Interiors for a nightclub/dinner theatre

Material Information

Interiors for a nightclub/dinner theatre
Mandel, Donna
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
49, iv leaves : color charts, maps (some folded) ; 22 x 29 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Theater architecture ( lcsh )
Restaurants -- Designs and plans ( lcsh )
Music-halls (Variety-theaters, cabarets, etc.) -- Designs and plans ( lcsh )
Music-halls (Variety-theaters, cabarets, etc.) ( fast )
Restaurants ( fast )
Theater architecture ( fast )
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves i-iv).
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degree in Interior Design, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Donna Mandel.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09881986 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A75 1983 .M38 ( lcc )

Full Text
If I
MAY 1983

My thanks to my advisors Mr. Michael J. Hicks,
Dr. Walter B. Kleeman, Mr. Chalmers G. Long,
Mr. Christopher G. Nims, and Mr. Thomas S. Ricca for their assistance during research and development of this project. Thanks also go to those involved with the actual planning and construction of the Turn of the Century for sharing their information and time with me. And a very special thank you to my wonderful family for their love, support and tolerance through it all!

I. Introduction.................................... 1
A. History of entertainment facilities......... 1
B. The Dinner Theater facility................. 3
C. Entertainment facility interiors............ 3
D. History of the Turn of the Century.......... 4
II. Location/Setting................................ 5
A. Description of the environment.............. 5
B. Map Denver (showing location of the
"Turn").................................... 7
C. Map Neighborhood (showing other
restaurant facilities)..................... 8
D. Map Regional (showing competitive
facilities)................................ 9
III. Research........................................10
A. Literature search...........................10
B. Interviews and photography..................10
IV. Economic Factors................................11
V. Users...........................................14
A. User Requirements physiological...........18
B. User Requirements psychological...........19
VI. Codes and Zoning................................26
VII. Evalutaion and Programming by Functional Area..27

The Turn of the Century Dinner Theater is a unique problem in that it combines the functional design criteria of theatre (be it "vaudeville/burlesque" type comedy entertainment or larger scale musical comedy) with restaurant design technology. Added to this is the concern for the psychological well-being of patrons frequenting the facility in expected large numbers.
Men have sung or chanted in groups, to celebrate or lament, since the days of the cave dwellers. They have also grouped together to marvel at the skill and dexterity of those stronger or more agile than themselves, for as long. Both forms of entertainment have survived, and remain distinct from drama (Leslie, 1978). Throughout man's history, theatre has presisted as a communal participation in both religious ritual and the pleasure derived from performance.(Mielziner, 1970).
Western theatre had its beginnings in Greence, a rugged hill county inhabited by a practical people who found the use of a hillside, natural bowl, or ravine between hills to be an obvious solution to the site line/ seating problem. The first constructed theatre was in Athens (550-500 B.C.).
Historically, theatres and concert halls were meant to be structures for festive occasions. Even today the audiences congregating there take such things as the acoustics for granted and accept the amenities or endure the discomforts of the seating arrangements as long as this festive spirit prevails, generated by publicity, high prices, star performers, fancy gowns, and the glitter of jewelry (Izenour, 1977).
The art and science of Western theatre design (like performance, its reason for being) have persisted for 2400 years. From its earliest beginnings in Greece (c. 400 B.C.) to the fall of Rome (c. 400 A.D.),

and from its revival (c. 1600) to the present, its history logically divides into two periods, ancient (lasting 800 years) and modern (the past 400 years), separated by roughly 1100 years of complete inactivity due to the twin overriding stimuli of war and religion during the Byzantine times and the Middle Ages (Izenour, 1977). The performances of the strolling players in court ballrooms were small and intimate, but intimacy really only became a theatrical element in the 17th and 18th centuries, when the spoken word itself became of primary importance (Mielziner, 1970).
In the late 1860's and early 1870's, music halls in England enjoyed so great a popularity that they had practically forced out the theatre in public esteem, offering a mixture of music and melodrama, spectacle and song, comedy and illusion, and excitement. There was a boisterous, unruly crudity in English music halls, which was less direct and therefore less honest than the attitude that divided variety entertainment in the United States into "clean" vaudeville and "dirty" burlesque. English music halls never caught on in the United States. Our early vaudeville and burlesque, which stemmed in part from the American minstrel show, shared some of its components, but there were profound differences in taste, both public and professional (Leslie, 1978) .
Although impossible to document, the concept of "dinner theatre" could be said to date back to Roman times, when guests used to lie back during and after dining to be entertained, this practice continuing throughout our history.
There were restaurants in the city of Ur in the year 2100 B.C. These were actually market stalls where people could buy food that they were too busy, too hot, or too lazy to prepare for themselves. Today's restaurants offer the same basic convenience (Mehrabian, 1976).

For many years in our more recent memory, large clubs offered entertainment with dinner, be it glamorous floor shows (a la Carmen Miranda) or big band sound dancing. Gradually, this gave way to less expensive forms of entertainment such as television, and those clubs were forced to cut back on live acts just to keep their dinner business alive. Ironically, now that money is tight and "hard times" are upon us, the public is demanding dancing and floor shows again (Metropolitan Restaurant News, October 1980).
The facility must provide as many psychological and physical amenities as patrons frequenting such an establishment would expect to find there while, at the same time, allowing the owners to make a profit.
The course of my study will be to review the solutions arrived at by the designers of the actual project, evaluate them on the basis of my research, and offer alternative design solutions.
The client wishes to provide seating for at least 1,000 people per show, sometimes offering two shows per evening. The high cost of booking big name entertainers (price dictated, of course, by demand) necessitates maximization of seating capacity, but without sacrificing employee efficiency or patron comfort or enjoyment.
In 1973, theatre restaurants grossed about $150 million, three times that of Broadway theatres (Lundberg, 1979). Places for eating, drinking and entertainment should be conceived as events themselves, rather than merely as containers for events.

