Glenarm Place

Material Information

Glenarm Place
Saunders, Daryl R
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
108 unnumbered leaves : charts, maps, color photographs, plans ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Real estate development -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Office buildings -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Housing -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Housing ( fast )
Office buildings ( fast )
Real estate development ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references (leaf 108).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
presented by Daryl R. Saunders.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
12201146 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1985 .S383 ( lcc )

Full Text
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An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Architecture.
Presented by DARYL R. SAUNDERS
Fall 1984

University of Colorado, at Denver
Date !?0Sr


I. Introduction
II. Background information
III. Program Information
1. Basic parameters of the site
2. Development possibilities
3. Scope of proposed project
4. Program for office space
5. Programming for housing units
IV. Site Location
1. Regional map
2. District map
3. Potential site selection areas
4. Aerial map of site
5. Sand born map 1984
6. Existing conditions 1974
7. Five Points neighborhood plan
8. Zoning map
9. Lot and block map
V. Site analysis map
VI. Denver climate
VII. Site Historic context
VIII. Denver Zoning
1. District B-4 summary
IX. Denver building code review
X. FHA min. standards
XI. Hud minimum property standards
XII. Design solution
XIII. Conclusions
XIV. Appendices
A. A review of possible telecommunication systems


The following program was prepared for a mixed-use development. The develo-ment must accommodate approximately 16,000 sq. ft. of office space and
18,000 sq. ft. of housing. The proposed site is located northeast of Downtown Denver in what is known as the Clements Park Historic District. The site is a typical urban infill site comprised of eight lots approximately 125' x 25' which gives a total site size of 25,000 sq. ft..
Today energy conservation is a major issue being addressed by many concerned individuals. The more we study the problem the more we begin to see ways to help control it.
Personally, I believe we could save a tremendous amount of energy if we decentralize our work places for white collar workers. In this way we can reduce the amount of energy consumed by their automobiles for long daily trips back and forth to work.
To me the above idea translates into the architectural problem of intergrating the workplace into existing residential neighborhoods without destroying the scale and character of the neighborhood.
For example the concept of home as a place only for living and entertaining may change. If methods of communication can take the place of transportation we may no longer have to leave our houses to go to work. Houses may one day include the concept of work place.
Also, the feasibility of high density office towers may become questionable when side effects such as auto polution and energy consumption are considered. An alternative building form smaller in scale married with
- 2 -

our most current technology might prove more efficient in the long range picture.
As previously stated my goal is to provide an alternative to centralized high density development, an alternative which will help vitalize existing neighborhoods and cut down on energy consumed by automobiles.
- 3 -


Still today as in the past transportation has a major impact on urban and architectural forms. Today, suburbia continues to push outward into rural areas while the city cores become more and more business oriented. In the center is the central business district, consisting of offices and retail stores. This is surrounded by a deteriorating zone of railroad terminals, older manufacturing plants, and warehouses. The next zone comprises older high-density residential areas that are declining into slums in many cities.
The remaining zones represent newer housing developments, usually of singlefamily dwellings, that have been built since World War II and the spread of the private automobile. A major factor behind the development of these zones is the city-center oriented, redial highway and rail transportation system.
Transportation not only effects urban locations and configurations it reaches down on a smaller scale also. The size and shapes of our buildings are often determined by the area alloted for cars. Victor Gruen, a noted urban planner, estimates that the space required for private automobiles in a typical city is more than six times as great as the living space required for the inhabitants.
The Denver Zoning Board requires off street parking for most urban developments. Each building type is under a class listing and each class is required to provide so much parking for each square foot of building area. For example general retail establishments require one space per 200 sq. ft., offices require 1 space per 500 sq. ft., and a bank, post office, or amusement facility would require 1 space per 300 sq. ft. of floor space. This requirement alone could and often determines the building footprint and height.
Today the location of streets, drives and parking lots can have more influence on the building entry than pedestrian circulation.

The population of the United States is over 200 million which is approximately one-sixth of the world's total, but the U.S. energy demand is about one-third of the world's energy production. These figures make it quite clear that the U.S. needs to find an effective way of cutting down on energy consumption without hindering economic growth. I feel that telecomunications as a substitute for transportation will not only help to cut down on energy consumption it can also serve as a step in freeing architectural form from the constraint of the automobile.
Today over half of the U.S. labor force is comprised of white-collar workers.
The white-collar worker is almost totally concerned with information transactions He gathers, processes, stores, retrieves, analyzes, and transmits information. Below statistical charts help verify the fact that the automobile is a significant source of energy consumption and that the worker is the most significant user of the automobile. Given these facts it seems quite logical to take a closer look at the substitute of telecomunications for transportation with respect to the white-collar worker.
Trip Purpose (1) t Vehicle Miles (2) # Daily Urban Vehicle Miles (millions) (3) Ave One-Way Trip Length (miles (4) # Daily One-Way Trips (millions) (2)/ (3)
Earninq a Livinq 42% 539.3 10.2 52.8
To and From Work (34%) (436.6) (9.4) (46.4)
Business Realted to
Work ( 8%) (102.7) (16.0) ( 6.4)
Family Business 20% 256.8 5.5 46.1
Medical and Dental ( 2%) ( 25.7) ( 8.3) ( 3.1)
Shopoing ( 8%) (102.7) ( 4.4) (23.3)
Other (10%) (128.4) ( 6.5) (19.7)
Education/Civic/Reliqious 5% 64.2 4.7 13.6
Social/Recreational 33% 423.7 13.1 32.3
Vacations** (2.5%) (332.1) (165.1) ( 0.2)
Visits (friends/Rel) (12%) (154.1) (12.0) (12.8)
Pleasure Rides ( 3%) ( 38.5) (19.6) ( 2.0)
Other (15.5%) (199.0) (11.4) (17.5)
ALL PURPOSES 100% 1284 8.8 144.8

C^KT *2.

The above data was collected in 1974 by the office of telecommunications U.S. Department of Commerce. So these figures can be considered quite moderate as compared to what is actually happening today.
Chart #1 indicates that about 42% of the urban mileage was directly attributable to workers in their role of earning a living. Chart #2 presents characteristics of workers in their home to work travel. Of significance in this chart and in chart #1 is the fact that 540 million automobile miles driven daily in earning a living comprises 75% of the total journey-to-work travel in the intraurban areas of the U.S.. But chart #3 indicates a most distressing fact that earning a living results in the lowest efficient use of the automobile in terms of passenger transportation when that transportati is viewed in the urban area.
Today with our current technology (refer to Appendix 'A' for examples) we can transmit the products of the white-collar worker electronically. Unfortunately, however, we seem to still rely on transportation. In this particular case social lag seems to be a hinderance in the implementation of energy conservation. It should be clear that our primary objective should be to get the white-collar commuter off the road or at least out of their automobiles and into public transportation.
The task seems to be that of convincing employers that there are good economic and operational incentives to change their philosophy that "white-collar employees are deligent and productive only when they are centralized, under close supervision, and when they appear to be industrious during some prescribed working hours such as 9 to 5". Don Frifield puts it this way:

"The office is no longer necessary as a base for all white-collar work all the time...Much of the work could be better accomplished from home. With great computers operating in one place, triggered from terminals many miles away, there's no reason why flesh and blood human beings should be rooted in the Great Office Building, a kind of latter-day baronial castle (of which it is a lineal descendant)... Thousands of men and women already run entire businesses from home using the mails and telephones... The simple truth is that a goodly percentage of the Workers are either notWorking at all, but only killing time until they can go home, or they're working erratically and inefficiently...The trouble is that no one can properly watch white-collar people that much anyway... It's a primitive system. It literally tempts the goof off because it demands presence and staying power rather than accomplishment and output... It's time for thoughtful people in every kind of enterprise to ask themselves if we must build ever mightier skyscrapers to house typewriters, desks, computer terminals, telephones, and account books...(and whether there is) a need to build ever wider expressways to bring two-ton leviathans into the heart of urban America so that their owners can punch keyboards, make telephone calls, mark papers, and generate the executive-type thinking and creativity that might be better done in those literally greener pastures of suburbia-exurbia or even the garden apartment." (Ref. 22)
Below is a bar graph and a table taken from research gathered by Jack M. Nilles and others. The data was based on the best information available in 1975. Although energy cost on consumption values have changed since then I feel the relative differences would favor telecommunications even more so today.
Figure 7.2 Re'at-ve e-e'cy ccrs-f-cvc-' of Transoodaiion
e'e/ ccsis are ;a

Table 7.3. Energy Costs for Long Distance Jet Travel and Telecommuting
Contact Time (Hcurs) Energy Requirements (Kilowatt Hcurs) Ra ttos
Boeing' 747 Picture- phone Telecom- muting 747 to Picturephone 747 to Telecommuting
3 9500 1200 9.6 8.0 990
16 9500 2400 19 4.0 500
24 9500 3600 29 2.7 330
Energy Requirements and Ratios for Boeing 747 and Picturephone (Registered Service Mark of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company) are taken from Dickson anc Bowers, Reference 7.24. Required Picturephone data rate is 1.5 Mbps while telecommuting data rate is 4.8 kbps (simultaneous two-way).
I think it is time to take a serious look at the decentralization of work forces. Dr. Richard C. Harness presents several approaches below:
Dr. Richard C. Harkness has conducted considerable research and proposes that five types of relocation (decentralization) from the CBD's are possible (Ref. 17). These five types are as follows (See Chart 10.)t
Type A An organization moves as a total unit from the CBD to the mean center of its employees' residences in a suburban or rural area.
Type B An organization splits into two or more functional units, and one or more of the units moves
. from the CBD to a suburban or ruj?al area (3). ____.
Type C One organization establishes offices outside the CBD, and employees report to the office nearest to their residences regardless of their position or functions within their organizations.
Type D Offices are established outside the CBD and are shared by many organizations. Employees of those organizations report to the office nearest their residences regardless of the organizations for which they work and regardless of their positions and functions within their own organizations.
Type E Instead of reporting to offices, white collar workers would do their work at home.

Even though Denver is in the process of growing and building I am concerned about its' future. I can see Denver falling into the opening scenario quite easily. At the present time high-rise office buildings are appearing in the C.B.D. like measles appearing on an infected infant. I can visualize thousands and thousands of car, bus and sky rail riders all converging to downtown Denver. Can you imagine the energy consumed each day and the collection of pollution hoving over us like a buzzard hovering over his prey. Yet, surrounding areas like Five Points, Highlands, Northwest Denver, etc. show little improvement. I begin to wonder if decentralization was even considered as an alternative to a huge collection of babeling towers.


