Slope Resort Hotel, Winter Park, Colorado

Material Information

Slope Resort Hotel, Winter Park, Colorado
Moore, Jayce S
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
95 unnumbered pages : illustrations (some color), charts, maps, plans (some folded) ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Hotels -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Winter Park ( lcsh )
Resorts -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Winter Park ( lcsh )
Hotels ( fast )
Resorts ( fast )
Colorado -- Winter Park ( fast )
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references (page 95).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Jayce S. Moore.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09246232 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1980 .M664 ( lcc )

Full Text
fOo I
Jayce S. Moore
MAY 10, 1980

Table of Contents
Project Description
Area Description Site Description
Space Summary Interviews
III. SCHEMATIC DESIGN Site Planning Building Planning
IV. DESIGN DEVELOPMENT Design Summary Energy- Conscious Design Plant Materials
Solar Information

Project Description
The Slope' is a proposed hotel to be built on a site located in Winter Park, Colorado. The site is located at the corner of County Road and Cedar Drive. A restaurant/bar called 'The Slope' presently exists on the site. The restaurant would remain detached from the proposed hotel.
The hotel would consist of a design that harmonizes with the mountain environment. Materials native to the area would be incorporated into the structure and form. The building form would be designed to complement the landscape and not to contrast or disrupt it. Passive solar energy would be included in the hotel design. Through energy conscious construction, the amount of heat loss would be minimized. The use of a passive solar energy system would help to relieve the dependency on other energy systems and help to conserve the natural resources of the environment.
The structure of the building would be simplified in order to accommodate the short construction time that is available in the mountains.
'The Slope' would serve a dual purpose. First, it would provide accommodations to guests visiting Winter Park for the recreation (skiing, hiking, hunting, fishing, and relaxing). Second, it would provide an entertainment establishment for the local and visiting crowd.
This building would contain a gift/ski shop, game room, and hot pool/ whirlpool & sauna. The adjacent restaurant would provide eating facilities for the guests.
With the increasing popularity of Winter Park, the needs for more accommodations and entertainment facilities has resulted in the proposed hotel.


Within a half mile of the site is one of the historical landmarks of Colorado, the Moffat Tunnel. What makes this railroad tunnel an item of historical significance is that it was the first tunnel to be constructed through the Continental Divide. This feat linked the east and west slope of the Rockies by a tunnel 6.2 miles long. The tunnel is 16 feet wide and 24 feet high. Construction began in 1923 and the first train passed through on February 26th, 1928.
Shacks and shops were left after the completion of the tunnel. These became handy for funseekers needing shelter during weekend outings to Winter Park.
In 1940, with the popularity of the area growing, the City of Denver acquired land and constructed the mountain's first T-bar ski lift. By 1950, Winter Park was the largest ski facility in Colorado.
No longer a City of Denver project, investors have further expanded the ski slopes of Winter Park. The addition of the Mary Jane complex has created a small thriving community that provides year-round recreation.

Area Description
The site is located near several of Colorado's major ski areas, including Winter Park, Mary Jane, Idlewild, and Berthoud Pass. Most of the visitors are commuters from Denver and the surrounding facilities. Most arrive by car, but several ride the train from Denver. Nearby is Riaeawav Park and Idlewild campground which provide accommodations. Just down the road from the site is a new development of condominiums. The buildings located next to the site include a three story apartment building, a nightclub (bar), restaurant, post office, and several private residences. On the same site is the Slope restf-.urant/bar.
Winter Park is located only 67 miles from DEnver and 20 miles from Granby.

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Site Description
The overall site is fairly flat with a slight slope in the direction of the creek, which flows northernly. The creek is located on the western side of the site The soil consists of several rocks (mostly river born) ranging in size from minute to three feet in diameter (average 3-5 inches). The top soil near the creek consists of peats, silts, clays, and sands. The overall character of the surface is bumpy and uneven.
The site is covered by a majority of underbrush averaging 3 to 4 feet in height There are some evergreen trees located on the northwest part of the site and also on the eastern side.
To the southwest is the railroad tracks that overlook the site along with five houses which are camouflaged by the trees. There is also a steep slope at this side of the site, of approximately 45 degrees and 20 to 30 feet in height. Located near the tracks is the spring house, which pumps water to the existing restaurant.

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Existing Water System
"The existing water supply consists of a spring which is protected by a concrete and concrete block structure. The spring was found to be located on the railroad right-of-way and flows by gravity through a pipe, of unknown condition, to the existing restaurant where the water is stored in a concrete cistern. The water is presently pumped out of the cistern and into the building. The flow of water out of the spring at the time of investigation in April, 1978, was estimated to be approximately 150 gpm. This flow does fluctuate as the seasons change."
Proposed Water System
"The present water supply is a spring located on the railroad right-of-way in the southern end of the property. It is believed to be a reliable source, however, the quantity of water available from it varies with the season. The amount of water produced during the winter is uncertain at this time. However, when obsvered, there was a sufficient quanitity of water to meet the needs of the existing restaurant. Because of the possible development of a community water supply system in the next couple of years, this source of water was only looked upon as supplying the needs of the existing restaurant/bar."
source: Western Technical Services, Granby, Colorado August 15, 1978.

This site is faced with the problem of noise. This noise is primarily from passing trains and partly from passing cars. The cars on County road are minimal, but will contribute some sound. However, the trains are a different story. Presently the noise of a passing train is noticeable, but not disturbing. A well designed building could eliminate this noise. But' if the building is not designed properly, it could increase the noise problem. Due to the fact that the railroad tracks are located above the site, noise presently passes over it. If a building is constructed that blocks the passage of the noise it will cause the noise to continually bounce off the hillslope and building, intensifying it. A tall building may be built and still' avoid this effect. First, use materials that will absorb sound. Second, provide a sufficient distance from the tracks in order for the sound to decrease; and finally, provide a barrier between the tracks and the building.

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"The site slopes from the south to the north at an approximate grade of 2 to 3 percent. There are several small streams which traverse the property. The main one being the stream which originates at the spring and consists of the overflow from that spring. The secondary streams are those which handle the surface drainage from the subdivision to the east and the drainage along the County road. All of the surface water collects in the vicinity of the existing restaurant and leaves e property at the northen end via a culvert underneath the County rc The water then flows mto the Fraser f ver.
There is approximatley 12 acres which drain onto the property from the east, south and west through the developed subdivisions and railroad right-of-way. It is very difficult to determine the amount of drainage from a snow melt in this drainage basin because it is dependent on depth of snow and climatic conditions. However, if one was to consider that maximum snow melt runoff was the same as that which one would experience from a 100-vear storm, then it can be estimated that the maximum drainage through the property would be 20 cfs. For a normal 10-year storm, the flow would be 12 cfs. On this basis, the drainage improvements recommended are as follows:
1. A drainage ditch along the eastern side of the property to collect that water which drains onto the property from that direction.
2. Approximatley 360 feet of 18 inch corrugated metal pipe storm sewer system with two surface inlets.
3. A drainage ditch along the County road to facilitate the drainage in that area to the County road culvert.
A. A 4 in. subsurface drain system in and around the building to lower the ground water table in that area."
source: Western Technical Services, Granby Colorado, August 15, 1S78.