Theatre design, which is one of the major aspects of this project, is one of the most complex problems a designer can be called upon to solve. The first consideration cannot be aesthetics, but how the audience is to be brought into the best relationship with the performance. This requirement has not changed in 2400 years. History shows that the Greeks and Romans found out by observation that speech and sight are both straight line phenomena. It follows, then, that good lines for sight are also good lines for hearing.
It was, therefore, obvious that the performer and the audience had to be brought into as close and unrestricted a relation as possible (Izenour, 1977).
This is a situation where a visit to the restaurant is merely one aspect of an exciting evening which includes professional entertainment during the course of the evening.
The design decisions, which must be made for the theatre function of this facility are: (1) audience
seating capacity; (2) choice of stage and auditorium shape; (3) size and number of specific supporting facilities that will be designed for stage, audience, and administrative staff; and (4) the equipment that will be included in each of these areas.
The issues to be addressed are the audience's and employees'' basic ergonomic or physical needs, people's movement through the space and how to accommodate it, and the participants' psychological needs and motivations.
The owners of the original Turn of the Century Restaurant, Lounge and Nightclub began bringing Las Vegas style entertainment to Denver in November, 1971. That

facility, located at 7300 East Hampden Avenue, continued to operate until February, 1982. Entertainment in that facility was provided by such stars as Joan Rivers, Paul Williams, Tony Bennett, Suzanne Somers, Phyllis Diller, Bill Cosby, Ben Vereen, Donna Summers, Mickey Gilley,
The Sisters Sledge, and the "blockbuster" Beefcake Review, to name but a few. Although the demand for this type of entertainment still existed in Denver, the small physical space available made it economically infeasible to continue to bring in these big name acts.
The decision was made in December 1981 to close the facility, remodel the restaurant on the upper level and re-open it under a new name, creating a lounge with dance floor in the lower level, and discontinue providing live, big-name entertainment until a suitable facility could be developed.
The selected site for the new Turn of the Century nightclub is at East Hampden Avenue at South Yosemite Street, a space originally built for and occupied by a Safeway supermarket. The plans are to again provide Las Vegas type live entertainment, as well as productions of widely known Broadway musicals, featuring buffet dinner service and table service from the bar.
The former "Turn" consisted of a total area of 17,000 20,000 square feet of which 7,000 square feet on the lower level was devoted to the nightclub function. This area provided crowded seating for 450, which usually filled to capacity for 2 shows per night, six nights per week. Dinner-show arrangements, for the most part, consisted of dining upstairs (with table service), then relocating downstairs for the show. For a brief six-month period, experimentally a buffet service dinner was offered, but this proved unsatisfactory in that physical environment.

Because of the long flights of stairs to both the upper dining area and the lower entertainment area, access to the handicapped was severely hampered. Although there was a ramp at the back of the facility, it was rarely used. The doorman would assist in transporting the handicapped patron up and down the stairs.
In addition, the entry was common to both levels, and therefore to both functions, causing a severe circulation problem. The single coat check was also located in this entry area, making coat checking and claiming extremely difficult at pre- and post-show times.
An additional critical problem was the inadequate ventilating system in the heavily smoke-filled space of the nightclub.
The new Turn of the Century is located on East Hampden Avenue and South Yosemite Street in Denver, Colorado on the "East Hampden Strip," Denver's hot nightlife hub, where people (mostly young and single) come to eat, to drink, to dance, to have fun. Along "The Strip" there are 34 restaurants, which includes fast-food facilities (see map, p. 8).
In urbania there are 4 types of locations for restaurants: business, shopping, entertainment and
eating. These may have overlapping elements, but the main volume of business will come from just one (Atkin, 1960). With this in mind, the "Turn" would be classified
as being in a primarily eating area with overlap into the entertainment classification.
The Turn of the Century is a wholly unique

Denver City & County map showing location of the

facility for Denver the only one of its kind in the area for celebrity nightclub entertainment. At those times when it is presenting Broadway musicals, its primary competitors will be the Country Dinner Playhouse, located at 6875 South Clinton in Englewood; the Boulder Dinner Theatre, located at 5501 Arapahoe in Boulder; Gabriel's Dinner Theatre in the Holiday Inn at 1475 South Colorado Boulevard in Denver; and the melodrama at the Heritage Square Opera House in Golden (see map, p. 9).
The methods used to gain information relative to this project included:
Reading for this project was directed toward the many and varied aspects of restaurant design and of theatre design, as well as human behavior and general environmental psychology information. Attempts to discover literature specifically relating to dinner-theatres, Las Vegas-type entertainment showrooms, or buffet service revealed virtually nothing currently available.
Inasmuch as nightclub facilities with live, big-name entertainment are non-existent in Denver, Colorado, several similar facilities out of town as well as a dinner theatre here were observed and photographed, and interviews were conducted at each facility. These were:

Mr. Ben Harrell, Manager of Pete Fountain's Club at the Hilton Hotel in New Orleans
Mr. Larry Thebodeaux, Manager of the Blue Room at the Fairmont Hotel in New Orleans
Ms. Mary Ann Miehle at Caesar's Palace Hotel in Las Vegas
Mr. Allen Gack at the Dunes Hotel in Las Vegas
Mr. Harley Akers at the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas
Mr. David Dearing at the Sahara Hotel in Las Vegas
Ms. Ginny Murphy at the Tropicana Hotel in Las Vegas
Mr. David Livengood at the Country Dinner Playhouse in Denver.
plus those involved with the construction and management of the Turn of the Century.
It is predicted that by the mid-1990's, four out of ten Americans will be living in cities cities being defined economically as "concentrations of wealth in the form of capital or other economic goods." Where there is a concentration of money, one will also find a concentration of industries which are dependent upon money or upon the freedom from basic survival concerns that money confers. Therefore, one will find the best theatre, opera, ballet, entertainment, orchestras, art galleries, universities and conversation in cities. For those who chose to live in these environments, the enormous variety and flexibility of a 24-hour-a-day city more than offset

the negative or unpleasant aspects (Mehrabian, 1976).
The population of the seven county metropolitan area encompassing our site is 1,699,550; the population of Denver county is 497,700 (1982 figures obtained from the Denver Regional Council of Governments). Denver's constant influx of tourists and business people will also supply a constant addition to the audience.
According to the National Restaurant Association, the restaurant business is the 3rd largest of all United States' businesses. Current figures indicated that one in 3.5 meals is eaten away from home.
According to the March 1980 Current Population Reports from the United States Bureau of Census, 53.8% of United States households were composed of only 1 or 2 persons. The reasons for this are lower fertility rates, the ease and frequency of divorce, and the ability and desire for young singles and elderly to live alone. Small households probably encourage eating out, as dining is a social as well as an alimentary experience.
Discretionary, or disposable, income (income that can be used as one sees fit, that which is left over from the sum required to meet expenses) is tied to the amount of money spent in eating and drinking places. Eating out is usually pleasurable; therefore, the more discretionary income a household has, the greater the likelihood of eating out and spending more in the process (see Figure I, p.15). Fewer children, smaller living spaces for the family, less housework for the wife, and more women having joined the work force have resulted in more disposable income, producing a greater desire to eat out and the money to do so.

The National Restaurant Association commissioned a survey, conducted in April and May of 1981, in which respondents were asked how many times they had eaten at a restaurant or fast food place or had eaten food ordered from a take-out restaurant during the previous 2 weeks. Analysis of the data revealed the incidence of eating out varies by age, sex, income, family size, female employment, and region of the country. The figures which follow document those factors which are pertinent to this project, namely frequency of eating out of all age groups combined, frequency by household income, and frequency in the western region of the United States, the region which includes Denver.
The outlook, therefore, is that better marketing and merchandising, more highly-trained and dedicated employees, and a more flexible approach to design and decor will mark the winners in the continuing battle for a share of the meals-away-from home market.
Users of this facility include patrons, management and their guests (including press), "front-of-house" employees, "back-of-house" employees (which includes clerical staff, bartenders and kitchen help), technical support staff, and the entertainers and their entourage.
The Turn of the Century has three owners, two of whom are acting managers requiring offices on site, staffed additionally with five (5) clerical personnel plus accounting and advertising staff. The greatest number of employees will be involved with the food-service function.

Figure 1.

Figure 2.
Under $15,000
$20,000 $29,999
Did not eat out 1-2 times 3-6 times 7 or more times Non-responses
$15,000 $19,999
$50,000 and over

Figure 3.

1) Physiological
This will be a festive "restaurant" where the food is acceptably good and where, as a general rule, the customer expects to pay more for his meal than at any other kind of dining place. People will approach this facility not necessarily looking for a pleasant dining experience, but seeking an exciting evening out in which entertainment and stimulation are the goals. Such establishments thrive on environmental features that contribute to a fairly high level of excitement without pushing arousal to the extreme: Tables rather close together, colorful and stimulating place settings, service people wearing unusual costumes, lighting dim enough so that diners do not feel their every move is subject to scrutiny but bright enough so that there is some visual stimulation from other customers, liquor served to enable overstimulated patrons to lower their arousal to acceptable levels. When people come to the "Turn," it will be with the intention of sharing an exciting evening out in the company of others.
This environment will be extremely arousing because of the entertainment feature. Patrons needing to reduce their arousal level will, as stated previously, wish a drink and it is important that liquor be easily obtained (Mehrabian, 1976) necessitating sufficient numbers of service personnel. The total concept and design of a restaurant should be such as to attract the largest possible number of the particular clientele desired. The message should be immediate and should be borne out by the whole atmosphere and operation of the facility, achieved through unity of architecture, interiors and good management (Atkin, 1960).
This will be a "theatre" for intimate light drama and intimate comedy (for our purposes "theatre" means any live artistic performance and the environment in which it takes place); therefore, every seat must be

within an appreciably close range for best enjoyment of sight and sound of the performance (Mielziner, 1970).
The evidence of comfortable seating while viewing a performance derives from the obvious: the human body is more comfortable, the mind more receptive, and sensitivity to optical and aural stimuli is much improved for extended periods of time if the body remains relaxed and inactive in a semi-erect position. The attention span is greatly lengthened because concentration is maximized as physical discomfort or distraction, due to muscular and nervous fatigue, is minimized.
Spatially, resolution of the theatre design problem (Izenour, 1977) regards, itself with scale insofar as the performer is concerned, and with magnitude insofar as the spectator is concerned. Spectators must be given visual and aural stimulae so that the vicarious experience of participation can be transmitted from active participant to passive spectator. This requires a straight line energy path of finite length.
In a good luminous environment, that which we want to see is emphasized and highlighted, while that which is not of interest or which would interfere with our perception of the first order of things is hidden or played down (Lam, 1977). In any environment, an observer will receive an immense amount of information. He will perceive the bounding surfaces of the interior their color, texture and lightness the furnishings, and a host of other details. The designer must be concerned with the way in which the characteristics of the light affect the perception of the interior and influence the ability of people to function easily, accurately and quickly in it (Canter, et. al., 1975).
We are comfortable when we are free to focus