1. basic_parameters_of_jhe_siJE
The Clements Park site covers a quarter block bounded by 21st and Glenarm Place. The site is composed of eight city lots, five in zoning District For the sake of unity I'm proposing to have the entire site rezoned as B-4.
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8 lots at 125 x 25 each = 25,000 sq. ft.
Upper limit allowed in B-4 Zone:
Site area = 25,000 sq. ft.
Allowable bldg, floor area = 50,000 sq. ft.
a) General space requirements:
. Office Space ................................... 16,000 sq. ft.
. Housing Units ............................. 18,000 sq. ft.
Total bldg, f1. area = 34_,000 sq ft.
b) Parking requirements:
. Office space (1/500 sq. ft.) .................. 32 spaces
. Housing units (1/per unit) ..................... 14 spaces
Total parking spaces = 46_spaces

The office space will be developed for a major national insurance company. The company will use the space basically to house top executives from three subdivisions of their western regional office.
This new office is the first of several moves to decentralize office locations. The following diagram is representative of the company's future
The company chose the above approach for several reasons. It realized that the majority of its' workforce were clerical, so it filled these clerical positions primarily by hiring recent high school graduates and college students. The company believes this practice has two-fold benefits:
First because it provides employees of sufficient skill at minimum cost. Second, the clerical workers constitute a nonunion labor force, which the company prefers. With this in mind the company decided it would be better for all to take the work to those employees instead of the reverse. This would relieve these young workers of large traveling expenses, thus making the job more attractive. It would also conserve energy and reduce pollution.

The company also felt this practice could act as a plus for furthering equal employment opportunities. If decentralization is arranged so that employment centers are located in areas with high levels of minority group population higher paying jobs will be brought to the minority areas. This is in contrast to the usual present situation in which considerable effort is expended in trying to plan the daily commute of minorities to locations offering higher paying jobs.
Below is a table listing the functions performed by the insurance service

Functions Performed by Insurance Service Center Function
Staff Title
Change and Reinstatement
Rights and Values
Billmg ana Remittance
1. Changes involving kind, amounts, date, age. ratings ana irregula' premiums for ordinary and health policies
2 Duplicate policy transactions.
3. Ordinary and health reinstatements
4 Conversion of term riders & policies
5 Insertion and removal or ordinary and heatlh policies under special remittance plans.
6 Batches input and matches computer output with source documents
7 Reviews and attests policies and endorsements
1 Perform special policy calculations
2 Calculations of charges allowances and comnrvssions on ordinary and health in su'ance policy changes
3 Special settlement option clauses for new issue and in force ordinary policies
4 Transfer of ownership, extension of rights, and limitation of rights
5 Records and discharge ot assignments
6 Name and beneficiary changes on ordi nary policies
7~Batches input and matches computer output with source documents
t. Updates commission data on computer records
2 Processes commission adjustments
3. Processes credit and valuation adjustments
4 Replies to correspondence regaroing payments
5 Controls assignments of servicing agents
6 Codes the commission and valuation transactions
7 Controls work into and out of the section
1. Receives, sorts and delivers incoming mail
2. Provides messenger service.
3 Denvers keypunch briefs to keypunch area
4 Handles and orders all supplies
5 Types policies, riders, and alteration sheets.
6 Types all settlement option cases.
7 Types checks prepared outside of the computer
8 Types register cards on interoffice transfers.
9 Types miscellaneous letters and memos
1 Approves all dividend ana loan transactions
2 Adjusts computer master records tor errors
3. Prepares accounting vouchers
4. Controls and processes special handling items
5 Replies to correspondence regarding policies.
1 Processes premium and policy loan
2 Controls new business remittances
3 Controls release of checks for over-remittance
4 Handles voucher functions & related deposits
1 Handies requests for duplicate premium notice
2 Investigates error conditions with remittance
3 Investigates overdue remittances received
4 Handles requests to pay premium in advance
5 Handles requests for return of premium paid
6 Handles requests for investigations
7. Processes protested checks
7 Change Approver 7
6 Change Examiner 8
5 Medical Approve' 1
5 Assistant Examiner 9
4 Change Coder 5
3 Reinstatement Cie'k 2
3 Service Clerk 4
2 Change Clerk 2 38
8 Calculation Approver 4
7 Caicuia,.c'r> Reviewer 3
5 Ciause Cio,k 3
4 Averment Ow* 3
3 C*aCode* 3
2 Service Cie'k 2
6 Computer Cierk 14
5 Control Clerk 2
3 Commission Clerk 1 17
5 Service Clerk 2
4 Change Typists 5
3 Clerk Typists 1
2 Telephone Clerk 2 10
6 Disbursement Approver 4
5 Correction Clerk 7
4 Internal Transcrioer 1
4 Senior Clerk 3
3 Service Clerk 2 22
6 Acceptance Cierk 17
5 New Business Clerk 6
3 Control Clerk 9 32
5 Service Clerk 4
5 Reconciiiaticn Cie'k 13
3 Correction Clerk 7 24~

After studying the table the company concluded that there was no technical need for the clerical employees of either division to be located in a central site. A second critical point that became apparent was that almost all of the routine operations of these divisions could be performed using off-the-shelf computer terminals and telecommunication technologies. These two critical points were the determing factors which concluded the feasibility study of the project.
(14 req. Oapprox. 225 sq. ft. ea.) ...................... 4000
Central computer room ................................... tpoo
Teleconferencing room .................................... ^5
Auditorium ............................................. )Soo
Small conference room ..................................
Clerical open space ..................................... 3000
Reception area ........................................... &co
Front office space ....................................... &P&
Ladies rest room ....................................... 2pc
Mens rest room ........................................... zpo
Garment area ........................................... 200
Storage area ............................................. 2p
Lobby space .............................................. ^00
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As mentioned above, if methods of telecommunications can take the place of transportation we may no longer have to leave our houses to go to work. Houses may one day include the concept of work. It is this concept that I wish to explore.
Historically in the United States, the goal of most american families has been to own their own home. A lot of these homes were located in the suburbs and the owners would consume endless amounts of energy to drive for miles to work at urban centers.

During the last decade many families have had to alter this goal because of changing economical and social conditions. Rising building, land, financing and energy costs have made the availability of single family detached housing prohibitive for a wide section of our population. Household types are emerging which are different from those of the traditional nuclear family: Single parent families, two-income families, unrelated adults sharing a residence and others. All these could benefit from the option of working at home instead of wasting valuable time, money and energy traveling to work every day. It is clear that a new, more efficient and flexible type of house is needed to respond to these new trends.
The design of the housing units should address the following issues:
1. Privacy and security for units private exterior spaces related to individual living units.
2. Spaces for housing:
. Exterior spaces for children's play and recreation (semi-private).
. Common exterior spaces.
3. Public spaces entry, arrival adjacent uses, etc.
4. Parking:
. Security.
. 1 parking space per housing unit.
5. Orientation sun, views and prevailing winds.
6. Context of neighborhood:
. Relationship to street.
. Identity housing unit identity, entry.
. Building mass and shape.
. Fenestration material, surface, texture, detail, operints, etc.

Suggested area allocations for 2 and 3 bedroom units:
2 bedroom housing units:
Living room ..
Dining room ..
Kitchen .....
Master bedroom Master bath ..
Bedroom (2nd)
Bath ........
Office ......
Total net ___
Circulation ..
Total gross ..
3 bedroom housing units:
Living room 200 sq. ft.
Dining room 150 sq. ft.
Kitchen 100 sq. ft.
Master bedroom 175 sq. ft.
Master bath 75 sq. ft.
Bedroom (2nd) 140 sq. ft.
Bedroom (3rd) 120 sq. ft.
Bath 50 sq. ft.
Office 225 sq. ft.
Total net 1235 sq. ft.
Circulation 175 sq. ft.
Total gross 1410 sq. ft.
200 sq. ft. 140 sq. ft. 100 sq. ft. 165 sq. ft. 70 sq. ft. 140 sq. ft. 50 sq. ft. 200 sq. ft. 1065 sq. ft. 150 sq. ft. 1215 sq. ft.
The office will include some of the latest telecommunication equipment.


The site is located in Denver, Colorado northeast of the downtown metropolitan area. This area is designated the Clements Park Historic District. The site covers a quarter block bounded by 21st and Glenarm Place.
Following are maps provided by the Denver Planning Board. They indicate existing and future planning ideas. The site is marked in yellow for identification purposes. The other sites marked were studied but the Glenarm site was considered most feasible for the project.


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Denver is located on the South Platte River on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. The climate is characterized by low relative humidity, light to moderate winds, mild temperatures, and light precipitation. The average monthly temperature varies from 30.4 degrees F in January to 73.3 degrees F in July. Occasional Chinook winds help to moderate winter temperatures. Annual snowfall averages 62 inches but persistent snow cover is usual. March is typically the snowiest month. Precipitation averages about 15.5 inches per year. Little precipitation falls during the winter. More than 50 percent of the annual precipitation occurs from April through July. Thundershowers occur fairly frequently on summer afternoons.