Located in the Rockies, the climate tends towards the cool side in the summers, and very cold in the winter. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) only records the total preciptation and departures from the normal on a monthly basis for Winter Park. Nearby is Berthoud Pass which also records the average temperatures. These two sources are the basis for the data presented below.
Berthoud Pass 39 48' Latitude 11314* elevation Winter Park 39 54' Latitude 9058* elevation
BP- Ave. Temperature
WP- Precipitation (inches) Annual
J F M A M J J A S 0 N D Total
BP 12.3 13.7 22.8 28.0 32.0 44.0 51.1 47.6 42.8 33.6 23.1 7.9 29.0
WP 2.95 2.00 2.45 3.50 4.20 .70 .40 1.20 .05 1.20 1.80 2.00 22.45
The Colorado Ski Country USA keeps records of snow during the snow season. The records are from mid-November to mid-April, and does not include days not reported or preseason snow. No man-made snow is included, and all measurements were made mid-way on the ski slope.
75-76 185.5"
76-77 172.5"
77-78 284.5"
78-79 278.5"
The winds tend to blow through the canyon in which Winter Park is situated. On warm days the direction tends to be towards the southeast. Some wind- will occur from the west due to the temperature variation between the slopes a d the canyon floor. In the daytime the wind direction will be up the slope, while at night it will be down the slope. This will leave the canyon warmer in the day and colder in the night than the foothills.
The nearby mountian peaks will only affect the amount of sunlight on the site in the early morning and the late afternoon. Using a topographic map and the solar angles, the were computed. On December 21st, the sun would rise at 8:15 am and set at 3:30 pm.

Zoning Code
Zoning Classification- Business District (B)
Minimum Lot Width............................................50 ft.
Minimum Front Yard...........................................30 ft.
Minimum Side Yard............................................ 0 ft.
Minimum Rear Yard............................................20 ft.
Maximum Height of Buildings..................................35 ft.
Off-Street Parking Requirements
a. Minimum off-street parking spaces required:
1. Hotels, motels, lodges, hoarding and rooming houses- 1% spaces per rental unit.
2. Eating and drinking establishments- 1 space per 100 square feet of gross floor area.
b. Minimum size of parking space and aisles:
1. Stall width- 10 ft.
2. Stall length- 20 ft.
3. Minimum drive width- 12 ft one-way
- 24 ft two-way
Building Code
Uniform Building Code 1976
a. Occupancy Classification- R-l
b. Fire Zone Designation- 3
c. Construction Type- III or IV
note: see appendix for more detailed zoning and building code information.

Soil Analysis
"The test pit indicated about 1 foot of clay mixed with wood and debris. Below the upper layer at 1 foot a soft gravelly layered sand and clay was encountered. This soft layer extended to 5 feet where relatively clean sand and gravel occurred. The sand and gravel was penetrated to 7 feet where the pit terminated. Ground water was entering the pit at 6 feet below grade.
Foundation movement in the existing restaurant is due to frost heave during the winter and spring months when there is free water beneath and a-round the footings. The foundation can be stabilized by underpinning down to a depth of 5 feet or about 3 to 3.5 feet below the existing footings. A design unit pressure of 3000 psf could be used when calculating the pad sizes at the underpinning points. The underpinning should be done in stages. The existing soil should be removed from beneath footings between the underpinned points to a minimum depth of 12 inches. This will allow the soil to heave without affecting the foundation. After underpinning the foundations, they should be backfilled to provide better frost protection."
source: The Fisher Company of Lakewood, Consulting Soils Engineers, August 10, 1978.

Space Summary
1. Lobby (Registraion Desk)..................................600
2. Manager's Office...................................................150
3. Secretary/Accountant' s Office.....................................150
4. Restrooms..........................................................250
5. Gift/Ski Shops.....................................................550
6. Game Area..........................................................500
7. Hot Pool/Whirlpool & Sauna Dressing Rooms..........................550
8. Service Area.......................................................500
9. Mechanical Room....................................................300
10. Laundry...........................................................450
11. Linen/Housekeeping................................................200
12. Guest Laundry.....................................................100
13. Corridors (circulation)...........................................15%
14. Guest Rooms..................................................400/unit
note: square footages are estimated, but represent approximate sizes for individual functions.

ACTIVITY TITLE: Lobby (registration desk)
DESCRIPTION: Mail, keys, check-in, check-out, reservations, cashier, switchboard, guest telephone.
USERS: Registration Clerk/Cashier
SPECIAL CONDITIONS: Located near the entrance and near the vertical
transportation. Close vicinity to Manager's office and Secretary/Accountant's office.
ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS: Good illumination over counter area,
natural light and view for guests.
NET SF: eoo

ACTIVITY TITLE: Lobby (Registration Desk)
No. Description Size / Remarks
l Key/ Mail Slots Situated on the counter
l Cash Register
l Switchboard
l Counter 2'D x 8'W x AH
l Room Rack Sofas & Chairs Magazine stands Coffee Tables Situated on the counter
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ACTIVITY TITLE: Manager's Office
DESCRIPTION: Manager oversees operations
USERS: Manager
SPECIAL CONDITIONS: Office should be located next to Registration Desk,
and have direct access to the lobby. It should also be adjacent to the Secretarv/Accountant's Office.
ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS: Some natural light if possible.
NET SF: 150

ACTIVITY TITLE* Manager's Office
No. Description Size / Remarks
l Desk 72"W x 36"D x 29"H
3 Chairs 27"W x 27"D
1 File Cabinet (credenza) 74"W x 17"D x 25"H
1 Sofa (optional)

ACTIVITY TITLE! Secretary/Accountant's Office
DESCRIPTION: Office shared by the Secretary and the Accountant. The files and safe are kept in this office. This is also the Personnel office for the hotel.
USERS: Secretary, Accountant, and also the Registration Clerk
SPECIAL CONDITIONS: The office should be located near the Registration
Desk and adjacent to the Manager's Office. There should be direct access to the lobby from this office.
ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS: Some natural light if possible.
NET SF: 150

ACTIVITY TITLE I Secretary/ Accountant's Office
No. Description Size / Remarks
l Desk (accountant) 60"W X 30"D X 29"H
l Desk with return (secretary) 60"W x 30"D x 42"W x 18"D
4 Chairs 27"W x 27"D
4 File Cabinets 18"W x 28"D x 52"H
1 Safe

DESCRIPTION: A small shop that sells souvenirs, novelties, snacks, jewelry, post cards, etc. It also sells some ski apparel and related gifts. A ski repair service is provided for the guests also.
USERS: Salesperson, repair person
SPECIAL CONDITIONS: Show window easily visible for storage under display shelves,
Aisle minimum width of 3 feet, of 5'-10".
the lobby. Stock counters, and racks. Maximum shelf height
ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS: Lighting should be high in intensity,
but without glare.
NET SF: 550

No. Description Size / Remarks
l Waxing & Repair Table 2W x 6'L
Clothes Racks 4W x 6L
l Display/ Sales Counter with 2W x 6'-8L x 3'-6"H
Cash register
l Tool/ Parts Storage 18" deep
Shelves 4'W x 6'-8'L
Wall Shelves 18"-24" deep

DESCRIPTION iSmall recreation room containing pinball machines, a billard table, and vending machines. Also a lounge area.
USERS: Managed by Registration Desk, serviced by service personnel, and used by the guests.
SPECIAL CONDITIONS: Five foot clearance around the Billard table.
ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS: Subdued lighting, expect for the billard
table. Natural lighting and view if possible .
NET SF: 500

No. Description Size / Remarks
3 Pinball Machines 2'-6"W x 4'-6"D
1 Billard Table 5'-3"W x 9'-9"L x 2'-6"H
Vending Machines 3W x 2'-6"D x 6'-8"H
Chairs, Sofa, tables
1 Cue Rack



