANK:
Chamber of commerce: a group of business leaders in town
Displayed: placed in a window
Discriminatory: unfair
[After] friendly discussions with the businessmen [of Greeley] the chamber of commerce has secured the removal of “No Mexicans” signs from practically all of the . . local business places which displayed them.  The Spanish speaking people are very resentful of such discriminatory signs.
[Source: Greeley Tribune, (November 1, 1926).  Quoted in Jody L. Lopez and Gabriel A. Lopez, White Gold Laborers: The Story of Greeley’s Spanish Colony (2007) 215.]
Questions:
This newspaper story describes a change in Greeley. What were Greeley businesses doing before the change?
Why do you think this change happened? What led business owners to take them down?
This story appeared the same year as the Ku Klux Klan march pictured in document 4 above. From this story, could we make an assumption about whether the Klan was active in Greeley?  Why or why not?
Is this newspaper story enough for us to claim that Mexican immigrants and Mexican Americans no longer faced any discrimination in Greeley after 1926? Why or why not?
How could we find out if this was a temporary change for the better or a long-last one for Mexican Americans in Greeley?
Document 8: Corky Gonzales, “I am Joaquín,” 1967
By the 1960s, Mexican Americans protested discrimination and the lack of opportunities for their community.  Mexican America parents and students did not accept racism in the public schools.  The police at times harassed and even killed young Mexican Americans who were not dangerous.  Activists were also inspired by the black civil rights movement led by people like Martin Luther King, Jr.  In the poem below, Denver activist Rodolfo “Corky” Gonzales expresses frustration and hope for Mexican Americans:
I am Joaquín
Lost in a world of confusion,
Caught up in a whirl of a gringo society.
Confused by the rules,
Scorned by attitudes . . .
My fathers have lost the economic battle
and won the struggle of cultural survival . . .
Here I stand,
Poor in money, arrogant with pride,
Bold with machismo, Rich in courage
And wealthy in spirit and faith.
My knees are caked with mud.
My hands calloused from the hoe.
I have made the Anglo rich, yet
Equality is but a word….
I have endured in the rugged mountains of our country
I have survived the toils and slavery of the fields.
WORD BANK:
whirl: spinning
gringo: a person who is not Hispanic or Latino
scorned: feeling worthless
economic battle: struggle to make enough money for success
cultural: having to do with a group’s language, religion, and traditions
survival: staying alive
machismo: male toughness
calloused: hardened skin patches from hard work
Anglo: Mexican American word for white Americans
rugged: uneven and rocky
toils:  very hard work
I have existed
In the barrios of the city
In the suburbs of bigotry…
In the prisons of dejection…..
I am the masses of my people and
I refuse to be absorbed
I am Joaquín….
I WILL ENDURE!
WORD BANK:
barrios: neighborhoods where Mexican Americans live
bigotry: intolerance for someone different
dejection: feeling sad and depressed
Questions:
What words or phrases did the poet use to describe Joaquín?
What kind of work did Joaquín do?
Joaquín is obviously a boy’s or man’s name. But the poet here seems to use that name to represent other people. What people?  How does he use the name Joaquín to mean other people?
“Endure” and “survive” appear in the poem more than once. Why?
How did Gonzales write about hope?
In what ways did Joaquín feel excluded in this poem?
What could change to help Joaquín feel like he belonged in Colorado?
***
How to Use These Sources
This collection of sources offer students a chance to approach civil rights by considering exclusion and inclusion.  When in Colorado history did different groups face exclusion?  How did those excluded groups respond and fight to belong?  These are of course broad questions, but students can begin to address them here to create a context for the twentieth century history of civil rights.
Option 1: Students could start with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and document 1.  This will likely be familiar territory for many students and can help build a context for exploring civil rights.  How best should we today celebrate and honor the legacy of Dr. King?  Don’t worry if students do not yet know about specific national details like the Montgomery Bus Boycott or the Little Rock Nine or Selma.  The Colorado connection to Dr. King can be useful as a starting point for thinking about discrimination and civil rights.
Then students could begin to create a context for the civil rights struggle in Colorado.  What are civil rights?  The teacher might start an on-going list. The Civil Rights Law of 1895 offers a promise and a kind of test for later generations.  Keeping in mind the main question of equality, students could discuss how this law expressed a hope that different Colorado residents belonged in public places.  Civil rights are not easily understood by students, even though they quickly learn that Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks were civil rights heroes.  Over the course of the lesson, students could expand their list of civil rights and freedoms as they find them in the documents.
Following those initial documents, students in groups could consider cases that tested the first promise of equal treatment in that 1895 law.  Documents on restaurant and theater discrimination as well as the housing restrictions in Denver suggest the limits of that 1895 promise of inclusion.  The contract between law and reality on the streets of Denver is painful but important for students to understand.  America has always been a country of great promise.  What happens when the reality falls short for people of color?   Here student can expand on their list of civil rights.  Mexican American discrimination in Greeley, and the poem “I am Joaquín” provide additional examples of exclusion.  In each case, certain groups wanted to challenge exclusion and insist that they belonged in Colorado.  Students could answer the questions on each source in small groups and then discuss as a class what it meant to belong in each case.  How did these excluded groups want to belong?  How did they protest or push for inclusion?
Option 2: After completing the work in Option 1, students could turn to the issue of change over time.  How did Colorado get from exclusions and discrimination that we see in these documents to a holiday and statues honoring Dr. Martin Luther King?  This is not to suggest that racism no longer exists in Colorado or the United States.  But students could consider if there have been improvements and a larger movement toward fairness over time.  Of course, they will not be prepared at this point to provide a detailed explanation of that change over the twentieth century.  But they will have valuable ideas about how this happened.  This lesson could provide though a helpful introduction to questions of exclusion, inclusion and civil rights.  What caused this change over time?