The earth's climate is the product of the sun which supplies the energy to set the atmosphere in motion Climate can be defined as the collective state of the atmosphere for a location at a given time of day or year. It is frequently described in terms of these statistical weather variables: temperature,
wind, sunshine, precipitation and cloud cover.
The state of the atmosphere at any moment for a given location could also be described in terms of energy, because it is the result of continuous exchanges of energy within itself and with the surface of the earth. If the surface changes, as when urbanization replaces countryside with concrete and buildings, the mechanisms of energy are modified and the climate changes.
In Denver the combination of buildings, paved surfaces and air pollution has altered the local climate. The core city is hotter than the surrounding countryside in summer. During the winter air pollution interferes with the receipt of solar radiation. It is estimated that a smoggy day can lower the surface air temperature by as much as ten degrees F.
Denver area temperatures typify a mild interior continental region Extremes of hot and cold temperatures lasting beyond 5-6 days are a rarity. The diurnal temperature range between night and day is greater than the winter to summer swing. Table I gives the mean and extreme temperature summary as recorded by the United States Weather Bureau at Denver, Colorado.
Noma) Degree Davs .tear, ttu-ber of Pays Tenberatures
Hally nallv Month 1v Record Record . 65 F 90F and 32F and
Month Maximum Minimum Mean Hip.h l.ow (Meat ir.g) (Coo 1 inr,) above . below ,
Jan 0.5 16.2 29.9 72 -25 1088 0 0 30
Feb 46.2 19.4 32.8 76 -30 Q02 0 0 27
Mar 50.1 2 3.8 37.0 84 -11 868 0 0 27
Apr 6) .0 33.4 47.5 85 - 2 575 0 0 13
May 70.3 43.6 57.0 96 22 253 0 * 2
Jun 60.1 51.9 66.0 104 30 80 110 5 0
Ju) 87.4 58.6 73.0 104 4 3 0 748 15 0
Aug 85.8 57.4 71.6 101 41 0 208 9 0
Sen 77.7 47.8 62.8 0 7 20 1 20 54 2 1
Oct 66.8 37.2 52.0 88 3 40 5 0 9
Nov 53.3 25.4 39.4 79 - 8 768 0 0 25
Dec 46. 2 18.9 32.6 74 -18 1004 0 0 29
Annual 64.0 36.2 50. 1 104 -10 6016 42 5 32 162
* Less than one half.
Department of Commerce, 1977

Denver lies in the semi-arid rain shadow of the Rocky Mountains. Mean annual precipitation equals 15.51 inches with the bulk of the moisture coming in the spring months.. The winter months are normally the driest months. From November to March, the precipitation usually falls as snow. Heavy thundershowers are not uncommon during the warm summer months. Table II shows Denver's precipitation characteristics.
Daily precipitation amounts greater than or equal to 0.10 inches can be expected on the average of 88 days per year and the maximum daily rainfall recorded at Denver is 3.55 inches. Thunderstorms account for most of the summer precipitation, and annually there is an average of 41 days with thunderstorm occurrences. Snowfall averages 59.9 inches per year and snow has been recorded in every month except July and August. The maximum monthly and maximum 24-hour snowfalls recorded are 39.1 inches and 19.4 inches, respectively.
Wind speeds in Denver are normally highest in winter and spring and lowest in late summer and fall as shown in Table III. Sustained wind speeds of 90 miles per hour with gusts to 120 miles per hour have been recorded along the foothills west of Denver. The maximum recorded surface wind speed at Stapleton International Airport was 56 mph in April, 1960 and again in July, 1965. The latter is not, however, a recommended design wind speed representative of the Denver area, since winds a few feet above the surface or along the foothills might be considerably higher.
Knowledge of the prevailing wind direction is a grossly overused and not particularly revealing statistic by itself. For heating, ventilation and air conditioning applications it is much more important to know the various wind directions and wind speeds in relation to the outdoor air temperatures and those desired temperatures in the building at the time heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment is func-
Month Total Precipitation Mean Nunber a Snow Mean Number a of Days with t Snow 1.0 inch
Mean Monthly Maximum Monthly Minimum Maximum 24-hour of Davs with Precipitation },.01 inch Monthly Mean Max intjm Monthly
Jan .si 1.44 0.01 1.02 A 8.4 23.7 2
Feb .67 1.66 0.01 1.01 6 8.0 18.3 2
Mar 1.21 2.89 0.13 1.48 R 12.6 29.2 u
Aor 1.93 4.17 0.03 3.25 Q 9.6 28.3 3
May 2.64 7.31 0.06 3.55 ]0 1.5 13.6 b ^
Jun 1.93 4.69 0.10 3.16 9 Tc 0.3 0
Jul 1.78 6.41 0.17 2.42 9 0.0 0.0 0
Aup. 1.29 4.47 0.06 3.43 8 o.o 0.0 0
Sep 1.13 4.67 T0 2.44 6 1 .9 21.3 % *
Oct 1.13 4.17 0.05 1.71 5 3.8 31.2 1
Nov 0. 76 2.97 0.0] 1.29 5 7.6 35.1 2
Dec 0.43 2.84 O.03 1.38 5 6.5 30.8 2
Total 15.51 7.31 Tc 3.55 88 58.9 39.1 18
a Monthly totals are rounded to th e nearest w idle day.
b*Denotes less than one-half. cTn*notes a trace of precipitation
SOURCE: U. S. Department of Commerce, 1977

Month Mean Wind Speed (mph) Prevailing Direction Maximum Wind Speed Recorded (mph) Direction Associated with Maximum
Jan 9.2 S 53 N
Feb 9.4 S 49 NW
Mar 10.1 s 53 NW
Apr 10.4 s 56 NW
May 9.6 s 43 SW
Jun 9.2 s 47 S
Jul 8.5 s 56 SW
Aug 8.2 s 42 SW
Sep 8.2 s 47 NW
Oct 8.2 s 45 NW
Nov 8.7 s 48 W
Dec 9.0 s 51 NE ;
Annual 9.1 s 56 NW
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1577
Data Source: U.S. Weather Bureau
Location of Wind Dowotown Denver, rooftop elcvatlooe at or near Halo Poat Office

01 (he typical climate changes within the city, the heat island may be one ol the most notable The warmest part of the city Is not in the central area where the tallest buildings are, but in the area ol greatest density of low, flat-topped buildings interspersed with numerous parking lots In Denver this occurs on the fringe ol the Central Business District (CBD)
Because of less vegetation in densely urbanized settings, such as the Denver CBD. the energy consumed by evaporation is reduced in the city This results in additional heat storage in the urban area and increases in the transfer of heat to the air The heat transfer is also intensified by increased convection due to the greater surface roughness (buildings). In comparison with rural settings Denver possesses a higher heat capacity due to the reflectivity and materials common to the urban fabric. As a result the city is able to store large amounts of incoming solar radiation and artificial heat used to warm the buildings. These city characteristics result in the urban heat island effect.
The central core of Denver is believed to experience the heat island phenomena under cenam conditions As elsewhere, the Denver urban heat island is probably most pronounced at night when winds are low. The effect of high wind velocities and.'or cloud cover is to reduce or eliminate the heat island effect. Sustained winds in excess of 13 mph reduce the heat island to insignificant proportions.
The heat dome that forms over a city can act as a barrier to prevailing winds, depriving the city interior of needed ventilation and forming a lid of heat in which air pollutants are trapped.
Every city is unique in the chemistry of its urban atmosphere, a response to air pollution emission forms and amounts, and unique topographical and meteorological conditions affecting dispersion. These principal parameters have complex temporal and spatial patterns in cities. No two cities are alike in either their economic structure and urban morphology or in the local pattern of winds, inversions and other meteorological parameters relevant to both emissions and diffusion efficiencies.
In an approximate way, pollutants and other atmospheric substances may be categorized as reactants and products. Reactants are those gases or particulates emitted directly into the atmosphere as a result of urban combustion processes, other industrial activities and biosphere processes
Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, sulphur dioxide, metallic and other panicles (i.e., lead), are examples of reactants produced from urban activities. Methane, hydrogen sullide, nitrous oxide and ammonia are examples of reactants emitted as a result ol biosphere processes.
Nitrogen dioxide, photochemical oxidant (ozone), peroxyacyl nitrates, particulate nitrates, aldehydes, ketones and sulfates are examples of atmospheric products. A number ol these substances can be associated with both groupings to some extent.
In many cities, notably London, Pittsburgh and those of the Ruhr, atmospheric conditions grew steadily worse over many decades before official action was taken to control emissions Then, as control regulations were enforced, skies above these cities cleared
In streets and between buildings the speed and direction of wind changes considerably. It is difficult to determine the exact laws governing these changes since they depend on the structural features of the buildings and the city. However, far above the built-up areas.of towns the wind speed profile assumes the same features as in open country. The effect ol cities on wind is mainly due to the effect of the increased roughness of the underlying surface.
Knowledge of surface roughness and the resultant wind modifications enables an approximate calculation to be made of the dispersion of air pollutants in a city without taking into account fine details of the urban structure but merely making some adjustments to the mean values for the paramenters of atmospheric diffusion.
Out in the country, only a small fraction of the solar radiation is absorbed and the heat exchange is low. In the city a large part of the incident radiation is absorbed by the facades of buildings which then radiate back heat and rise Ihe temperature within the climatological sheath. The solar energy striking the roof of a typical house is said to be ten times as great as its annual heat demand.

Landscaping and /or vegetation can have a positive or negative effect upon energy conservation depending on where the vegetation or site slopes are in relation to the structure Trees along the east and west sides of a house will not usually create shading problems Fortunately, three-fourths of the housing in Denver face streets which run north-south and therefore havcWront and back yards on the east and west sides of the houses. This situation favors the maximum tree planting with still adequate solar access to the house At least one basic problem in Denver exists, that of generally unfavorable rool and house orientation for solar retrofit devices on much of the existing housing This problem, however, is not apparent everywhere and is not insurmountable.
Trees should be spaced so as not to interfere with solar collectors when they are needed. This usually means that deciduous trees are best placed on the west side to offer protection from late afternoon summer sun. Wise planting of trees and landscaping can provide much needed solar control without excessive blocking of solar collectors.fFigures 10 and 24 )
Our communities need both trees and solar access so some compromises may be necessary The major point is consid-eration of others and awareness of the need for conservation.
w -
buildings. Tlu- effect Is maximum when passage Is narrow, 2 to 5 meters in width (V). If buildings are tall, the maximum increase (for a given width) occurs when wind enters the passage at an angle of 0 to 45 degrees.
Figure 13 provides generalized information regarding the direction from which various weather elements normally attack a structure or site in Denver. For example, west frequently brings the strongest winds, north the coldest, and southeast the gentlest The arc of effective sunshine is much smaller from the south in winter than in summer Snow usually blows in from the northeast quadrant and ram from the west and northwest in Denver. These are some local characteristics which are useful in planning and developing.
Outside pressure on windward and lee sides of buildings can vary (at the same height). Maximum outside pressure occurs n windward side, minimum on lee side Reduced pressure Wc curs as moving air accelerates over the top of the building Vortices are formed on lee sides of buildings, in which air pollutants are trapped at street level.

llllllllll HEAT BLOCKED
Use light color for roofing material since a light colored roof will be 60'F cooler in the sun than a dark colored roof.
Where appropriate, square and rectangular buildings should be designed since they use only 2/3 the energy of L-or U-shaped buildings.
In Denver west walls in particular, exposed to the sun, should be painted light colors or shaded with vegetation.
Where possible, batt-type insulation should ordinarily be used. Refer to the Denver Building Code, Chapter 62, for recommended thickness of insulation.
Buildings should be built to withstand external loads exerted by wind and snow and not collapse on account of structural fatigue or materials decomposing in the weather.
Vents or fans in the attic or ceiling that allow warm air to rise up and out of the house, while drawing cool should be considered.
The building shouJd not allow the penetration of unwanted wind, precipitation and pollutants and, further, n should maintain a certain balance in exchange of heat and moi$; ture with tne surroundings by modifying the passage of heat and the transport of moisture through the outer skin.
All windows above grade should be at a minimum double-glazed. (Refer to Denver Building codes.)
All exterior doors and interior doors leading to unheated areas above grade should be weather-stripped and sliding glass doors should be double-glazed.
The total energy required should be computed as the annual estimated BTU's necessary to heat, cool, and light the proposed residential building. For purposes of this calculation, tne exterior walls should consist of no more than the equivalent of 20 percent doors and windows. (Reference the Denver Building Code, Chapter 62, Series 1978.)
Fireplaces should be constructed such that their operation will increase heat energy supplied to the living area in quantities greater than that lost through air exchange during combustion.