ACTIVITY TITLE: Hot Pool/Whirpool & Sauna Dressing Rooms
DESCRIPTION ;One sauna with two dressing rooms (one for each sex) equipped with ockers, a shower, sink, and a toilet. The sauna is located adjacent to a hot pool and whirlpool.
USERS: Guests
SPECIAL CONDITIONS: The sauna comes prefabricated and requires electricity
for operation. The hot pool and whirlpool also come prefabricated, but may be designed to accomodate solar heating. The dressing rooms should be screened from public view.
ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS: Light, natural if possible for the hot
pool and whirlpool. Also a good view should be provided for this area.
NET SF: 550

ACTIVITY TITLE: Hot Pool/Whirlpool & Sauna Dressing Rooms
No. Description Size / Remarks
l Sauna 77" X 96"
l Sauna Heater
l Hot Pool 6' Octagonal
l Whirlpool 6' Octagonal
Chairs & Lounges

ACTIVITY TITLE: Service Area/ Storage/ Misc., Mechanical Room
DESCRIPTION: Areas for storage of supplies, extra furniture, snow removal equipment, gardening tools, etc.
Maintenance area and delivery area. The service elevator is located next to this area. The mechanical room and laundry room are adjacent to this area. A service manager's office also adjacent to this area.
USERS: Maintenance, service, and housekeepers.
SPECIAL CONDITIONS: An area for loading unloading is required, but not
necessarily a loading dock. Garbage compactor should
be accessible from this area.
ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS: Soundproofing to separate from the
surrounding activities.

NET SF: Maintenance-350, Storage-150, Mechanical-300

ACTIVITY TITLE* Service Area/ Storage/ Misc., Mechanical Room
No. Description Size / Remarks
Snow Plow Equipment Trash Compactor Work Benches Snow Blower Gardening Equipment General Tools Attachable to a truck

DESCRIPTION: Where all linens, towels, uniforms, and other clothes used are cleaned, pressed and cared fcr.
USERS: Housekeepers, Laundry persons
^ECIAL CONDITIONS: Must be provided with at least 100 gallon hot water
storage. Close to Housekeeping and the Service Elevator.
ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS: Soundproofing form the adcajent public
activities. Located near the mechanical room.
NET SF: 450

No. Description Size / Remarks
l 2-speed Washer 4'-6"W x 5'D x 5'H
l Dryer 4'W x 5'D x 5'H
l Hot Water Heater 150 gal. capacity
l Hot Water Storage 100 gal. capacity
l Fold & Pack Table 36" x 72"
l Table 30" x 72"

ACTIVITY TITLE: Linen/ Housekeeping
DESCRIPTION: Located near the laundry room and contains all housekeeping supplies, maid's carts, linen, vacuum cleaners, pails, etc. All supplies kept in one room in order to be controlled and prevent theft.
USERS: Housekeepers
SPECIAL CONDITIONS ;Each cart services 10-12 guest rooms.
Linen is kept on the shelves 24 hours prior to reuse instead of having to iron it each time.
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NET SF:200

ACTIVITY TITLE : Linen/ Housekeeping
No. Description Size / Remarks
5 Maid's Carts Vacuum Cleaners Utensils, tools Pails, mops Cleaning Fluids Shelves 2'W x 4'L 18"-24" deep

DESCRIPTION: A coin operated laundry room located on each guest floor to be use by the guests.
USERS: Guests
NET SF: ioo

No. Description Size / Remarks
l Washer
l Dryer
l Folding Table
2 Chairs

ACTIVITY TITLE: Corridors (circulation)
DESCRIPTION: The circulation areas of the building linking the guest rooms to the other areas. Ice machines and vending machines are located in corridors along with benches and lounge areas.
USERS: Everybody
SPECIAL CONDITIONS: The corridors should be at least 5' in width. Benches for seating should be provided near elevators, stairs,
and exits. Doors to guest rooms should be setback 1-2' in alcoves. Ice and Vending Machines are located on every floor. No corridor should be greater than 100*.
Lighting in the corridors should present a secure feeling to the guests, but not too subdued or too bright. Alcoves should be illuminated. Floor drains are necessary for ice machines.
NET SF: 15% of total square footage

ACTIVITY TITLE: Corridors (circulation)
No. Description Size / Remarks
Benches 54"-90"W x 20"D x 18"H
Cold Drink Machine (large) 35"W x 29"D x 79"H
Cold Drink Machine (small) 24"W x 28"D x 63"H
Candy Machine 32"W x 13"D x 63"H
Cigarette Machine 19"W x 13"D x 63"H
Ice Machine 40"W x 24"D x 79"H
Sofas, chairs, tables


DESCRIPTION: Two different types of rooms, one with a kitchnette and the
other without. Each room should be sized to hold a maximum of two full size beds. Lofts would be available in the upper units in the hotel.
USERS: Guests
SPECIAL CONDITIONS: a closet for luggage, clothes, and skis. Most of the
furniture is built-in or placed so as to minimize movement. Silent-tank type toilet should be used.
12'-6" minimum room width. 3' aisle between bed and wall.
ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS I Each room would its own packaged~KVAC unit
to backup the passive solar system.
NET SF: 400/unit

No. Description Size / Remarks
Twin Bed 3-6"W x 7L
Full Bed 4-6"W x 7'L
King Bed 5W x 7'L
Headboard Total bed length 7'-6"
Dresser Armchairs Table 18"-24" deep
Kitchnette 30"-72"
Bathroom with tub 5'-6" tub

Howard Johnson's Motor Inn, 6300 E. Hampden, Denver Colorado
Howard Johnson's is a 160 unit motel in southeast Denver. An adjacent Howard Johnson's restaurant serves the motel. The motel consists of three 2-story buildings and has an outdoor swimming pool. It also has a conference room and banquet facilities. It is a very successful operation and maintians a low employee turnover, uncommon for motels and hotels.
MIKE MICHNA- Maintenance Supervisor
Housekeeping- The housekeeping carts and supplies are kept in the laundry room. The reason for this is mostly for inventory control. The housekeepers will take clean linen and return with the soiled linen, that is then put into the laundry bins. The laundry area consists of multispeed washers, which can also do the .work of extractors. The sheets are not ironed, but folded and set on the shelves for 24 hours. The motel carries 2L times the needed amount of linen.
Employee's Lounge- The employee's lounge is provided and includes lockers, an eating area (including a kitchen sink), and restrooms.
Service Area- There is an office with a desk and one file cabinet that is used by the maintenance supervisor.
Guest Laundry- A small laundry is provided for the guests to do their own wash. It consists of two coin-operated washers and dryer?.
Guest Rooms- The approximate dimensions'fo the rooms are 13'-9" x 25'-0".
Each room has its own individual heating/cooling unit approximately l'-6"W x 3'-6"L.
Sauna- Next to the sauna is the bathrooms and lockers. The sauna is prefabricated .
ROMAINE BLAKE- In charge of Personnel & Secretary to the Manager.
Registration Desk- Keys are kept on a rack at the front counter. Mail slots and forms are kept under the counter. Other items found at the desk incude a guest telephone, reservation computer, switchboard, cash register, and safe. Cabinets are found on the back wall of the registration desk. Overhead task lighting is fashionably done.
Lobby- Events and announcements are presented on a board in the lobby, along with directions to various parts of the motel.
Secretary/Accountant's Office- A large office behind the registration desk contains the desks of the secretary to the manager and the accountant, along with the reservationist.