our attention on what we want or need to see, when the information we seek is clearly visible and confirms our desires and our expectations, and when the background does not compete for our attention in a distracting way (Lam, 1977).
Low illuminance will permit greater intimacy and thereby increase seating capacity (Sommer, 1969).
Sound level can increase a diner's perception of color (Hopkins, 1982). As a result, the normal activity of a restaurant setting will often stimulate greater color perception, appearing to warm up colors in the room an advantage in a nightclub since colors are usually perceived as being duller in reduced evening lighting levels.
However, the efficiency of the rods of the retina that allows us to see pure black and white under dim lighting conditions are reduced by the stimulation of sound waves. The result is that charge slips or guest checks will become harder to read as sound in the dining area increases, increasing the length of time it takes the customer to pay his check. To create a positive experience, control of lighting is essential. The general illumination levels for the "Turn" would be between 10 and 20 footcandles during dining, dimming to 5 footcandles during the performance. It will, however, be necessary to provide some source of light to the patron of approximately 10 footcandles for the reading of the bill and signing of charge slips. The light level for the buffet food displays will be at least 50 footcandles. The kitchen lighting level will be approximately 70 footcandles in the inspection, checking and pricing areas, and 30 footcandles in other areas. The entrance lobby should be lighted to about 30 footcandles if it is still light outside (as on summer evenings), but could be dimmed with a timer to

about 20 footcandles; the foyer itself can be constant at 10 footcandles. The cashier function should receive a minimum of 50 footcandles. The washrooms should be provided with a minimum of 30 footcandles.
The aural environment will be an important consideration in this facility. Guests must be able to hear performers clearly, but not each other. Dealing with the problem of noise ("sound which is undesired by the hearer") constitutes a major part of the designer's work in the aural environment. According to Canter, et. al., 1975, the presence of noise acts as a stimulus to the hearer, which increases his level of arousal, causing the analytical function of his brain to shift momentarily from dealing with relevant inputs to dealing with irrevelant noise input. One of the designer's tasks is to see that the aural environment is correct for the situation. This mismatching of the visual and aural environments can produce a feeling of disorientation amounting to terror. It will be correct if it is familiar, expected, appropriate to the appearance and function of the place.
A general level of environmental noise can fequently produce a general psychological effect known as "annoyance." It is important for designers to be aware that latent annoyance can exist widely at levels below which people would make formal complaints, but which nevertheless diminishes the quality of their experience. It follows that noises which vary in level, in pitch, or in some other physical characteristic are likely to be more annoying than steady noises.
Care must be taken to insulate the dining area from the noises generated in the kitchen area and to insulate the surrounding tables from the noises generated in the service areas within the dining area. The dining experience dictates the use of sound-absorbing materials for maximum relaxation of guests.

Although some levels of reverberation time between 0.9 seconds (for intimate comedy) and 1.4 seconds (for musical comedy) might be desirable for the entertainment function, the use of sophisticated sound amplification equipment virtually eliminates this as an area of concern.
Sound travels in waves which spread out in circles of ever-increasing size on a radius that is a direct line from the source. Any waves that strike a hard surface bounce off that surface and set up another series of waves which spread out at right angles from the surface. Care must be taken, therefore, to create and treat surfaces appropriately for optimum dining acoustics and allow the sound system to take care of the performance. It is imperative that the sound amplification system in the facility be practically undetectable. The result should merely be a slight increase in the level of the natural sound. It must be of the highest professional quality and will consist of a number of directional horns pointed toward different parts of the seating area. The speakers must be located above the center of the performing area, never at the sides.
Color appearance is relevant to the assessment of the luminous environment (Canter, et. al., 1975) because it appears that the preferred condition changes as the illuminance of an interior changes. It has been found that as the illuminance decreases, the preferred color appearance becomes warmer possibly an association between low illuminances and firelight or inefficient tungsten lamps, both of which have a warm color appearance. To get the most out of the light used, white and light pastels will reflect 65-90%.
In the buffet area, the color should not be a

sanitary white, as the after-image of white is gray, which makes all the food look unpalatable. A highly reflecting complimentary color to the food should be used. Use of contrasts of about ten to one will move people through quickly (Kleeman, 1981).
2) Psychological
Restaurant function: People go to restaurants not only to satisfy hunger but to satisfy social needs self-esteem, self-respect, self-confidence and prestige needs (a stand-up snack bar satisfies physiological hunger, some other restaurants meet social needs, and the high-priced places fulfill selfesteem and self-fulfillment needs). Selection of a particular restaurant is based on these psychological needs and the way people are feeling about the money they have to spend, the restaurant's prices, its service and how the restaurant is perceived in terms of its aesthetics, social status, the kind of people that can be expected to be there patrons, managment and employees.
Drink-oriented establishments are important social environments, fulfilling a wide range of human needs. The act of sharing a meal has always had important social implications, and in Western societies at least, this has also meant sharing something alcoholic to drink. In the case of the "Turn", a normally sociofugal place (one which leads away from social activity) as a restaurant usually is, becomes sociopetal, that is, seeking to foster sociability. Here we will want to facilitate social contact (Bennett, 1977).
Theatre function: All theatre interiors (Mielziner, 1970) consist of two essential areas: the auditorium, which is designed specifically for the audience, and the stage, designed for the production. These two areas are entirely different but