Denver, Colorado
Month Percent of Possible Sunsh lne Number ofa Clear Days Number of3 Partly Cloudy Days Humber ofa Cloudy Days Mean Sky Cover (Tenths)
January 72 10 10 11 5.5
February 71 8 9 11 5.8
March 70 8 10 13 6.0
April 66 7 10 13 6.1
May 65 6 12 13 6.2
June 71 9 13 8 5.0
July 71 9 16 6 5.0
August 72 10 14 7 4.9
September 74 13 9 8 4.4
October 73 13 10 8 4.4
November 66 11 9 10 5.3
December 68 11 10 10 5.3
Total 70 115 132 118 5.3
aMonthly totals are rounded to the nearest whole day. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977.
tioning. Tables III and IV, used together, may be of some limited use in this regard.
Table III presents monthly annual mean and extreme winds at Denver. The annual average wind speed is 9.1 miles per hour with April having the highest average (10.4 miles per hour). Because of the nighttime drainage wind down the South Platte Valley, south is the prevailing wind direction in all seasons. During late morning and afternoon hours, north and northeast winds are most frequent as shown in Table IV.
Sunshine duration is defined as the number of hours of sunshine reaching the surface which is intense enough to cause distinct shadows. Denver receives on the average 70 percent of the total possible sunshine throughout the year. Clearest days occur in the fall and cloudiest in the spring.
Annually Denver averages 115 clear days (10 to 30 percent cloud cover), 133 partly cloudy days (30 to 80 percent cloud cover) and 117 cloudy days (80 to 100 percent fcloud cover). Table V presents daytime solar and cloud data at Denver.
Solar radiation varies with latitude and season. Incoming radiation has a value (solar constant) of about 2 gram calories per square centimeter per minute at an angle perpendicular to the outer boundary of the atmosphere. The solar collector on a Denver house will receive about half that rate of energy during an average summer solar day. The depletion is caused by many factors including reflectivity, cloud cover, ozone, sun angle and absorption by the earth's vaporous atmosphere. Table VI is a summary of average daily solar and reflected sky radiation for Denver and other western cities.

Station Ian IV., M.,r A:-r lav Jim Jl.l Awe S.-iu Oct Nov Di-c
Riverside. Calif. 260 305 ,90 SCO 540 585 595 540 475 375 290 205
La Jolla, Calif. :to 305 400 4 60 505 510 500 475 400 340 290 240
New Orleans, La. 220 275 3 50 -,25 460 470 425 425 380 380 300 205
Fresno, Calif. 170 275 400 575 650 700 66 3 615 510 480 360 155
Nashville, Tenn. 140 210 310 410 500 530 510 460 385 300 200 no
Davis, Calif. 210 2S0 375 560 640 700 690 615 515 360 240 115
Phoenix, Arlz. 270 3 JO ' 4a0 5 70 660 650 600 555 495 400 300 260
Crand* Junetion, Colo. 210 265 400 470 550 620 610 543 445 340 2 30 195
Boise, Idaho 130 165 310 420 525 565 600 525 405 275 160 115
Dodge City, Kansas 235 265 375 460 515 575 585 540 440 345 235 215
Ely, Nevada 215 270 420 495 565 620 600 .560 460 360 250 200
Brovnsvi1le, Texas 260 265 365 390 500 525 555 510 410 360 250 235
Fort Worth, Texas 2 30 265 330 4 30 510 575 570 550 44 5 365 270 2 30
Midland, Texas 260 293 280 4 90 545 560 560 540 450 355 295 250
Spokane, Washington 105 155 280 395 495 565 605 510 350 210 115 80
Lander, Wyoming 205 265 410 4 0 535 590 595 530 4 30 330 215 130
j boulder, Colorado 200 270 400 450 460 515 510 460 4 30 315 210 190
Denver, Colorado* 240 325 425 510 560 610 620 560 460 345 240 195
*Based on Mar,on, Weiss and Wilson nomograph and the U.S. Weather Bureau climatological normals (percenc of possible sunshine) for the 1941-1970 period of record.
Source: U.S. Weather Bureau Records (unless otherwise noted)
Solar T ime A.M. So 1r Pcs i t ion hired No rma1 Irrad iat ion, ECuh/sq ft Solar Heat Cain ^actors, 3tuh/sq ft Solar T ime P.M.
Ale. Az inuth N NE £ SF s sv V HV Hor.
SUMMER 5 4.2 117.3 21 10 21 20 6 1 1 1 i 2 7
6 14.R 108.4 154 47 142 151 70 12 12 12 12 39 6
June 21 7 26.0 99.7 215 37 172 207 122 21 20 20 20 97 5
1 A 37.4 90.7 246 29 156 215 152 29 26 26 26 153 4
9 48.8 80.2 262 33 113 192 161 45 31 31 31 201 3
1 10 59.8 65.8 272 35 62 145 148 69 36 35 35 237 2
1 11 69.2 41.9 276 37 A0 BO 116 88 41 37 37 260 1
12 73.5 o.n 278 38 38 41 71 95 71 41 38 267 12
1 Half Da y Totals 242 714 1019 810 311 197 181 180 1121
WINTER 8 5.5 53.0 88 2 7 67 83 49 3 O L 2 6 4
J 9 14.0 41.9 217 9 10 135 205 151 12 9 9 39 3
Dec 21 10 20. 7 29.4 261 14 14 11 3 232 210 55 14 14 77 2
11 25.0 15.2 274 16 16 56 217 242 120 16 16 103 1
1 12 26.6 0.0 284 17 17 1ft 177 253 177 ] 8 17 113 12
\ Half Du v Totals 49 54 380 831 781 273 50 49 282
Total heat gains for 05 (1/8 in.) sheet glass. _^-iased on a ground reflectance of 0.20
Reorinted from ASHRAE "Handbook of Fundamentals, 1972

Solar Time Winter Solstice Dec. 21 Equinoxes (Mar. 21/Sept. 21) Summer Solstice (June 21)
Altitude Azimuth Altitude Azimuth Altitude Azimuth
4:00 a.m. 0.0 -121.3
5:00 a.m. -- 4.2 -117.3
6:00 a.m. 0. -90.0 14.8 -108.4
7:00 a.m. 0. -58.7 11.4 -80.2 26.2 -99.7
8:00 a.m. 5.5 -53.0 22.5 -69.6 37.4 -90.7
9:00 a.m. 14.0 -41.9 32.8 -57.3 41.9 -80.2
10:00 a.m. 20.7 -29.4 41.6 -41.9 59.8 -65.8
11:00 a.m. 25.0 -15.2 47.7 -22.6 69.2 -41.2
12:00 noon 26.5 0.0 50.0 0.0 73.4 0.0
SHADOW LENGTHS FOR SELECTED SLOPES AND TIMES lin feet per one foot of obstruction)
Solar Time Level Ground 5% S* Slope 5% N Slope 5% W Slope 5% E Slope
Winter 10:00 a.m. 2.7 2.4 3.0 2.8 2.5
Solstice 9:00 a.m. 4.0 3.5 4.7 4. 7 3.5
Equinoxes 10:00 a.m. 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1
9:00 a.m. 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.7. 1.5
Summer 9:00 a.m. 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8
Solstice 8:00 a.m. 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.2
7:00 a.m. , 2'1 2.1 2.0 2.3 '- 1.9
* Slope is downward to the south at a rate of 5 feet pet 100 feet of horizontal distance.

The first step in planning with climate and solar energy is to identify those parts of a development project which are sensitive to weather and climate including solar variations. For onstruction of a residential unit or project, or with any decision to install solar equipment, information on solar positions and intensity, percent of possible sunshine, and air tempera-
ture will be a necessity. Retfcr to Tables I, V, VII, VIII, and IX for relevant Denver daia.
The cost benefit ratio and how a planned solar system compares with conventional systems, will be important. In this regard it is important to compare projected costs based on the expected life of the equipment. Solar is expected to become more and more attractive as fossil fuel related energy systems continue to increase in cost. In some geographical areas the tipping point has already been reached.


altitude angles


The site is on the corner of Glenarm and 21st. The site is surrounded by parking lots and single family detached houses. The houses are described below and a map and prints are included.
22nd & Glenarm:
Row houses, built in 1884, high Victorian italinate style, restored and converted to office space, west of the building is parking.
2148 Glenarm:
Residence, 2 story, small porch and entry located on the north-west corner with major interior stairs located directly behind entry, the living room is located in the front portion of the structure facing the street. Bedrooms are up-stairs on 2nd story.
Building approximately 20' x 30', brick, windows are double hung, approximately 24" x 36", each window is quoined, ornate parapet and flat roof.
2146 Glenarm:
Residence, one story, has small porch and entry located on the northwest corner, living room is located towards the front, facing the street, bedrooms are toward the back, on the north side.
Building is approximately 20' x 24', brick, with fishscaled gabel end.
2126 Glenarm:
Residence, 2 story, small porch and entry on north-west corner, major stairs behind entry, 2nd floor balcony over front porch, iron railings, fishscaled details blended with brick, living room faces street, bedrooms on 2nd floor.
Building approximately 18' x 24', double hung windows 36" x 48", rusticated stone lintels over windows.
2120 Glenarm same as 2126.
2104 Glenarm:
The hugh Thomas House, desigred by William Quayle, Victorian, 2 story brick, asymetrical floor plan, rusticated stone with brick "herringbone" pattern sections, mansard roof, historic landmark.