Manager's Office- Adjacent to the secretary/account's office is the manager's office. It is a nice office with guest seating. The manager oversees operations and is in charge of public relations for the motel.
Cherry Creek Inn, 600 S. Colorado, Denver, Colorado
The Cherry Creek Inn is a 115 unit motel/hotel that is not open to public use. The entire place is under contract ot United Airlines. The building is U-shaped and 2 stories. It maintains a public restaurant, gift shop, and barber shop.
Due to the fact the motel/hotel acts more as a dormitory for United Airlines than a motel, the registration operations are uncommon compared to other motels or hotels.
TIM WATKINS- Purchasing Manager
Registration Desk- A room rack is a description of the rooms and whether or not it is vacant. The key/mail slots are located on the back wall.
Guest Rooms- The beds sit on a plinth base, instead of a metal frame. The advantage is that the guest does not lose or forget personel items under the bed. Also the housekeepers do not need to clean under the bed. The room is approximately 13' x 15'.
Corridor- Ice and vending machines located in alcoves. There is a noise problem with some types of ice machines. Floor drains are necessary near all ice machines.
Administration Office- Six people are located in this office. Four of the people are for accounting (one also serves as the secretary). There is also the purchasing manager, and the general manager.
HVAC- Each room has its own individual unit, but the rest of the building is heated by gas force air system.

Site Planning
Through site analysis and the initial program, the major constraints that will influence the site planning are:
Solar- the building should be oriented to maximize the sun for as much of the day as possible. All rooms should receive direct sunlight during at least part of the day.
View- the building should be oriented to provide a view of one or all of the following:
a) Continental Divide
b) Ski Slopes
c) Moffat Tunnel
Views of the surrounding residential and commercial activities should be avoided to preserve privacy of the residents and guests, and also to provide the maximum scenic quality possible.
Building Footprint- the limitation of the expansiveness of the building should be provided to preserve the environmental character of the area and to allow as much of the site as possible to remain open area. The trees on the site should remain undisturbed as much as possible.
Drainage- the building and parking must remain above ground due to the high seasonal water table. The creek on the site should be utilized as the main source of drainage for the site.
Existing Restaurant- due to the architectural character of the building, the new building should be detached from it, so that it may take on its own identity.

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Building Planning
Several possible solutions to the design problem exist:
Corridor Loading-
1) Single loaded corridors
2) Double loaded corridors
Double loaded corridors -would result in half of the rooms being deprived of the best views and any direct sun. Only in a N-S building orientation would it be possible to give all rooms some direct sun during part of the day. However, this amount of sun would be minimal and only occur in the morning and afternoon. This orientation would also eliminate the better views from the site.
The single loaded corridor arrangement would comply more to the constraints preserving maximim sun and view for all the rooms. The single loaded corridor would also serve as a buffer to noise, and temperature variations.
1) All first level covered parking
2) Partial first level covered parking and the rest open parking
3) All open parking
Since a single loaded corrridor is found to be the best solution for this problem, it forms an additional constraint on the parking type. The covered parking could only be one stall wide in relation to the width of the building. This would make it uneconomical to provide such a function for the limited amount of spaces. The arrangment of first level parking in relation to the rest of the structure could result in structural problems if double loaded parking was attempted. Loads from the upper structure would occur near mid-span of the beams supporting the first level ceiling. The covered parking would also place the entire building on a pedestal, detaching it from the site rather than integrating it. Underground parking is not possible due to the water table. The covered parking has the advantage of limiting use of the site, minimizing snowT removal during winter, and screening from view most of the automobiles.
Open parking is more economical despite snow removal costs. The disadvantages are the increased use of the site, and the visible presence of the automobiles. However, if good site planning and design, along with concerned landscaping is achieved, the open parking would appear to be the best solution.
Building Orientation-
Generally three possible solutions exist for this site in relation to all of the constraints:
1) E-W Orientation
2) N-S Orientation
3) L-shaped Orientation
The width of the site E-W limits the amount of units that can receive the maximum sun and view. The zoning ordinance allows a 33 foot maximum height limitation; any higher structure would require a variance. A structure too tall would not blend in with the environment, and it would block the sun view for the adjacent residences.

The N-S orientation limits the sun to either the morning or afternoon. The view is limited to either the hillside or the adjacent residences. The orientation requires an elongated plan to fit the number of units desired.
The L-shaped orientation is a compromise between the two previous orientations. It limits the elongation of the building, while utilizing all of the area perpendicular to the south (E-W axis). It also provides good sun and views to all of the rooms, and good circulation throughout the building.

Functional Relationships


Design Summary
The hotel is designed to provide the best view possible for the guests. The majority of the rooms receive afternoon sun. The view and sun were the main determinants on the form of the buildiug.
The retention ponds help to control drainage on the site. They also provide an aesthetic appeal and can be used for ice skating in the winter.
The building bridges over the creek and a retaining wrall controls the flow of the creek. It then flows through a culvert, constructed under the northwest parking lot.
A drop-off is provided at the entrance of the hotel. Parkins is distributed around the building to provide the guests close access to their rooms.
Snow storage areas are provided around all parking areas in order to relieve these areas of snow buildup during the winter months.
The building is designed to minimize surface area on the north side, while still maintaining aesthetic appeal. Windows in the corridor provide natural light and views of the scenery for the guests. Lofts exist in some of the guest rooms, and account for the higher roof areas. The exterior building materials consist of wood planking, stucco, stone, and shake roofing. Operable shutters are provided on the windows.
The south face of the building shows balconies for all guest rooms. The lobby of the building receives plenty of natural light and warmth from the sun.
The 1st floor consists of the registration desk, administration area, service area, lounge, and gift/ski shop The hotel has one passenger elevator, and one freight elevator, along with thr e stairways.
On the 2nd floor are located the hot pool/ whirlpool & sauna, dressing rooms, game room, guest laundry, lounge. Guest laundries and lounges are provided on all guest floors.
There is a total of 46 units with four basic floor plans. Two plans have lofts and kitchnettes. The rooms in the east wing are oriented to increase the amount of solar heat during the winter. The guest rooms are all designed to accomodate at least two full size beds.
The structure of the building is precast concrete columns, beams, floor planking. The walls are then framed in between the columns and beams. The structure is designed so as to minimize construction time.
The mechanical system consists of a variable volume interior with perimeter constant volume. The guest rooms are heated and cooled by individual HVAC wall units which supplement the passive solar system.

Energy Conscious Design
1. The corridor acts as a buffer zone for the guest rooms. The bathrooms further buffer the rooms from the cold side of the building.
2. The concrete planking provides mass heat storage for a time lag in heating.
3. Insulation and thermal breaks are provided to minimize heat loss.
4. Minimal glazing is provided on the cold side of the building.
5. French doors are utilized, rather than sliding doors, in order to limit heat loss due to infiltration.
6. Cold roof design helps to minimize heat loss and heat gain.
7. Reflective tile on the decks help to direct solar heat into the rooms.
8. Roof dormers and balconies are designed to allow winter sun and block summer sun.
9. Adjacent rooms act as buffers and help to contain heat.
10. All windows are double glazed to minimize heat loss.
11. Cooling is provided by opening windows.
12. Air locks are provided at all entries into the building.
13. Natural lighting exists wherever possible without causing an increase of heat loss.
14. The building is oriented to maximize winter heat, while still providing the necessary view.

Plant Materials
The following are a list of plants and trees native and compatible to the area and the site.
1. Quaking Aspen, (Populus Tremuloides), 30 ft. in ht.
2. Douglas Fir, (Pseudotsuga Taxifolia), 70 ft. in ht.
3. Mountain Willow, (Salix Monticola), 3-12 ft. in ht.
4. Rocky Mountain Maple, (Acer Globrum), 6-10 ft. in ht.
5. Lodgepole Pine, (Pinus Contorta Lanifolia), 60 ft. in ht.
6. Low Juniper, (Juniperus Communis), under 3 ft., partial shady spots.
7. Mountain Snowberry, (Symphoricarpos Oreophilus), 2-5 ft. in ht.
8. Whitestem Gooseberry, (Ribes Ineime), under 3 ft., pink flowers.
9. Bush Cinquefoil, (Dasiophora Fructicosa), 1-3 ft, yellow flowers.
10. Mountain Ninebark, (Physocarpus Monogynus), 1-3 ft in ht., shady areas.
11. Wild Red Raspberry, (Rubus Strigosus), 1-2 ft in ht., white flowers.