cannot function fully if unrelated. Independently they have no life; together they produce a living theatre. It is, therefore, the sensitive interrelationship of the two that makes a theatre design a success or failure. As physical environments, theatres are usually pleasant and exciting. Being part of an audience (Mehrabian, 1976) can add greatly to one's enjoyment of a performance. Not only is being in a crowd an extremely effective way of achieving heightened states of arousal, but the presence of others permits the expression of heightened emotions in the pleasure and dominance dimensions. The laughter of others somehow adds to the general sense of enjoyment and amusement.
Crowding is not always overly arousing, nor is it always unpleasant. It is important to remember that the arousal caused by crowded social conditions has two sources: density and uncertainty arising from social disorganization. When high densities are combined with unexpected, irregular and unpredictable social relationships, arousal levels are maximized.
On the other hand, crowded conditions which are organized, patterned, and orderly (as well as expected) are only moderately arousing (Mehrabian, 1976).
Clientele will be a mixture of those who can readily afford their evening out and those who are, with some difficulty, splurging on a special occasion. The facility must be designed to heighten the pleasurable qualities of the experience for both the highly aroused patron who usually cannot afford such an evening and those who can and who are, therefore, less aroused (Mehrabian, 1976).

Every performed art is a performer/audience shared experience, entirely dependent upon sensations of seeing and hearing. The higher the pleasure and arousal in the audience resulting from the setting, the greater the ease with which performers can achieve their desired effects (Mehrabian, 1976). During a performance (Ashcraft and Scheflen, 1976) an entertainer has no right to restrict an audience's gaze -an audience may look, stare, even shout into zones normally privately reserved; but, at intermission and before and after a performance, a "star" seeks a space backstage, private from public scrutiny.
Much of restaurant management is an art, and the management must really believe in that art, giving the people something better and more beautiful than they have ever seen or had. Relations with people (patrons, employees, entertainers and their agents, and the community at large) are closer and often more sensitive than in most fields. Often he is dealing with people under stress conditions a patron may be ex-hilerated and at his best as a person or may be depressed, drunk, or expressing his latent feelings of deficiency in many ways (Lundberg, 1979); or he may be dealing with a tired or disgruntled employee or an unreasonable, demanding entertainer or agent. The manager must be at his best in all situations and handle them quickly and reasonably, supported by the environment.
3) Health and Safety
All materials used must meet fire codes and be resistant to slipping. There must be sufficient restrooms to meet code requirements, and more (strategically placed) as space allows. Circulation areas must be wide enough, with supplemental lighting as

required, to allow safe passage of guests of all ages and physical abilities carrying plates of food from the buffet to their tables. The number of exits must meet code, and exit and restroom signage must be obvious, and visual ambiguities avoided. Air conditioning in the entire facility is of great importance and concern. The outdoor air requirements for the showroom where smoke is considerable are recommended at 15.0 cubic feet per minute per person (may be governed by exhaust); for the kitchen, the recommendation is 4.0 cubic feet per minute per square foot of floor; and for the restrooms (exhaust) at 2.0 cubic feet per minute per square foot of floor.
Employees: Separate washroom facilities
for the staff is important. In addition, since those working in the dining areas will be wearing uniforms, space must be provided for them to change clothes and securely store their belongings.
Entertainers; Adequate dressing room facilities must be provided for entertainers, inaccessible to the public. In addition, a private entrance from the outside is required for performers, protected from public view.
This facility is covered by the Denver Building Code. It is a Group B-2 occupancy (an assembly building without a stage and an occupant load of 300 or more). It is a Type V one hour, sprinklered building in Fire Zone III.

AREA: Lobby
GOALS: To provide a waiting/meeting area for guests
of the "Turn."
To address and improve the former facility's problem area by alleviating crowding and facilitating circulation.
To provide convenient and efficient ticket sales and check-in facilities.
To provide a place for facility's amenities (restrooms, cloak room, telephones, cigarette machine, drinking fountain).
To facilitate ease of maintenance.
To satisfy code requirements.
FACTS: In order to be most accessible from the parking
area, the entrance must be on the north side of the building.
In case of inclement weather, sufficient space must be provided for late-show patrons to wait, while allowing dinner-show patrons to claim coats and exit easily.
Accommodating large numbers of people can mean crowding.
The lobby area provides the first impression of the showroom's character.

The lobby provides a transition space for acclimating to the reduced lighting levels of the interior.
Security must be provided for guests' belongings.
Area should be between 1800 and 2400 square feet based on calculations of 3 square foot/person for 70% of the seating capacity, or 15-20% of the area of the showroom.
The ticket office must be large enough to accommodate two people. It should command the entrance to the inner lobby, while permitting the lines to form without obstructing the entrance. It should have 2 windows, one for reserved seats and one for current seats.
Coat checking facility area should be planned at 0.5 square foot/patron, or approximately 550 square feet. This function should probably be duplicated so that patrons from the second show who are arriving and checking coats will not be interfering with early show patrons who are claiming coats. In planning these areas, however, it is well to keep in mind that women often do not check coats;and men, unless the weather is very cold, usually do not wear coats. An umbrella rack is desirable.
Telephone booths should be located out of direct vision, yet convenient to dining area. One booth to 50 seats is the usual ratio.
Corridors from lobby areas should be 5-7' wide.
Water fountains should be provided at a ratio of one for the first 100 people and one for each 200 after that, for a total of 6 or 7.