2015 Glenarm:
St. Andrew Memorial Church, designed by Ralph Adams Cran, late gothic revival historic landmark.
415 21st Street:
Multi-family housing, built in 1890 by Authur Miller, originally consisted of 6 rowhouses and later converted to 21 apartments, today it is being converted back to 6 rowhouses, the Kingston Building is Queen Anne style, red brick, corner towers, double entries, wood columns, quoined windows in blonde brick and smooth blonde lintels. Rectangular windows with roman arches.
2121 Tremont:
Residence, 2 story, red brick, entry on North-East corner, front faces east. Flat roof with slight overhang to accommodate italinate brackets.
2151 Tremont:
The Dewitt Roberts house, built 1886, classic Queen Anne, traditional stair tower in North-East corner, pitched roof, historic landmark.

Straight forward two-story is typical design pattern.
Larger homes are 2 1/2 or 3 story, with the third story serving as service space or as grand space such as a small bal1 room.
Ceiling heights are typically 10 FT or more in all spaces except a low ceiling attic.
All ceiling heights are single story except for stair well or stair tower areas which may be two or three stories in larger homes.
A few steps from grade up to the Entry Porch always serves to separate the building entrance from ground level.
Basement spaces are not unusual but always serve as secondary service space.
Straight Stair...f1oor to floor with no turns or landings.
"L" Stair with Landing...includes one 90 turn at a stair landing.
"L" Stair with Landing as Multi-Story Stair Tower...includes one or more 90 or 180 turns at stair landings over a rise of two floors or more.
"L" or "U" Shape Stair with Fan Steps...includes turns made with variable width, wedge shaped treads.
Grand Sweep Stair...includes long sweep turns made with variable width, wedge shaped treads. This stair is wider than the 30" or 36" standard width.
Narrow Straight Service Stair Straight Stair which is not as wide as the 30" or 36" standard width. This stair is usually found in the rear of the house for service use.

In the Victorian home daylighting was originally very necessary for task lighting. The optimum condition was then obtained by installing windows in each room. All rooms then required outside wall exposure.
Window openings were typically tall and narrow probably due to the technological and economic limitation of glass size and strength. Openings were often "ganged" together to then increase the apparent width. Bay and rounded tower windows were popular at the front of the house.
Orientation did not seem to be a major factor in design of Victorian houses. The exterior of the houses were very stylized, and this extreme emphasis on style may have helped to decrease interest in site considerations.
Victorian houses were also among the first "packaged" homes sold all over the United States. Such a package was perhaps purchased for interior functionality and exterior style and then simply placed on the customer's specific site with little consideration given to orientation.


Permitted Uses; This is a general business district for retail or wholesale, repair, rental and servicing, business and personal services, amusement and entertainment, or fabrication of goods. Residential uses allowed are dwelling units, multiple dwelling units, motel and hotel.
All uses must be enclosed entirely within a structure unless they are specifically exempted in the zoning code listing. Eating places are one such business exempted from this enclosure requirement.
Setbacks and Bulk Standards: No setbacks are required. The only bulk restrictions apply where a B-4 zone is adjacent to R-0, R-l, or R-2.
Maximum Floor Area: The total gross floor area of all structures cannot be greater than 2 times the area of the lot.
Loading: Loading space and maneuvering space must be provided in B-4
zone. A loading space must be 10 feet wide X 26 feet long X 14 feet high. Multi-family dwellings:
up to 25,000 sq. ft 0 spaces
25.001 to 250,000 sq ft 1 space
250.001 to 500,000 2
Retail, wholesale and warehousing:
0-15,000 sq ft 0 spaces
15.001 to 50,000 1
50.0001 to 200,000 2
200.001 to 350,000 4
350.001 + 5
Parking: Parking requirements are established as a function of the use of
the building, and these uses are categorized into classes in the zoning ordinance. For office space 1 parking space per 500 sq. ft. of floor area. And 1 parking space per housing unit

a b c d e f V
fiii w*r% ll *% ; i- hk r*(% W*|k f* It* <|M# f itflh 1 > tin Ilk MfM #W kfM4 lr| # iwr% (
n iV' 1 s 120 73 0 2t 0 -
fO" 0 12 0 23 0 30 0 -
30* IV' u. 11 0 17 0 44 1 37 4
t'0" 17.3 11 0 11 0 45 4 37 1
45 IV' IM 13 S 17 0 573 44 3
fo" Ml 13 0 177 57 4 44 7
60' IV jo ; II 5 7 1 5 55.4
to" 21 0 110 10 4 40 0 55 5
90' 14" M 0 23 0* 1 5 41 0
to" M0 73 0* f 0 41 0
* Two if C"(lsi*
a b C d e f P
n#fl mi U cw*\ r# (15 ^ <*W) c*r% P* !** w*4* f rw* ki* ilk mm '4 iv4 i ivft
O' 7.5 7.5 ll.O' i9.a 26.0 26.0
30' 7.5 14.0 11.0' 15.0 39.0 32.5
45' 7.5 15.9' 11.0 10.6 42.8 37.9
VO 7.5 16.7' 14.0' 8.7 47.5 40.4
o- 7.5 15.0' ISO 7.5 4 8.0 48.0
f- -d
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Ylf (#<**


Group H, Division 2 (H.2)
Apartments, garden apartments, dormitories
H.2 Types of Construction Height Limitation
II. Steel, concrete, masonry Six(6) stories
2 hour rated exterior wall
III. Allows use of heavy timber five(5) stories 2 hour rated exterior wall
IV. Steel, concrete, masonry four(4) stories
1 hour rated exterior wall
V. Any building material allowed- 3 stories
by code 1 hour rating
Group H, Division 3 (H.3)
Row Houses, townehouses, cluster housing, connected dwellings housing more than two families, one and two family units
* 2 hour separation between units; max. ht. 3 stories Each unit must have access to exterior at ground floor
* Openings not permitted closer than 5 ft. to prop, line
* Living quarters in basement constitute a storey
* The width of courts or yards where windows open shall be at least 3 ft. when not more than 2 stories, and shall be increased at a rate of at least 6" for each additional storey. The court shall have a width of
at least 50% greater than otherwise required when the court is entirely surrounded by the buildimg.
Exits shall be arranged so that the total length of an individual unit shall not be in excess of 50' or transverse more than one flight of stairs.

- CHAPTER 5: Llassn 1 cat ion of bui ldings by Use_ar JJccupancy
Our spaces are classified under Chapters 11 and 13 of tne code:
Group F(2): Stores for wholesale or retail sales
Office buildings
Group H(2): Apartments, townhomes, and other multiple
housing units
SECTIONS 501-503:
Every building is classified by use or occupancy. When buldings are used for more than one type of occupancy, as in our design problem, the two uses must be separated from each other. This type of occupancy is referred to as "mixed occupancy". Each portion of the building must conform to the reguirements for the type of occupancy housed therein.
fc- -4
Occupancy separations may be vertical, horizontal, or both, or as may be reguired to afford a comp 1ete separation between occupancies. In our problem, a separation must be made between the housing units and the other spaces. No separation is necessary, however, between the office space and retail space.
The separation between Group F (retail, office) and Group H (housing) occupancies reguires a onehour fireresistive rat i ng.
(a) Buildings shall adjoin or have access yard, or street on at least one side.
AAND LOCATION ON to a public space.
(b) Allowable floor areas per floor are square footages for one-story buildings total area of all floors of buildings height may not exceed 2007. story buildings. No single
based on allowable (Table 5-C). The over one story in of the area permitted for one floor area may exceed that
permitted for not included in
one story buildings. Basements, however, are the total allowable area.
Our basic allowable floor area ranges from 6 ,000 square feet

to an unlimited number of square feet, based on the type of
1 construction used in the building and the fire ratinqs of the
material 5 used. Since our site is located in Fire Zone 3,
the square footage allowables may be increased bv one-third. Since it appears from the program that the floors of our buildings will not exceed 6,000 square feet, there should be no reason to worry about this regulation.
Each portion of a building separated by one or more separation walls may be considered as a separate building, in terms of the allowable square footage requirements (described above), as long as the separation walls meet specific firerating requirements.

(a) Height of buildings in Groups F2 and H2 ranges from one story to unlimited stories, depending on the method of construction and the fireresistance of the materials used. For steel, concrete, and masonry construction, one may build six stories to unlimited number of stories, depending on the fire-ratings of materials (see Table 5-D if using other types of construction). Since our program requirements require a fairly small number of square feet, this regulation should not be a problem.
Height is limited only by structural design if constructed completely of noncombustible material, and if not used for habitation or storage.

Every buildinq must be provided with toilet room facilities for use by the public and employees as specified by Table 5F of the code. This table calculates the number of occupants using the square footage (as determined by the type of occupancy). However, when a building or portion thereof is designed and intended for a fixed number of occupants, the number of fixtures shall be installed on the basis of actua1 or intended number of occupants. Since we do not know the actual number of occupants for our structure, we must use Table 5F to determine this number.
Table 5F is not applicable to dwelling units. However, each unit must be provided with one water closet, one lavatory, one bathtub or shower, and one kitchen sink with garbage

(b) Since our units, we must washer tor the accessible to all
buildinq will have more than three dwell 1nq provide one laundry tray and one automatic first ten units. This equipment must be units or apartments.
The toilet facilities requirements apply to all offices and retail establishments with the exception of those with occupant loads of not more than 20 people. These establishments may provide only one toilet room (water closet and lavatory) to accomodate both sexes. Our buildinq design calls for 6,ooo square feet of retail and office space which, ;* according to Table 5F, would accommodate 60 occupants (one
occupant for every 100 square feet of space). Therefore, our building would not fall under this exception for toilet n faci1i ties.