Solar Calculations
To estimate the Heating Load Coefficient for the Hotel, the following procedure should be followed.
Windows: (non-south facing glazing) Lg= (600)x(window fraction)x( area )
(Number of glazings)
1. West wing of Hotel is 13 degrees off of being perpendicular to south.
2. Central Area of the Hotel is about perpendicular to south.
3. East wing of the Hotel is 52 degrees off of being perdicular to south.
assume calucations are for the rooms only therefore do not include glazing in the corridors, except for the central area, area = 2000 sf
Central Area: Lg= 600 x .20 x 2000 / 2 .= 2700 (for one floor)
Walls: Lw= (680) x (1-window fraction) x ( area )
(R value of walls)
The R value of the walls is R-19.
The area for one room is 405 square feet.
West and East Wings: Lw= 680 x 1 x 405 / 19 = 720 Central Area: Lw= 680 x .8 x 2000 / 19 = 1208
Roof: Lr= ______(24) x (area)______________________
(R value of roof) x (number of stories)
The R value of the roof is R-30.
The number of stories of 4, except for the West and East Wings, its 3 stories.
West and East Wings: Lr= 24 x 405 / 30 x 3 = 108
Central Area: Lr= 24 x 2000 / 30 x 4 = 400
Floor: Lf = ____(24) x (area)________________________
(R value of floor) x (number of stories)
The R value of the floor is R-15
West and East Wings: Lf= 24 x 405 / 15 x 3 = 216
Central Area: Lf= 24 x 2000 / 15 x 4 = 800
Infiltration: Li= (.43) x (average air changes per hour) x (ceiling height) x (area)
Use .75 as the average air changes per hour.
The ceiling height is 8' in the rooms and 9' in the lobby.

West and East Wings: Li= .43 x .75 x 8 x 405 = 1045 Central Area: Li= .43 x .75 x 9 x 2000 = 5805
Heat Load Coefficient: (exclusive of solar glazing)
L= Lg + Lw + Lr + Lf + Li
West and East Wings: L= 0 + 720 + 108 + 216 + 1045 = 2089 BTL/Degree Day Central Area: L= 2700 + 1208 + 400 + 800 + 5805 = 10913 BTU/Degree Day
Calculating the Aperature Area of South face glazing
West and'East Wings have aperature areas of 54 square feet. It is possible to calucate the % of the room that is heated by solar means by using LCR's (load collector ratios). The aperature area of the Central area is 560 square feet.
For Granby, Colorado, 5524 Degree Days Design Temperature= -10 degrees
.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 Solar Heat Fraction
DGNI 313 146 94 67 51 40 31 23 15 Direct Gain Night Insulation
DG 194 90 56 39 28 20 14 8 - Direct Gain
TWNI 303 143 91 65 48 36 27 19 13 Trombe Wall Night Insulation
TW 197 96 58 38 26 18 12 7 - Trombe Wall
The above numbers are the LCR 's for Granby.
If an aperature area is less than 20 degrees off of the axis perpendicular to to the N-S axis, then there is no significant difference. However, if it is greater than 20 degrees, then decrease the efficiency by 10%. The East WTing should be decreased by 50%.
T= Room temperature Design temperature T= 68 -10 = 78
For the West and East Wings: 2089 x 78 / 24 hrs/day = 6789 Btuh For the Central Area: 10913 x 78 / 24hrs/day = 35467 Btuh
Aperature Area: 24(Btuh)______ trR= 24 x (Btuh)
T x LCR LLK_ T x Ap. Area
West Wing LCR= 24 x 6789 / 78 x 54 = 39
East Wing LCR= 24 x 6789 x 1.5/78 x 54 = 59 (50% decrease in efficiency) Central Area LCR= 24 x 35467 / 78 x 560 = 20
Referring back the to LCR table: The corresponding LCR that matches the one in the table indicates the % of the room heated by solar means.

For the West Wing of the building, the rooms would be 40% heated, if only direct heat gain were applied. If direct gain with night insulation were used, then 60% of the heating would be by way of the sun.
For the East Wing of the hotel, the rooms would be 30% heated, if only direct heat gain were used, and 45% when night insulation was added.
For the Central Area (lobby), the space would be 60% heated by direct heat gain, and over 80% when night insulation is added.
source: Design Development Phase, Douglas Balcomb.

Relative insolation on houses of different shape and orientation January 21,40N Latitude. Listed values represent the insolation on a hypothetical house with w = 1 square foot. To get the daily insolation on a house of similar shape with w = 100 square feet, multiply these numbers by 100.
source: Solar Home Book, Bruce Anderson

JUNE 21. 4:4B
JUNE 21.
MAR 22. 3 53
WEST FACE 400 p.m. tsun time)
EAST FACE £.00 a.m. (wn time)
JUNE 21. 8:48 MAR 22. 7:53. SEPT 22. 8:39-^
DEC 22. 7:44-
JUNC 21, 4 48
MAR 22. 3:53. SEPT 22. 4.39
-DEC 22. 3 44
800 a.m v*un time) SOUTH FACE 4:00 p.m. (sun time)
JUNE 21. 12:48-
MAR 22. 11:53: SEPT 22. 12:39-
DEC 22. 11:44-
Sun Angies for various dates and S0UT" FACE times, 40N. latitude. noon (sun time)
21st of: Normal Surface lioriz. Surface South Facing Surfucc ut Tilt Angle of:
04 o o 40 50 60 90c
January 2182 245 1660 1810 1906 1944 1726
February 2640 1414 2060 2162 2202 2176 1730
March 2916 1852 2308 2330 2284 2174 1484
April 3092 2274 2412 2320 2168 1956 1022
May 3160 2552 2442 2264 2040 1760 724
June 3180 2648 2434 2224 1974 1670 610
July 3062 2534 2409 2230 2006 1728 702<
August 2916 2244 2354 2258 2104 1894 978
September 2708 1788 2210 2228 2182 2074 1416
October 2454 1348 1962 2060 2098 2074 1654
November 2128 942 1636 1778 1870 1908 1686
December 1978 782 1480 1634 1740 1796 1646
SOURCE: ASHRAE, Handbook and Product Directory 1V74 Applications.