Restroom facilities for this seating capacity should be approximately 20 water closets, 12 urinals and 16 lavatories.
Since this is to be a festive facility where patrons will spend a considerable amount of money for an evening's entertainment, the lobby area must give the impression of luxury.
Since large numbers of patrons may be required to wait to enter the showroom, lobby must give a sense of spaciousness.
Since several functions will have to be centered in this area, circulation will be a major consideration.

To create an atmosphere conducive to entertaining and being entertained.
To provide space for seating capacity of approximately 1,000 patrons.
To provide facility for Las Vegas style and quality entertainment to the population of the Denver area and to encourage "big name" entertainers to perform here.
To project "festive," luxurious image.
To provide safe, pleasant and convenient dining experiences for patrons.
To provide safe, pleasant and convenient working facilities for employees.
To improve former facility's problem of ventilation of smoke.
To utilize state-of-the-art restaurant and theatre technology.
To satisfy code requirements.
To satisfy Senate Bill 111 with respect to the handicapped.
To facilitate ease of maintenance.
To make a profit!

FACTS: Plans are for seating 2 shows per night for
Las Vegas type entertainment; one show per night for Broadway productions.
Food service is to be buffet style, which will necessitate moving large numbers of people through the space easily and conveniently.
Liquor is a primary revenue generator and will be served at the table by sufficient numbers of service people from convenient locations for maximum efficiency.
Restaurants in general, and particularly one of this size, are noisy.
Sight lines for performances must be maintained for all guests.
Lighting must support the functions of the facility and must be adjustable.
Sound amplification system must enhance the performance without being detectable.
The type of acts to be presented are like vaudeville, concerned with human scale -characterized by the intimate, direct relationship between performer and audience.
Stage area is the focal point.
Buffet is a primary traffic generator.
Dining/entertainment area must facilitate sense of "occasion."

Facility must accommodate and incorporate theatre and restaurant technology.
Flexibility in seating capacity is often desirable.
Variety in types of entertainment requires flexibility in stage sets and lighting.
Acoustics must be addressed so that guests can hear performers but not each other.
Service areas must be strategically located throughout the area and must be sound dampened.
Area of showroom is planned at between 11,000 and 12,100 square feet at a minimum for banquet type seating (based on 10-11 square feet per person for 1,000 1,100 people).
Minimum passage area is 18" between chairs and, including the chair area, tables should be spaced 4-5' apart.
Tables will be adjustable with a hinged leaf from 24" wide to 30" wide.
Service stations must be provided at convenient intervals. Sizes for these can be as small as 20-24" square x 36-38" high.
A buffet line can serve 4-8 patrons per minute depending on (1) the speed of the servers,
(2) the elaborateness of the food selection,
(3) the convenience of the layout, and (4) the type of patrons. At these rates, it will be necessary to provide one counter line for each 250-300 patrons, and to move people through

at a rate of 4 per minute in order to serve all 1000 patrons in a one hour period.
Cafeteria lines over 50 feet in length are frequently considered inefficient.
Circulation areas to the buffet area must be sufficiently wide to facilitate traffic in both directions. Suggested minimum width would be 5'.
Service bars should be strategically placed within the facility for maximum table service efficiency. Four of these will be required.
The length of a two-man service bar is 10-12', the width 7-6". There is no footrail; counter overhangs and stools are not required.
A computerized bar system (although expensive at $32,000) can cut bar costs 6%. Its use should be investigated because of its accuracy and speed (can cut time to 3 seconds total, including garnish).
A sound and lighting equipment and projection booth is required for performances. This booth should measure 8'xl8' (dimension given by client).
A performing platform is required. Its dimensions (provided by the client) are 51' wide x 23' deep (including the thrust portion) with one wing area measuring 15'6" wide x 15' deep and the other measuring 6'4" wide x 15' deep. This platform is 3'0" high.
The last seat is preferably not over 75 feet from the stage in a facility of 1,000 to 1,100 capacity.

Since the primary focus of this facility is entertainment, its design should enhance that function.
Since the secondary, but still very important aspect of the facility is the buffet service of food, the design should enhance and facilitate its efficient performance.
Since maximum seating potential means maximum profits, banquet seating will be required.
Since income from liquor can outrun that from food sales, a sufficient number of service bars must be located throughout the facility to ensure fast and copious service.
Since the dining/entertainment area is large, with many people being seated in it, the design must work to maintain human scale.
Since the facility is primarily a nightclub, the design and decor will emphasize lighting.

AREA: Washrooms
GOALS: To provide clean, sanitary facilities for guests
to refresh themselves.
To provide generally luxurious accommodations in keeping with the tone of the remainder of the facility.
To provide convenience in location to all parts of the facility.
To provide convenient facilities for handicapped patrons.
To facilitate ease of maintenance.
To satisfy code requirements.
FACTS: Guests who are staying several hours will cer-
tainly use the facility one way or another during the evening.
In nightclubs, decor in the washrooms is generally luxurious.
Washrooms must be sound insulated from the balance of the establishment and well ventilated .
Facilities serving alcoholic beverages will need more, conveniently-located washroom facilities than those which do not.
It is good practice to allocate generous space.