Option 3: Write a poem about identity in light of this historical story.  What makes who you are?  Has your family faced challenges or exclusions that shaped who you are?  How are your family’s challenges similar to or different from those in this chapter?
Additional Resources:
Denver Public Library, “Five Points-Whittier Neighborhood History,” at: https://history.denverlibrary.org/five-points-whittier-neighborhood-history
Great Lives in Colorado History Biographies.  This elementary-level biography series includes bi-lingual English/Spanish titles on Justina Ford, Corky Gonzales, Chin Lin Sou, Barney Ford, and Clara Brown.
Dani Newsum, “Lincoln Hills and Civil Rights in Colorado,” Primary Source Set available at HistoryColorado.org.
Can Cartoons Influence People?
8
Teacher Introduction:
“A picture is worth a thousand words,” goes the famous saying.  Political cartoonists certainly hope so.  For centuries, American cartoonists have drawn political leaders to capture some essential idea or message in a few symbols.  Starting around 1900 Colorado was lucky to have a pioneering cartoonist develop a rich tradition of work.  Denver Post illustrator Wilbur Steele began to draw a daily cartoon featuring city, state, and national leaders who had misused their influence and authority.  He, like so many other cartoonists, hoped that his pictures could help fight evil and corruption.  Steele also used his single-framed images to celebrate successes and express hopes for positive change.  This chapter allows students a chance to develop their visual literacy skills by interpreting a range of cartoons from American and Colorado history.
Artist Wilbur Steele spent many years drawing one of Denver’s most famous mayors, Robert Speer.  Known today for promoting the Civic Center, applying the City Beautiful ideal, and overseeing construction of the boulevard that bears his name, Robert Speer left an enduring legacy in Denver.  Less well known is the intense criticism he drew for his sneaky and illegal electioneering strategies.  His political party, the Democrats, had organized a network of loyal supporters, especially in what is today Lower Downtown or LoDo.  These supporters were experienced in manipulating elections by “repeating” or voting as often as they could.  They registered dead people; disguised themselves and assumed other people’s names; and bribed and intimidated other voters to choose the Democrats.  The chief of police at the time, Michael Delaney, promised these Democratic loyalists protection from prosecution.  The Republicans had a similar network, or machine, that operated in other parts of the city and state.For a good example of ballot frauds by both parties in 1904, see Marjorie Hornbein, “Three Governors in a Day,” in Steve Grinstead and Ben Fogelberg, Western Voices: 125 Years of Colorado Writing (Golden: Fulcrum Publishing, 2004) 116-133 or Todd Laugen, Gospel of Progressivism: Moral Reform and Labor War in Colorado  (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2010), Chapter 1.
But Robert Speer was the leader of the Democratic Party machine.  Denver Post cartoonist Wilbur Steele began drawing cartoons of candidate Speer called attention to his key role in this network.  In fact, Steele seemed to want to warn the voters of Denver that Speer was dangerous, encouraging violence against voters who disagreed with him.  Steele was especially focused on that Democratic party machine with “Boss” Speer at the head of it.
Steele captured the positive and negative aspects of Speer’s public record with his front-page cartoons.  Steele was at times a fierce critic and at others a loyal supporter.  By reviewing a range of Steele’s cartoons, students can get a sense of Speer’s legacy one of Denver’s greatest mayors.
Though consistently innovative in his 28-year run at the Post, Steele also tapped a growing tradition of cartooning in America when he started in 1897.   Some of the earliest and most successful American political cartoons that inspired Steele were drawn by German-speaking immigrants in the late nineteenth century.  Thomas Nast and Joseph Keppler were born in Europe but drew popular cartoons for early magazines in New York.  After the Civil War, they often drew political leaders, highlighting political corruption and abuses of power.  Before interpreting Steele’s work, students will benefit from examining some of the symbols and images developed by Nast and Keppler.
These men contributed to the boom in newspaper and magazine circulation that shaped public life in America around 1900.  Most major cities had dozens of daily or weekly newspapers.  Denver had more than ten.  In an era before the internet and television and even before radio, print media were central for sharing and debating information.  Though relying heavily on text, these early newspapers also embraced cartoon images along with photography.  Reproducing them was not cheap or easy, but cartoons offered a quick way to hook a reader.  The Denver Post, for example, featured Wilbur Steel cartoons on the front page, above the fold in the paper.  They were typically the first thing readers saw in the paper.
As a visual source, cartoons offer many opportunities for students.  They are immediately accessible and simple in ways that written text often is not, especially for new and young readers.  The basic question “What do you see in this cartoon?” can start a classroom discussion, even for students with little background knowledge.
And then the fun begins.  After an initial conversation about basic elements within a frame, students can develop new skills in thinking symbolically.  What might this donkey or that elephant represent?  Did this artist capture only his own, idiosyncratic worldview, or did she or he somehow describe a feeling that many people had and could embrace?  Asking these more abstract questions of political cartoons can be challenging, particularly because students do lack much background knowledge of the time or era.  But with support from teachers, they can begin to build that background and learn to view images more critically.
Thomas Nast and Wilbur Steele offer students a chance to think symbolically in many ways.  The political controversies of New York in the 1870s or Denver in the 1900s can appear at first remote and confusing.  Yet these cartoonists distill key problems in issues in visual representations that are powerfully meaningful.  The feeling the cartoons evoke about politics and government can be more immediately discerned from the cartoons that from a lengthy description of procedures or events.  Even young students can begin to build a framework for understanding what happens when leaders are corrupt or fair.