source: The Solar Home Book, Bruce Andersor,
NORMAL HOKIZ 50 80 50 60 90
JAN 21 8 <1 8.1 99.3 192 2* 65 h 79 81 85 88
9 3 lb.8 99.0 239 83 155 171 187 187 17]
10 2 23.8 30.9 279 127 218 237 289 259 223
11 1 28.9 16.0 289 199 757 277 790 29* 253
12 30.0 0.0 299 169 270 791 307 306 263
SURFACE DAILY TOTALS 2182 1660 1810 1906 1998 1726
HI 21 7 5 8.8 72.7 69 in 19 21 27 28 22
8 u 19.8 62.2 228 73 118 127 126 177 1"7
9 3 29.n 90.2 278 137 195 705 709 708 167
ln 2 32.8 39.9 299 1/8 256 767 271 767 ?|H
11 1 38.) 18.9 309 706 295 506 310 508 236
12 90.0 0.0 308 216 5% 519 323 317 285
SUB'ACE DAILY TOTALS 2680 1819 7060 2162 2702 2176 1730
NAN 21 7 5 11.9 80.2 171 86 55 55 59 51 35
S 9 22.9 69.6 250 119 180 191 158 131 89
9 3 32.8 97.3 282 173 215 717 213 207 138
10 2 81.6 91.9 297 218 275 776 771 258 176
11 1 97.7 22.6 305 297 310 313 307 293 ?nrj
1 50.0 0.0 307 7V 322 326 370 305 208
SURFACE DAILY TOTALS 2916 1897 -J M S 2330 2788 t_2l79 1988
ANN 21 b 6 7.8 98.9 89 20 a 8 7 7 8
7 5 18.9 89.9 206 87 77 70 61 50 12
8 8 30.3 79.3 252 192 153 185 133 117 53
9 3 91.3 67.2 278 207 721 713 JQO 179 93
10 2 91.2 91.9 286 790 775 267 262 229 126
11 1 98.7 29.2 292 777 508 301 2*5 2ffl Ii7
12 61,6 0.0 295 787 320 313 76 771 154
_SU"FAC{ DAILY TOTALS 3092 2779 2812 7520 Jita 1956 J02?
NAY 21 5 7 1.9 118.7 1 0 0 0 o 0 0
f 6 12.7 109.F ll *9 25 15 19 13 Q
7 5 29.0 96.6 216 718 89 76 60 8 8 35.9 87.2 250 179 158 lWt 125 109 25
9 3 96.8 76.0 267 277 771 206 186 160 60
10 2 97.9 60.9 277 267 270 255 235 205
11 1 6fi.2 37.1 283 293 301 287 269 238 108
12 70.0 _ 0.9 288 301 31? 297 279 283 11*4
SUBFALE DAILY TOTOLS 3160 2952 7HU? 2269 2090 1760 * 729
JUN 21 4 7 9.2 117.3 n 22 8 5 5 2 2 1
6 b 19.8 108.9 155 60 50 18 17 16 10
7 5 26.0 99.7 216 173 92 77 59 81 18
8 9 37.8 90.7 296 187 159 182 121 97 16
9 3 98.8 80.2 263 735 219 207 179 151 87
10 2 99.8 69.8 772 272 266 288 229 1^4 79
11 1 69.2 91.9 277 296 796 278 753 221 o?
12 73.9 0.0 779 309 3 06 289 763 230 98
SURFACE DA ILv TOTALS 3180 2698 2728 1979 1670 MO
DATE SOLAR TIME SOLAB POSITION itum/so. ft. total insolation on SUBFACCS
NORMAL MORIZ 30 00 50 60 90
JUI 21 5 7 2.3 115.2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
6 6 13.1 106.1 158 50 26 17 15 19 9
7 5 28.3 97.2 708 119 89 75 60 98 18
8 (1 35.8 87.8 791 178 157 182 128 102 28
9 3 97.2 76.7 759 225 218 203 187 157 58
10 2 57.9 61.7 269 265 766 251 229 200 86
11 1 66.7 37.9 275 290 296 281 258 278 109
12 70.6 0.0 276 298 507 292 269 238 111
SIIBFACE DAILY TOTALS 3062 2539 2009 2230 2006 1728 ?07
AUC 71 6 6 7.9 99.5 81 21 12 9 8 7 5
7 5 19.3 90.0 191 87 76 69 60 89 12
8 M 50.7 79.9 237 150 150 141 129 113 50
9 3 81.8 67.9 260 205 2)6 207 193 173 89
10 2 51.7 52.1 272 296 767 759 288 221 120
11 1 54.3 29.7 278 273 300 292 276 752 180
12 62.3 0.0 280 287 511 303 287 762 197
SUBFACE DAILY TOTALS _ 25)6 m . 2359 >258: 2108 1898 ^ 97f
SfN 21 7 5 11.4 80.2 189 93 51 51 99 87 32
8 *4 22.5 69.6 230 109 153 134 131 128 88
9 3 32.8 57.3 263 167 206 208 203 193 132
10 2 81.6 81.9 780 211 767 765 760 297 168
11 1 87.7 276 787 219 798 301 295 281 14?
1? 50.0 0,0 290 289 310 313 30? 292 700
SDBFACt DAILY TOTALS 2708 1788 72 IQ ?728 2182 7079 !81b
OCT 21 7 5 9.5 77 3 448 7 18 15 17 17 16
8 <4 15.0 61.9 209 68 106 113 117 118 100
9 5 29.5 449.8 257 126 185 195 200 198 160
10 2 32.8 35.6 280 170 785 257 261 257 205
11 1 37.6 18.7 291 194 283 795 299 298 779
IT 39.5 n.o 298 708 295 308 512 306 738
SURFACE DAILY TOTALS l8?i H9S 19ST 2060 5079 1058
NOV 21 8 4 8.2 55.9 156 28 63 n 78 82 81
9 3 17,0 89,1 23? 82 152 167 178 188 167
10 2 28.0 31.0 268 126 215 733 285 789 219
11 1 28.6 16.1 283 153 258 273 285 788 288
12 30.2 0.0 288 163 767 787 298 301 258
SUBFACE DAILY TOTALS 2128 on; 1636 1778 1*75 TOoS
DEC 8 *4 5.5 55.0 89 18 39 85 50 58 ~46
9 3 19.0 81.9 217 65 135 157 168 171 163
10 2 20.7 29.8 261 107 700 721 235 282 221
11 1 25.0 15.2 780 138 239 767 276 283 \ 252
12 76.6 0.0 285 183 753 275 290 296 263
SUBFACE DAlLf 10TALS 1978 382 1080 1638 1780 1796 IMF

Figure R-B-17. South-facing surfaces: effect of tilt on direct radiation for 40 N latitude. Source: (JOR.)
SOLAR HEAT GAIN FACTORS FOR 40N LATITUDE, WHOLE DAY TOTALS Btu/fc2 /(lay \ Values for 2 1st of each month)
Jill i'cb Mur Apr Muy Juu Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Occ
N 118 162 224 306 406 484* 422 322 232 166 122 98
NNE 123 200 300 __ 400 550 700* 550 400 300 200 123 100
NF 127 225 422 65- 813 894* 821 656 4 ? 6 226 132 103
enf: 205 439 691 91 1043 1108" 1041 903 600 431 2oO 205
F. 508 715 961 1115 1173 120(1** 1163 1090 920 694 504 430
ESE 828 1011 1182 1218** 1191* 1179 1175 + 118S+ 1131 971 815 743
SE 1174 1285 1318* 1199 1068 1007 1047 1163 1266 1234 1151 1104
SSE 1490 1509* 1376 1081 8*8 761 851 1049 1326 1454 1462 1430
S 1630** 1626* 1364* 978 712 622 694 942 1344* 156? 1596* 1482*
ssw 1490 1509* 1370 108 848 761 831 1049 1326 1454 1462 1430
sw 1174 1285 1318* 1199 1068 1007 1047 1163 1266 1234 1151 1104
wsw 828 IOI1 1 182 !2IK*t 119!* 1 179 1175* 1 IRKt im V7 1 H 1 n 748
w 508 715 961 1115 1173 1200*T 1163 1090 920 694 504 430
WNW 265 439 691 911 1043 1108* 1041 903 666 431 260 205
NW 127 225 422 658 813 894* 82 1 656 416 226 132 103
NNW 123 200 300 400 550 700* 550 400 300 200 121 loo
HOR 706 1092 1528 1924 2166 2242* 2148 1890 1476 1070 706 564
"month of highest gain for given orientation(s)
*orientation(s) of highest gam in given month SOURCE: ASHRAE. Handbook of Fundamentals, 1970 Koolshadc Corporation.

