Psilocybin Implementation and Significance in Therapy: A Literature Review ZAHAVA HEYDEL ZHEYDEL@MSUDENVER.EDU BRADEN PARKER BPARKE34@MSUDENVER.EDU MATT SINGER MSINGER8@MSUDENVER.EDU TYLER DEVRIES TDEVRIE4@MSUDENVER.EDU
Background Psilocybin is not addictive ( Katzung et al., 2012) Psychedelics compounds do not cause any greater chromosomal damage than antibiotics or food additives ( Dishotsky et al., 1971) Be aware of family history Can trigger psychotic break for those at risk of schizophrenia (Pollan, 2018) Psilocybin is a naturally occurring psychedelic compound found in polyphyletic mushrooms (Pollan, 2018) This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY SA
Used in Ancient and Native communities for religious and spiritual ceremonies (Carhart Harris & Goodwin, 2017) 1950s Psychedelics being used to treat addiction, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, autism, and end of life anxiety (Pollan, 2018) Boom of psychedelic therapy (Carhart Harris & Goodwin, 2017) 1960s: Timothy Leary (Pollan, 2018) 1970: Psychedelics labeled as Schedule 1 Drug ( Al Hubbard Sidney Cohen
Current Research Psilocybin shown to be effective for treatment of: Alcohol dependency (Bogenshutz et al., 2015) Tobacco addiction (Johnson et al. 2014) Treatment resistant depression (Watts et al., 2017) Psychological distress and suicidality (Henricks et al., 2015) Anxiety and depression (Ross et al., 2016) Obsessive compulsive disorder (Wilcox, 2014) John Hopkins active studies Consciousness Research, n.d.) Psychedelic & Consciousness Research, n.d.)
The Neuroscience of Psilocybin Thalamus Anterior/Posterior Cingulate Cortex Default mode network Brain regions most affected: Changes in the brain: Individuals under effects shown to have decreases in blood flow and reduced oxygen absorption in areas listed above. (Carhart Harris, 2012) Connectivity between major hub regions in the brain is weakened. However, there are increases in interconnectedness between regions that normally wouldn't be connected (Pollan, 2018). (see image on next slide) "Enables a state of unconstrained cognition" (Carhart Harris, 2012)
Brain connections on placebo (left) vs. psilocybin (right)
The Neuroscience of Psilocybin (cont.) DEFAULT MODE NETWORK The portion of our brain most active when nothing is taking our attention (what our brain "defaults" to). Critical hub of brain activity with links to memory and emotion. Most affected region of the brain during the effects of psilocybin (Pollan, 2018) Region of the brain that allows us to engage in metacognitions such as self reflection and what we coin as "daydreaming ". The decreased blood flow can result in a lost sense of self, allowing us to "step outside of ourselves" and reach objective insight into our lives. (Pollan, 2018 )
What a guided session looks like can live their lives fully." (Pollan, 2018) Varies according to the Psychologist Calm and welcoming environment is salient This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY NC ND .
Guided session orientation 3 months of treatment 9 sessions (8 hours each) 2 psychotherapists attending each session 6 months of follow up (Belser et al., 2017) This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY NC ND .
Micro dosing Unconscious connection to substance 0.1 0.4 grams Shown to dramatically improve stress levels and depression ( Polito et al. 2019) Can be included in psilocybin assisted therapy This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY SA NC . This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY SA NC .
De stigmatization " I learned more about psychology in the five hours after taking these mushrooms than in the preceding 15 years of study and research in psychology " (Timothy Leary) "The Roman Catholic church might have been the first institution to fully recognize the threat to its authority posed by a psychedelic plant" (Pollan, 2018)
Research on de stigmatization Major societal conditions for de stigmatization Credibility Status Expert Knowledge Interaction
References Belser , A. B., Agin Liebes , G., Swift, T. C., Terrana , S., Devenot Assisted Psychotherapy: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 57(4), 354 388. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022167817706884 Bogenschutz, M. P., Forcehimes , A. A., Pommy , J. A., Wilcox, C. E., Barbosa, P., & Strassman, R. J. (2015). Psilocybin assisted treatment for alcohol dependence: A proof of concept study. Journal of Psychopharmacology 29 (3), 289 299. Carhart Harris, R. L., (2012). Neural correlates of the psychedelic state as determined by fMRI studies with psilocybin. Neuroscience, 109(6), 2138 2143. doi : 10.1073/pnas.1119598109 Carhart Harris, R. L., & Goodwin, G. M. (2017). The therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs: Past, present, and future. Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 42 (11), 2105 2113. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.84 Clair, M., Daniel, C., & Lamont, M. (2016, September). Destigmatization and health: Cultural constructions and the long term reduction of stigma. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5758051/ Dishotsky , N. I., Loughman , W. D., Mogar , R. E. (1971). LSD and genetic damage. Science, 172 (3982), 431 440. doi : 10.1126/science.172.3982.431
References cont. Hendricks, P. S., Johnson, M. W., & Griffiths, R. R. (2015). Psilocybin, psychological distress, and suicidality. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 29 (9), 1041 1043. doi:10.1177/0269881115598338 Research . https://hopkinspsychedelic.org/ Johnson, M. W., Garcia Romeu, A., Casimano , M. P., & Griffiths, R. R. (2014). Pilot study of the 5 HT 2A R agonist psilocybin in the treatment of tobacco addiction. Journal of Psychopharmacology 28 (11), 983 892. Katzung , B. G., Masters, S. B., & Trevor, A. J. (2012). Basic and clinical pharmacology. New York: McGraw Hill. Polito, V., & Stevenson, R. J. (2019). A systematic study of microdosing psychedelics. PLoS One , 14 (2). Pollan, M. (2018). How to change your mind. Penguin Books Ross, S., Bossis , A., Guss, J., Agin Liebes , G., Malone, T., Cohen, B., . . . Schmidt, B. L. (2016). Rapid and sustained symptom reduction following psilocybin treatmen t f or anxiety and depression in patients with life threatening cancer: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 30 (12), 1165 1180. doi:10.1177/0269881116675512 Timothy Leary. (2020). Retrieved from https://psychology.fas.harvard.edu/people/timothy leary Watts, R., Day, C., Krzanowski , J., Nutt, D., & Carhart or treatment resistant depression. Journal of Humanistic Psychology 57 (5), 520 564. Wilcox, J. A. (2014). Psilocybin and obsessive compulsive disorder. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 46 (5), 393 395. doi:10.1080/02791072.2014.963754