(1) SEPARATE FACILITIES: Separate toilet room facilities must be provided for males and females unless otherwise excepted. Toilet rooms shall be completely enclosed or screened for privacy. Toilet rooms, except for those in private homes, must be available for use by the public and employees during normal hours of occupancy.
(2) RATIO: In buildings occupied by both sexes, the ratio of
male to female facilities is assumed to be 50/1 male and 507. female, unless the facility is designed for an unbalanced division of the sexes. In our design problem, we would assume a 50/50 ratio. Hence, we would plan for 30 male and 30 female occupants in the retai1/office space. Using Table 5F again, we must design at least one water closet for men
and at least two for women In addition, one urinal is
reguired for the male toilet room. One lavatory is also required in each toilet room.
(a) FLOORS AND WALLS: floors and walls must non-absorbent surfaces.
In other than family dwelling units, be constructed of hard, smooth,

(b) COMPARTMENTS: See attached sheet for
must be at least 14 square feet of floor width per compartment is 3 feet and the each water closet and each urinal is Compartments for water closets must be
dimensions. There area. The minimum minimum volume for 100 cubic feet, at least 30 inches

24 inches of clearance in front of the water
wide and have c1oset.
(c) BATHING AND SHOWER FACILITIES: Enclosures, when provided, must be shatterresistant. Hinged doors open outward.
(d) LAVATORIES: One lavatory consists of 18 inches of wash
sink or 18 inches of circular basin with water outlets. We are required to provide one lavatory per toilet room in the office/retai1 spaces.
(e) TOILET ROOM ACCESSORIES: At least one hand-dryinq facility is required where lavatories are provided.
through a toilet room.
(g) LOCATION OF TOILET FACILITIES: Facilities must be located convenient to occupied areas being served and in no case more than 200 feet on the same level or more than one floor removed from occupied area.
(h) LOCATION OF SERVICE SINKS: Service sinks are required in all occupancies, except private dwelling units, on each floor where toilet facilities are required. Service sinks may not
/*s. be installed in toilet rooms.
(a) GENERAL: In all occuDancies where public facilities are provided (as in our office/retai1 spaces), at least one water closet and lavatory must be provided for the use of handicapped persons.
(b) RESIDENTIAL UNITS: Group H-2 (apartments, etc.) containing 8 or more units must provide one unit for'each seven units which is fully accessible and complies with all requirements applicable to handicapped facilities. Since we are designing only four units, this requirement will not apply to our project.
(c) TOILET REQUIREMENTS: See the attached diagram for d i mensi ons.
(d) HANDICAPPED RAMP REQUIREMENTS: Every building housing group, including F2 and H2, must provide an access ramp for the handicapped to the first floor as a means of exit. This ramp may not exceed a slope of 1 in 12 (8 1/3 7. grade) from the first floor to grade.

(e) STAIR LANDING REQUIREMENTS: On all -floors above the first floor, a space at least 25 inches bv 42 inches must be provided for one wheelchair in each stairwav enclosure as an area of refuqe for handicapped persons confined to wheelchairs where exits useable by the handicapped are not provided. This refuge area is required in all buildings with elevators to upper floors. This requirement will apply to our design problem if an elevator is included in the design.
DRINKING FOUNTAINS: One drinking fountain is required per floor (Table 5F) for office/retai1 space.
SECTION 1105: LIGHT: All portions of the building used by human occupants must be provided with either natural or artificial light.
SECTION 1305 (a): WINDOWS: For apartment space, required windows must open on a court, yard, or street, either directly or through a porch at least 7 feet high and not more than 7 feet deep, with at least 2 sides 507. open. The width of courts or yards must be at least 3 feet when not more than 2 stories high, and must be increased in width at the rate of 6 inches for each additional story. The court must have a width at least 507. greater than otherwise required when the court is entirely surrounded by the building.
(c) CEILING HEIGHT: Every habitable room must have a minimum ceiling height of 7 feet over at least 507. of its area, and no portion of the remaining ceiling may be -less than 5 feet in height.
Two exits from each floor are necessary (including the basement if it is used for a furnace or boiler).
The minimum travel distance between exit doors is 25 feet.
All exit doors must swing out.
All exit doors must be at least 68" x 3'0".
At least one exit should be accessible without going through

check-out stands or similar obstructions.
The total distance between exits cannot exceed 150 feet.
Sleeping rooms must have at least one operable window or exterior door tor emergency exit or rescue.
Minimum window dimensions are 2' x 3'.
Stairs serving retail areas must be a minimum o-f 44 inches in width. Stairs serving apartments must be 36 inches minimum in width. Private stairs for single apartments may be a minimum of 30 inches wide.
Rise cannot exceed 7 1/2 inches. Minimum run is 10 inches. For private stairs serving a single apartment and stairs to unoccupied roofs, the maximum rise is 8 inches and the minimum run is 9 inches. For circular or spiral stair
allowances, see pp. 3339, sections 3305 (d) (f>, in the Denver Building Code.
^ In buildings four stories or higher, one stair must extend to
the roof unless the roof slope is greater than 4 in 12.
The dimension of the landing measured in the direction of travel must egual the width of the stairs.
Vertical distance between landings cannot exceed 12*6".
Corridors in any public space must be a minimum of 44 inches in width and a minimum of 7 feet in height.

Dead-end corridors (those providing only one means of egress) may not exceed 20 feet in length unless an automatic fireextinguishing (sprinkler) system is included in the design. In this case, dead-end corridors may be extended to 50 feet in length.



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* MU023 Minimum Room Sizes
Tables 4--1 and k-2 set forth minimum room sizes and least dimensions for such rooms. Areas and dimensions shown are mlnimum and do not necessarily indicate optimum space for required living functions or placement of furniture. In a specific project, larger rooms may be necessary to assure continued market acceptance. In addition to mlninnim areas and least dimensions, rooms shall have an appropriate functional relationship with other roams within the living unit and shall be suitable for their intended use.
Name of Space(l) Minimum Area (Sq . Ft.) i Least
LU with O-BR LU with 1-BR LU with 2-BR LU with 3-BR LU with U-BR Dimen- sion
LR NA l6o 160 170 180 12' -0"
DR NA 100 100 110 120 b'-4h
K NA 60 6o 70 bO 5'-4"
Kette(2) 30 k) NA NA NA 3' -6*'
BR [primary)(3) NA 120 120 *\ 120 120 9* -V1
BR secondary) NA NA bO 8o bo b'-0n
Total area, BR's NA 120 200 285 3bo
OHR(i) NA bO bo bO 60 b'-O"
(l) Abbreviations:
LU Living Unit UR Living Room DR Dining Room DA Dining Area
K Kitchen Kette Kitchenette HA = Not Applicable BR Bedroom
OHR = Other Habitable Room O-BR LU with no separate Bedroom
SL e Sleeping Area
(2) See tf+02-4.2.
(3) Primary Bedrooms shall have at least one uninterrupted vail space of at least 10 feet.
Other habitable room (OHR) includes rooms such as dens, music rooms, libraries, family rooms, etc. See M*402-4.5 for additional provisions.
*Revised November 1964

M^O^-5 Room Arrangements
M^K)4_5.1 The arrangement of rooms shall provide privacy of access which will insure desirable living conditions.
M404-5.2 The room arrangements shown in Table 1-5 are not acceptable.
TABLE 1-5*
Onlv access from to Shall not be through
a. Habitable room(l) Bathroom Bedroom
b. Habitable room Habitable room Bedroom
c. Habitable roora(2) Habitable room Bathroom
d. Bedroom(3) Bathroom Another Bedroom
e. Bedroom(^) Bathroom Habitable room
* (1) In one-bedroom living units only, access to the bathroom
from the living room may be through the bedroom when marketability is assured.
(2) A required bathroom opening directly into a kitchen is not acceptable.
(3) An only bathroom shall not be -located on a separate floor (full story height) from all bedrooms of a living unit.
* (1) For exception, see Ml02-1.5c.
Ml03-6 General Storage
MI03-6.I Usable general storage space shall be provided, for the storage of items and equipment essential to the use of the occupants. This storage shall be in addition to required closets and kitchen storage.
ML03-6.2 The minimum volume of general storage for each living unit shall conform to either Schedule A or Schedule B.
Schedule A:
0 BR and 1 BR = IDO cu. ft.
2 BR = lto cu. ft.
3 BR = 180 cu. ft.
4 BR = 200 cu. ft.
This storage shall be located entirely within the living unit. Schedule B:
0 BR and 1 BR 150 cu. ft.
2 BR = 200 cu. ft.
3 BR = 250 cu. ft.
^ BR = 300 cu. ft.
At least one-third of the total general storage space shall be located within the living unit.

TABLE 4-2 *
Combined Space(l)(2) Minimum Area (Sq. Ft.)
LU with 0-BR LU with 1-ER LU with 2-BR LU with 3.-BR LU with 4-BR
LR-DA NA 210 210 230 250
LR-DR NA 240 240 260 260
LR-DA-K( 3) NA 270 270 300 330
K-DA(4) 100 120 120 140 160
K-DR(4) NA 150 150 170 190
Kette-DA(U) 00 22 NA NA NA
(1) See Note (1) Table 4-1 for abbreviations of Rooms and Combined
Spaces. Refer to Table 4-1 for minimum dimensions required. The minimum dimensions of a combined room shall be those of the individual single rooms involved, except fpr the overlap or combined use of space. *''*
(2) For two adjacent spaces to be considered a combined room and be eligible for the reduced areas permitted, the clear opening between the spaces shall be adequate to permit common utilization of the spaces for the different functions. In general, the horizontal opening between spaces shall be at least 8'-0", except that between kitchen and dining functions, the clear horizontal opening may be reduced to 6,-0. Spaces not providing this degree of openness shall meet minimum room sizes required for separate rooms.
(3) A combined LR-DA-K shall comply with the following: (a) the food preparation-cooking area shall be screened from the living room sitting area; (b) the Kitchen shall be at least 60 sq. ft.; (c) the clear opening between the Kitchen and the Dining Area shall be at least 4 ft.-0 in.; and (d) the Kitchen shall be convenient to the Dining Area for serving.
(4) These required minima apply when only eating space is in kitchen.
When adequate eating space is provided elsewhere in living unit, kitchen or kitchenette minimum areas apply.
*Revised November 1964

M407-1 Objective
To provide openings adequate in size for the purposes intended and, where appropriate, which will admit furniture and equipment or access for inspection and maintenance.
M407-2 Exterior Doors
M407-2.1 Minimum Sizes
TABLE 4-8*
Public And Private Entrance Doors
Type Sinela Double Height
Main Entrance Doors(l) 3'-0" 2'-6" 6'-8"
Secondary Entrance(2) or Service Doors 2'-8" 2'-6" 6'-8"
Common Garage Doors 10-6" '' r'l ^ b 1 c^-
Individual Garage Doors 8' -0 " 6'-0"(3)
(1) Where double doors are used, the minimum width of each door shall be the same as required for main entrance doors.
(2) Secondary entrance doors for use of the public shall have the same minimum sizes as required for main entrance doors.
(3) In open position. *
* Table 4-9