I. Zoning Classification- Business District (B) including:
a. Hotels, motels, lodges, and resort cabins, including incidental business within the principal buildings; outdoor recreational areas and incidental facilities, provided all such uses retain natural environmental conditions, do not involve the storage of equipment outside of a building and are not obnoxious, offensive or objectionable because of excessive noise, odors, dust or vibration.
b. Places serving food or beverages.
II. Minimum Lot Width ........................ 50 ft.
III. Minimum Front Yard ...................................30 ft.
IV. Minimum Side Yard .......................... 0 ft.
V. Minimum Hear Yard ..........................20 ft.
VI. Maximum Height of Buildings ..........................35 ft.
VII. Signage- set back from right-of-way a distance equal to the front yard requirement for the zoning district in which they are located. (B) 30 feet.
a. Two free standing or projecting signs per principal building, provided such signs to not exceed fifty square feet in area per face.
b. Wall signs not extending more than twelve inches from each principal building in any direction and not exceeding one hundred square feet in area.
c. Prohibited signs are those which:
1. contain obscene words or pictures.
2. imitate official traffic signage.
3. advertise an activity no longer conducted on the premises.
li. have a major moving part.
5. contain flashing lights, spinners or streamers, etc.

6. could swing or move due to wind,
d. Signs may be illuminated as long as they:
1. do not produce Gbjectionable conditions to surrounding areas.
2. are not colored in such a way as to be confused with traffic control devices.
Ill. r,Supplementary Yard Regulations
a. Cornices, canopies, eaves or similar architects 1 features may extend into a required yard not more than three feet.
b. Fire escapes may extend into a required rear yard not more than six feet.
c. ho.part of a yard requred for a building for the purpose of complying with the provinces of these Regulations shall be included as a yard for another building.
d. Accessory buildings may be located in rear yards required for principal buildings.
IX. Off-Street Parking Requirements
a. Minimum off-street parking spaces required:
1. Hotels, motels, lodges, boarding and rooming houses-one and one-half (l^) spaces per rental unit.
2. Eating and drinking establishments- one (l) space per one hundred (100) square feet of gross floor area.
b. Minimum size of parking space and aisles:
1. Stall width ten feet (1C)
2. Stall length ten feet (10*)
3. Minimum drive width twelve feet (12T) one-way
- twenty-four feet (2V) two-way
c. All parking spaces shall be set back a minimum of fifteen feet (15) from all rights-of-way.
d. ho parking shall he permitted in side yard setbacks.
e. Required parking spaces must he provided on the same

property as the principal building or use, except that in multi-family developments.
f. All parking areas shall be surfaced with asphalt, or concrete, or compacted gravel which shall be treated to control dust.
g. Access drives shall not exceed a five per cent (5$) grade within fifty feet (50*) of their entrance to a public or private highway right-of-way.
h. All parking areas shall be separated from adjacent property by the use of open space areas of a minimum dimension of seven feet (7'). Such open space area shall define traffic flow so as to allow snow removal from parking areas without trespass upon or interference with adjacent property owners.
X. Definitions
a. Hotel or Motel- a building designed for occupancy as the more or less temporary abiding place of individuals who are lodged with or without meals, and in which there are six (6) or more guest rooms.
b. Lot Line, Front- the property line dividing a lot from a street. On a corner lot, only one (l) street line shall be considered as a front line and the shorter street frontage shall be considered the front line.
c. Lot Line, Hear- the line opposite the front lot line.
d. Lot Line, Side- any lot lines other than front lot lines or rear lot lines.
The Energy Code will pertain to this building and all
elements of the construction and design should meet the
latest standards of the code.

I. Uniform Building Code 1976
a. Occupancy Classification R-l
b. Fire Zone Designation 3
c. Construction Type III or IV
II. R-l Classification Hotel and apartment houses
a. Allowable Floor Areas 13^66 SF (for on'story)
1. The total area of all floors of multistory buildings shall not exceed twice the area allowed for one-story buildings. No single floor area shall exceed that permitted for one-story buildings.
2. Basements and cellars need not be included in the total allowable area, provided such area does not not qualify as a story.
b. Building Height 65 feet and k stories
i. Height of Building is the vertical distance above grade to tlie highest point of the structure. The measurement is taken from the highest ground surface within a 5-foot horizontal distance of the exterior wall of the building, when such ground surface is not more than 10 feet above grade.
c. Occupancy Separation
i. There is a 3-hour occupancy separation between Group B (includes restaurants) Division 1 and all portions of Group R, Division i.
d. Room Dimensions
1. Ceiling Heights Habitable rooms or areas shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches. Other rooms may have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet. If any room has a sloping ceiling, the prescribed ceiling height is required in only one-half the area. No portion of the room measuring less .han 5 feet (finished floor to finished ceiling) shall be included in any computation of

the minimum area.
2. Floor Area Every dwelling unit shall at least one room which shall have not less than 150 SF of floor area. Other habitable rooms except kitchens shall have an area of not less than 70 SF.
3. Width No habitable room other than a kitchen shall be less than 7 feet in any dimension.
e. Fire Ratings
1. Exterior Wall 1 hour less than 5 feet
2. Exterior Wall Openings not permitted less than 3 feet, protected less than 5 feet.
3. Floors 1 hour, noncombustible material k. Roofs 1 hour, noncombustible material
5. Partitions 1 hour, noncombustible material
6. Structural Frame 1 hour, noncombustible material
f. Fire-extinguishing Systems
1. Fire Warning Systems Every dwelling unit or guest room in a hotel used for sleeping purposes shall be provided with smoke detectors. The detector shall be centrally located on the ceiling of the sleeping room.
2. Automatic Fire-extinguishing Systems are required when floor area exceeds 1500 SF and there is net provided at least 20 SF of opening entirely above the adjoining ground level in each 50 lineal feet of exterior wall in the level on at least one side of the building. When openings in a story are provided on only one side and the opposite wall of such story is more than 75 feet from such openings, the story shall be provided with an automatic system, or openings provided on at least two sides of the exterior walls of the story.
3. Dry Standpipe Requirements required in buildings k or more stories in height.

g. Light and Ventilation All habitable rooms shall he provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area not less than one-tenth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 10 SF. All bathrooms, laundry rooms and similar rooms shall be provided with natural ventilation by roans of openabie exterior openings with an area net less than one-twentieth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 1^ SF. All habitable rooms shall be provided with natural ventilation by means of openabie exterior openings with an area of not less than one-twentieth
of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 5 SF. In lieu of exterior openings, mechanical systems may be provided capable of two air changes per hour in all habitable rooms, arid in public corridors, and five air changes per hour for bathrooms, laundry rooms and similar rooms.
h. Sanitation Every building shall be provided with at least one water closet. Every hotel and each subdivision where both sexes are accommodated shall be provided with at least two water closets located in such building which shall be conspicuously marked. Additional water closets shall be provided on each floor for each sex at the rate of one for every additional 10 guests, in excess of 10.
i. Toilet Facilities Each water closet shell be located in a clear space not less than 50 inches in width and have a clear space in front cf the water closet stool of not less than 24 inches. Where accessible by a level entry, ramp or elevator, each room shall have a clear and unobstructed access of not less than 44 inches All doorways leading to such toilet rooms shall have a clear width of not less than 30 inches. Also included are the following:
1. 44 inches on each side cf doors providing access