Last, political cartoons do possess more power than many students will at first realize.  The sad fate of Charlie Hebdo cartoonists in 2015 suggests that cartoons can move people to violent retaliation.  Some cartoons matter dearly.  Yet in America, there has historically existed a public space for sharing even controversial images and symbols critical of government leaders without harassment or imprisonment.  Studying cartoons like these gives one an appreciation for the First Amendment right to freedom of symbolic speech in Colorado and our nation as a whole.
***
Sources for Students:
Documents 1, 2, and 3:  Thomas Nast and his Cartoons
Thomas Nast was a German immigrant who drew pictures for American magazines in the 1800s.  His images helped create certain traditions or patterns that other cartoonists would follow.  As you look at these first few cartoons, think about the symbols and patterns that appear.  Some possibilities to keep in mind: bags of money, ballot boxes, and tigers.  For this artist, bags of money and tigers came to represent ideas as well as real items you could touch.
Start to create a list of symbols that you find in the cartoons and make a note about what they might mean.
Document 1:  Thomas Nast cartoon, The ‘Brains’, (1871)
Document 2: Photograph of “Boss” William Tweed, Leader of the Democratic Party in New York City, 1870.
[Source: Harper’s Weekly (10/21/1871) & 1870 Napoleon Sarony photograph of William Tweed.  Photograph online: https://blog.mcny.org/2015/04/28/napoleon-sarony-celebrity-photographer/]
Questions:
What do you see in the cartoon on the left?
Thomas Nast wanted to make a comment in that cartoon about a political leader in New York City named Boss Tweed.  Why is the man’s body shaped in this way? What might the “$” sign on his face mean?
A photograph of Boss Tweed appears on the right.  He was the boss of a political party, the Democrats.  Do you think that Nast just couldn’t draw very well and so messed up his cartoon on the left?  Why or why not?
Tweed was very popular with many voters in New York City.  Was it dangerous for Nast to draw Tweed in this way?  Was he being disrespectful of Tweed?
What might Tweed have done to deserve a picture of him as a bag of money?
***
Doc. 3 Thomas Nast, “In Counting There is Strength” (1871)
In this cartoon, Thomas Nast again drew Boss Tweed of New York City:
“In Counting There is Strength”
[Source: Harper’s Weekly (October 7, 1871)]
Questions:
Here is another Nast drawing of Boss Tweed. This time, he’s leaning next to a Ballot Box marked “The Ballot.”  That was used to collect votes on election day in the 1870s.  What might the words under the ballot box mean: “In counting there is strength?”
If you were planning to vote on election day and had to walk up to Tweed standing like this next to the ballot box, would you be worried? Does he look scary or intimidating?  Why or why not?
How did Nast suggest that Tweed was corrupt or unfair when it came to votes?
If Boss Tweed got to count all the votes himself, how often to you think his party would win?  Why?
Remember in the first Nast cartoon, Tweed looks like a bag of money.  How might money be used unfairly during an election?
***
Doc. 4 Joseph Keppler, Bosses of the Senate (1889)
Another famous cartoonist was Joseph Keppler.  He was born in Austria and moved to the United States in 1867. Also a European immigrant, Keppler drew cartoons around the same time that Thomas Nast did.  Like with the cartoons of Thomas Nast, notice the symbols here.  He seems to use the idea of a bag of money as a symbol.
“Bosses of the Senate”
[Source: Puck magazine (January 23, 1889)]
Questions:
Here is a cartoon picture of the U.S. Senate in Washington, DC. The men in the desks are senators from different states.  The men along the back wall appear much different from the senators.  How?
Again, a cartoonist drew people as bags of money. Why might he do this?
The word “trust” can mean monopoly.   You might picture what happens in the game Monopoly, when a player owns a whole row of properties and pays for hotels on all those properties.  How much money does that player collect when an opponent lands on those hotels?  Similarly, if someone bought sugar from the “Sugar Trust” or oil from the “Standard Oil Trust,” would they likely pay more for those products?  Why or why not?
Why did this cartoonist put monopolies or trusts in the US Senate? Did they help make laws somehow?
Did Americans worry if very wealthy men unfairly influence their government leaders?  If they bribe their leaders?
***
Doc. 5 Thomas Nast, “Tammany Tiger Loose” (1871)
Here Nast uses different symbols from before.  Even the main person on the ground in the picture could also be a symbol.
Thomas Nast, “Tammany Tiger Loose–What are you going to do about it?”
[Source: Harper’s Weekly (Nov. 11, 1871)]
Questions:
Here is another Nast cartoon, this time featuring a tiger on top of a woman. Should that woman be worried?  Why?
If you look carefully above and behind the tiger, you can see Nast’s picture of Boss Tweed again. Is he worried about the woman on the ground?
The caption at the bottom of the cartoon says “The Tammany Tiger Loose.” Tammany was a nickname for Boss Tweed’s political party, the Democrats.  By drawing the Democrats as a tiger, Nast wanted to give some kind of warning.  What kind?
If that woman under the tiger were a symbol, what might she represent?
Nast suggests here that Boss Tweed and his Democratic party were somehow dangerous or even violent. How does the cartoon work to give you that feeling?
Like the other Nast cartoons of Boss Tweed, this one is critical of Tweed.  Does this make the cartoon itself dangerous?  Would you expect that Tweed might want to get revenge against Nast?  Why or why not?