M407-2.2 Doors which serve more than a single living unit shall be swung in the direction of exterior egross.
M407-2.3 See M809-4 for construction and installation of exterior doors.
M407-3 Interior Doors
* M^07-3*l Doors To and Within Living Units
Provide a door for each entrance to a living unit, and within the unit for each opening to a bedroom, bathroom or toilet compartment and closets. Entrance doors shall have a keyed lock. Doors to bathrooms or toilet compartments shall have a privacy lock. See M505-6, M405-4.9 and M405-4.10 for additional door requirements.
TABLE 4-10*
Doors To and Within Living Units
Type Width Height
a. Entrance to Living Unit 3' -0" 6'-8''
b. Service to Living Unit v. . 2'-8" 6 -8"
c. Habitable Room v. 2 '-6" 6'-8"
d. Bathrooms, Toilet Compartments 2 -0" 6'-8"
e. Closets, other than
Linen or Broom, or Folding Doors for Wardrobe Closets 2'-4"(l) 6-6"
f. Folding or Sliding Doors (Within L.U.) Unobstructed opening not
less than specified in
c, d. e above.
(l) Single doors. Multiple doors may be reduced to l'-6" each.
MiW7-3*2 Doors to Public Stairways
a. Provide a door to each exit stairway enclosure at each floor. See M505-6 for additional door requirements.
b. Width. No single exit door to public stairways shall be less than 3'-0" wide. Minimum width for double doors shall be 2'-6" each. Minimum doorway widths shall be related to traffic density and the width of the stairway it serves.
c. Doors shall be swung so that they do not impair the use of the stair or landing. See Fig. 4.07.
*Revised March 1967

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Minimum ^Property Standards
Multifamily Housing
Building design shall provide for a safe, secure, healthful, and attractive living facility and environment suited to the social, economic, and recreational needs of resident families and individuals. It shall provide for ease of circulation and housekeeping; visual and auditory privacy; appropriate light and ventilation; fire and accident protection; economy in maintenance and use of space; accessory services; and sanitation facilities.
401-2.5 Facilities for Trash and Garbage Disposal
a. Provide for the temporary sanitary storage of trash and garbage and for its subsequent disposal or removal.
b. When trash chutes are installed, provide at least one hopper in a separate room on each floor in buildings more than 3 stories in height.
c. Design and construction of incinerators and trash chutes shall be of appropriate size and type and in accordance with NFPA Standard No. 82, Incinerators and Rubbish Handling. Each trash chute hopper shall be located in a room of not less than 20 sq. ft.
' d. Incinerators shall be designed and equipped to control
stack emission to levels below maximum prescribed limits of governing air pollution regulations.

401-3 LIVING, DINING, BEDROOMS 401-3.1 Living Area
a. Each dwelling unit shall contain space that is conducive to general family living and group activities such as entertaining, reading, writing, listening to music, watching television, relaxing and frequently children's play.
b. Space shall be provided in the living area to accommodate the following furniture or its equivalent with comfortable use and circulation space:
1 - couch, 3'-0" x 6-10"
2 - easy chairs, 2'-6" x 3'-0"
(1 for efficiency apt.)
(3 for 4 or more bedroom units)
1 - desk, l'-8" x 3'-6"
1 desk chair, l'-6" x l'-6"
1 television set, l'-4" x 2'-8"
1 table, l'-6" x 2'-6"
401-3.2 Dining Area
a. Each dwelling unit shall contain space for dining. This area may be combined with the living room or kitchen, or it may be a separate room.
b. Space for accommodating the following size table and
chairs with proper circulation -space in the dining area shall be provided for the intended number of occupants as shown:
(Efficiency or 1 bedroom) 2 persons, 2-6" x 2'-6'
(2 bedrooms) 4 persons, 2'-6" x 3'-2"
(3 bedrooms) 6 persons, 3'-4" x 4'-0" or 4'-0" round (4 or more bedrooms) 8 persons, 3-4" x 6'-0" or
4*-0" x 4'-0"
Dining chairs, l'-6" x l'-6"

*401-3.3 Bedrooms
a. Each dwelling unit 3hall have space(s) allocated to sleeping, dressing and personal care.
b. Each bedroom shall accommodate at least the following furniture or its equivalent with comfortable use and circulation space:
(1) Primary Bedroom: (required in each non-elderly
living unit except efficiency)
2 - twin beds, 3'-3" x S-IO"
1 dresser, l^" x 4-4"
1 chair, l-6" x l'-6"
1 crib, 2'-6" x 4'-6" (may be located in another room
in addition to the required furnishings)
(2) Secondary Bedrooms:
(a) Double Occupancy Bedroom:
1 double bed, 4*-6" x 6-10"
1 dresser, l-6'^x 3'-6"
1 chair, l'-6" x l-6"
(b) Single Occupancy Bedroom:
1 twin bed, 3'-3" x 6-10"
1 dresser, l-S" x 3'-6"
1- chair, lr-6" x l'-6"
l desk, lr-8" x 3'-6" for housing for the elderly
a. In housing for the elderly, beds shall be accessible from two sides and one end.
401-3.4 RESERVED

401-3.6 Optional Minimum Room Sizes Based on Sq Ft Area
Table 4-1.1 may be used in lieu of fumishability requirements in 401-3.1 through 401-3.5. When the table is used for any room, it shall be used throughout the project for all rooms of living units.
A. Minimum Room Sizes for Separate Rooms
Name of Space(l) Minimum Area (Sq Ft) (7) Least Dimen- sion
LU with 0-BR LU with 1BR LU with 2-BR LU with 3BR LU with 4-BR
LR NA 160 160 170 180 ll'-0"
DR NA 100 100 110 120 8'-4"
BR (primary) (2) NA 120 120 120 120 9'-4"
BR (secondary) NA NA 80 80 80 8'-0"
Total area, BR's NA 120 200 280 380
B. Minimum Room Sizes for Combined Spaces
Combined Space CD (4) Minimum Area (Sq Ft) (7) Least Dimen- sion(3)
LU with 0-BR LU with 1BR LU with 2-BR LU with 3BR LU with 4-BR
LR-DA NA 210 210 230 250
LR-DA-K (5) NA 270 270 300 330
K-DA (6) 100 120 120 140 160
(1) Abbreviations:
LU = Living Unit LR = Living Room DR = Dining Room DA = Dining Area
0-BR =* LU with no separate Bedroom
*(2) Primary bedrooms shall have at least one wall space of at least
10 ft uninterrupted by openings less than 44 in. above the floor.
K = Kitchen
NA = Not Applicable
BR = Bedroom
SL Sleeping Area

TABLE 4-1.4
Cubic Feet of Storage
Column 1 (1) Column 2 (2)
0 BR 100 140
1 BR 150 200
2 BR 200 275
3 BR 275 350
4 BR or more 350 425
(1) This storage shall be located entirely within the living unit.
(2) At least one half of this storage shall be located within the living unit.
b. Each living unit having one or more bedrooms shall have at least one separate closet for general storage or utility purposes located in a conveniently accessible place within the unit. This closet shall be^at least 6 sq ft in area and full room height. The remainder of the general storage may be located in bedroom and coat closets provided this space is in addition to the required closet space.
c. Common storage shall be in a dry area with space divided into lockable compartments or closets for each living unit.
d. Where exterior project maintenance is performed by tenants, provide at least 50 cu ft additional storage space per living unit, conveniently located to the outside.
e. Where the project is designed for families with children, provide at least 50 cu ft of storage space per living unit conveniently located to the exterior for bicycles,' prams, etc.

401-5.1 Closets and storage space shall be provided for living and
housekeeping items and equipment within each living unit and shall be appropriately located in relation to use. Adequate additional general storage space shall be provided.
*401-5.2 Bedroom Closets
Each bedroom shall have accessible clear hanging space equipped with rod and shelf which meets or exceeds the following:
Primary and double occupancy bedrooms 2r-0" deep x 5'-0" wide Single occupancy bedrooms 2,-0,r deep x 3r-0" wide
In duellings designed for wheelchair users, one bedroom closet shall have a rod adjustable to 48 in. height above the floor.
401-5.3 Coat Closet
Provide at least a 2 ft x 2 ft (clear floor area) coat closet convenient to the entrance.
401-5.4 Linen Storage shall be provided as follows:
a. Minimum shelf area: 10 sq ft for 2 bedrooms or less; 15 sq ft for 3 or more bedrooms.
b. Spacing of shelving: not less than 12 in. o.c.
c. Shelving over 74 in. above floor shall not be counted as required area.
401-5.5 General Storage
a. Usable general storage space shall be provided for the storage of items and equipment essential to the use of the occupants. This storage shall be in addition to required closets and kitchen storage. The minimum total volume of general storage for each living unit shall
conform to either column 1 or column 2 of Table 4-1.4.
401-4.1 Kitchen
a. Each living unit shall include adequate space to provide for efficient food preparation, serving and storage, as well as utensil storage and cleaning up after meals.
b. Kitchen fixtures and countertops shall be provided in accordance with Table 4-1.2. Required countertops shall be approximately 24 in. deep and 36 in. high. Clearance between base cabinet fronts in food preparation area shall be 40 in. minimum.
c. Required countertops may be combined when they are located between two fixtures stove, refrigerator, sink. Such a countertop shall have a minimum frontage equal to that of the larger of the countertops being combined. This combined counter may also be the mixing counter when its minimum length is equal to that required for the mixing counter. Countertop frontages may continue around corners.
A 72 in. compact kitchen with wall cabinets may be used
In efficiency apartments except in housing for the elderly.