Acoustical control within the washroom is not as important as easy-to-clean, hard, non-ab-sorbant surfaces.
Compartments should be at least 32" wide with at least 24" clearance in front of the water closet.
Handicapped compartments should be at least 36" wide with a door 32" wide and 32" clearance unobstructed by door swing in front of water closet, and equipped with grab bars at least 24" long on each side of compartment.
Wall hung waste receptacles and fixtures produce a 25-30% saving in maintenance.
Lavatories: 18" of wash sink or 18" of a cir-
cular basin with outlets at each space. For the handicapped, a clear space 26" wide and 12" deep, excluding projection of the bowl and waste piping, must be provided.
Lighting should be of high level intensity (20 footcandles minimum) and ceiling, particularly, should reflect a lot of light (60 80%); walls may reflect 20-50%; floors 20-30%. Recessed lighting produces the best reflection and easiest maintenance.
At least one type of hand-drying facility shall be provided in each toilet room.
Mirrors are also required.
At least 1 mirror and 1 hand-drying facility shall be installed not more than 40" above the floor to the bottom of the fixture for handicapped patrons.

32" spacing of urinals is more responsive than the ordinary 21" spacing commonly used, with stall partitions extending 8-10" beyond the face of the urinal.
Urinal stalls for wheelchair users should be a minimum of 36" wide for proper access.
Since few customers are likely to see the kitchen of the facility, judgement of a restaurant's standards is largely on the basis of the condition of the restrooms.

To promote operational efficiency in food preparation functions.
To provide sufficient storage areas for various types of foods.
To provide sufficient dishwashing and potwashing facilities to accommodate workload.
To provide receiving area for incoming goods.
To satisfy code requirements.
To provide safe, clean, efficient space in which employees may function.
The position of the kitchen in the facility and its own interior layout should be conducive to the highest possible degree of efficiency.
Kitchen should be partitioned into 4 separate areas: storage, warewashing, preparation and
production kitchen.
The main kitchen functional areas are:
1. receiving and storage of goods, including frozen food storage
2. preparation area for vegetables and meat with sinks and refrigerators nearby
3. cooking units for general food preparations

preparation area for salads, fruit and desserts
5. coffee, tea, and iced tea area
6. warewashing area
Kitchen must be located adjacent to buffet for ease of servicing.
Separating the processes calms the kitchen, making precise, careful attention to every detail a simpler task.
Design must promote cleanliness, good lighting, good ventilation, and good interior noise control.
Despite availability of frozen food and freezer units, it is best to buy from hand to mouth wherever possible, as refrigerated and other storage space is expensive, and inventory investment is money that is not working.
Security must be an overriding consideration as food service involves itself with a product which has universal appeal. Receiving areas should be open and visible to management.
NEEDS: Allocation in preliminary planning requirement
of 0.25 to 0.50 cubic feet of refrigeration space per complete meal, or 250-500 cubic feet, can be used. Walk-in refrigeration is desirable for maximum productivity. An inside dimension of 8' x 10' allows workers space for movement. Of this allowance, 20-35% should be

for meat, 30-35% for fruits and vegetables, 20-25% for dairy and 5-10% for carry-over foods.
The minimum practical size of walk-in freezers is also 8' x 10' to allow ease of movement for stocking shelves and moving products in and out.
The space requirement for dry food storage for 30 days has been calculated by some as approximately by 0.5 square foot per meal served or if
1.000 are served, 500 square feet may be used for a tentative figure for dry storage needs. This area must be designed to protect food against spoilage and contamination and located adjacent to the kitchen and receiving areas for optimum inventory control and minimum handling.
All products must be stored at least 6" above the floor or be movable to facilitate cleaning.
Production area: With a meal load of 1,000 requiring a minimum of 3.0 square feet per meal, the space needed for this part of the kitchen should be approximately 3,000-3,500 square feet. This figure is based on the type of service: restaurant type requiring 3.0-
5.0 square feet and cafeteria requiring 3.0-3.5 square feet.
Dishwashing area: Dishwashing should be located near dish usage in this case, the buffet serving area. Must have table for soiled dished to be scraped, sorted and racked; garbage disposal is convenient; dishes coming out of machine must be allowed ample space to dry before being moved to serving area. Conveyor-type machines are recommended.

Potwashing area: Should be composed of 3 or 4 sinks: scraping and soaking, washing and rinsing. A minimum allowance of 4.0 square feet must be made, with a work aisle 4' wide between sink and any other surface minimum.
Separate glass-washing facilities will be ^ implemented as well, with auxiliary highspeed units in each service bar area.
Non-skid, heavy duty flooring such as quarry tile is desirable. Round corners and curved bases to walls and equipment should be standard.
If changes in floor level are required, ramps should be used rather than stairs.
Where floor drains are provided, only a slight fall is needed to drain with a radical drop about h" right at drain plate.
It is best to use tile on walls at least to a height of 7 feet. Although this does create an acoustical problem, other materials, such as unglazed tile, absorb grease and cannot be cleaned.
The upper part of the wall and the ceiling should be treated with perforated metal pans lined with fiberglass or some other fireproof, sound-deadening material (1-2" thickness recommended) Must be cleaned with a steam hose from time to time.
To isolate sound from dining area, dampening should be applied to the underside of all metal surfaces. Also a "sound lock" should be used between kitchen doors and the dining area -

