THE PRISON TO SCHOOL PIPELINE of EdTech SHEA SWAUGER APRIL 16, 2020
He/him/his @ SheaSwauger
OUTLINE MASS INCARCERATION 1 THE SCHOOL TO PRISON PIPELINE 2 THE PRISON TO SCHOOL PIPELINE OF EDTECH 3 WHY THIS IS HAPPENING AND WHAT TO DO NOW 4
MASS INCARCERATION THE WAR ON DRUGS
JOHN EHRLICHMAN RICHARD NIXON "America's public enemy number one is drug abuse" 1971
The Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that, had two enemies: the antiwar left and black people. either against the war or blacks, but by getting the public to associate the hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin, and then criminalizing both heavily, we could disrupt those communities. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and
LYING ABOUT THE DRUGS? John Ehrlichman, 1996 Counsel and Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs under President Richard Nixon
a. Black Americans are far more likely to be arrested for drugs b. Mandatory minimum sentences raised for drug crime c. Black people get longer sentences than white people for the same crimes d. increases in crime e. Felon disenfranchisement laws disproportionately impact Black people and swing elections Some (but not all) of the fallout from the War on Drugs
a. The U.S. criminal justice system functions as a contemporary system of racial control Foundational Claims
THE SCHOOL TO PRISON PIPELINE
functions as a contemporary system DR. MICHELLE ALEXANDER
interaction of national, state, and local policies and practices that serve to push young people, disproportionately youth of color, out of schools and into African American Policy Forum
a. Zero Tolerance Policies involve police more often for minor events b. Black girls are 6 times more likely to get suspended than white girls c. Black boys are 3 times more likely to get suspended than white boys
a. The U.S. criminal justice system functions as a contemporary system of racial control b. The School to Prison Pipeline pushes students of color into the criminal justice system Foundational Claims
THE PRISON TO SCHOOL PIPELINE of EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY a. High tech AI, learning analytics, facial recognition b. Low tech Pencils, paper, white boards, desks
LOW EDTECH AND LAW ENFORCEMENT Bullet proof glass and backpacks Guns Isolation Rooms Metal detectors Electric shock Technology as contraband
HIGH EDTECH AND LAW ENFORCEMENT Using cell phones to track location Social media account monitoring Learning Analytics Artificial Intelligence Facial Recognition
CRIMINAL JUSTICE: CELL PHONE LOCATION TRACKING
EDUCATION: CELL PHONE LOCATION TRACKING
CRIMINAL JUSTICE: SOCIAL MEDIA MONITORING
EDUCATION: SOCIAL MEDIA MONITORING
CRIMINAL JUSTICE: PREDICTIVE ANALYTICS
EDUCATION: PREDICTIVE ANALYTICS
CRIMINAL JUSTICE: ARTIFICIAL INTELLEGENCE
EDUCATION: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
CRIMINAL JUSTICE: FACIAL RECOGNITION
EDUCATION: FACIAL RECOGNITION
Foundational Claims a. The U.S. criminal justice system functions as a contemporary system of racial control b. The School to Prison Pipeline pushes students of color into the criminal justice system c. There is a revolving door of people and technology between education and the criminal justice system
Foundational Claims 1. The U.S. criminal justice system functions as a contemporary system of racial control 2. The School to Prison Pipeline pushes students of color into the criminal justice system 3. There is a revolving door of people and technology between education and the criminal justice system 4. The Prison to School Pipeline of EdTech
Why is this happening?
I don't know.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE White supremacy Surveillance Criminals as broken people Reintegrate back into society Prisons held outside of society White supremacy Surveillance Students as blank slates Integrate into the job market Schools held as outside of society EDUCATION
What do we do about it?
I don't know that either.
I don't know that either.