401-6.1 Where garages or carports are provided, they shall be designed to provide space for full size cars as well as for convenient opening of doors and circulation around cars. Their location shall provide convenient vehicular access as well as convenient access to living units.
401-6.2 Parking by Occupants
a. When parking of cars is not by an attendant, the minimum dimensions of parking spaces shall be as follows:
Space Parking Angle (degrees)
Stall depth perpendicular to aisle------17'-6"------19 '-0"--------18-0"
Aisle width-------------12 '-8------18 '-0"-------26 '-0
Unit parking depth-----47'-8"-------56-0"--------62'-0"
Stall width parallel
to aisle--------------12-8"------10'-6"---------g-O"*
*b. Buildings required to be acoesaible to the physically handicapped shall have at least 5 percent of the parking spaces (with a minimum of 2 spaces) arranged for wheelchair users in accordance with ANSI All?.1.
401-7.2 Ceiling heights clear under beams or other obstructions shall be in accordance with Table 4-1.5. '
TABLE 4-1.5
Habitable Rooms 7*-6"
Halls within living unit, Baths 7'-0"
Luminous Ceilings
Within living unit 7'-0"
Public Corridor 7'-4"
Sloping Ceilings at least 7'-6" for 1/2 the room with no portion less than 5'-0"
Public Corridors 7'-8"
Public Rooms 8'-0"
Basements without Habitable
Rooms 6-8"

*402-3.2 Minimum doorway widths shall be:
Public Doors
Main entrance to building-Secondary public entrance to bldg. Service entrance to building Public stairway
3'-0", 6'-0" for double doors 3*-0"
Private Doors
2,-8" (5'-0" sliding glass doors may be used) 2'-0", 2'-8" for elderly or wheelchair access 2*-6", 2'-8" for elderly or wheelchair access
402-3-. 3~ A door is required at each entrance to a building, living unit, and required stairway enclosure; within the living unit, a door is required at each opening to a bedroom, bathroom and toilet room.
Main entrance to living unit Secondary entrance to living unit
Bathrooms, toilets in living unit
Habitable rooms
] 402-4 HALLS AND CORRIDORS Halls and corridors shall provide convenient, safe, and unobstructed circulation within living units, and between living units and other spaces to various means of exit.
1 402-4.1
1 402-4.2 Minimum clear widths of halls and corridors shall be:
r a. Public halls:
i Length Width
i i Less than 10 ft 3'-6" 10 ft to 30 ft 4'-0" 30 ft to 100 ft 4,-6" More than 100 ft 5'-0" Housing for elderly 5r-0"
i b. Exterior access corridors: 5 ft
c. Halls within living units: 3 ft
! d. Halls within living units for wheelchair access: 3 ft 4 in.
1 (

402-6.1 Stairways and landings shall provide for safe ascent and descent under normal and emergency conditions and for the transport of furniture and equipment.
402-6.2 Public stairways shall be designed in accordance with the criteria of Table 4-2.1 and N7PA 101 Life Safety Code.
TABLE 4-2.1
Minimum clear headroom Interior Exterior
6*-8" 6-8"
Minimum tread (1) 9" (2) 11"
Maximum riser (1) (3) 7 3/4" 7 1/2"
(1) All treads shall be the same width and all risers the
same height in a flight of stairs.
(2) Plus 1 1/8 in. nosing minimum og closed riser, plus 1/2 in. nosing minimum on open riser.
*(3) In buildings required to be accessible to the physically handicapped, the maximum riser is 7 1/2 in. Open risers shall not be used.
402-6.3 Minimum Clear Widths
a. Stairways serving a total building occupancy of 50 or less shall be at least 3 ft 0 in. wide. Stairways serving a building occupancy of more than 50 shall be at least 44 in. wide. Handrails may project into the required.width of a stairway not more than 3 1/2 in. on each side.
b. The occupancy load per floor shall be based upon a gross floor area of 200 sq ft per person.

TABLE 4-4.1

Living unit to living unit, corridor (1) or public space (average noise) (2) 45
Living unit to public space and service areas (high noise) (3) (5) 50

Floor-ceiling separating living units from other living units, public space (4) or service areas (2) 45 45
Floor-ceiling separating living units troiunublic space and service areas (high noise) (o, including corridor floors over living units. 4 *50 50
C.l) These values assume floors in corridors are carpeted; otherwise increase STC by 5.
(2) Public space q/ average noise 'includes lobbies storage rooms, staiijayg> atc.
(3) Areas 0f high noise include boiler rooms, mechanical e?aipment rooms, elevator shafts, laundries, incinerator shafts, garages and most commercial uses.
(4) Does not apply to floor above storage rooms where noise from living units would not be objectionable.
(5) Increase STC by 5 when over or under mechanical equipment which operates at high noise levels.


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Hopefully, this project will inspire others by proposing an alternative to high density development. I'm quite aware that from the developers point of view this type of project would not be profitable today. But like all other struggles for the improvement of man and his environment there must be some of us willing to sacrifice in order for progress to occur.
If we continue to act only in the present and ignore long range affects the cost to our society may be much higher than any initial sacrifice we can make today.
My project revitalizes existing neighborhoods and prevents the spread of decay which surrounds many of our major cities today. It provides flexible housing space which can be adapted to many lifestyles. It introduces the workplace to communities in desperate need without over powering their existing fabric. It re-introduces the concept of community, a place where people live and work.
I don't expect things to change over night. I just want people to consider other important things in life besides making a profit. I think with our American ingenuity we can both make a profit and also make our country a better place to live.


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Much travel is acconplished to attend business conventions, conferences, and seminars, and much travel is involved within elements of industry and business for manacement, financial, administrative, and developmental confereneina purposes. This travel is characterized by individuals attending group sessions, interactions among croups, and interactions among individuals who may be physically located at great distances from each other.
Consequently, attempts have been made to demonstrate that telecommunications can provide such individual-to-individual, individual-to-group, and group-to-aroun interactions without the need for personal travel. The attempts made in such situations have been called teleconferences, and the means whereby they have been conducted is commonly referred to as teleconferencing. Some have delimited the term by stating that teleconferencing involves only conferencing among groups through the electronic media but actually this is not true. Voice teleconferencino has been provided by the telephone industry for a number of years. This conferencing can be provided amonc individuals at as many as 20 different locations.
Teleconferencing can be accomplished using only one medium either audio or computer communications or it can involve the use of a combination of media, includina television. In almost all cases, its use has been premised on the principles that it saves time and travel costs.
For a number of years, the common-carrier telephone industry in the United States has provided voice teleohone conferencing services to its customers. A recent survey of one week's (July 1974) teleconferencing in the Bell System

reveals that operators in the Bell System set up G,641 conference calls, averaging 4.5 parties (different locations) per call, and that 83.1 percent of these were completed, i.e., not cancelled prior to their actual operation. The degree to which these teleconferences saved transportation costs, reduced energy consumption in lieu of travel, and contributed to the availability of more productive man hours is not known.
When a telephone conference is desired, the conference requester needs only to call the telephone operator, giving the names and locations of the conferees who will participate and the tine and date of the desired conference. The operator then calls each of the proposed participants, arranges for then to be available for the conference, and notifies the conference requester of the outcome of her efforts in arranging for the conference. The costs of conferencing follow telephone companies' tariffs as to time of the day, the day, and the distance and amount of circuit times required for the calls. Also, conference calls can be arranged via the commercial telephone operator or the government operator in the event that the Federal Telecommunications System or the Automated Voice Network (both are government systems) are used.
Voice teleconferencing can also be extended to other people at a location in that a speakerphone at any one location can permit participation by others in a conference. However, the number of locations that can be accommodated through telephone teleconferencing reduces as the number of speakerphones increases although the ratio is not on a one-for-one basis.
Variations on telephone conferencing exists; for example, if a visual presentation is included, slides or handouts for use during the conference can be pre-transmitted to the conference participants and then used by a speaker during the conference. In other situations, it might be desirable to have loudspeakers in the conference rooms and individual microphones provided to each of the conferees to facilitate identification of the distant individual conferees' voices. According to Australian, British, and United States users of telephone conferencing, this means of discussion cannot substitute for face-to-face (physical presence) meetings, but it does save travel time and costs, it does reduce energy consumption, it reduces relatively otherwise unproductive time spent in travel status by professional employees,, and it is a quicker method than travel in

arranainq for and attendinq conferences, particularly when siqnificant amounts of travel are involved.
Critics of telephone conferencinq state that it is ill-suited to the discussion of contentious issues and that it does not permit viewincr of the countenances or reactions of the conferees (see Enclosure to this document). Few salesmen will agree that telephone discussions are conducive to sales closinas, but many aqree that telephone discussions are worthwhile in arranainq sales conferences and in dealing with consumers after sales have been consummated. This indicates, as has been found in Enqland (Ref. 33), that telephone conferences are not well-suited to baraaining sessions.
The Joint Unit for Plannina Research in Encland reports (Ref. 33) that "interviews with users of the audio conferencina system in Quebec showed that they found meetinas over it more business like and more tirinq than conventional meetings. The former sucrgests an economic advantage of an unqualifiable nature. The latter is not surprising; it could well result from an increase in necessary concentration and a reduction in diversion. It is a factor which could reduce the attractiveness of such systems and, hence, their utilization."
It is a considered judgment looking at the actual use of telephone conferencina in the Bell System that telephone conferencina will continue to grow as a service. It does not seem attractive enouah by itself to brina about a sham reduction in travel and enercy consumption, but it does hold the promise of arowth if travel disincentives are implemented to reduce much of today's travel.
As used here, video teleconferencing includes audio services; that is, video teleconferencina permits two-way voice and visual interaction.
Video teleconferencina promises to be of three basic types: (1) telephone conferencina on a moving picture (animated) basis, such as that possible with the Bell System Picture-phone; (2) slow-scan telephone conferencing, such as that provided by RCA's Videophone; and (3) video teleconferencina, such as that provided throuah the use of television.

Video teleconferencing offers a higher decree of satisfaction in achieving face-to-face discussions than does simple telephone conferencing, but relatively few proponents of video teleconferencing agree that it is a direct substitute for face-to-face meetings. Proponents of video teleconferencing laud its attractiveness because of its ability to reduce travel costs, improve productivity, and its responsiveness to management as compared to traditional conferencing arrangements. The President of Dow Chemical USA," for example, is in favor of video teleconferencing because it saves "man hours in traveling, the wear and tear of travel on our employees, the savings in time provided (for a one-hour conference, two days were previously required), and the savings accruing in safety and energy" (See Enclosure to this document.). He is hasty to say, however, "this medium obviously will never replace face-to-face meetings... it is not intended to, but it -can help to supplement personal contacts" (see Enclosure).
In England there appear to be many factors attributable to video teleconferencing which will inhibit its growth: (1) many businessmen are reluctant to forgo the pleasures of travel; (2) businessmen are opposed to innovation as a general principle; (3) providers of the services are unable to define precisely the cost/benefit relationships existing between use of the system and travel; and (4) businessmen believe that if the telephone service was improved there would be no need for video teleconferencina (See Enclosure to this document.).
In the United States, Picturephone tvoe service has yet to become attractive in the market place. In the first instance, it is expensive. Secondly, the telephone Plant in the U.S. is not engineered to accommodate the service, and there are certain technical difficulties inherent in Picturephone which make it somewhat less than attractive. Picturephone is not suited to video teleconferencina when arouns of people at more than two locations are involved. Currently, this service can be provided only between two groups, and then only among studios in Chicaao, New York, and Washinoton, D.C. (see Enclosure to this document).
Picturephone type services are currently under investigation and trial by a number of companies and countries. These include: (1) Stromberg-Carlsor.'s Vistaohone; (2) General Telephone and Electronics' Pictcl; (3) L.M. Ericsson Companv's video telephone, using U.S. broadcast standards;
(£) the United Kingdom's video telephone which was