to toilet rooms.
2. Except in dwelling units or guest rooms, a clear space within the toilet room of size to inscribe a circle 60 inches in diameter. Doors may encroach into this space by not more than 12 inches.
3. A clear space not less than 42 inches wide and 48 inches long in front of at least one W.C. stool for the use of the handicapped. When such W.C. stool is within a compartment, entry to the compartment shall have a clear width of 30 inches when located at the end and 34 inches width when at the side. A door, shall not encroach into the required space in front of the W.C. 44 inches shall be provided to the W.C. compartments designed for use by the handicapped.
4. Grab bars are to be attached 32 to 34 inches a-bove the floor. 42 inches long for side grab bars and 24 inches in front of the W.C. stool.
j. Water Fountains at least one shall have a spout within 33 inches of the floor. Alcoves shall not be less than 32 inches in width.
k. Telephones at least one shall be installed so that the handset, dial, and coin receiver are within 54 inches of the floor. Unobstructed access within 12 inches of the telephone and 30 inches in width.
l. Exits 2 exits for over 10 occupants or 200 SF per occupant. Each mezzanine used for other than storage purposes, if greater in area than 2000 SF or if more than 60 feet in any dimension shall have two stairways to an adjacent floor. Basements, cellars and occupied roofs shall have exits as required for stories.
1. Arrangement of Exits If only two exits are required they shall be placed a distance apart equal

to not less than one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served.
2. Distance to Exits Shall not exceed 150 feet or 200 feet in a building equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system throughout. These distances may be increased 100 feet when the last 150 feet is within a corridor complying to the code requirements, (see corridor) Exits may not pass through kitchens, storerooms, restrooms, or storage spaces.
3. Entrances to Buildings Main exits from buildings require egress by the physically handicapped.
k, Door Width and Height 3 feet In width and not less than 6 feet S inches in height.
5. Door Swing Exit doors shall swing in tne direction of exit travel when serving any hazardous area or when serving an occupant load of 50 or more.
l. Width kk inches for occupant load greater than 50 and 36 inches for less than that.
2. Rise and Run Not less than 71: inches in rise and 10 inches in run. The largest deviation shall not exceed \ inch.
3. Landings Shall have a dimension measured in the direction of trovel equal to the width of the stairway, but z greater than k feet is required.. Also they shall not be reduced in width by more
3"a inches by a door when ftilly open.
k. Handrails Located on each side of the stairway. An intermediate handrail will be provided when the stairway width exceeds 88 inches. Placed 30-3^ inches above the treads.

. Distance Between Landings Shall not he more than 12 feet vertically between landings.
6. Exterior Stairway Protection All openings* in the exterior wall below or within 10 feet, measured horizontally, of an exterior exit stairway serving a building over two stories in height shall be protected by a self-closing fire assembly having a three-fourths-hour fire-resistive rating.
7. Headroom Every required stairway shall have a clearance of not less than 6 feet 6 inches.
n. Corridors
1. Width Not less than 44 inches in width.
,2. Height Not less than 7 feet.
3. Projections Shall be unobstructed except doors fully opened shall not reduce the required width by more than 7 inches.
4. Access to Exits When more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to go in either direction from any point in a corridor to a separate exit, except for dead ends not exceeding 20 feet in length.
5. Construction Not less than one-hour fire-resistive ceilings and walls.
6. Openings Where corridor walls are required to be of one-hour fire-resistive construction, every door opening shall be protected by a tight-fitting smoke and draft control door assembly having a fire-protection rating of not less than 20 minutes.
o. Exit Signs At every required exit doorway and shall be
illuminated at any time the building is occupied with
light having intensity of not less than one footcandle
at floor level.
p. Ramps *
1. Width same as for stairways (see stairways)

2. Slope Not to exceed a slope of 1:10
3. Landings Ramps having slopes greater than 1:15 shall have landings at the top and bottom and at least one intermediate landing shall be provided for each 5 feet of rise. Landing length shall not be less than 5 feet for an intermediate landing, and 6 feet for top and bottom landings. Doors in any position shall not reduce the minimum dimension of the landing to less than 42 inches and shall not reduce the required width by more than inches when fully open.
q. Aisles
1. Width 3 feet if serving only one side, 3 feet 6 inches if serving both sides. Cross aisle shall be increased inches for each 5 feet in length toward the exit, cross aisle, or foyer.
2. Distances to Nearest Exit shall not be more than 150 feet.
r. Exit Enclosures every interior stairway, ramp, or
escalator shall be enclosed.
1. Construction Not less than two-hour fire-resistive construction in buildings more than four stories in height and shall be of not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction elsewhere.
2. Openings No openings into exit enclosures excent exit doorways and openings in exterior walls.
3. Barrier A stairway in an exit enclosure shall t continue below the grade level exit unless an approved barrier is provided at the ground floor level to prevent persons from accidentally continuing into the basement.
4. Use of Space Under Stair There shall be no enclosed space under stairways in an exit enclosure, nor shall the open space under such stairways be used for any purpose.

s. Special Provisions Group E-l Occupancies, more than
two stories in height or having more than 3000 SF of floor area above the first story, shall be not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction throughout.
1. Buildings on Same Property When a new building is to be erected on the same property with an existing building, the assumed property line from the existing building shall be the distance to the property line for each occupancy.
2. Yards Every yard shall be not less than 3 feet in width for one-story and two-story buildings. For buildings more than two stories in height the minimum width of the yard shell 1 be increased at the rate of 1 foot for each additional story.
3. Storage Garages Shall be unobstructed in headroom of not less than 6 feet 6 inches above the finish floor to any part of the ceiling, (lowest point)
t. Loads
1. Uniform and Concentrated Loads Uniform loads shall be 40 psf and concentrated loads shall be designed
0 psf.
2. Wind Loads Less than 30 feet the wind load will be 25 psf, for 30 to 49 feet it will be 30 psf, and for 50 to 99 feet it will be 40 psf.
3. Snow Loads Snow loads in excess of 20 psf may be
reduced for each degree of pitch over 20 degrees by
Its as determined by the following formula:
itc= S 1 ~ 2
ils= Snow load reduction in psf per degree of pitch over 20 degrees.
S= Total snow load in psf."

5 O*
Source: Time Saving Standards for Building Types.


source: Time Saving Standards for Building Types

1. A Guide to the Woody Plants of Colorado, George W. Kelly, Pruett Publishing Company, Colorado 1970.
2. AIA Journal, Sept. 1978 "Some Lessons Drawn From The Redesign Process", by Marguerite N. Villecco.
3. Architectural Graphic Standards, Charles G. Ramsey & Harold R. Sleeper, 6th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1970.
4. American Automobile Association, Spring 1976.
5. Climatological Data Annual Summary, Vol 82, Number 13, National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, Colorado 1978.
6. Colorado Ski Country USA 1979-1980 Guide.
7. Design With Nature, Ian L. McHarg, Doubleday & Company, Inc. New York, 1971.
8. Hotel Motel, Giampiero Aloi, Ulrico Hoepli Editore Spa, Milano, Italy, 1970.
9. Interiors 2nd Book of Hotels, Henry End, Whitney Library of Design, New York, 1978.
10. Motels, Hotels, Restaurants and Bars, Architectural Record Book, 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1960.
11. Rock-'7 Mountain Horticulture, George W. Kelly, Pruett Publishing Company, Colorado, 1958.
12. Sun/Earth, Richard L. Crowther, The A.B. Hirschfeld Press, Inc., Colorado, 1976.
13. The Passive Solar Energy Book, Edward Mazria, Rodale Press, Penn. 1979.
14. The Solar Home Book, Bruce Anderson, Cheshire Books, New Hampshire, 1976.
15. The Story of Tunnels, Archibald Blake, Whillesey House, New York, 1937.
16. Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data, John Hancock Callendar,
5th Ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York 1974.
17. Time-Saver Standards for Building Types, John Hancock Callendar, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York 1974.
18. Uniform Building Code 1976.
19. Winter Park Booklet, Winter Park Reservations, Colorado 1979.
20. Winter Vacation in Colorado, 1979-80 Ed., Rocky Mountain AAA, Colorado 1979.

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