Should cartoonists be able to draw political leaders in ways that are not friendly or flattering to make a point about fairness? Why or why not?
***
Document 6: Wilbur Steele cartoon of Speer and the “Honest” Voter (1904)
Wilbur Steele began drawing cartoons for the Denver Post in 1897.  Raised partly in Denver, he had attended Colorado State University and taught school briefly before he took up cartooning.  He drew cartoons several times each week for the Post until his death in 1925.  Below is one of his most famous cartoons.  This cartoon appeared on the front page of the Denver Post just two days for the election for Denver mayor.  Bob Speer was the leading candidate for mayor at that time.
Wilbur Steele,” 1904 Election Cartoon
[Source: Denver Post, May 15, 1904]
Questions:
In the cartoon above, Wilbur Steele drew candidate Bob Speer in a checkered suit standing over a woman with his foot on top of her. What does the ribbon or banner on the woman say?
Speer’s buddies on the left and the right hold smoking guns. These were drawings of private detectives who worked with the police at times.  Frank Adams, next to Speer, was a police commissioner, the boss of the police.  How does the gun help suggest some kind of violence happened?
Is the cartoon image of Speer worried about violence? Or is he somehow guilty in this cartoon?
If you think about this cartoon symbolically, what might it mean that Speer is stepping on “honest elections”? What would a dishonest election look like?
Speer was also a leader of the Democratic Party in Denver, and the men pictured with him here were active in the Democratic Party. Was that party somehow guilty of a crime, according to this cartoonist?
In cartoon 5 above, Thomas Nast pictured the Democratic Party as a tiger standing on a woman.  How is this Steele cartoon similar?  How different?
How might this cartoon have influenced voters before the cast their ballots?
***
Document 7: Photograph of Mayor Speer in a derby hat around 1910.
In May 1904, Robert Speer won the election to become Denver’s mayor.  Steele’s cartoons apparently did not convince enough voters to vote against him.  He was the leader of the Democratic Party in the city and worked on a number of projects as mayor.  These included the Civic Center next to the State Capitol and the street along Cherry Creek later named for him, Speer Boulevard.
Denver Mayor Robert Speer
[Source: Colorado Virtual Library: http://www.coloradovirtuallibrary.org/digital-colorado/colorado-histories/20th-century/robert-speer-denvers-city-beautiful-mayor/]
Questions:
How would you describe the expression on the face of Mayor Speer in this photograph?
Does Speer look dangerous or threatening?
What might he be pointing at?
How does the car in the background help us identify when this photo was taken?
Why might cartoonist Steele have drawn Speer in the previous cartoon to look like a thug or bully?
How can this photo and the previous Steele cartoon together tell us something about Mayor Speer?
***
Doc. 8 Steele cartoon of Speer driving “Greater Denver” (1908)
Wilbur Steele drew this cartoon of Robert Speer when he was running for mayor a second time in 1908.  The artist seems to have different ideas about Mayor Speer now.
Wilbur Steele Cartoon, 1908
[Source: Denver Post, April 28, 1908]
Questions:
Here Steele has Mayor Speer behind the wheel of a car. It was considered a fancy car in 1908.  What words appear on the front of the car?  What might the car represent?
Mayor Speer has two passengers. What do they look like?  The caption at the bottom of the cartoon refers to “Miss Denver.”   Who might that be?   Can a person represent a whole city?
The woman in the backseat asks Mayor Speer: “Do you suppose he could run it, Robert?” Remember that Speer’s first name was Robert.  She seems to asking if the other passenger can run or drive the car.  But what did the car represent?
In the election for mayor in 1908, Speer was running against a man named Horace Phelps. Artist Steele included Phelps in this cartoon.  Which one is he?  Why did Steele draw Phelps that way?  What did Steele want us to think about Phelps?
Steele here drew Mayor Speer very differently from that first cartoon in 1904.  How?  Why might Steele have changed his mind about Speer?
How might this cartoon influence voters just before the election?
***
Doc. 9: Steele cartoon of Speer Slicing a Pie, 1908
Here is another Steele cartoon of Mayor Robert Speer.  Notice the animals in the cartoon.
Wilbur Steele Cartoon
[Source: Denver Post (May 28, 1908)]
Questions:
This cartoon appeared after Speer was elected mayor of Denver. Next to Speer are cartoon images of a tiger and an elephant.  Each of those animals seems to represent a political party.  Can you tell which ones?
Mayor Speer is just starting to cut into a pie. What’s written on the pie? What might that mean?
Do the tiger and elephant look scary in this cartoon? What kind of expressions do they have on their faces? In earlier cartoons, the tigers appeared quite dangerous.  Why not in this one?
What might the cartoonist want us to think about Mayor Speer and the two political parties?
Does the cartoonist suggest in this cartoon that Speer is somehow violent or dangerous?  Or does the artist Steele want us to think something else about Speer?  What?
***
Doc. 10:  Postcard Photograph of Denver’s Civic Center
While Mayor of Denver, Robert Speer oversaw the creation of the Civic Center in front of the state Capitol building.  Here is a photograph of the theater created as part of the Civic Center project while Speer was Mayor of Denver.
[Source: “Penny Postcards from Colorado,” online at: http://www.usgwarchives.net/co/denver/postcards/ppcs-denver.html]
Questions:
What was this theater made of?  Was it cheap or expensive to build?
This theater was designed for plays or concerts outdoors. What kind of music do you imagine people playing and listening to in this space?
Mayor Speer is mainly remembered today for spaces in Denver like this one or Speer Boulevard. Have people today forgotten about the cartoons of Speer who stepped on “honest elections”?” Why or why not?