The classroom remains the most radical space of possibility in the academy . bell hooks Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom
Citations The New Jim Crow Michelle Alexander . 2012 https://newjimcrow.com/ Report: Aide says Nixon's war on drugs targeted blacks, hippies CNN. Tom LoBianco. March 24, 2016 https://www.cnn.com/2016/03/23/politics/john ehrlichman richard nixon drug war blacks hippie/index.html US State and Federal Prison Populations The Sentencing Project . 2019 https://www.sentencingproject.org/criminal justice facts/ Mass incarceration in America, explained in 22 maps and charts Vox . German Lopez. Oct 11, 2016 https://www.vox.com/2015/7/13/8913297/mass incarceration maps charts Does Florida Really Want Ex Felons to Vote? The New York Times. Nicholas Casey. March 16, 2020 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/16/us/politics/florida felons voting rights.html 6 Year Old Begs for Help During Arrest at Florida School The New York Post. Joshua Rhett Miller. February 25, 2020 https://nypost.com/2020/02/25/6 year old begs for help during arrest at florida school video/ Image: Exploring the School to Prison Pipeline Blog Talk Radio. Brother Agyei https://www.blogtalkradio.com/agyeityehimba/2011/10/20/exploring the school to prison pipeline
Citations Image: Exploring the School to Prison Pipeline Blog Talk Radio. Brother Agyei https://www.blogtalkradio.com/agyeityehimba/2011/10/20/exploring the school to prison pipeline The School to Prison Pipeline African American Policy Forum https://aapf.org/school to prison pipeline The 74 Million. Naomi Nix, March 28 th , 2017 https://www.the74million.org/article/black girls 6 times more likely to be suspended than whites let her learn looks to reverse the trend/ How Black Girls Get Pushed Out of School The New York Times. Erica Green. April 4 th , 2020 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/04/us/politics/black girls school racism.html boundary of time & space Photo by Henry & CO, Unsplash https://unsplash.com/photos/sCTADxz5PZg Bullet Proof Glass for Schools Creative Industries. 2020. https://cibulletproof.com/industries/schools/ Bullet Blocker Bullet Proof Backpacks Bullet Blocker. 2020 https://www.bulletblocker.com/bullet proof backpack shield.html
Citations Arming Teachers Just Makes Sense https://www.americas1stfreedom.org/articles/2020/1/6/arming teachers just makes sense/ Arming Teachers: IL Association Of School Board Revisits Proposal Patch. Shannon Antinori. Oct 23, 2019 https://patch.com/illinois/across il/arming teachers il association school board revisits proposal The Quiet Rooms: Children Locked Away in Illinois Schools ProPublica. Jennifer Smith Richards, Jodi S. Cohen, Lakeidra Chavis. Nov. 19, 2019 https://www.propublica.org/series/illinois school seclusions timeouts restraints Do metal detectors keep schools safe? Chicago school board wades into debate Chalk Beat. Catherine Henderson. July 25, 2019 https://chalkbeat.org/posts/chicago/2019/07/25/do metal detectors keep schools safe board conversation pulls back curtain on deb ate/ F.D.A. Bans School Electric Shock Devices The New York Times. Jacey Fortin March 6, 2020 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/06/us/electric shock fda ban.html To Control Inmates, Some Counties Try the Threat of Electric Shock The New York Times. Jacey Fortin. March 12, 2018 https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/12/us/electric shock inmates.html Tech Crunch. Zack Whittaker. December 11, 2019 https://techcrunch.com/2019/12/11/aclu cbp ice stingray surveillance/
Citations Racial Disparities in Police 'Stingray' Surveillance, Mapped City Lab. George Joseph. October 18, 2016 https://www.citylab.com/equity/2016/10/racial disparities in police stingray surveillance mapped/502715/ Washington Post. Drew Harwell. Dec. 24, 2019 https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2019/12/24/colleges are turning students phones into surveillance machines tracking lo cations hundreds thousands/ The Verge. Sean Hollister Jan 28, 2020 https://www.theverge.com/2020/1/28/21112456/spotteredu degree analytics student location tracking app attendance How Ice Uses Social Media to Surveil and Arrest Immigrants The Intercept. December 22, 2019. Max Rivlin Nadler https://theintercept.com/2019/12/22/ice social media surveillance/ Social Media Monitoring Raya Koreh, Rachel Levinson Waldman, Faiza Patel, Sophia DenUyl. March 11, 2020 https://www.brennancenter.org/our work/research reports/social media monitoring Could Monitoring Students on Social Media Stop the Next School Shooting The New York Times. Sept. 6, 2018. Aaron Leibowitz https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/06/us/social media monitoring school shootings.html Schools Are Mining Students' Social Media Posts for Signs of Trouble. But should they? Wired. 08 20 2018. Tom Simonite https://www.wired.com/story/algorithms monitor student social media posts/
Citations Artificial Intelligence, Authentic Impact: How Educational AI is Making the Grade EdTech. August 27 th , 2019. Doug Bonderud https://edtechmagazine.com/k12/article/2019/08/artificial intelligence authentic impact how educational ai making grade perfcon How AI Can Realize the Promise of Adaptive Education. Forbes Mar 26, 2020. Derek Haoyang Li https://www.forbes.com/sites/insights ibmai/2020/03/26/how ai can realize the promise of adaptive education/#6c728e2312b3 New York Times. Catie Edmondson. July 7, 2019 https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/07/us/politics/ice drivers licenses facial recognition.html London Police Are Taking Surveillance to a Whole New Level The New York Times. Adam Satariano. Jan. 24, 2020 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/24/business/london police facial recognition.html Facial Recognition Software on the Rise in U.S. Schools Government Technology. Lucas Ropek. October 17, 2019 https://www.govtech.com/products/Facial Recognition Software on the Rise in US Schools.html Vox. Rebecca Heilweil Dec 20, 2019. https://www.vox.com/recode/2019/12/20/21028124/schools facial recognition mass shootings