a short corridor or vestibule (8-10 feet long) which is treated with highly efficient sound-absorptive material on its side walls and ceiling.
Lighting: Dust-proof flourescent lighting
fixtures with unbreakable lenses should be installed. Minimum quantity at working levels should be 20 footcandles, and a high degree of reflective power should be sought in walls, floor and ceiling materials used.
A forced ventilation system is necessary for the kitchen to remove excess heat, smoke, odors and gas, but this also removes conditioned air! It is necessary to install a system oversized enough to provide a higher cubic foot per minute air change than the ventilator can remove.
The kitchen should provide ample office space for principal cook and/or foodservice administrator. This area should be enclosed for menu planning, work scheduling and other management functions. Glazed partitions should be incorporated to provide a view of kitchen activity.
A minimum of 60 square feet should be allocated.
Since this facility is primarily used in the evenings and service is buffet style, most food preparation can take place uninterrupted during the daytime.
Since facilities that are well engineered from the human point of view are subject to reduced absenteeism and employee turnover, this is a very important consideration and pays off in increased profits.

AREA: Employee Facilities Area
GOALS To provide pleasant working facilities
for employees.
To provide a secure and sanitary place for employees to change clothes and store possessions while they are at work.
To provide washroom facilities for employees separate from public use areas.
To provide a convenient place for checking in on time-recording equipment.
FACTS: Employees, in order to better serve their pat-
trons, need to be provided with a hassle-free environment in which to make the transition from non-working to working activities.
Total ambiance is what makes a place work: good food, graphics, lighting, decor, acoustics and a well-choreographed and attentive staff. This attitude begins with an attention to em-ployee comforts and needs by the management.
NEEDS: Individual lockers must be provided which can
be locked and secured. Clothing should be able to hang without crowding or wrinkling. The depth from front to back should be a minimum of 20" .
Benches or chairs are to be provided upon which workers may sit while changing clothes or shoes

A cot or daybed, 36" x 6' should be provided in the women's room.
The location of toilet facilities (separate for men and women) should be separated from food areas by a hallway or double entrance.
Supply one washbowl for every 8-10 employees,
1 toilet stool for each 12-15 women and 1 urinal and 1 toilet stool for every 15 men.
Time recorder should be near and within view of the office with a wall-hung card rack. Clock recorder is approximately 18" wide by 12V deep and 18" high; the card rack of 50 cards measures 1Vx2Vx34V
An employee entrance should be located so that the employees may go directly to the dressing rooms without passing through the showroom or kitchen areas.
Since employees who are satsified and secure will perform their jobs well, provision for their comfort and well-being by the management will help to facilitate this performance.
Since employee absenteeism and attrition cuts into profits, providing amenities for employees will pay for themselves in the long run with increased loyalty and job longevity.

AREA: Entertainer Facilities
GOALS: To provide a pleasant suite area for celebrity
entertainers to prepare for a performance and relax afterwards.
To provide a place, safe from public access.
To provide rehearsal space for band members, acoustically isolated from the rest of the facility.
FACTS: Entertainers will arrive at the "Turn" in various
states of readiness for their evening performances. Facilities should support whatever their needs may be.
Entertainers arriving at the facility will probably wish to do so without public interference.
Entertainers are public personalities who, when not performing, wish to escape public scrutiny. When they seek refuge, they expect to have their privacy honored.
NEEDS: Adequate dressing room facilities include:
mirror, lighted on 3 sides for applying makeup
at least one full-length mirror in each dressing room with overhead light for final inspection
of makeup

"Green Room" sitting room to which a few invited visitors might be admitted
closets for hanging costumes and clothing
a chaise longue is desirable, but not essential
a well-stocked bar
a TV
Dressing rooms should be located as near the wings as possible without interfering in any way with the backstage operations.
Dressing rooms must be air conditioned.
Easy access from the outside is desirable so that the arrival of the entertainer is undetectable to patrons in the showroom.
Since star entertainers are often known to be temperamental and high strung, facilities should be comfortable and well-appointed, so that controllable petty annoyances will not adversely affect their performance.

V.I.P. Seating Area
To provide seating for guests of the management, press, and those accompanying the entertainer.
To make premium seating usually reserved for such people in main showroom area available for ticket sale.
There are often guests invited for performances who require no ticket.
Seating for these guests should be separate from normal audience area.
These guests will probably not participate in the buffet dinner activities, but will be offered cocktail services.
Space provided will be furnished with 24" diameter cocktail tables and swivel chairs for a seating capacity of approximately 35 people.
Since management and entertainers often invite guests to performances, a small separate seating area for these people is appropriate.

AREA: Administrative Offices
GOALS: To provide a pleasant space within the facility
for those involved in the operations of the "Turn" to conduct their business.
To facilitate the cooperative efforts of those involved in the "Turn" by moving them into closer proximity with one another.
To enhance the clients' corporate image.
To increase efficiency.
FACTS: The present offices of the two actively-involved
owner/managers are located in a very cramped space.
Owner/managers' offices need to present a more comfortable and efficient public image.
Lighting must support the administrative and clerical functions.
Offices must incorporate and accommodate technological tools of the trade.
NEEDS: There are to be, in addition to the two major
executive offices, 4 enclosed private offices and 4 secretarial offices, as well as a receptionist's station, required.
Provision must be made for filing, copy machine and coffee machine.

The executive office, where most public contact will be made, requires a small wet bar.
Since the new Turn of the Century wishes to project a first-class public image to the metropolitan Denver area and the entertainment community, the administrative offices must support and reinforce that image.
Since presently the various administrative functions of the facility are interdependent but geographically separated, it is important to unite these activities in a single location.


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Regional map showing loca tion of competitors in relation to the Turn of the Century.
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