If Speer made deals with bullies who cheated to win an election, does this Civic Center project help us feel better about him?  Why or why not?
***
How to Use these Sources:
Option 1:  This set of sources allows students to interpret images without many words to begin understanding the power of symbols.  They might start with a discussion of a contemporary example of a symbol, maybe the school or sports team mascot.  What does that symbol mean?  Why did school leaders or students choose that image?  Then students could turn to the Nast and Keppler cartoons of political leaders.  Their main task here is to discuss why a cartoonist would draw a political or business leader in these symbolic ways?  What message did that give?
After Nast and Keppler, two famous nineteenth-century cartoonists, students can consider the Colorado context.  When Robert Speer first ran for the office of mayor of Denver in 1904, he made a few enemies.  How did Wilbur Steele’s cartoon attempt to influence voters?  What was Steele worried about with candidate Robert Speer?
Assessment Option 1: students might create their own political cartoons in answer to the question: how can cartoons influence people?  First, the class could agree on a set of symbols that students might utilize to represent problems or concerns in their community or our current day.  The historical symbols from these cartoons are of course options too!  Then when individual students share a personal cartoon, the class could consider whether it captures a feeling that students share or just one that reflects an individual perspective.  Is the picture worth a thousand words?  If not, how many?
Option 2:  Continue to cartoon interpretations with those from Wilbur Steele in Colorado.  The cartoons included here suggest that Steele changed his mind about Speer.  Why might he draw Speer so differently when he ran again for mayor in 1908 than when he first ran in 1904?
For this part of the lesson, students can apply some of their visual literacy skills from the Nast and Keppler cartoons.  Symbols reappear in similar ways.  Again, students can examine each cartoon source on its own before a discussion that compares them.  The comparison can highlight how Steele’s views shifted and how differently a “friendly” cartoon of a leader appears from a more critical one.
Option 3: Students could compare these Steele cartoons with a twelve-page biography of Mayor Speer.
Stacy Turnbull, Robert Speer: Denver’s Building Mayor (Great Lives in Colorado History Series, 2011).
Questions for the biography and the Steele cartoons:
The Speer biography has a chapter called “Life in Politics.” Here the author describes some of the ways that elections in Denver were connected to saloons and gambling. “Some people thought Speer’s ways of gaining power and influence were unfair,” wrote the author (4).  What examples of this do you find in the book?
What did the cartoon, “We do things to the Honest Voter,” suggest about Speer being unfair?
In the biography chapter called “Mayor Speer,” the author describes many successes or accomplishments. Give three examples.
Does it take away from all the good things Speer did as mayor to remember the sneaky tactics he used to get elected?  Why or why not?
***
Additional Resources:
The internet offers a fantastic range of political cartoons from different political eras.  Thomas Nast’s work is among the most accessible on the web.  Harpweek.com features a wide and searchable selection of Nast cartoons that span his career.  Thomasnastcartoons.com also offers comment on his famous cartoons.  A recent biography, Thomas Nast: the Father of Modern Political Cartoons by Fiona Deans Halloran, provides much helpful background on this illustrator.  The cartoons of Joseph Keppler, and other cartoonists who drew for his magazine, Puck, can be found at the Library of Congress (loc.gov) in the Prints and Photographs collection.  For a biography of Joseph Keppler see: Richard Samuel West, Satire on Stone: The Political Cartoons of Joseph Keppler.  Wilbur Steele lacks a biography, and his cartoons are harder to find.  They appeared on the front page of the Denver Post from 1897 through 1925.  They can be accessed via microfilm.
Water in Colorado: How Did the Environment Shape History?
9
Teacher Introduction:
Most western states struggle to balance demand for with water with its limited availability. Except for some coastal areas, much of the West is an arid region. Colorado is no exception. Colorado has places, such as the Rockies, that receive much more precipitation than the rest of the state. Spots in the Rockies may receive up to 60 inches of precipitation per year. Much of Colorado, however, is plains territory, where the average annual precipitation may be only in the mid-teens. The Rockies create a rain shadow effect, meaning that the moisture is wrung from the atmosphere as air crosses the mountains from west to east. The ways in which water is dispersed throughout that state has affected how people have lived and worked in Colorado throughout its history.
Several major rivers are important to Colorado’s water story. The Arkansas and South Platte rivers run through eastern Colorado and flow onto the Plains. These bodies of water have acted as trails for humans and animals to follow. They are also essential to the agriculture of eastern and northern Colorado. In the West, the Colorado, Gunnison, and Uncompahgre rivers are among the many that support diverse agricultural endeavors. In the south, the Rio Grande, Animas, San Juan, and Dolores rivers supply water to farming and ranching enterprises. The tributaries of each of these rivers, such the Purgatoire, which joins the Arkansas, are also important to the land an economy.
Humans have rerouted or diverted existing waterways to suit their needs. The western side of Colorado has abundant access to water compared to the eastern side, yet the majority of the population lives east of the Rockies. Water diversion schemes have moved water from west to east to feed demand. The Colorado-Big Thompson Project is an example. A 13.1-mile tunnel diverts water from the Colorado River to the Big Thompson River, which serves northern communities on the eastern slope and Plains. Similarly, the Fryingpan-Arkansas Project diverts water from west to east. These ventures also are part of state-wide hydroelectric power projects. Sometimes communities from the western slope disagree with the redistribution of water to other places in the state as it reduces their own water supplies.
Colorado has been the center of controversies over water that has had far-reaching consequences for all water usage in the West. Water use in Colorado is defined by a law that supports prior appropriation. Basically, the first person to use a water source for something beneficial has a right to that water source. If several people claim the water, then the first person with the claim has the strongest stake. You don’t have to live near the water to be the claimant.  Many rivers that feed other states originate or pass through Colorado. The state of Kansas once sued the state of Colorado over the amount of water Coloradans were taking from the Arkansas River. The Colorado River Compact is an agreement between seven western states and Mexico that outlines how Colorado River water will be allocated. Water does not recognize state borders; so Colorado has to work with other states and the federal government as it considers its water usage.
Water has also influenced Colorado history beyond its presence farming, ranching, and keeping people alive. Leisure pursuits such as skiing depend on the availability of water. The precipitation that falls in the form of snow during the winter melts to feed the rivers, lakes, and reservoirs that support boating and fishing in the summer. Blue Mesa Reservoir near Gunnison is the state’s largest body of water and a popular destination for people from inside and outside Colorado.  Water is essential for life.
Sometimes we forget that the environment can shape history and change.  The diversity in the availability of water and the way it is used in Colorado can be a way to think about history without focusing on particular people. Rather, place and resources are more important. Water also helps students think about how their use of resources might play a role in history.
The sources included in this chapter will help students explore the importance of water in Colorado’s history.  Students might also begin to wonder about where water in our houses and schools comes from.
Sources for Students:
Document 1:  Outline Map of the American Southwest with Rivers
[Source: Arizona Geographic Alliance.  http://geoalliance.asu.edu/sites/default/files/maps/SWPHYS4.pdf]
Questions:
Similar to the  first map in Chapter 1, this outline map shows major rivers in Colorado and the Southwest. Take a moment to label Colorado’s major rivers on your map.
The shading on this map will help you find the Rocky Mountains on this map. How does the Rocky Mountain range affect river flow?
Place a star on your location on this map. What is the nearest major river?
Does the drinking water in your school or home come from that river?  How could we find out?
***
Document 2. Precipitation map of Colorado
This map shows how much rain and snow fall in Colorado during a year. The areas with cool colors have more precipitation and the areas with warm colors have less.
[Source: PRISM Climate Group: http://www.prism.oregonstate.edu/projects/gallery_view.php?state=CO]
Questions:
Check the Legend to review what the colors mean. Which parts of the state are dry and which are wet?
What is the average precipitation in inches where you live?
Why do you think some parts of the Colorado get more water than other parts?
Which places have the most snow and rain, and which ones had the least?
What kind of jobs do people need a lot of water to do?
***
Document 3: Cherry Creek Flood Memory
On August 3, 1933, the Castlewood dam broke. Dams hold back water. Heavy rain caused the dam to burst. The water rushed into downtown Denver and caused heavy damage.
“In 1933, there was no TV so you either read the newspaper or listened to the radio.  We heard the news and the warning of a ‘wall of water’ coming down Cherry Creek. We went to West 7th Avenue and Speer Boulevard to watch the flood. It actually looked like a wall of water. Trees, branches, bushes, a dead cow and a dead dog floated by. The smell was unique to a flood and if you ever smell it you will never forget it. Awful! I was 10 years old and was very impressed.”
[Source: Leota H. Bostrom quoted in The Night the Dam Gave Way: A Diary of Personal Accounts. Castlewood Canyon State Park. p. 22.]
Questions:
What could the person never forget?
How did people learn about news and events in 1933?
What did the person see in the water?
Where did the person go to see the flood?
How might places prepare for floods?
***
Document 4 & 5: Gold King Mine Spill
Miners use water to help them. Sometimes mines have material in them that are a danger to humans, animals, and plants. Water can move that unsafe material into streams and rivers. In 2015, toxic water from the Gold King Mine spilled into a creek. That creek flowed into the Las Animas river near Durango. The San Juan river was also polluted.
Photos of the Las Animas River
Doc. 4 Photo before the spill
Doc. 5 Photo after the spill
[Source: Photo at right by Josh Stephenson, Durango Herald. Available at: http://www.kunm.org/post/new-mexico-sue-epa-over-gold-king-mine-spill]
Questions:
What’s different about these two photos of the same river?
How might the fish and other aquatic life be affected by that new color?
How can we clean up a river like the one on the right?
Why, do you think, didn’t the mining company clean up poisonous chemicals before they spilled into the river?
***
Document 6: Irrigation
In the southern part of Colorado, water from a system of acequias or irrigation ditches has been used by farm communities. Sometimes, people in southern Colorado share water instead of having one person or a few people own it.
“San Luis Creek, heading in the Sangre de Christo range of mountains, has a length of thirty miles. Into it a dozen or more tiny creeks empty. There is one canal . . . six feet wide and seven miles long. On this creek and its tributaries, fifty-five farmers own sixteen thousand eight hundred acres, their area in no single instance being smaller than a section of six hundred forty acres, while three own over one thousand acres each, and one has three thousand seven hundred acres under fence as meadow and pasture land.”
[Source: Pabor, W. E.  Colorado as an Agricultural State. Its Farms, Fields, and Garden Lands. (New York: Orange Judd, 1883). p. 128]
Questions:
How long is San Luis Creek?
How big is the canal that the farmers take water from?
How many farmers are there on the creek and tributaries?
How small is the smallest piece of land owned by a farmer?
How large is the largest piece of land owned by a farmer?
How might the farmers decide to share the water?
***
Document 7: Powell Map of the Arid Regions of the West, 1879
In 1869, John Wesley Powell led an expedition to explore the Green and Colorado Rivers which both begin in Colorado. Ten years after his exploration, Powell created this interesting map:
[Link to map online: http://www.mappingthenation.com/blog/a-radically-different-kind-o:-west/]
Questions:
Find Colorado on this Map.  (It might help to view an online version). Then notice the six different colored areas that Powell drew within the boundaries of Colorado. What might those colored areas refer to? (Remember that Powell was focused on water).
How might life for farmers and ranchers have been different if Colorado (and other westerns states) had been created along these lines drawn by Powell?
Most land in Colorado receives very little rain in the summer months. Where do Coloradans in August get water?
Why do you think that new settlers in Colorado mostly ignored this map of Powell’s?
***
Document 8. Fishing
Lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and streams are all places where people fish in Colorado. Sometimes a government will put extra fish in these bodies of water so more people can fish.
“Special to the Press, Delta, April 30––It is reported that Tongue Creek, in Delta county, will be stocked into a fishing preserve. Tongue creek is stream where trout would do well, as it is free from reservoir waste waters and other disadvantages which would injure fish.”
[Source: “Tongue Creek Will Be Made Fishing Preserve is Report,” Montrose Daily Press (April 30, 1910), p. 3]
Questions:
What is going to happen to Tongue Creek?
Do you think this news is important to the people? Why or why not?
Why would Tongue Creek be a good place for trout?
How is a stream turned into a fishing preserve?
What human activities could threaten the trout in Tongue Creek?
***
Document 9: Snow
A newspaper in Boulder county reported on this snowfall in 1926:
“BOULDER. March 26 —Silver Lake. 28 miles west of here, and source of Boulder’s water supply, had the heaviest fall of snow in Colorado this year, according to government statistics revealed here today. Twenty-one feet of snow has fallen during the past winter, the latest fall last night adding the final ten inches necessary to establish the record.”
[Source: “Lake Near Boulder Holds Snowfall Record,” Daily Times (Longmont), March 26, 1926, p. 1.]
Questions:
Where does Boulder get its water?
Where is Silver Lake?
How much snow was needed in total to break the record for snowfall?
What would be the total amount of snow for the record?
During what time of year did the heaviest snowfall come?
***
How to Use These Sources:
Several of these sources present data that can be interpreted in more ways than the questions offered.
OPTION 1: The teacher  might start by asking the students the ways they use water in their lives. Then they can talk about how water might be important to Colorado. Finally,  ask them if they know where their water comes from.
Students can also label rivers any places that are mentioned in the sources.  That map can also help students identify the nearest major river.
OPTION 2: Documents Two through Nine can help students explore some important ways that water matters.  Students could start with that question – “How does water affect peoples’ lives in Colorado?” These sources offer some important reasons.  The Cherry Creek memory selection might provide the opportunity for students to ask older friends and relatives if they have any memories of severe weather events.
OPTION 3: There are additional maps that help students begin to consider how Coloradans have tried to manage aridity in the state.  Map Two is a good starting point here.  Students might find a map of major population centers in Colorado.  Then they could contrast that with Map Two.  There are many possible issues to discuss here.  Why did Coloradans settle on the eastern side of the Rockies and not the West?  Remember the Gold Rush Map from Chapter One?  When do settlers consider water availability?  How might western slope residents (or those down river in other states) feel about water diversions from the Colorado River, for example, to the city of Denver?
The John Powell Map, Document 7, highlights another aspect of Colorado history.  Students might consider why settlements did not follow Powell’s suggestion.  What would life in Colorado be like if communities were organized around river basins?
Appendix with Standards
1
Teaching the Standards Through Primary Sources
Students can demonstrate their understanding of many different standards as they work through projects in these chapters.  The tables below are intended as a general guide for identifying the key standards addressed in chapters and the book overall.
Colorado Academic Standards for Social Studies
All of the chapters in this book address the first Graduate Competency under the Colorado Academic Standard for History.  Students will consistently explore how people view, construct, and interpret history.  Given our focus on Colorado history, we have of course included a range of sources to help students understand this particular state experience.  Yet, many of the chapters will help students extend outward to the American West as a region as well as United States as a whole.
In the chart below, we note briefly how specific chapters address Grade Level Expectations (GLE) within each disciplinary standard for Social Studies.  While we hope to make these source projects accessible for elementary-aged readers, we also include appropriate middle-school expectations.
Chapter
Colorado Academic Standards for Social Studies
1. What Stories Do Maps Tell?
GEOGRAPHY:
GLE 1 for 4th grade: Using geo-tools to answers questions about Colorado geography
GLE 1 for 5th grade: Using geo-tools to answers questions about US geography
GLE 2 for 5th grade: Causes and consequences of movement.
HISTORY:
GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History.
GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History.
GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere.
GLE 1 for 8th grade: Investigate and evaluate primary and secondary sources about U.S. history from the American Revolution through Reconstruction to formulate and defend a point of view with textual evidence.
GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence.
CIVICS:
GLE 1 for 4th Grade: Identify, Investigate, and analyze multiple perspectives on civics issues.
2. What Makes a Pioneer?
HISTORY:
GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History.
GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History.
GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere.
GLE 1 for 8th grade: Investigate and evaluate primary and secondary sources about U.S. history from the American Revolution through Reconstruction to formulate and defend a point of view with textual evidence.
GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence.
GEOGRAPHY:
GLE 1 for 4th grade: Using geo-tools to answers questions about Colorado geography.
ECONOMICS:
GLE 1 for 4th Grade: People respond to positive and negative incentives.
GLE 1 for High School: Productive resources are scarce; therefore, choices are made about how individuals, businesses, governments, and nonprofits allocate these resources.
3. How did Gold and Silver Change Colorado?
HISTORY:
GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History.
GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History.
GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere.
GLE 1 for 8th grade: Investigate and evaluate primary and secondary sources about US history from the American Revolution through Reconstruction to formulate and defend a point of view with textual evidence.
GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence.
ECONOMICS:
GLE 1 for 4th Grade: People respond to positive and negative incentives.
GLE 1 for High School: Productive resources are scarce; therefore, choices are made about how individuals, businesses, governments, and nonprofits allocate these resources.
4. What Makes a Cowboy?
HISTORY:
GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History.
GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History.
GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere.
GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence.
5. Sand Creek–Why Did This Event Happen?
HISTORY:
GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History.
GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History.
GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere.
GLE 1 for 8th grade: Investigate and evaluate primary and secondary sources about U.S. history from the American Revolution through Reconstruction to formulate and defend a point of view with textual evidence.
GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence.
CIVICS:
GLE 1 for 4th Grade: Identify, Investigate, and analyze multiple perspectives on civics issues.
GLE 3 for High School: Evaluate the impact of political institutions that link the people to the government.
6. What Challenges Did Immigrants Face in Colorado?
HISTORY:
GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History.
GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History.
GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere.
GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence.
ECONOMICS:
GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Determine the opportunity cost when making a choice (PFL).
CIVICS:
GLE 1 for 4th Grade: Identify, Investigate, and analyze multiple perspectives on civics issues.
GLE 3 for High School: Evaluate the impact of political institutions that link the people to the government.
7. Who Fought for Equality in Colorado?
HISTORY:
GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History.
GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History.
GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere.
CIVICS:
GLE 1 for 4th Grade: Identify, Investigate, and analyze multiple perspectives on civics issues.
GLE 1 for 8th Grade: Construct an understanding of the changing definition of citizenship and the expansion of rights of citizens in the U.S.
GLE 3 for High School: Evaluate the impact of political institutions that link the people to the government.
8. Can Cartoons Influence People?
HISTORY:
GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History.
GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History.
GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere.
GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence.
CIVICS:
GLE 1 for 4th Grade: Identify, Investigate, and analyze multiple perspectives on civics issues.
GLE 3 for High School: Evaluate the impact of political institutions that link the people to the government.
9. Water in Colorado: How Did the Environment Shape History?
GEOGRAPHY:
GLE 1 for 4th grade: Using geo-tools to answers questions about Colorado geography
GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Examine the characteristics of places and regions, and the changing nature among geographic and human interactions.
GLE 1 for 8th grade: Use geographic tools to research and analyze patterns in human and physical systems in the U.S.
GLE 2 for High School: Geographic variables influence interactions of people, places, and environments.
HISTORY:
GLE 1 for 4th and 5th grade: Analyze primary and secondary sources from multiple points of view to understand Colorado History.
GLE 2 for 4th Grade: Historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado History.
GLE 1 for 6th grade: Analyze and interpret primary and secondary sources to ask and research historical questions about the Western Hemisphere.
GLE 1 for High School: Use the historical method of inquiry to formulate compelling questions, evaluate primary and secondary sources, analyze and interpret data, and argue for an interpretation defended by textual evidence.
Common Core English Language Arts:
Reading Informational Text, History/Social Studies, and Writing Standards
Teachers addressing the Common Core English Language Arts standards can also find much in this volume to help students with these goals.   The chapters consistently support these Common Core standards:
GRADE 4
Common Core LA Standards
READING:
Key Ideas and Details:
4.1  Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from text.
4.2  Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details.
4.3  Explain events, procedures, ideas or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text.
Craft and Structure:
4.6  Compare and contrast a firsthand and second-hand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas:
4.9  Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.
WRITING:
4.1  Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
4.3  Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details and clear event sequences.
4.7  Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
GRADE 5
Common Core LA Standards
READING:
Key Ideas and Details:
5.1 Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly.
Craft and Structure:
5.6 Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas:
5.9 Integration of information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.
WRITING:
5.1 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
5.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details and clear event sequences.
5.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
MIDDLE SCHOOL
Common Core LA Standards
ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS: HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES
Key Ideas and Details:
6-8.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
6-8.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
Craft and Structure:
6-8.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.
6-8.5: Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).
6-8.6: Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts).
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas:
6-8.7: Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.
6-8.8: Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.
6-8.9: Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic.
WRITING:
6-8.1: Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
6-8.1A: Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
6-8.1B Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.
6-8.2: Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
6-8.9: Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
Acknowledgements
2
We wish to thank the many colleagues who have offered helpful suggestions and comments on drafts of this work.  These include Metro Un-Published Papers and Extended Theses Seminar (MUPPETS) members; Jim Drake; Brian Weiser; Matt Maher; Kim Klimek; Andrea Maestrejuan; Shelby Balik; and Laresh Jayasanker.  Corey Sell offered valuable insights into what makes a good source collection for elementary-aged readers.  We also benefitted from the Primary Source Set Work Group organized by Colorado Department of Education Social Studies expert, Stephanie Hartman.  Other members who patiently reviewed early drafts and improved our work included Kristin Fong, Amanda Gould, Steve Jennings, Leigh Jeremias, April Legg, Jenny Petit, Rebecca Theobald.   That group produced a wonderful series of primary source sets for elementary-aged readers available on the Colorado Department Education website.   Teaching with Primary Sources gurus Kile Clabaugh and Keith Patterson showed us the way on this project, and they continue to maintain a valuable network in partnership with the Library of Congress.  Bob and Marilyn Laugen saved us from some embarrassing typos.  Zoe Cochran kept hope alive for Todd.